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Korean Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Dry Eye: Development and Validation of Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy of newly developed guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye. Methods This retrospective, multi-center, non-randomized, observational study included a total of 1,612 patients with dry eye disease who initially visited the clinics from March 2010 to August 2010. Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye were newly developed from concise, expert-consensus recommendations. Severity levels at initial and final visits were determined using the guidelines in patients with 90 ± 7 days of follow-up visits (n = 526). Groups with different clinical outcomes were compared with respect to clinical parameters, treatment modalities, and guideline compliance. Main outcome measures were ocular and visual symptoms, ocular surface disease index, global assessment by patient and physician, tear film break-up time, Schirmer-1 test score, ocular surface staining score at initial and final visits, clinical outcome after three months of treatment, and guideline compliance. Results Severity level was reduced in 47.37% of patients treated as recommended by the guidelines. Younger age (odd ratio [OR], 0.984; p = 0.044), higher severity level at initial visit, compliance to treatment recommendation (OR, 1.832; p = 0.047), and use of topical cyclosporine (OR, 1.838; p = 0.011) were significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes. Conclusions Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye can be used as a valid and effective tool for the treatment of dry eye disease.

Hyon, Joon Young; Lee, Doh; Chung, Eui-Sang; Song, Jong-Suk; Choi, Chul Young; Lee, Jungbok



Comparison of Higher-order Aberrations between Eyes with Natural Supervision and Highly Myopic Eyes in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the characteristics and investigate the differences of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) between the eyes with a natural, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/12 and eyes with highly myopic eyes in Korean adults. Methods Thirty-one eyes of 20 subjects with UCVA of 20/12 (Group 1) and 54 eyes of 36 myopic patients with greater than -6 diopters (Group 2) were analyzed for type and magnitude of HOAs across a 6.0 mm pupil. HOAs were measured by Wavescan (VISX, Santa Clara, CA, USA) in natural scotopic conditions and were presented as root-mean-square (RMS:µm) in Belle aberration maps. Results The mean spherical equivalent (SE) of manifest refraction was -0.15±0.25 D (range: +0.37 to -0.50 D) in Group 1 and -7.25±0.78 D (range: -6.00 to -9.25 D) in Group 2. The total root-mean-square (RMS) values of HOAs for Group 1 and Group 2 were 0.28±0.09 µm and 0.27±0.087 µm, respectively (P>0.05). The mean values of coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration were 0.14±0.091 µm, 0.14±0.089 µm, 0.091±0.059 µm in Group 1 and 0.16±0.077 µm, 0.14±0.073 µm, 0.082±0.059 µm in Group 2, respectively. Conclusions This study helped establish ocular aberration standards for those with natural supervision and those with highly myopic eyes among Koreans. Individuals with natural supervision had significant amounts of HOAs, and there was no significant difference in the amount of HOAs between the two groups. The index of higher-order aberrations may not be a perfect predictor of the amount of refractive error.

Kim, Min; Lee, Young Gi; Seo, Kyung Ryul; Kim, Eung Kweon



Linguistic complexity and information structure in Korean: Evidence from eye-tracking during reading  

PubMed Central

The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded complement sentences; the third experiment additionally examined reading of sentences with object-modifying, object-extracted relative clauses. In Korean, both of these structures place two NPs with nominative case marking early in the sentence, with the embedded and matrix verbs following later. The type (pronoun, name or description) of these two critical NPs was varied in the experiments. When the initial NPs were of the same type, comprehension was slowed after participants had read the sentence-final verbs, a finding that supports the view that working memory in language comprehension is constrained by similarity-based interference during the retrieval of information necessary to determine the syntactic or semantic relations between noun phrases and verb phrases. Ease of comprehension was also influenced by the association between type of NP and syntactic position, with the best performance being observed when more definite NPs (pronouns and names) were in a prominent syntactic position (e.g., matrix subject) and less definite NPs (descriptions) were in a non-prominent syntactic position (embedded subject). This pattern provides evidence that the interpretation of sentences is facilitated by consistent packaging of information in different linguistic elements.

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.



Proinflammatory gene polymorphisms are potentially associated with Korean non-Sjogren dry eye patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether proinflammatory cytokine genes were potential susceptibility candidate genes for Korean patients with non-Sjogren dry eye, we investigated the association of the interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), interleukin 6 (IL6), and interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) variations with this disease in Korean patients. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of unrelated non-Sjogren dry eye patients and healthy control individuals who visited the Eye Center and Health Promotion Center of St. Mary’s Hospital in Seoul, Korea. For screening genetic variations in proinflammatory cytokine genes, the 511 (rs16944) and 31 (rs1143627) positions in the promoter region of IL1B, rs1143634 in exon 5 of IL1B, rs1800795 of the IL6 promoter, and Asp358Ala (rs8192284) of IL6R were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and direct sequencing. Results Among the polymorphisms, rs1143634 (F105F) in exon 5 of IL1B was significantly different between the patient and control groups. The frequency of the C/T genotype in dry eye patients was decreased relative to that of the control subjects (10.4% versus 3.9%, p=0.043, OR=3.337). For the IL6R gene, the genotypic and allelic distribution of rs8192284 was different between the dry eye patients and the controls: CC genotype (p=0.017, OR=2.12) and C allele (OR=1.26). Conclusions This is the first report of genetic variation screening of proinflammatory cytokine genes in Korean non-Sjogren dry eye patients. It is suggested that rs1143634 of IL1B and rs8192284 of IL6R act as susceptibility variations in Korean non-Sjogren dry eye patients.

Na, Kyung-Sun; Mok, Jee-Won; Kim, Ja Yeon



Prevalence and Risk Factors for Thyroid Eye Disease among Korean Dysthyroid Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of thyroid eye disease among dysthyroid Korean patients and to analyze the relationship between demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease. Methods All dysthyroid patients who visited endocrinology clinics in 24 general hospitals in Korea during a chosen one-week period were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease variables were analyzed as risk factors using multivariable regression models to identify independent associations with thyroid eye disease. Results A total of 1,632 dysthyroid patients were included (1,301 females [79.7%] and 331 males [20.3%]). Two hundred eighty-three of these patients (17.3%) had thyroid eye disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, young age, Graves' disease, dermopathy, anti-thyroid medication treatment, and radioiodine treatment were independent risk factors for thyroid eye disease. Conclusions The lower prevalence of thyroid eye disease in dysthyroid Korean patients and the influence of gender on risk factors in this study are novel findings compared to studies performed involving Europeans. Although the risk factors for thyroid eye disease are understood in part, a more in-depth comparative study of gender and ethnic groups is needed to fully understand the biological significance of the demographic factors.

Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck



Eye and contact lens movement measurement.  


An accurate and relatively simple method of measuring eye and contact lens movement has been developed. A hidden ultra-high-speed motion picture camera, a digital film data analyzer, and computer data reduction are used to define and separate eye, head, and contact lens movements. The technique has an eye rotational accuracy of about 0.2 degrees and a linear translational accuracy of better than 0.05 mm over a field of view of more than 60 degrees. This procedure requires no extraneous hardware, fixtures, or eye restraints, so data can be obtained in a natural environment. It provides a method of evaluating motility training procedures, studying contact lens fitting methods, and investigating tear pumping mechanisms. PMID:7124900

Gilman, B G



Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.



Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements  

PubMed Central

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.



Detecting false intent using eye blink measures  

PubMed Central

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal.

Marchak, Frank M.



Understanding health literacy measurement through eye tracking.  


This study used eye-tracking technology to explore how individuals with different levels of health literacy visualize health-related information. The authors recruited 25 university administrative staff (more likely to have adequate health literacy skills) and 25 adults enrolled in an adult literacy program (more likely to have limited health literacy skills). The authors administered the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) health literacy assessment to each participant. The assessment involves having individuals answer questions about a nutrition label while viewing the label. The authors used computerized eye-tracking technology to measure the amount of time each participant spent fixing their view at nutrition label information that was relevant to the questions being asked and the amount of time they spent viewing nonrelevant information. Results showed that lower NVS scores were significantly associated with more time spent on information not relevant for answering the NVS items. This finding suggests that efforts to improve health literacy measurement should include the ability to differentiate not just between individuals who have difficulty interpreting and using health information, but also between those who have difficulty finding relevant information. In addition, this finding suggests that health education material should minimize the inclusion of nonrelevant information. PMID:24093355

Mackert, Michael; Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Weiss, Barry D



The construction of individual eye model based on eye's wavefront aberration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There were four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software -ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

Wang, Zhao-Qi; Guo, Huan-Qing



An Advanced Eye-Movement Measuring and Recording System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Young and Sheena (1975) have provided a comprehensive summary of available eye-movement recording devices. This companion article describes one of the more advanced eye-movement measuring systems currently in existence, the EG and G/HEL oculometer develop...

R. A. Monty



a Rocket Measurement of Ozone Concentration Profile Over the Korean Peninsula Using the Korean Sounding Rocket KSR-420S: Ozone Detector, its Calibration and Data Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first sounding rocket in Korea, KSR-420S has been under the development at Korea Aerospace Research Institute(KARI), and is expected to launched on 1993 to measure the vertical ozone profile over the Korean Peninsula. The KSR-420S is expected to provide the first in situ measurement of ozone concentrations over the Korean Peninsula. An optical ozone detector has been developed at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS), and its calibration has been completed recently. In this paper, measurement principles of the ozone detector in KSR-420S, its calibration data, ozone measurement procedure and data reduction algorithm are presented with sample calculations.

Kim, Jhoo; Ryoo, Jang Soo; Park, Chang Joon; Lim, Heung Bin; Lee, Ki Young



The Eye Tracker System--a system to measure and record saccadic eye movements.  


The Eye Tracker System, built at the University of Connecticut at Storrs in the Biomedical Instrumentation Lab, consists of three separate and distinct units brought together as a whole system to measure saccades. A seven row, eleven columned array of LEDs mounted on five degree centers along a concave surface provides targeting for the Eye Tracker System wherein the subject eye follows a pattern of illuminated LEDs as determined by the experimenter. The target system is digitally driven by serial inputs from the Main Command System. Subject positioning is aided by the concave surface of the Target System. The System Console employs a multiple regression Operating System to predict Eye Position. Twenty-four channels utilizing the theory of Infrared Light Reflective Differentiation make measurements of the location of the eye. These optoelectronics are mounted in a specialized head-mounted transducer. The optoelectronics are mounted on the interior of a parabolic surface automatically aiming them towards the limbus. The transducer is styled after an ophthalmologist's test frames and is comfortably worn and adjustable in size to fit any subject. The Main Command System authored under G programming language (LabView) provides a graphic user interface (GUI) that controls the generation of the target pattern. The Main Command System also coordinates the programs that acquire all data, the regression algorithm for the real-time prediction of the eye position and the initial calibration of the system. In addition the application is able to save a retrieve data for further analysis. PMID:12724896

Pruehsner, William R; Liebler, Christopher M; Rodriguez-Campos, Francisco; Enderle, John D



Axial length measurement techniques in pediatric eyes with cataract  

PubMed Central

Globe axial length (AL) in children is commonly measured using either contact or immersion technique. Office measurement of AL can be difficult in young children and infants and must often be done under anesthesia in an eye that is unable to cooperate with precise fixation and centration. Contact A-scan measurements yield shorter AL, on average, than immersion A-scan measurements in pediatric eyes. This difference is mainly the result of the anterior chamber depth rather than the lens thickness value. During intraocular lens power calculation, if globe axial length is measured by the contact technique, it will result in the use of an average 1-D stronger IOL power than is actually required. This can lead to induced myopia in the postoperative refraction. In our studied patients, there was a significant difference in prediction error between contact A-scan biometry and immersion A-scan biometry. The immersion A-scan technique is recommended for pediatric IOL power calculation. We also provide a review of biometry in pediatric eyes. The overall mean AL of pediatric cataractous eyes is significantly different than the mean AL of non cataractous eyes. More importantly, the standard deviation is higher in eyes with cataract than in those without. Three phases of eye growth in children have been documented: A rapid, postnatal phase from birth to 6 months of age, followed by a slower, infantile phase from 6 to 18 months of age, and finally a slow, juvenile phase from 18 months forward. In our study, girls had shorter ALs than boys and African-American subjects had longer ALs than Caucasians. Eyes with unilateral cataract had shorter ALs than eyes with bilateral cataract during the earlier years, but had longer ALs during later childhood.

Wilson, M. Edward; Trivedi, Rupal H.



Korean minds eye nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed about how the National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT) started its full operation of semiconductor\\/display materials and equipment technology in South Korea. The government sponsored NCNT project is designed to build an infrastructure in the Pohang region. The facility will also bring large and small\\/medium scale companies together under one roof for collaboration in technology development, where

Jinyong Chung



A New Interocular Suppression Technique for Measuring Sensory Eye Dominance  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Recently devised tests have implemented forms of interocular suppression (e.g., binocular rivalry) to assess eye dominance. In an effort to combine the strengths of these tests, the authors introduce a new technique for quantifying the magnitude of interocular suppression by using an easily administered psychophysical test. Methods. Eighty-eight observers participated in the interocular suppression test, which involved dichoptic presentation of dynamic noise to one eye and a target stimulus to the other. Observers made a form-discrimination judgment once the target emerged from suppression. The authors reasoned that the dominant eye is less susceptible to interocular suppression and as a result, perception and thus, form discrimination would be faster when the target is presented to the dominant eye as opposed to the nondominant eye. Observers' sighting dominance, acuity, contrast sensitivity, and test–retest reliability were also assessed. Results. There were significant interocular differences in mean reaction times within and across observers. Of the observers, 68% and 32% observers were categorized as right eye dominant and left eye dominant, respectively, according to the test. Moreover, 38% of observers showed strong eye dominance. Observers' discrimination accuracy (98%) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.52–0.67) were high. Consistent with results in previous studies, statistical correlations were weak between the sighting dominance test, acuity scores, contrast sensitivity measures, and the interocular suppression test. Conclusions. This interocular suppression technique offers an efficient, reliable, quantitative method of evaluating eye dominance and may be useful in making decisions about differential refractive correction of the two eyes.

Blake, Randolph; McDonald, James E.



Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

Lee, Jooyoung



Interpretation and measurement of capacity utilization: the case of Korean manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses attention on the conceptual difference between optimal (ex ante) and actual (ex post) capacity untilization (CU). The dynamic version of the efficient output approach to capacity untilization which this paper presents is theoretically superior to other alternative approaches. Our concept of optimal CU has been applied to estimate CU measures for Korean manufacturing. We fing that our

Youn Jai Lee; Jene K. Kwon



Lags in measuring eye-hand coordination.  


We challenge a number of the claims for novelty and innovation made in a recent published paper (Lee et al., 2014) with regard to a computerised methodology that these authors present for assessing eye-hand coordination (EHC). Published work on similar pre-existing computerised systems is discussed and arguments made for these alternative systems being equal, if not superior, in terms of their innovativeness. The commentary does not dispute the usefulness of systems such as the one described by Lee et al. Rather, in the interests of scholarship it provides an accompanying insight into the significant scholarly contributions previously, and contemporaneously, being made by other research groups working in this area. PMID:24858796

Hill, Liam J B; Culmer, Peter R; Mon-Williams, Mark



Relation between eye movement and fatigue: Classification of morning and afternoon measurement based on Fuzzy rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simple method for classifying the condition of morning and afternoon measurement of eye movement based on the Fuzzy rule, the first step to find the relation between eye movement and fatigue. The eye movement is taken by camera and processed by computer. The left eye pupil center coordinates are used as eye movement data. These coordinates

Zainal Arief; Djoko Purwanto; Dadet Pramadihanto; Tetsuo SATO; Kotaro MINATO



Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field  

SciTech Connect

The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Larichev, A V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, P V [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)



EEG and eye-tracking based measures for enhanced training.  


This paper describes a project whose goal was to establish the feasibility of using unobtrusive cognitive assessment methodologies in order to optimize efficiency and expediency of training. QUASAR, EyeTracking, Inc. (ETI), and Safe Passage International (SPI), teamed to demonstrate correlation between EEG and eye-tracking based cognitive workload, performance assessment and subject expertise on X-Ray screening tasks. Results indicate significant correlation between cognitive workload metrics based on EEG and eye-tracking measurements recorded during a simulated baggage screening task and subject expertise and error rates in that same task. These results suggest that cognitive monitoring could be useful in improving training efficiency by enabling training paradigms that adapts to increasing expertise. PMID:23366217

Soussou, Walid; Rooksby, Michael; Forty, Charles; Weatherhead, James; Marshall, Sandra



OPTICAL EYE MODEL: Human eye aberrations: 2. Development of a dynamic model of the human eye based on measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A human eye model based on a flexible semipassive bimorph mirror is proposed and experimentally realised. The model can be used for the real-time reproduction of human eye aberrations and their fluctuations. The accuracy of the reproduction of individual Zernike polynomials and of total eye aberrations of inspected patients is discussed.

Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu; Kudryashov, A. V.



Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')



Differential Association of Adiposity Measures with Heart Rate Variability Measures in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although obesity has been associated with imbalances in cardiac autonomic nervous system, it is unclear whether there are differential relationships between adiposity measures and heart rate variability (HRV) measures. We aimed to examine differences in the relationship between adiposity measures and HRV indices in a healthy Korean population. Materials and Methods In all, 1409 non-smokers (811 males, 598 females) without known histories of cardiovascular (CV), endocrine, or neurological diseases underwent adiposity measurements [(body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat mass (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)], the HRV assessment (SDNN, RMSSD, LF, HF, LF/HF, and pNN50), and examination for CV risk factors (fasting glucose, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, and blood pressure). Results Compared with BMI and PBF, WHR was more strongly correlated with each HRV index and more likely to predict decreased HRV (<15 percentile vs. ?15 percentile of each HRV index) in ROC curves analysis. In linear regression analysis, all adiposity measures were inversely associated with each HRV measure before adjusting for age, gender, and CV risk factors (p<0.05). After adjusting for the covariates, WHR was inversely related to RMSSD, LF, and pNN50; PBF with RMSSD, HF, and pNN50; BMI with RMSSD (p<0.05). The inversed association between HRV indices and the gender-specific WHR tertile was significant for subjects with BMI ?25 kg/m2, but not for those with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion WHR and PBF appear to be better indicators for low HRV than BMI, and the association between abdominal adiposity and HRV may be stronger in overweight subjects.

Yi, Sang Hoon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Jun Su; Ki, Hee-Cheol



Custom-oriented wavefront sensor for human eye properties measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of correct measurement of human eye aberrations is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). In this paper we show capabilities to measure aberrations by means of the aberrometer built in our lab together with Active Optics Ltd. We discuss the calibration of the aberrometer and show invalidity to use for the ophthalmic calibration purposes the analytical equation based on thin lens formula. We show that proper analytical equation suitable for calibration should have dependence on the square of the distance increment and we illustrate this both by experiment and by Zemax Ray tracing modeling. Also the error caused by inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the beam imaged onto the aberrometer's Shack-Hartmann sensor is discussed.

Galetskiy, Sergey; Letfullin, Renat; Dubinin, Alex; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis



A Preformed Scleral Search Coil for Measuring Mouse Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Mice are excellent subjects for use of genetic-manipulation techniques to study the basis of pathological and normal physiology and behavior; however behavioral analyses of associated phenotypes is often limited. To improve the accuracy and specificity of repeated measurements of vestibular function, we developed a miniaturized, contact-lens scleral search coil to measure mouse eye movements. We describe the physical attributes and document its functionality by measuring vestibulo-ocular responses in normal mice. This coil should greatly improve the sensitivity and documentation of vestibular dysfunction in mouse models of pathology and dysfunction while allowing screening of significant numbers of subjects.

Kaneko, Chris R. S.; Rosenfeld, Sam; Fontaine, Ethan; Markov, Alex; Phillips, James O.; Yarno, John



Atomic force microscopy measurements of lens elasticity in monkey eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the elasticity of intact crystalline lenses using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods AFM elasticity measurements were performed on intact lenses from 18 fresh cynomolgus monkey cadaver eyes (4-10 years old, <1 day postmortem) that had been left attached to their zonule-ciliary body-sclera framework. The eyes were prepared by bonding a plastic ring on the sclera after removal of the conjunctival, adipose, and muscle tissues. The posterior pole was sectioned, with the excess vitreous removed, and the eye's anterior section was placed on a Teflon slide to protect the posterior pole of the lens. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. The lens-zonule-ciliary body-sclera section was then placed in a Petri dish filled with balanced salt solution in an AFM system designed for force measurements. Next, the central pole of the anterior surface of the intact lens was probed with the AFM cantilever tip. The recorded AFM cantilever deflection-indentation curves were used to derive force-indentation curves for the lens after factoring out the deflection of the cantilever on a hard surface. Young's modulus of the lens was calculated from the force-indentation relation using the Hertz model. Results Young's modulus was 1,720±880 Pa (range: 409-3,210 Pa) in the 18 cynomolgus monkey lenses. Conclusions AFM can be used to provide measurements of the elasticity of the whole lens including the capsule. Values obtained using AFM on cynomolgus monkey lenses are similar to published values obtained using dynamic mechanical analysis on young human lenses.

Ziebarth, Noel M.; Wojcikiewicz, Ewa P.; Manns, Fabrice; Moy, Vincent T.



Interferometric measurement of the refractive error of the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Michelson interferometer is used to determine the refractive error of the eye. A coherent infrared point source radiates into the eye; at the fundus the light is scattered. The light wave emerging from the eye depends on its refractive error. The wave is analyzed by means of the interferogram which results from superposing a reference light wave. The refractive error is determined in two steps: (1) Speckle size is enlarged by moving the point source towards the plane conjugate with the eye's fundus. (2) Interference fringes which appear when speckle size exceeds fringe intervals are evaluated by Fourier analysis after suitable transformation of coordinates.

Stiller, Henning; Oechsner, Ulrich; Rassow, Bernhard



Simulating the human eye in measurements of speckle from laser-based projection displays.  


In quantitative measurement of the speckle observed in laser projection displays, it is essential how accurately one simulates the human eye. Based on the eye model given by Westheimer, we succeeded in simulating the optical transfer function of the eye model using that for the circular aperture. The equivalent circular aperture diameter is dependent on the eye model used in the simulation and its viewing conditions, but particularly for the eye models given by Westheimer and Williams, they substantially agreed, yielding approximately 1.2 mm at green under a 3 mm pupil diameter viewing condition. PMID:24921149

Kubota, Shigeo



Eye Movements in Autistic, Mentally Retarded and Normal Young Children: Simultaneous Measurement by an Eye Camera System for Autistic Children (ECSA) and an Electro-Oculography (EOG).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smooth pursuit eye movements and saccadic eye movements in Japanese autistic, mentally retarded, and normal young children were simultaneously measured by an eye camera system (ECS) and an electro-oculography (EOG) system. The ECS was developed in the laboratory of the Research Institute for the Education of Exceptional Children at Tokyo Gakugei…

Itoh, Hideo



What the Eyes Already "Know": Using Eye Movement Measurement to Tap into Children's Implicit Numerical Magnitude Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's "implicit" and "explicit" knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to investigate the…

Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Tamm, Sascha; Hawelka, Stefan; Schneider, Michael; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Stern, Elsbeth; Jacobs, Arthur M.



Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber  

PubMed Central

Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79?±?1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63?±?0.06 to 1.15?±?0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material.



Heritabilities of Facial Measurements and Their Latent Factors in Korean Families  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies on facial morphology targeting healthy populations are fundamental in understanding the specific genetic influences involved; yet, most studies to date, if not all, have been focused on congenital diseases accompanied by facial anomalies. To study the specific genetic cues determining facial morphology, we estimated familial correlations and heritabilities of 14 facial measurements and 3 latent factors inferred from a factor analysis in a subset of the Korean population. The study included a total of 229 individuals from 38 families. We evaluated a total of 14 facial measurements using 2D digital photographs. We performed factor analysis to infer common latent variables. The heritabilities of 13 facial measurements were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and ranged from 0.25 to 0.61. Of these, the heritability of intercanthal width in the orbital region was found to be the highest (h2 = 0.61, SE = 0.14). Three factors (lower face portion, orbital region, and vertical length) were obtained through factor analysis, where the heritability values ranged from 0.45 to 0.55. The heritability values for each factor were higher than the mean heritability value of individual original measurements. We have confirmed the genetic influence on facial anthropometric traits and suggest a potential way to categorize and analyze the facial portions into different groups.

Kim, Hyun-Jin; Im, Sun-Wha; Jargal, Ganchimeg; Lee, Siwoo; Yi, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Jeong-Yeon; Sung, Joohon; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun



Bayesian Machine Learning Classifiers for Combining Structural and Functional Measurements to Classify Healthy and Glaucomatous Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To determine whether combining structural (optical coherence tomography, OCT) and functional (standard auto- mated perimetry, SAP) measurements as input for machine learning classifiers (MLCs; relevance vector machine, RVM; and subspace mixture of Gaussians, SSMoG) improves diagnostic accuracy for detecting glaucomatous eyes compared with us- ing each measurement method alone. METHODS. Sixty-nine eyes of 69 healthy control subjects (aver- age

Christopher Bowd; Jiucang Hao; Ivan M. Tavares; Felipe A. Medeiros; Linda M. Zangwill; Te-Won Lee; Pamela A. Sample; Robert N. Weinreb; Michael H. Goldbaum



Eye movements - On-line measurement, analysis, and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper outlines the plans and progress related to the development of a Programmed Eye-track Recording System and Eye-coupled Ubiquitous Scene-generator known by the acronym PERSEUS. Particular attention is given to the design and implementation of a computer-based real-time eye-tracking system with associated digital scenic display capability. The accurate eye-tracker developed by Cornsweet and Crane (1973) is selected for this purpose. The discussion covers automatic detection of fixations and saccades, automatic scanpath analysis, fixation-conditional stimulation, and digital scene generation. The all-digital approach to scenic simulation not only eliminates the camera optics and electromechanical servomechanisms of TV-model systems of simulation but also opens the way to the virtually unlimited sequencing of data-base contents and perspectives thereof.

Anliker, J.



Space Radiation Measurement on the Polar Route onboard the Korean Commercial Flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was performed by the policy research project of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, which title is "Developing safety standards and management of space radiation on the polar route". In this research, total six experiments were performed using Korean commercial flights (B747). Three of those are on the polar route and the other three are on the north pacific route. Space radiation exposure measured on the polar route is the average 84.7 uSv. The simulation result using CARI-6M program gives 84.9 uSv, which is very similar to measured value. For the departure flight using the north pacific route, the measured space radiation is the average 74.4 uSv. It seems that is not so different to use the polar route or not for the return flight because the higher latitude effect causing the increase of space radiation is compensated by the shortened flight time effect causing decreasing space radiation exposure.

Hwang, Junga; Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Ho-Sung



Saccadic eye movement analysis as a measure of drug effects on human psychomotor performance  

PubMed Central

1 Analysis of human horizontal saccadic eye movements can provide measurements of central nervous system depression and stimulation. 2 Effects on saccadic eye movements have been observed in normal volunteers with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates and related compounds, carbamazepine, amphetamine and ethanol. 3 A suite of programmes have been developed to allow the generation, collection and analysis of saccadic eye movements using a CBM 3032, 8032 or BBC B microcomputer. The system allows almost continuous sampling and rapid analysis of movements.

Griffiths, A. N.; Marshall, R. W.; Richens, A.



Retinal nerve fibre layer imaging compared with histological measurements in a human eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeA feasibility study comparing retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness values obtained with imaging devices against RNFL thickness measurements obtained histologically in a human eye.DesignA single patient scheduled for orbital exenteration, who still possessed a healthy functioning eye.MethodsBefore surgery, the eye was imaged using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). After orbital exenteration, the globe was sectioned,

E Z Blumenthal; R S Parikh; J Pe'er; M Naik; E Kaliner; M J Cohen; S Prabakaran; M Kogan; R Thomas



Double-pass measurement of human eye aberrations: limitations and practical realization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of correct eye aberrations measurement is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). The double-pass technique commonly used for measuring aberrations of a human eye involves some uncertainties. One of them is loosing the information about odd human eye aberrations. We report about investigations of the applicability limit of the double-pass measurements depending upon the aberrations status introduced by human eye and actual size of the entrance pupil. We evaluate the double-pass effects for various aberrations and different pupil diameters. It is shown that for small pupils the double-pass effects are negligible. The testing and alignment of aberrometer was performed using the schematic eye, developed in our lab. We also introduced a model of human eye based on bimorph flexible mirror. We perform calculations to demonstrate that our schematic eye is capable of reproducing spatial-temporal statistics of aberrations of living eye with normal vision or even myopic or hypermetropic or with high aberrations ones.

Letfullin, Renat R.; Belyakov, Alexey I.; Cherezova, Tatyana Y.; Kudryashov, Alexis V.



Detecting drowsiness while driving by measuring eye movement - a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A function to warn a drowsy driver is a prospective device to be included in intelligent transportation systems. We compared the eye closure rate (PERCLOS) with the vertical eye movement frequency between wakeful and drowsy states of drivers who were driving a car in a driving simulator. Three subjects participated in the experiment. In the drowsy state condition, both measures

Takchito Hayami; Katsuya Matsunaga; Kazunori Shidoji; Yuji Matsuki



Head fixed field coil system for measuring eye movements in freely moving monkeys.  


Coil systems have been a standard for measuring eye movements since they were first introduced. These systems, which have been designed to work at low frequencies (20 KHz), generally require large field coils so that a uniform field can be established at the eye coil site. This configuration makes it virtually impossible to study eye movements in freely moving animals. In this paper, we describe the design of a coil system, which operates at radio frequencies (10 MHz). This system allows the use of compact coils with radii of 10 mm that are capable of accurately measuring eye movements in three dimensions during head free locomotion. This system opens the possibility for studying eye movements in freely moving monkeys under a wide range of conditions. PMID:17946708

Ogorodnikov, Dmitri; Tarasenko, Sergey; Yakushin, Sergei; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore



Eye Tracking Research and Technology: Towards Objective Measurement of Data Quality  

PubMed Central

Two methods for objectively measuring eye tracking data quality are explored. The first method works by tricking the eye tracker to detect an abrupt change in the gaze position of an artificial eye that in actuality does not move. Such a device, referred to as an artificial saccade generator, is shown to be extremely useful for measuring the temporal accuracy and precision of eye tracking systems and for validating the latency to display change in gaze contingent display paradigms. The second method involves an artificial pupil that is mounted on a computer controlled moving platform. This device is designed to be able to provide the eye tracker with motion sequences that closely resemble biological eye movements. The main advantage of using artificial motion for testing eye tracking data quality is the fact that the spatiotemporal signal is fully specified in a manner independent of the eye tracker that is being evaluated and that nearly identical motion sequence can be reproduced multiple times with great precision. The results of the present study demonstrate that the equipment described has the potential to become an important tool in the comprehensive evaluation of data quality.

Reingold, Eyal M.



Objective measurement of the optical image quality in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication reviews some recent studies on the optical performance of the human eye. Although the retinal image cannot be recorded directly, different objective methods have been developed, which permit to determine optical quality parameters, such as the Point Spread Function (PSF), the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the geometrical ray aberrations or the wavefront distortions, in the living human eye. These methods have been applied in both basic and applied research. This includes the measurement of the optical performance of the eye across visual field, the optical quality of eyes with intraocular lens implants, the aberrations induced by LASIK refractive surgery, or the manufacture of customized phase plates to compensate the wavefront aberration in the eye.

Navarro, Rafael M.



A wearable device for measuring eye dynamics in real-world conditions.  


Drowsiness and lapses of responsiveness have the potential to cause fatalities in many occupations. One subsystem of a prototype device which aims to detect these lapses as they occur is described. A head-mounted camera measures several features of the eye that are known to correlate with drowsiness. The system was tested with eight combinations of eye colour, ambient lighting, and eye glasses to simulate typical real-world input conditions. A task was completed for each set of conditions to simulate a range of eye movement-saccades, tracking, and eye closure. Our image processing software correctly classified 99.3% of video frames as open/closed/partly closed, and the error rate was not affected by the combinations of input conditions. Most errors occurred during eyelid movement. The accuracy of the pupil localisation was also not influenced by input conditions, with the possible exception of one subject's glasses. PMID:24111259

Knopp, Simon; Bones, Philip; Weddell, Stephen; Innes, Carrie; Jones, Richard



Development of Sex-Trait Stereotype Awareness among Korean Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assumptions regarding the development of Korean children's awareness of sex-trait stereotypes derived with the SSM II, a measurement device developed on the basis of American stereotypes, were tested using a Korean Sex-Trait Stereotype Measure (KSSM), developed on the basis of Korean stereotypes. Results indicated Korean children's awareness of…

Lee, Jae Yeon; Sugawara, Alan I.



Ocular blood flow measurements in healthy human myopic eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To evaluate the haemodynamic features of young healthy myopes and emmetropes, in order to ascertain the perfusion profile\\u000a of human myopia and its relationship with axial length prior to reaching a degenerative state.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The retrobulbar, microretinal and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) of one eye of each of twenty-two high myopes (N?=?22, mean spherical equivalent (MSE) ??5.00D), low myopes (N?=?22,

Alexandra Benavente-Pérez; Sarah L. Hosking; Nicola S. Logan; David C. Broadway



Measuring V1 Receptive Fields Despite Eye Movements in Awake Monkeys  

PubMed Central

One difficulty with measuring receptive fields in the awake monkey is that even well-trained animals make small eye movements during fixation. These complicate the measurement of receptive fields by blurring out the region where a response is observed, causing underestimates of the ability of individual neurons to signal changes in stimulus position. In simple cells, this blurring may severely disrupt estimates of receptive field structure. An accurate measurement of eye movements would allow correction of this blurring. Scleral search coils have been used to provide such measurements, although little is known about their accuracy. We have devised a range of approaches to address this issue: implanting two coils into a single eye, exploiting the small size of V1 receptive fields and developing maximum-likelihood fitting techniques to extract receptive field parameters in the presence of eye movements. All our investigations lead to the same conclusion: our scleral search coils (which were not sutured to the globe) are subject to an error of approximately the same magnitude as the small eye movements which occur during fixation: SD ~ 0.1°. This error is large enough to explain the SD of measured vergence in the absence of any real changes in vergence state. This, and a variety of other arguments, indicate that the real variation in vergence is much smaller than coil measurements suggest. These results suggest that monkeys, like humans, maintain very stable vergence. The error has a slower time course than fixational eye movements so that search coils report the difference in eye position between two consecutive trials more accurately than the eye position itself on either trial. Receptive field estimates are unlikely to be improved by assuming the coil record is veridical and correcting for eye position accordingly. However, receptive field parameters can reliably be determined by a fitting technique that allows for eye movements. It is possible that suturing coils to the globe reduces the artifacts, but no method has been available to demonstrate this. These receptive field measurements provide a general means by which the reliability of eye-position measurements can be assessed.

Read, Jenny C. A.; Cumming, Bruce G.



Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal



EOG based eye movement measure of visual fatigue caused by 2D and 3D displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to dissemination of appliance such as 3D TV and 3D games, visual fatigue estimation of 3D contents has been focused. EOG(Electro-ocular gram) is one of popular methods to measure the movement of the eye for visual fatigue estimation. However, voltage of EOG signal is depending on the eye shape or physiological state of the subject and its basis voltage

Jae-Hwan Yu; Byoung-Hoon Lee; Deok-Hwan Kim



Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses.

Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David



The Choroidal Eye Oximeter - An instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Choroidal Eye Oximeter is an electro-optical instrument that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in the back of the human eye by a spectrophotometric method. Since choroidal blood is characteristic of blood which is supplied to the brain, the Choroidal Eye Oximeter can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen which is supplied to the brain under varying external conditions. The instrument consists of two basic systems: the optical system and the electronic system. The optical system produces a suitable bi-chromatic beam of light, reflects this beam from the fundus of the subject's eye, and onto a low-noise photodetector. The electronic system amplifies the weak composite signal from the photodetector, computes the average oxygen saturation from the area of the fundus that was sampled, and displays the value of the computed oxygen saturation on a panel meter.

Laing, R. A.; Danisch, L. A.; Young, L. R.



Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.  


Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ? 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (? 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings. PMID:24290729

Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S



A Model-Based Approach for the Measurement of Eye Movements Using Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a video eye-tracking algorithm which searches for the best fit of the pupil modeled as a circular disk. The algorithm is robust to common image artifacts such as the droopy eyelids and light reflections while maintaining the measurement resolution available by the centroid algorithm. The presented algorithm is used to derive the pupil size and center coordinates, and can be combined with iris-tracking techniques to measure ocular torsion. A comparison search method of pupil candidates using pixel coordinate reference lookup tables optimizes the processing requirements for a least square fit of the circular disk model. This paper includes quantitative analyses and simulation results for the resolution and the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm presented in this paper provides a platform for a noninvasive, multidimensional eye measurement system which can be used for clinical and research applications requiring the precise recording of eye movements in three-dimensional space.

Sung, Kwangjae; Reschke, Millard F.



Spectral- and time-domain optical coherence tomography measurements of macular thickness in normal eyes and in eyes with diabetic macular edema  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report macular thickness values in normal eyes and eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) using time-domain (TD) and spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to derive a conversion equation. Methods The index study was a prospective investigation conducted on 80 eyes from 40 normal subjects and 130 eyes from 118 patients with DME seen in our clinic. Retinal thickness values from the central 1?mm of the macula and surrounding four ETDRS subfields were acquired using TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) and SD-OCT (SPECTRALIS HRA+OCT). Measurements of the central (C) subfield from both devices were used to derive a conversion equation. The equation was used to predict SD-OCT values using measurements from TD-OCT. Agreement between predicted and actual SD-OCT measurements was assessed. Results In normal eyes, the mean difference between TD-OCT and SD-OCT measurements of the C subfield was 76??m (CI95=74 and 77, respectively). The conversion equation, y=1.029x+72.49, was derived. In eyes with DME, using the equation, SPECTRALIS-predicted values were 5% higher than actual measurements, with 95% of predicted values falling within 9% of the actual measurements. Relocating SD-OCT grids to match the location on TD-OCT resulted in predicted values falling within 7% of actual measurements. Conclusions The percent difference between actual thickness measurements from SPECTRALIS and predicted thickness measurements, using the conversion equation, was within reported limits of repeatability of Stratus in eyes with DME. Our equation may help correlate OCT values from both devices in standard care and clinical trials for DME.

Ibrahim, M A; Sepah, Y J; Symons, R C A; Channa, R; Hatef, E; Khwaja, A; Bittencourt, M; Heo, J; Do, D V; Nguyen, Q D



Clinical use of three-dimensional video measurements of eye movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noninvasive measurements of three-dimensional eye position can be accurately achieved with video methods. A case study showing the potential clinical benefit of these enhanced measurements is presented along with some thoughts about technological advances, essential for clinical application, that are likely to occur in the next several years.

Merfeld, D. M.; Black, F. O.; Wade, S.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)



Measuring psychosis proneness in a nonclinical Korean population: is the Peters et al Delusions Inventory useful for assessing high-risk individuals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe examined the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Peters et al Delusions Inventory (PDI) 40 and investigated the distribution of delusional ideation in a nonclinical population. We also used the item response theory to evaluate the usefulness of the PDI in measuring the risk for psychosis.

Hee Yeon Jung; Jae Seung Chang; Jung Seo Yi; Samuel Hwang; Hyun-Kyun Shin; Jong Hoon Kim; In Hee Cho; Yong Sik Kim



EyeSys corneal topography measurement applied to calibrated ellipsoidal convex surfaces.  

PubMed Central

AIMS/BACKGROUND--This study was carried out to assess the accuracy of the EyeSys videokeratoscope by using convex ellipsoidal surfaces of known form. METHODS--PMMA convex ellipsoidal buttons were calibrated using Form Talysurf analysis which allowed subsequent calculation of the vertex radius and p value of the surface. The EyeSys videokeratoscope was used to examine the same ellipsoids. The tabular data provided by the instrument software were used to plot a graph of r2 versus y2 where r is the measured radius at y, the distance from the corneal point being measured to the surface vertex. The intercept on the ordinate of this graph gives the vertex radius and the slope the p value. The results arising from the Talysurf and the EyeSys techniques were compared. RESULTS--The EyeSys videokeratoscope gave readings for both vertex radius and p value that were higher than those of the Talysurf analysis. The vertex radius was around 0.1 mm greater. The p value results were similar by the two methods for p values around unity but the EyeSys results were higher and the discrepancy increased as the p value approached that of a paraboloid. CONCLUSIONS--Although the videokeratoscope may be useful in comparative studies of the cornea, there must be some doubt about the absolute values displayed. The disagreement is sufficiently large to suggest that the instrument may not be accurate enough for contact lens fitting purposes.

Douthwaite, W A



Comparative measurement of aortic root by transthoracic echocardiography in normal Korean population based on two different guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Aortic root size is an important parameter in vascular diseases and can be easily assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. However, measurements values may vary according to cardiac cycle and the definition used for edge. This study aimed to define normal values according to the measurement method specified by two different guidelines to determine the influence of the different methods on echocardiographic measurements. Methods Healthy Korean adults were enrolled. The aortic root diameters were measured twice at four levels (aortic annulus, sinuses of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, and ascending aorta) by the 2005 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) guidelines (measured from leading edge to leading edge during diastole) and the 2010 ASE pediatric guidelines (measured from inner edge to inner edge during systole). Results One hundred twelve subjects aged 20–69 years were enrolled. The aortic diameters (cm) determine by the aforementioned two guidelines showed significant difference. Measurements were larger in 2005 ASE guideline at aortic annuls, sinuses of Valsalva, and sinotubular junction level, but smaller at ascending aortic level with 2-3mm of differences. Intraobserver variability was similarly good, but interobserver variability was slightly higher than intraobserver variability in both measurement methods. BSA and age was most important determinant for aortic root size. Conclusions The measurement method of aortic root can affect the echocardiographic result. The measurement method should be noted when assessing clinical significance of aortic root measurement.



Eye Tracking as a Measure of Noticing: A Study of Explicit Recasts in SCMC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…

Smith, Bryan



Measuring word recognition in reading: eye movements and event-related potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of visual word recognition has been a major accomplishment of cognitive science. Two on-line methodologies, eye movements and event-related potentials, stand out in the search for the holy grail – an absolute time measure of when, how and why we recognize visual words while reading. Although each technique has its own experimental limitations, we suggest, by means of

Sara C. Sereno; Keith Rayner



Accuracy of the EyeSys 2000 in measuring surface elevation of calibrated aspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the accuracy of the EyeSys 2000 videokeratoscope in measuring aspheric surfaces for calculation of the wavefront aberrations of the anterior cornea. Six rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces were measured. The surface elevation was computed from the normal measurement files. Both elevation error and relative error were computed from the average of the three maps. The root-mean-square errors for

Douglas G Horner; Thomas O Salmon



Lyin' Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts.

Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.



Length measurement of the eye using a swept-source interferometer.  


In this article, a swept-source setup based on a semiconductor optical amplifier at the central wavelength of 1050 nm for measurements of the axial length inside the eye is presented. The large coherence length is achieved using a tunable optical filter, consisting of a reflective diffraction grating, two Littrow prisms, and a scanner. It was possible to achieve a coherence length of 40 mm, which allowed interference measurements in this range to be made. Measurements of the biomedical data of a human model eye are presented. To realize faster measurements, the data acquisition must be increased to more than 2 MS/s. In further studies, the usage of a field-programmable gate array, to achieve faster measurements, will be considered. PMID:24096435

Al-Mohamedi, Haroun; Prinz, Andreas; Mieskes, Guido; Oltrup, Theo; Bende, Thomas



Noninvasive measurement of pharmacokinetics by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the eye of mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: For generating preclinical pharmacokinetics (PKs) of compounds, blood is drawn at different time points and levels are quantified by different analytical methods. In order to receive statistically meaningful data, 3 to 5 animals are used for each time point to get serum peak-level and half-life of the compound. Both characteristics are determined by data interpolation, which may influence the accuracy of these values. We provide a method that allows continuous monitoring of blood levels noninvasively by measuring the fluorescence intensity of labeled compounds in the eye and other body regions of anesthetized mice. Procedures: The method evaluation was performed with four different fluorescent compounds: (i) indocyanine green, a nontargeting dye; (ii) OsteoSense750, a bone targeting agent; (iii) tumor targeting Trastuzumab-Alexa750; and (iv) its F(-alxea750 fragment. The latter was used for a direct comparison between fluorescence imaging and classical blood analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found an excellent correlation between blood levels measured by noninvasive eye imaging with the results generated by classical methods. A strong correlation between eye imaging and ELISA was demonstrated for the F( fragment. Whole body imaging revealed a compound accumulation in the expected regions (e.g., liver, bone). Conclusions: The combination of eye and whole body fluorescence imaging enables the simultaneous measurement of blood PKs and biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled compounds.

Dobosz, Michael; Strobel, Steffen; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Osl, Franz; Scheuer, Werner



MTF measurement system that simulates IOL performance in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MTF data can be a dependable criterion for assessing the performance of an optical system if the testing is done under conditions that closely resemble the actual application. For testing IOL performance, this requirement can be met by inserting the lens in a suitable eyes model. A dynamic eye model in which the corneal power can be varied to simulate the range of conditions found in different human eyes is ideal, but if the vergence angle is chosen carefully, a fixed eye model can be sufficient. For the resulting MTF data to be valid, it is necessary to consider the entire spread function of the system. In the case of a multifocal IOL, the failure to accurately sample the complete spread function is a major source of measurement errors. The detector must be able to characterize in considerable detail the central maximum of the in focus segment. At the same time it must also deal with the complex and diffuse `halo' from the out of focus segment of the lens. Additionally, it must be able to measure the stray light found beyond the halo, that results from the transitions between the various zones of the multifocal lens. Test systems based on the direct measurement of MTF have a substantial advantage in these cases where the spread function is large and complex.

Chou, Jim-Son; Blake, Larry W.; Fridge, John M.; Fridge, D. Alan



New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and ice sheets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mapping and measurement of glaciers and their changes are useful in predicting sea-level and regional water supply, studying hazards and climate change [Haeberli et al., 1998],and in the hydropower industry Existing inventories cover only about 67,000 of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers and are based on data collected over 50 years or more [e.g.,Haeberli et al., 1998]. The data available have proven that small ice bodies are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the Antarctic ice sheet and its fringing ice shelves are undergoing unexpected, rapid change. According to many glaciologists, much larger fluctuations in land ice—with vast implications for society—are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change [Oppenheimer, 1998].

Kieffer, Hugh; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Barry, Roger; Bindschadler, Robert; Bishop, Michael; MacKinnon, David; Ohmura, Atsumu; Raup, Bruce; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bamber, Jonathan; Braun, Mattias; Brown, Ian; Cohen, Denis; Copland, Luke; DueHagen, Jon; Engeset, Rune V.; Fitzharris, Blair; Fujita, Koji; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hagen, Jon Oue; Hall, Dorothy; Hoelzle, Martin; Johansson, Maria; Kaab, Andi; Koenig, Max; Konovalov, Vladimir; Maisch, Max; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Reeh, Niels; Rignot, Eric; Rivera, Andres; De Ruyter de Wildt, Martiyn; Scambos, Ted; Schaper, Jesko; Scharfen, Greg; Shroder, Jack; Solomina, Olga; Thompson, David; van der Veen, Kees; Wohlleben, Trudy; Young, Neal; ,



Scleral birefringence as measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and ocular biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo.  


The relationship between scleral birefringence and biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo is investigated. Scleral birefringence near the limbus of 21 healthy human eyes was measured using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Spherical equivalent refractive error, axial eye length, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured in all subjects. IOP and scleral birefringence of human eyes in vivo was found to have statistically significant correlations (r = -0.63, P = 0.002). The slope of linear regression was -2.4 × 10(-2) deg/?m/mmHg. Neither spherical equivalent refractive error nor axial eye length had significant correlations with scleral birefringence. To evaluate the direct influence of IOP to scleral birefringence, scleral birefringence of 16 ex vivo porcine eyes was measured under controlled IOP of 5-60 mmHg. In these ex vivo porcine eyes, the mean linear regression slope between controlled IOP and scleral birefringence was -9.9 × 10(-4) deg/?m/mmHg. In addition, porcine scleral collagen fibers were observed with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy. SHG images of porcine sclera, measured on the external surface at the superior side to the cornea, showed highly aligned collagen fibers parallel to the limbus. In conclusion, scleral birefringence of healthy human eyes was correlated with IOP, indicating that the ultrastructure of scleral collagen was correlated with IOP. It remains to show whether scleral collagen ultrastructure of human eyes is affected by IOP as a long-term effect. PMID:24877003

Yamanari, Masahiro; Nagase, Satoko; Fukuda, Shinichi; Ishii, Kotaro; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yasui, Takeshi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki



Scleral birefringence as measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and ocular biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo  

PubMed Central

The relationship between scleral birefringence and biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo is investigated. Scleral birefringence near the limbus of 21 healthy human eyes was measured using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Spherical equivalent refractive error, axial eye length, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured in all subjects. IOP and scleral birefringence of human eyes in vivo was found to have statistically significant correlations (r = ?0.63, P = 0.002). The slope of linear regression was ?2.4 × 10?2 deg/?m/mmHg. Neither spherical equivalent refractive error nor axial eye length had significant correlations with scleral birefringence. To evaluate the direct influence of IOP to scleral birefringence, scleral birefringence of 16 ex vivo porcine eyes was measured under controlled IOP of 5?60 mmHg. In these ex vivo porcine eyes, the mean linear regression slope between controlled IOP and scleral birefringence was ?9.9 × 10?4 deg/?m/mmHg. In addition, porcine scleral collagen fibers were observed with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy. SHG images of porcine sclera, measured on the external surface at the superior side to the cornea, showed highly aligned collagen fibers parallel to the limbus. In conclusion, scleral birefringence of healthy human eyes was correlated with IOP, indicating that the ultrastructure of scleral collagen was correlated with IOP. It remains to show whether scleral collagen ultrastructure of human eyes is affected by IOP as a long-term effect.

Yamanari, Masahiro; Nagase, Satoko; Fukuda, Shinichi; Ishii, Kotaro; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yasui, Takeshi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki



Combined eye activity measures accurately estimate changes in sustained visual task performance.  


Five concurrent eye activity measures were used to model fatigue-related changes in performance during a visual compensatory tracking task. Nine participants demonstrated considerable variations in performance level during two 53-min testing sessions in which continuous video-based eye activity measures were obtained. Using a trackball, participants were required to maneuver a target disk (destabilized by pseudorandom wind forces) within the center of an annulus on a CRT display. Mean tracking performance as a function of time across 18 sessions demonstrated a monotonic increase in error from 0 to 11 min, and a performance plateau thereafter. Individual performance fluctuated widely around this trend - with an average root mean square (RMS) error of 2.3 disk radii. For each participant, moving estimates of blink duration and frequency, fixation dwell time and frequency, and mean pupil diameter were analyzed using non-linear regression and artificial neural network techniques. Individual models were derived using eye and performance data from one session and cross-validated on data from a second session run on a different day. A general regression model (based only on fixation dwell time and frequency) trained on data from both sessions from all participants produced a correlation of estimated to actual tracking performance of R=0.68 and an RMS error of 1.55 (S. D.=0.26) disk radii. Individual non-linear regression models containing a general linear model term produced the cross-session correlations of estimated to actual tracking performance of R=0.67. Individualized neural network models derived from the data of both experimental sessions produced the lowest RMS error (mean=1.23 disk radii, S.D.=0.13) and highest correlation (R=0.82) between eye activity-based estimates and actual tracking performance. Results suggest that information from multiple eye measures may be combined to produce accurate individualized real-time estimates of sub-minute scale performance changes during sustained tasks. PMID:10725565

Van Orden, K F; Jung, T P; Makeig, S



Eye Allergies  


... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that ... spread from person to person. What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms What Causes Eye Allergies? Eye ...


Prediction equations for balance measured as sway speed by head tracking with eyes open and closed.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To provide prediction equations for balance measured as sway speed, a population of randomly selected subjects was used as a model. METHODS--265 subjects were selected from voter registration rolls in Arizona and Louisiana, USA. For validation these predicted values were compared with observed values obtained from a second population in California, USA. RESULTS--Sway speed with eyes open as a natural logarithm was: 1n (open) = -0.248333 -0.009634 x age +0.000164 x age2 and sway speed with eyes closed was: 1n (closed) = -0.585707 -0.023074 x age +0.000315 x age2 + 0.038496 x height (cm) CONCLUSIONS--The natural logarithm of balance with the eyes open was related to age by both linear and quadratic functions. Additionally with the eyes closed balance was dependent on height. These equations can be used to predict performance of groups being studied for effects of noise and chemicals. To define abnormality of individual subjects the predicted value plus 1.5 SDs could be used.

Kilburn, K H; Thornton, J C



Techniques for measuring atmospheric aerosols at the high resolution fly’s eye experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe several techniques developed by the high resolution fly’s eye experiment for measuring aerosol vertical optical depth, aerosol horizontal attenuation length, and aerosol phase function. The techniques are based on measurements of side-scattered light generated by a steerable ultraviolet laser and collected by an optical detector designed to measure fluorescence light from cosmic-ray air showers. We also present a technique to cross-check the aerosol optical depth measurement using air showers observed in stereo. These methods can be used by future air fluorescence experiments.

Abbasi, R.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Amann, J. F.; Archbold, G. C.; Belov, K.; Benzvi, S.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Boyer, J.; Cannon, C. T.; Cao, Z.; Connolly, B. M.; Fedorova, J.; Finley, C. B.; Girard, J. H. V.; Gray, R. C.; Hanlon, W. P.; Hoffman, C. M.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Hughes, G. A.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kim, K.; Kirn, M. A.; Knapp, B.; Loh, E. C.; Martens, K.; Manago, N.; Mannel, E. J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthews, J. N.; Mumford, J. R.; O'Neill, A.; Riehle, R.; Reil, K.; Roberts, M. D.; Seman, M.; Schnetzer, S. R.; Shen, P.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Song, C.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tupa, D.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiencke, L. R.; Zech, A.



The association between measurement sites of visceral adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women  

PubMed Central

Quantities as well as distributions of adipose tissue (AT) are significantly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and can be altered with caloric restriction. This study investigated which cross-sectional slice location of AT is most strongly correlated with changes in CVD risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women. Thirty-three obese pre-menopausal Korean women (32.4 ± 8.5 yrs, BMI 27.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2) participated in a 12 weeks caloric restriction program. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were measured using computed tomography (CT) scans at the sites of L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5. Fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), leptin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were observed. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AT measurement sites and changes in CVD risk factors after calorie restriction. When calories were reduced by 350 kcal/day for 12 weeks, body weight (-2.7%), body fat mass (-8.2%), and waist circumference (-5.8%) all decreased (P < 0.05). In addition, following caloric restriction, serum levels of glucose (-4.6%), TC (-6.2%), LDL-C (-5.3%), leptin (-17.6%) and HOMA-IR (-18.2%) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as well. Changes in VAT at the level of L3-L4 were significantly greater than those at other abdominal sites, and these changes were correlated with changes in TC (P < 0.05), LDL-C (P < 0.001), SBP (P < 0.001) and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01). These results show that VAT at L3-L4 had a stronger correlation with CVD risk factors than with other AT measurement sites after caloric restriction.

Lee, Hye-Ok; Yim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Young-Seol



Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted



Reliability of eye tracking and pupillometry measures in individuals with fragile X syndrome.  


Recent insight into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has led to the proposal and development of new pharmaceutical treatment strategies, and the initiation of clinical trials aimed at correcting core symptoms of the developmental disorder. Consequently, there is an urgent and critical need for outcome measures that are valid for quantifying specific symptoms of FXS and that are consistent across time. We used eye tracking to evaluate test-retest reliability of gaze and pupillometry measures in individuals with FXS and we demonstrate that these measures are viable options for assessing treatment-specific outcomes related to a core behavioral feature of the disorder. PMID:21267642

Farzin, Faraz; Scaggs, Felicia; Hervey, Crystal; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David



A portable device for measuring donor corneal transparency in eye banks.  


To develop a portable device for measuring the donor corneal transparency and validate its efficacy for corneal evaluation in the eye-banks and for research. The transparency device (TD) has a light source, a detachable system for corneal insertion and a base for light transmission. The probe detects the transmitted light which is measured by a lux-meter. A contact lens was set as 'control' to reduce the light scattering concern, an empty petri-plate as 'blank' and the cornea as 'sample'. Two experts and non-experts (masked) observed the corneas for subjective analysis which was then compared using the TD. The parameters observed were scars, foreign-body, stromal-deformities, folds, thickness and opacity which were then converted to a relative overall percentage by the observer. Twenty corneas were evaluated for correlation, five tissues to obtain standard-deviation and twenty-four pairs for a comparative study. Experts mimicked the eye-banks with long-term experience while non-experts mimicked the emerging eye-banks. Subjective values by the experts closely resembled the measurements by TD. The average correlation between the experts and the non-experts to TD was 0.985 and 0.960 respectively. TD showed higher reproducibility than experts followed by the non-experts. The comparative study showed that increase in thickness reduces the transparency. TD is portable, easy, efficient, maintains sterility and less expensive hence the emerging eye-banks and researchers can use to raise their standards and evaluate the transparency for in vitro tests and comparative studies. The suitable transparency for the cornea deemed for clinical applications was found to be >75 %. PMID:23625054

Parekh, Mohit; Ferrari, Stefano; Ruzza, Alessandro; Pugliese, Mariarosaria; Ponzin, Diego; Salvalaio, Gianni



The Eyes Test as a Measure of Individual Differences: How much of the Variance Reflects Verbal IQ?  

PubMed Central

Developed by Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social-perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, a face-processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test), and the Eyes Test to 42 college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples.

Peterson, Eric; Miller, Stephanie F.



An automatic identification and removal method for eye-blink artifacts in event-related magnetoencephalographic measurements.  


While measuring event-related magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals using visual stimuli, eye blinks were inevitable and generated large magnetic artifacts. Since trials containing eye blinks were excluded from the analyses, the signal-to-noise ratio of the event-related signals was decreased. In this study, we propose a method to identify the eye blink magnetic artifacts and remove them automatically using independent component analysis preprocessed by principal component analysis. The method evaluates the spatiotemporal similarity between independent components and both MEG and electro-oculogram data based on a newly devised cost function. Testing of the method on event-related MEG signals measured by a 306-channel whole-head system in a visual perception task led to the successful identification and removal of eye-blink artifacts in all trials containing eye blinks from all the seven subjects. PMID:18057516

Okada, Y; Jung, J; Kobayashi, T



A novel method for the measurement of reflux from intravitreal injections: data from 20 porcine eyes.  


Abstract Background: Reflux following intravitreal injection is a common phenomenon, but it is unknown how much, if any, medication is lost as a result. Reflux is known to be a combination of vitreous and the injected agent, but the relative composition is unknown. This article describes a novel method for the measurement of the volume and composition of reflux and presents data from porcine eyes. Methods: Twenty porcine eyes were injected with 0.05?ml of dye at intraocular pressures (IOPs) of 15, 20, 25 and 30?mmHg (five eyes per subgroup). Reflux was captured on filter paper and the area of saturation and color intensity of the dye were digitally analyzed. Total refluxed volume and proportion of dye versus vitreous fluid were calculated from linear regression lines created from known standards. Results: Average (median) total volume of reflux from all eyes was 1.19??l (0.93??l), volume of injected dye refluxed was 0.47??l (0.11??l) and composition of reflux was 20.8% dye (15.5%). Less than 1% of the injected dye was lost to reflux. There were no differences between IOP groups in the total volume refluxed, the total amount of dye refluxed, the average composition of the reflux or the amount of injected dye refluxed (df?=?3 for all comparisons; p?=?0.58, p?=?0.51, p?=?0.55, p?=?0.51, respectively). Conclusions: This novel method allows for measurement of quantity and composition of reflux following intravitreal injection in vitro. While reflux occurs frequently, it is predominantly composed of vitreous, not the injected agent. In fact, <1% of the original injection was lost to reflux. PMID:24256543

Brodie, Frank L; Ruggiero, Jason; Ghodasra, Devon H; Eftekhari, Kian; Hui, James Z; Brucker, Alexander J; VanderBeek, Brian L



HotEye (tm) Based Coordinate Measuring Machine for Forging Industry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a 3 dimensional measurement system for the domestic forging industry based on HotEye{trademark}. This technology will allow high definition camera to accurately image a red hot object. The project marries conventional Coordinate Measurement Machine ''CMM'' technology to HotEye{trademark} technology to permit the accurate measurement of forged parts while they are at high temperature. Being able to take such measurements will dramatically reduce the amount of scrap produced by the domestic forging industry. This industry wastes a significant amount of energy because of the high rate of scrap it produces. OGT will: (1) Develop a 3D measurement sensor head that will work on a part at a temperature up to 1,450 C with an accuracy of 0.1mm or better and with a scanning speed of less than 10 seconds for an area of 100mm x 100mm. (2) Develop a Virtual-Fixturing software package to alleviate the need of precise hard fixturing. (3) Integrate the 3D measurement sensor head and the Virtual-Fixturing software into a standard CMM, both hardware (replacing the probes) and software (data format and user interface match) so that the system can automatically perform a complete preprogrammed measurement of a hot product. (4) Test and evaluate the system in a forging facility.

OG Technologies



Optical properties of in situ eye lenses measured with X-ray Talbot interferometry: a novel measure of growth processes.  


The lens, a major optical component of the eye, has a gradient refractive index, which is required to provide sufficient refractive power and image quality. The refractive index variations across the lens are dependent on the distributions and concentrations of the varying protein classes. In this study, we present the first measurements of the refractive index in the in situ eye lens from five species using a specially constructed X-ray Talbot grating interferometer. The measurements have been conducted in two planes: the one containing the optic axis (the sagittal plane) and the plane orthogonal to this (the equatorial plane). The results show previously undetected discontinuities and fluctuations in the refractive index profile that vary in different species. These may be linked to growth processes and may be the first optical evidence of discrete developmental stages. PMID:21949870

Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Mohri, Satoshi; Regini, Justyn; Pierscionek, Barbara



Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper relates to the ocular optical design and vision analysis of refractive correction of the eye. After the purpose statement and the assumption list, the concept of the schematic eye matching a particular (measured) wavefront is introduced. This concept is based on the fact that the ocular wavefront, together with the corneal topography, can be seen as the mathematical global representation of the eye working in monochromatic light and having a foveal vision. The discussed design technique, including an iterative optimization method, could be applied in any ocular correction that utilizes cornea topography and/or ocular wavefront, e.g. contact lens or intra-corneal implant. However, the application this paper refers to is the ocular refractive correction by a procedure using the LADARVISION. It consists of surgical removal and subsequent replacement of a corneal flap on a stromal surface whose shape has been changed by laser ablation of the tissue. Subsequent sections of this paper are dedicated to establishing the limits of possible refractive correction, the influences of the flap and corneal topography into the refractive correction calculation. Finally a realistic evaluation of the results and a list of possible developments of this new optical design method are discussed.

Curatu, Eugene O.; Pettit, George H.; Campin, John A.



Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans  

PubMed Central

Previous Korean total diet studies (KTDSs) have estimated dietary exposure to toxic chemicals based on 110-120 representative foods selected from over 500 foods appeared in the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which would result in a possible underestimation. In order to find measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to heavy metals, this study examined the feasibility of mapping foods to the representative foods in the KTDS by comparing estimates. In mapping, those foods not analyzed in the 2009 KTDS (443 out of 559 foods appeared in the 2007 KNHANES) were mapped to the 114 representative foods used in the 2009 KTDS based on the closeness in regards to biological systematics and morphological similarity. Dietary exposures to total mercury and lead were re-estimated using the content of total mercury and lead in 114 foods analyzed in the 2009 KTDS, food intake, and individual's own body weight for respondents in the 2007 KNHANES instead of mean body weight of Koreans used in the 2009 KTDS. The re-estimates of exposure with mapping were approximately 50% higher than the original estimates reported in the 2009 KTDS. In addition, mapping enabled the comparison of percentile distribution of the exposure among populations of different age groups. In conclusion, estimates via mapping resulted in a more comprehensive estimation of dietary exposure to heavy metals present in foods that Koreans consume.

Koh, Eunmi; Shin, Hyehyung; Yon, Miyong; Nam, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Dohee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Choi, Hoon



Eye redness  


Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many possible causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are cause for concern; some are medical emergencies. Others are nothing to worry about. How red the eye appears ...


TD-PCI system based on an angle modulation for in vivo measurements of the human eye.  


Abstract In this study, a "time domain" system based on a partial coherence interferometry method is presented. The classic technique of varying the reference arm using a linear motor is replaced by the use of a rotating glass cube. The theoretical definition of the variation of the optical path length and first measurements in a human model eye and a real human eye are presented. PMID:24497221

Prinz, Andreas; Al-Mohamedi, Haroun; Oltrup, Theo; Mieskes, Guido; Bende, Thomas



Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test as a Measure of Postflight Ataxia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Astronauts returning from space flight universally exhibit impaired posture and locomotion. Measurement of this impairment is an evolving process. The walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing NASA interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance. METHODS: Seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. RESULTS/ CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular ataxia, as well as providing instant feedback of postural ataxia without the use of complex test equipment.

Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D.L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.



Repeatability of corneal epithelial thickness measurements using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in normal and Post-LASIK eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the repeatability of corneal epithelial thickness (ET) and corneal thickness (CT) measurements in normal and LASIK eyes using the optical coherence tomography (OCT, RTVue). Methods In 35 right eyes of 35 normal subjects and 45 right eyes of 45 subjects with prior myopic LASIK, corneal ET and CT were evaluated in 17 areas: 1) one central zone within 0-2.0 mm diameter, 2) eight paracentral zones from 2.0-5.0 mm diameter, and 3) eight peripheral zones from 5.0-6.0 mm diameter. The repeatability was assessed using within-subject standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results At the central and paracentral zones, respectively, the SD values were 0.7 ?m and 0.6-0.9 ?m in normal eyes and 0.7 ?m and 0.8-1.7 ?m in LASIK eyes for ET, and 1.0 ?m and 2.8-4.6 ?m in normal eyes and 1.3 ?m and 4.0-4.8 ?m in LASIK eyes for CT. At the peripheral zones, in normal and LASIK eyes, respectively, SD values ranged from 0.8-1.2 ?m and 1.4-2.2 ?m for ET, and 4.1-6.4 ?m and 6.0-9.1 ?m for CT. The CoV values were low and ICC values were high in both groups for both ET and CT measurements. Conclusion The OCT produced excellent repeatability, especially at the central and paracentral zones up to 5-mm diameter for both corneal epithelial thickness and corneal thickness measurements.

Ma, Xingxuan Jack; Wang, Li; Koch, Douglas D.



Measurement of Intraocular Pressure from the ExtraOcular Space of the Eye using a MEMS Pressure Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraocular pressure measurements are recorded in porcine eyes that have been surgically modified. The vitreous pressure is manipulated by an external connection to a fluidic reservoir and measured directly by a Millar mikro-tip catheter. Indirect vitreous pressure is measured with a Freescale medical grade pressure sensor at the choroid surface, within a scleral recess, and at the sclera surface. Results

Matthew Turner; John Naber; Kevin Walsh



Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye.  


There is growing evidence that high levels of the macular xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may be protective against visual loss from age-related macular degeneration. To study this protective effect further, it is important to measure macular carotenoid levels noninvasively in a wide variety of subjects. We have developed and validated resonance Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive and specific objective method to measure macular carotenoid levels in the living human eye. In this minireview, the principles and implementation of ocular carotenoid resonance Raman spectroscopy are reviewed, and the results of observational cross-sectional studies and of prospective supplementation studies on subjects with and without macular pathology are summarized. We have recently extended this technology to an imaging mode which will further enhance our understanding of the roles of lutein and zeaxanthin in normal macular function and in the prevention of age-related visual loss. PMID:15369814

Bernstein, Paul S; Zhao, Da-You; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner



An interferometry measure method on vibration spectrum of optical target based on cat-eye effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a simple method for measuring the vibration spectrum of optical target is proposed. It is performed by irradiating a laser beam on the optical window of the target and then making the cat-eye reflected light interfere with the reference incident light. The interference process and intension distribution are studied by using formula derivation and numerical computation. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretic results. By using this method, we can get an interference intension time curve with higher contrast than the signal acquired by direct detection technique, so the optical target hidden in complicated background can be found much more easily and the vibration spectrum of the carrier with optical target can be acquired simply. Also this applied method is simple, effective, convenient for using, and has a high measure accuracy of one wavelength to vibration amplitude, as has been verified by a series of examples of simulated and experiment.

Zhao, Yan-zhong; Sun, Hua-yan; Zheng, Yong-hui; Shan, Cong-miao; Fan, You-chen



Memory-related eye movements challenge behavioral measures of pattern completion and pattern separation.  


The hippocampus creates distinct episodes from highly similar events through a process called pattern separation and can retrieve memories from partial or degraded cues through a process called pattern completion. These processes have been studied in humans using tasks where participants must distinguish studied items from perceptually similar lure items. False alarms to lures (incorrectly reporting a perceptually similar item as previously studied) are thought to reflect pattern completion, a retrieval-based process. However, false alarms to lures could also result from insufficient encoding of studied items, leading to impoverished memory of item details and a failure to correctly reject lures. The current study investigated the source of lure false alarms by comparing eye movements during the initial presentation of items to eye movements made during the later presentation of item repetitions and similar lures in order to assess mnemonic processing at encoding and retrieval, respectively. Relative to other response types, lure false alarms were associated with fewer fixations to the initially studied items, suggesting that false alarms result from impoverished encoding. Additionally, lure correct rejections and lure false alarms garnered more fixations than hits, denoting additional retrieval-related processing. The results suggest that measures of pattern separation and completion in behavioral paradigms are not process-pure. PMID:24493460

Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Hussey, Erin P; Ally, Brandon A



Design and validation of a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer for measurements of the eye over a wide field of view  

PubMed Central

Peripheral vision and off-axis aberrations not only play an important role in daily visual tasks but may also influence eye growth and refractive development. Thus it is important to measure off-axis wavefront aberrations of human eyes objectively. To achieve efficient measurement, we incorporated a double-pass scanning system with a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) to develop a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer (SSHA). The prototype SSHA successfully measured the off-axis wavefront aberrations over +/? 15 degree visual field within 7 seconds. In two validation experiments with a wide angle model eye, it measured change in defocus aberration accurately (<0.02?m, 4mm pupil) and precisely (<0.03?m, 4mm pupil). A preliminary experiment with a human subject suggests its feasibility in clinical applications.

Wei, Xin; Thibos, Larry



Korean Year 3 Children's Environmental Literacy: A Prerequisite for a Korean Environmental Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean children's environmental literacy levels and the variables that affect their environmental literacy. An instrument, the Environment Literacy Instrument for Korean Children (ELIKC), was developed that measures four different dimensions (knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and skills) using 69 items…

Chu, Hye-Eun; Lee, Eun Ah; Ko, Hee Ryung; Shin, Dong Hee; Lee, Moon Nam; Min, Byeong Mee; Kang, Kyung Hee



Discrimination between normal and glaucomatous eyes with visual field and scanning laser polarimetry measurements  

PubMed Central

AIM—To evaluate the ability of structural parameters (as determined by retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) measurements obtained with the scanning laser polarimeter (SLP-NFA/GDx)) and functional parameters (as determined by automated perimetry) to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes.?METHODS—In a case-control study, a total of 91 normal subjects and 94 patients with glaucoma underwent automated perimetry and RNFL measurements obtained with the SLP. Three independent scans of each eye were obtained and a mean image was created and used for further analysis. Only one eye per individual was randomly included in the study. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 12 RNFL parameters were calculated according to the SLP internal normative database. The Se and Sp of the visual field (VF) global indices and the glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) were also calculated according to the instrument's normative database. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were built for each SLP parameter and VF index. Fisher's linear discriminant formulas (LDFs) were developed for VF indices (VF LDF), SLP measurements (SLP LDF), and both examinations (combined LDF).?RESULTS—According to the SLP internal database, the parameters with better Se and Sp were: superior/nasal ratio (Se = 58.5%; Sp = 86.8%), and GDx the number (Se = 43.3%; Sp = 96.7%). The construction of an ROC curve for the number resulted in Se = 84% and Sp = 79%. The creation of LDFs improved both the sensitivities and specificities when compared with isolated parameters SLP LDF (Se = 90.4%; Sp = 82.4%), VF LDF (Se = 89.4%; Sp = 89.0%), and combined LDF (Se = 93.0%; Sp = 90.1%). The sensitivity to diagnose early and moderate glaucomatous damage observed with the GHT was lower than that obtained with the number (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Creation of LDFs enhanced the Se and Sp for both VF and SLP. Integration of SLP and VF in a combined LDF reached the highest Se/Sp relation, suggesting that these examinations may be additive concerning the diagnosis of glaucoma. The SLP parameter the number may be more sensitive than the GHT in diagnosing early and moderate glaucomatous damage.??

Lauande-Pimentel, R.; Carvalho, R.; Oliveira, H.; Goncalves, D.; Silva, L.; Costa, V.



Predicting Glaucomatous Progression in Glaucoma Suspect Eyes Using Relevance Vector Machine Classifiers for Combined Structural and Functional Measurements  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The goal of this study was to determine if glaucomatous progression in suspect eyes can be predicted from baseline confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (CSLO) and standard automated perimetry (SAP) measurements analyzed with relevance vector machine (RVM) classifiers. Methods. Two hundred sixty-four eyes of 193 participants were included. All eyes had normal SAP results at baseline with five or more SAP tests over time. Eyes were labeled progressed (n = 47) or stable (n = 217) during follow-up based on SAP Guided Progression Analysis or serial stereophotograph assessment. Baseline CSLO-measured topographic parameters (n = 117) and baseline total deviation values from the 24-2 SAP test-grid (n = 52) were selected from each eye. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to train and test RVMs using the CSLO and SAP features. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas were calculated using full and optimized feature sets. ROC curve results from RVM analyses of CSLO, SAP, and CSLO and SAP combined were compared to CSLO and SAP global indices (Glaucoma Probability Score, mean deviation and pattern standard deviation). Results. The areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) for RVMs trained on optimized feature sets of CSLO parameters, SAP parameters, and CSLO and SAP parameters combined were 0.640, 0.762, and 0.805, respectively. AUROCs for CSLO Glaucoma Probability Score, SAP mean deviation (MD), and SAP pattern standard deviation (PSD) were 0.517, 0.513, and 0.620, respectively. No CSLO or SAP global indices discriminated between baseline measurements from progressed and stable eyes better than chance. Conclusions. In our sample, RVM analyses of baseline CSLO and SAP measurements could identify eyes that showed future glaucomatous progression with a higher accuracy than the CSLO and SAP global indices. ( numbers, NCT00221897, NCT00221923.)

Bowd, Christopher; Lee, Intae; Goldbaum, Michael H.; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Weinreb, Robert N.



Accuracy of axial length measurements from immersion B-scan ultrasonography in highly myopic eyes  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the accuracy of axial length (AL) measurements obtained from immersion B-scan ultrasonography (immersion B-scan) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in patients with high myopia and cataracts. METHODS Immersion B-scan, contact A-scan ultrasonography (contact A-scan), and the IOLMaster were used to preoperatively measure the AL in 102 eyes from 102 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the AL: one containing patients with 22 mm?AL<26 mm(group A) and the other containing patients with AL?26 mm (group B). The mean error (ME) was calculated from the difference between the AL measurement methods predicted refractive error and the actual postoperative refractive error. RESULTS In group A, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (23.48±1.15) didn't differ significantly from those measured by the IOLMaster (23.52±1.17) or from those by contact A-scan (23.38±1.20). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.090±0.397 D) didn't differ significantly from those of IOLMaster (-0.095±0.411 D) and contact A-scan (-0.099±0.425 D). In group B, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (27.97±2.21 mm) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (27.86±2.18 mm), but longer than those measured by Contact A-scan (27.75±2.23 mm, P=0.009). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.635±0.157 D) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (-0.679±0.359 D), but differed significantly from those of contact A-scan (-0.953±1.713 D, P=0.028). CONCLUSION Immersion B-scan exhibits measurement accuracy comparable to that of the IOLMaster, and is thus a good alternative in measuring AL in eyes with high myopia when the IOLMaster can't be used, and it is more accurate than the contact A-scan.

Yang, Qing-Hua; Chen, Bing; Peng, Guang-Hua; Li, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Yi-Fei



Reproducibility of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Silicone Oil-Filled Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the reproducibility of nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in individuals with silicone oil-filled eyes. Methods: Eighteen patients who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade for retinal detachment were enrolled in a prospective, case-controlled clinical study. Each patient underwent OCT measurement of NFL thickness. Five repetitions of a series

Leonardo Mastropasqua; Paolo Carpineto; Marco Ciancaglini; Gennaro Falconio; Alon Harris



Methods of measuring the iridocorneal angle in tomographic images of the anterior segment of the eye  

PubMed Central

Introduction This paper presents the problem of automatic measurement of the iridocorneal angle in tomographic images of the anterior segment of the eye. It includes the results of the comparison of well-known methods for measuring the iridocorneal angle with new methods, proposed in this paper. All these methods concern tomographic image analysis and processing. Material and method In total, approximately 100’000 tomographic images (from about 6’000 patients) were analysed. They were obtained using two devices: SOCT Copernicus (Optopol Tech. SA, Zawiercie, Poland) and Visante OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA). The patients, aged 12 to 78 years with varying degrees of the iridocorneal angle pathology, were from the region of Silesia, Poland. The images were in DICOM or RAW formats and analysed in the software developed by the authors for the purposes of this study. Results The results indicate that the measurement method proposed by the authors, which is based on the calculation of the minimum distance between the iris and the cornea in the adopted area, is the most accurate. For this method sensitivity was 0.88, specificity 0.89 and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.88. The other known methods for measuring the iridocorneal angle gave worse results, that is, for example, for the measurement of the distance between the iris and the cornea AUC?=?0.87, sensitivity?=?0.86 and specificity?=?0.71. For another well-known method of measuring the iridocorneal angle AUC?=?0.77, sensitivity?=?0.82 and specificity?=?0.61. Conclusions The study proved that the proposed method of measuring the minimum distance between the iris and the cornea within the adopted area is the most effective in the classification of the iridocorneal angle in patients with a high degree of pathology of all the compared measurement methods based on tomographic images. However, it requires fully automated measurement.



Dry Eye  


... in the surface of the eye, as in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, ... area of the eye is increased, as in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward or after ...


Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements Obtained by Three Different Devices in Healthy Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the normal values and the repeatability of the Galilei Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer (GDSA), the biometer IOL Master, and the autokerato/refractometer WAM 5500 in anterior segment examinations. Methods. Eighty-eight eyes from 88 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. The repeatability was assessed, calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The correlations among the repeated measurements showed nearly perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81) for all of the parameters, except corneal astigmatism Galilei (0.79) and WAM (0.68). There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) between the values of the flat simulated keratometry (SimK) and the steep SimK measured by GDSA and the other methods; however, there were no statistically significant differences for the values obtained with the IOL Master and WAM 5500 (P = 0.302 and P = 0.172, resp.) or between the values of the ACD (P < 0.001) and WTW (P = 0.007) measured by the IOL Master and GDSA. Conclusions. The anterior segment measurements from the IOL Master and WAM 5500 were highly repeatable, comparable, and well correlated. In healthy young persons, the evaluated parameters had very good repeatability, although significant differences were found between the GDSA and IOL Master and between the GDSA and WAM 5500.

Lopez de la Fuente, Carmen; Sanchez-Cano, Ana



Repeatability of Ocular Measurements with a Dual-Scheimpflug Analyzer in Healthy Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the repeatability of the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer (GDSA) in anterior segment examination. Methods. Fifty-two eyes from 52 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Anatomic, axial, refractive, and instantaneous parameters were measured with GDSA to provide a complete characterization of the anterior segment. Repeatability was assessed calculating intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of variation (COV). Results. Correlation among repeated measurements showed almost perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81) for all parameters except thinnest central corneal thickness (CCT) (0.78), corneal thickness average out (0.79), and posterior axial curvature average out (0.60). Repeatability was excellent (COV < 10%) for all parameters except anterior chamber volume and, superior iridocorneal angle and eccentricities. In these last three parameters, repeatability limits were excessively high compared to the mean. Conclusions. GDSA in healthy young persons had an almost perfect correlation in measuring anatomic, axial, instantaneous, and refractive parameters with greater variability for peripheral terms. Repeatability of anatomical parameters like pachymetry, anterior chamber, or iridocorneal angle and eccentricity were limited. In healthy young persons, the other evaluated parameters had very good repeatability and their limits of agreement showed excellent clinical results for this device.

Lopez de la Fuente, Carmen; Sanchez-Cano, Ana; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena



Measurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High Resolution Fly's Eye Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the cosmic ray spectrum above 1017.2 eV using the two air-fluorescence detectors of the High Resolution Fly's Eye observatory operating in monocular mode. We describe the detector, phototube, and atmospheric calibrations, as well as the analysis techniques for the two detectors. We fit the spectrum to a model consisting of galactic and extragalactic sources.

Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Amann, J. F.; Archbold, G.; Bellido, J. A.; Belov, K.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Cao, Z.; Clay, R. W.; Cooper, M. D.; Dai, H.; Dawson, B. R.; Everett, A. A.; Fedorova, Yu. A.; Girard, J. H.; Gray, R. C.; Hanlon, W. F.; Hoffman, C. M.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Jones, B. F.; Jui, C. C.; Kieda, D. B.; Kim, K.; Kirn, M. A.; Loh, E. C.; Manago, N.; Marek, L. J.; Martens, K.; Martin, G.; Matthews, J. A.; Matthews, J. N.; Meyer, J. R.; Moore, S. A.; Morrison, P.; Moosman, A. N.; Mumford, J. R.; Munro, M. W.; Painter, C. A.; Perera, L.; Reil, K.; Riehle, R.; Roberts, M.; Sarracino, J. S.; Sasaki, M.; Schnetzer, S. R.; Shen, P.; Simpson, K. M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Song, C.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Taylor, S. F.; Thomas, S. B.; Thompson, T. N.; Thomson, G. B.; Tupa, D.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiencke, L. R.; Vanderveen, T. D.; Zech, A.; Zhang, X.



Quantitative measurement of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic display considering the eye foveation model and edge information.  


We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user's gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD), stereoscopic disparity (SD), frame cancellation effect (FCE), and edge component (EC) of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors. PMID:24834910

Heo, Hwan; Lee, Won Oh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung



Quantitative Measurement of Eyestrain on 3D Stereoscopic Display Considering the Eye Foveation Model and Edge Information  

PubMed Central

We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user's gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD), stereoscopic disparity (SD), frame cancellation effect (FCE), and edge component (EC) of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors.

Heo, Hwan; Lee, Won Oh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung



A Study on Sea Level Variations of the Korean Peninsula and Surrounding Areas Based on Tide Gauge, GPS and Satellite Altimeter Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level variations of the Korean peninsula and surrounding areas in the ranges of 20-40 °N and 110-145 °E were investigated for the purpose of understanding the regional characteristics of the abnormal sea level rise near the Jeju island located in the southern edge of the Korean peninsula. For this study, we used tide gauge (TG) data, Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, and satellite altimeter measurements taken in the study area. We used the data at 194 TG stations. We obtained the TG data from 38 stations operated by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) in Korea. We also collected monthly mean sea level observations from 139 and 17 TG stations of Japan and China, respectively. The data of Japan and China are from Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) services. We computed sea level rates using monthly mean sea level measurements, and analyzed spatial-temporal correlation through the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. As the second part of our study, we derived absolute sea level rise rates by correcting the TG data for crustal deformation rates. To obtain the uplift rates in the area, we used continuous measurements at permanent GPS stations located at the TG site. For GPS data processing high-precision GPS data processing program GIPSY-OASIS II was used. To analyze local signatures of crustal deformation, we subtracted the primary EOF mode signal from the GPS height time series. Furthermore, we compared the obtained absolute sea level rates with satellite altimeter measurements. We obtained and analyzed TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeter data provided by AVISO from 1993 to 2010. We found that the absolute sea level rates from geodetic measurements are generally in good agreement with radar altimeter rates.

Kim, K.; Park, K.; Won, J.



Measurement of wavefront aberrations and lens deformation in the accommodated eye with optical coherence tomography-equipped wavefront system.  


To quantitatively approach the relationship between optical changes in an accommodated eye and the geometrical deformation of its crystalline lens, a long scan-depth anterior segment OCT equipped wavefront sensor was developed and integrated with a Badal system. With this system, accommodation was stimulated up to 6.0D in the left eye and also measured in the same eye for three subjects. High correlations between the accommodative responses of refractive power and the radius of the anterior lens surface were found for the three subjects (r>0.98). The change in spherical aberration was also highly correlated with the change in lens thickness (r>0.98). The measurement was very well repeated at a 2nd measurement session on the same day for the three subjects and after two weeks for one subject. The novelty of incorporating the Badal system into the OCT equipped wavefront sensor eliminated axial misalignment of the measurement system with the test eye due to accommodative vergence, as in the contralateral paradigm. The design also allowed the wavefront sensor to capture conjugated sharp Hartmann-Shack images in accommodated eyes to accurately analyze wavefront aberrations. In addition, this design extended the accommodation range up to 10.0D. By using this system, for the first time, we demonstrated linear relationships of the changes between the refractive power and the lens curvature and also between the spherical aberration and the lens thickness during accommodation in vivo. This new system provides an accurate and useful technique to quantitatively study accommodation. PMID:24787861

He, Ji C; Wang, Jianhua



EyeSys corneal topography measurement applied to calibrated ellipsoidal convex surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS\\/BACKGROUND--This study was carried out to assess the accuracy of the EyeSys videokeratoscope by using convex ellipsoidal surfaces of known form. METHODS--PMMA convex ellipsoidal buttons were calibrated using Form Talysurf analysis which allowed subsequent calculation of the vertex radius and p value of the surface. The EyeSys videokeratoscope was used to examine the same ellipsoids. The tabular data provided by

W A Douthwaite



Field measurements with 1574-nm imaging and scannerless eye-safe laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of eye-safe, imaging, scannerless laser radar systems based on gated viewing with a range of some hundred meters is difficult due to the lack of fast switchable and sufficiently sensitive detectors for NIR wavelengths. Nevertheless, one basic approach is to gate an InGaAs-FPA-camera with an electro-optical modulator (EOM) in the range of about 30ns to achieve a sufficiently high resolution of depth. In this paper, we present field measurements of a system with a Nd:YAG-OPO laser of 1574nm wavelength, 7ns pulse length, 25Hz pulse frequency, and 80mJ pulse energy. Because of the special optical behavior of the EOM in conjunction with an adapted lens design and a resolution of a 128 by 128 pixel FPA the main interest is object detection, which leads to imaging with improved system performance. The experimental data will be compared with the theoretical performance model and a second system (at a wavelength of 532nm), concerning imaging under certain weather conditions. Based on the current system design we discuss problems of contrast modulation and speckle effects leading to an outlook for improvements of the system design.

Schael, Ulrich; Rothe, Hendrik



Saccadic eye movement characteristics in adult Niemann-Pick Type C disease: relationships with disease severity and brain structural measures.  


Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. A parameter related to horizontal saccadic peak velocity was one of the primary outcome measures in the clinical trial assessing miglustat as a treatment for NPC. Neuropathology is widespread in NPC, however, and could be expected to affect other saccadic parameters. We compared horizontal saccadic velocity, latency, gain, antisaccade error percentage and self-paced saccade generation in 9 adult NPC patients to data from 10 age-matched controls. These saccadic measures were correlated with appropriate MRI-derived brain structural measures (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields, supplemental eye fields, parietal eye fields, pons, midbrain and cerebellar vermis) and with measures of disease severity and duration. The best discriminators between groups were reflexive saccade gain and the two volitional saccade measures. Gain was also the strongest correlate with disease severity and duration. Most of the saccadic measures showed strongly significant correlations with neurophysiologically appropriate brain regions. While our patient sample is small, the apparent specificity of these relationships suggests that as new diagnostic methods and treatments become available for NPC, a broader range of saccadic measures may be useful tools for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy. PMID:23226429

Abel, Larry A; Bowman, Elizabeth A; Velakoulis, Dennis; Fahey, Michael C; Desmond, Patricia; Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Adamson, Christopher L; Walterfang, Mark



Identification of Real-Time Diagnostic Measures of Visual Distraction With an Automatic Eye-Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was conducted to identify eye glance measures that are diagnostic of visual distraction. Background: Visual distraction degrades performance, but real-time diagnostic measures have not been identified. Method: In a driving simulator, 14 participants responded to a lead vehicle braking at -2 or -2.7 m\\/s2 periodically while reading a varying number of words (6-15 words every 13 s)

Harry Zhang; Matthew R. H. Smith; Gerald J. Witt



Scleral thickness in highly myopic eyes measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the subfoveal scleral thickness in highly myopic eyes by enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and to identify the ocular parameters significantly associated with the scleral thickness. Methods The subfoveal scleral thickness of myopic eyes (??8 diopters (D) or axial length ?26.5?mm) was examined by EDI-OCT. The correlations between the thickness and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, axial length (AL), the subfoveal retinal thickness, choroidal thickness, and posterior staphyloma height 2?mm from the fovea were investigated. Results A total of 75 eyes of 54 patients (21 men, 33 women; mean age, 62.3±11.3 years; mean AL, 30.2±1.68?mm) were studied. Eighteen eyes had no pathological retinochoroidal lesions, and 57 eyes had retinochoroidal lesion, that is, myopic schisis, choroidal neovascularization, and other retinochoroidal pathologies. The mean subfoveal scleral thickness was 284.0±70.4??m, and the thickness was significantly correlated negatively with the absolute value of the nasal and overall average posterior staphyloma height (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The subfoveal scleral thickness was also significantly correlated negatively with the relative value of the superior, nasal, and overall average posterior staphyloma height (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.001, respectively). Stepwise analyses showed that the factor most significantly associated with the scleral thickness was the average relative posterior staphyloma height (F=16.0, P<0.001). The scleral thickness was not significantly different between eyes with and without myopic retinochoroidal pathologies (P>0.05). Conclusion Posterior staphyloma formation was a key factor associated with a posterior scleral thinning in highly myopic eyes.

Hayashi, M; Ito, Y; Takahashi, A; Kawano, K; Terasaki, H



Eye Emergencies  


... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...


Eye emergencies  


... Calm and reassure the person. Wash your hands. Bandage both eyes. If the object is large, place ... both eyes with a clean cloth or sterile dressing. Even if only one eye is affected, covering ...


Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.



High quality optical microangiography of ocular microcirculation and measurement of total retinal blood flow in mouse eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization and measurement of retinal blood flow (RBF) is important to the diagnosis and management of different eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is developed for generating 3D dynamic microcirculation image and later refined into ultra-high sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG) for true capillary vessels imaging. Here, we present the application of OMAG imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image mouse posterior eye. By applying UHS-OMAG scanning protocol and processing algorithm, we achieved true capillary level imaging of retina and choroid vasculature in mouse eye. The vascular pattern within different retinal layers and choroid was presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [1] without knowing Doppler angle was adopted for the measurement of total retinal blood flow. The axial blood flow velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area of the central retinal artery.

Zhi, Zhongwei; Yin, Xin; Dziennis, Suzan; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.



[The effectiveness of taking measures against infection in eye surgery. Microbiological study].  


The authors investigated in a group of 100 eyes the incidence of micro-organisms in the conjunctival sac and on the borders of the eyelids and their sensitivity to antibiotics before planned operations of the eyes. In all instances cultivation at three time intervals was used--on admission, on the morning before operation after administration of antibiotic drops for at least one day, and in the operation theater after careful disinfection of the surgical field. The assembled results indicate the small effectiveness of short-term preoperative administration of disinfectant and antibiotic drops and confirm the high effectiveness of antiseptic preparation of the surgical field. PMID:2401027

Hakenová, J; Rozsíval, P; Tobisková, K



Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four European Populations  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world.

Candille, Sophie I.; Absher, Devin M.; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Li, Jun Z.; Myers, Richard M.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D.



A Validation of Eye Movements as a Measure of Elementary School Children's Developing Number Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number line estimation task captures central aspects of children's developing number sense, that is, their intuitions for numbers and their interrelations. Previous research used children's answer patterns and verbal reports as evidence of how they solve this task. In the present study we investigated to what extent eye movements recorded…

Schneider, Michael; Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Stern, Elsbeth



The validity of the stimulated retrospective think-aloud method as measured by eye tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective Think aloud (RTA) is a usability method that collects the verbalization of a user's performance after the performance is over. There has been little work done to investigate the validity and reliability of RTA. This paper reports on an experiment investigating these issues using the method called stimulated RTA. By comparing subjects' verbalizations with their eye movements, we found

Zhiwei Guan; Shirley Lee; Elisabeth Cuddihy; Judith Ramey



Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung



Eye Protection  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5

Pashby, Tom



Macular volume and central foveal thickness measurements in normal eyes of healthy Nigerian adults using optical coherence tomography.  


Objective: To determine macular volume and central foveal thickness measurements in normal eyes of healthy Nigerian adults using Stratus optical coherence tomography. Subjects and Methods: Consenting 100 adults Nigerians with normal eyes were recruited and examined using Carl Zeiss Stratus Optical Coherence Tomographer (OCT) machine Model 3000 software version 4.0. A fast macular thickness map scan protocol was employed. Central fovea is defined as locus of intersection of the radial scans. A default setting of six lines at 6 mm was used. Data was analyzed using the paired t-test for independence and linear regression. Results: There were 200 eyes of 100 subjects with mean age of 36.4 + 11.7 years (M: F = 3.3:1). The mean macula volume was 6.79 + 0.392 ?m 3 . It was 6.861 ± 0.297 in males, 6.496 ± 0.520 in females and was statistically higher in males than females (P = 0.000). The mean central foveal thickness (MCFT) was 149.58 ± 32.470 ?m. It was 154.49 ± 34.652 ?m in males and 133.33 ± 15.315 ?m in females. MCFT was significantly higher in males than females (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Normal macular volume and central foveal thickness measurements in Nigerian adults is presented and is comparable to that of Indian and Chinese populations, but lower than reported in Caucasians. PMID:24923374

Abdu, Lawan; Sani, Rabi Yahaya



Consumer-based brand equity : Comparisons among Americans and South Koreans in the USA and South Koreans in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the consumer-based brand equity of apparel products by three consumer groups across cultures – Americans in the USA, South Koreans in the USA, and South Koreans in Korea. Also examined was cross-cultural effects of brand equity on purchase intention. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 300 college students were

Jaehee Jung; Eunyoung Sung



PC-based high-speed video-oculography for measuring rapid eye movements in mice.  


We newly developed an infrared video-oculographic system for on-line tracking of the eye position in awake and head-fixed mice, with high temporal resolution (240 Hz). The system consists of a commercially available high-speed CCD camera and an image processing software written in LabVIEW run on IBM-PC with a plug-in video grabber board. This software calculates the center and area of the pupil by fitting circular function to the pupil boundary, and allows robust and stable tracking of the eye position in small animals like mice. On-line calculation is performed to obtain reasonable circular fitting of the pupil boundary even if a part of the pupil is covered with shadows or occluded by eyelids or corneal reflections. The pupil position in the 2-D video plane is converted to the rotation angle of the eyeball by estimating its rotation center based on the anatomical eyeball model. By this recording system, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of rapid eye movements such as saccades in mice. This will provide a powerful tool for analyzing molecular basis of oculomotor and cognitive functions by using various lines of mutant mice. PMID:15099710

Sakatani, Tomoya; Isa, Tadashi



Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.  


Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found. PMID:17009515

Gumpenberger, Michaela; Kolm, Gabriela



The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.



Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.  


It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively. PMID:23714934

Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul



Use of limbal and central anterior chamber depth measurements in detecting eyes with gonioscopically occludable angles and primary angle closure glaucoma in Ibadan.  


The routine use of gonioscopy for the evaluation of drainage angles in developing countries is not always done because of the busy clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of 2 tests: Peripheral Anterior Chamber Depth (PACD) measurement and Central Anterior Chamber Depth (CACD) measurement in detecting occludable angles and primary angle closure within subjects with primary glaucoma and control subjects. Two hundred and forty subjects with primary glaucoma and a control group of 250 subjects were studied. PACD was measured with the Van Herrick's method while CACD was measured by the technique described by Lowe. The findings were compared to the gonioscopic appearance of the drainage angles in the two groups. PACD gradings 0 to 2 correctly identified 28 out of 36 eyes (77.8%) of subjects with PACG who had gonioscopically closed angles. The test identified correctly 168 out of 204 eyes (82.4%) with gonioscopically open angles among subjects with primary glaucoma. Among subjects with no glaucoma, PACD gradings 0 to 2 correctly identified 12 out of the 14 eyes with gonioscopically occludable angles, while the test identified 238 eyes without occludable angles, gonioscopy identified 236 out of 250 of such eyes. A CACD less than 2.5 mm was present in only 21 eyes of 36 eyes with occludable angles by gonioscopy among those with PACG. In the other 15 eyes with occludable angles, CACD was more than 2.5 mm. PACD performed well in detecting occluded angles in this study, CACD was useful but less so than PACD in established cases of PACG. Subjects with PACG but whose CACD was 2.5 mm or more may have plateau iris. PACD and CACD are both useful methods in identifying occludable angles in eyes of Nigerian subjects studied. PMID:15259929

Ashaye, A O



The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.  


The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture. PMID:24456354

Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook



Korean Geodetic VLBI Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by the end of 2011. In Korea, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has already promoted Korean VLBI Network (KVN) project dedicated to radio astronomy since 2001, and three 21-m diameter antennas have been constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju Island. Although their receivers have not yet been fully installed, the antenna is designed to be able to receive 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands simultaneously. In parallel with the KVN project, the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) has been planning to construct their own VLBI antenna dedicated to geodetic measurements since 2001 to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better determination of the ITRF there. A grand design for KVG project realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by the Ajou University under the collaborations with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (NICT), National Astronomical Observatory, Japan (NAO), and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (GSI). The design of KVG antenna follows the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter; VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The antenna is designed to be able to receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also with KVN stations that will be equipped with 22/43 GHz receivers in future. This is an outstanding feature of the KVG system distinguished from other geodetic VLBI stations. The antenna is also designed to be able to introduce a broadband feed and receivers in the future according to VLBI2010's suggestion. The KVG project has got a national budget for construction formally, and it has entered the three-year term of construction and development phase since October, 2008. A new geodetic VLBI station will be constructed in Sejong city (about 120km south from Seoul and about 20 km north-northwest from Daejeon) and construction of all system will be completed in 2011. Although the KVN promoted by the KASI is a VLBI network dedicated to radio astronomy, geodetic VLBI observations with the KVG antenna will be performed in collaboration with the NGII. The installation of geodetic-VLBI receiving bands, such as a broadband feed system, into the KVN system is also considered as a plan in the future. However the KVG operated by the NGII will be an IVS component as a central facility dedicated to geodetic VLBI in Korea.

Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Han, S.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Bae, M.; Kim, K.; Moon, J.; Park, J.



Eye Anatomy  


Eye Anatomy en Espańol email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...


Your Eyes  


... the eye and keeps it healthy. Back Continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. Back Continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...


Eye Examinations  


... Description: An eye care professional uses a trial frame and lens to determine a patient’s eyeglass prescription. ... 3M, TIFF) Description: A patient wears a trial frame and lens. Credit: National Eye Institute, National Institutes ...


In situ measurement of fluorescein release by collagen shields in human eyes.  


Fluorescein (F) and FITC Dextran (FD; MW 4400) have been used as inert analogs of active drugs to examine the factors controlling the rate of loss of drugs from collagen shields in vivo. The diffusion constants in the shield (120 microns thick) determined from in vitro release experiments were found to be 0.42 x 10(-6) for F and 0.16 x 10(-6) cm2/sec for FD at 34 degrees C and these values correspond to 0.7 and 0.27 min-1 rates of loss for the exponential parts of their release. In the eyes of 6 subjects, the F loaded shields lost the dye at an average rate of 0.016 min-1 initially, increasing to 0.026 min-1 at the end of an hour. Somewhat higher values were noted with FD and were attributed to variations of manufacturing of the shields. Comparing the rates of loss in in vitro and in vivo, it is clear that the latter is not controlled by the rate of diffusion in the shield, but is limited by the rates of tear secretion and flow over the surfaces of the shield. The penetration of F into the anterior chamber from a series of four drops applied 12 min apart was compared with that from a shield soaked in the drop solution to determine the enhancement in the bioavailability. This showed that the shield increased the penetration into the eye by about 16 times over that from a single drop. However, the rate of loss of F from the shield in vivo is only about 8 times slower than that from a drop instilled in the eye.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7518372

Srinivas, S P



3-D eye movement measurements on four Comex's divers using video CCD cameras, during high pressure diving.  


Previous studies have shown the vulnerability of the vestibular system regarding barotraumatism (1) and deep diving may induce immediate neurological changes (2). These extreme conditions (high pressure, limited examination time, restricted space, hydrogen-oxygen mixture, communication difficulties etc.) require adapted technology and associated fast experimental procedure. We were able to solve these problems by developing a new system of 3-D ocular movements on line analysis by means of a video camera. This analyser uses image processing and forms recognition software which allows non-invasive video frequency calculation of eye movements including torsional component. As this system is immediately ready for use, we were able to realize the subsequent examinations in a maximum time of 8 min for each diver: oculomotor tests including saccadic, slow and optokinetic traditional automatic measurements; vestibular tests regarding spontaneous and positional nystagmus, and reactional nystagmus to the pendular test. For pendular induced nystagmus we used appropriate head positions to stimulate separately the lateral and the posterior semicircular canal, and we measured the gain by operating successively in visible light and complete darkness. Recordings were done during a simulated onshore dive to an ambient pressure corresponding to a depth of 350 m. The above examinations were completed on the first and last days by caloric tests with the same video system analyser. The results of the investigations demonstrated perfect tolerance of the oculomotor and vestibular systems of these 4 divers thus fulfilling the preventive conditions defined by Comex Co. We were able to overcome the limitations due to low cost PC computer operation and cameras (necessity of adaptation to pressure, focus difficulties and direct light exposure eye reflexions). We still have on line accurate measurements even on the torsional component of the eye movement. Due to this technological efficiency we also present some mathematical aspects of the software. PMID:8749142

Guillemant, P; Ulmer, E; Freyss, G



Experiments on a Model Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli



Eye Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of simple activities not only illustrates how our eyes work but also dramatically shows how the brain interprets the eyes' information. Uses these activities to introduce a study of the eye to elementary students and to motivate their interest. (Author/RK)

Headley, Dale C.



Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning  

PubMed Central

Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity.

Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun



Korean Teachers' Attitudes toward Academic Brilliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a replication of a study designed by Tannenbaum (1962) and repeated by Cramond and Martin (1987) measuring U.S. attitudes toward intelligence by having respondents rate 8 hypothetical students who varied in their combinations of athleticism, effort, and academic ability. This study investigated 132 Korean preservice and in-service…

Lee, Seon-Young; Cramond, Bonnie; Lee, Jongyeun



Analysis of Facial Deformities in Korean Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Methods One hundred ninety six patients with leprosy were examined for various facial deformities using a nasal speculum, endoscope, and digital camera. The frequency and severity of external nasal deformities and septal perforations were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Eye deformities, ear deformities, and facial palsy were also assessed. Results Seventy-one patients (36.2%) displayed external nasal deformities: 28 minimal contractures, three cartilage contractures, two bony-cartilage contractures, and 38 skin defects. The external nasal deformity and severe form deformity in lepromatous types were more frequent compared to other types (P<0.05 for each variable). Twenty-three patients (9%) displayed septal perforations, among whom 11 had cartilaginous perforations and 12 had bony-cartilaginous perforations. The frequency of septal and bony-cartilaginous perforations did not differ significantly between the types of leprosy (P>0.05 for each variable). Sixty-one patients (31.1%) had eye deformities and 19 patients (9.7%) had facial nerve palsy, common in the borderline type. No cases of ear deformities were observed. Conclusion Korean patients had characteristic deformities according to the type of leprosy. They were different from those seen in the prior analyses of Caucasian populations.

Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Ok Joo



Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments that may have modified their central integrators and thus require monitoring. Patients with gaze-evoked nystagmus can be flagged by comparing to the above established normative criteria.

Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila



Eye development.  


The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin



Features of Korean History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of Korea from ancient times to the present, discussing the Koryo and Choson Kingdoms, the development of the Republic of Korea, and efforts to unite the country. Examines Korean cultural creativity, the development of new schools of thought, and reforms under Chong Yag-yong, a prominent eighteenth- and nineteenth-century…

Lee, John-hee



Corneal topography measurement of the eye by means of radial shearing interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of the measurement of the corneal topography was worked out. This measurement system uses an interferometer based on radial shearing. This paper presents the preliminary results of the experiments. The results are compared with other methods.

Kowalik, Waldemar; Garncarz, Beata E.; Kasprzak, Henryk T.



Telepsychiatry Services for Korean Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Asian Americans often face cultural and language barriers when obtaining mental health treatment. With the small number of Asian mental health providers, it is difficult to ensure the linguistic and ethnic matching of providers and patients. Telepsychiatry holds great promise to address the unique needs of Asian Americans. We developed a project to establish telepsychiatry services that connect Korean mental health patients in Georgia with a linguistically and culturally competent psychiatrist in California and assessed the level of acceptability of psychiatric treatment via real-time teleconferencing among these patients. Upon the completion of the program, 16 patients (5 men, 11 women) completed a questionnaire that measured their acceptability of the telepsychiatry service. The findings indicate a high level of acceptance of the program among Korean patients. The quantitative and qualitative data show that they especially appreciated the cultural sensitivity of the consultation and the comfortable interaction with the provider. However, challenges such as technical issues of teleconferencing may negatively affect the quality of the clinical interaction. Our study expands the knowledge base regarding the acceptability of such services to a population that experiences disparities in mental health care. Future research should extend telepsychiatry services to other Asian population groups that experience lower access to mental health services.

Shim, Ruth; Lukaszewski, Tim; Yun, Karen; Kim, Soo Hyun; Ruth, George



Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network ( protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA.

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.



Eye cosmetics.  


There are many eye cosmetics available to enhance the beauty or improve the appearance of the face. To prevent infection, most eye cosmetics contain preservatives. Fragrance is usually absent to keep the products as safe as possible. Hypoallergenic products contain fewer ingredients and may be more appropriate for patients with sensitive skin. PMID:11059371

O'Donoghue, M N



Eye pain  


... irritation, or injury such as a corneal abrasion ) Eye surgery Glaucoma Migraines Sinus problems Stye Viral infections such ... an immune system deficiency You have had recent surgery You have ... pressure in the eyes that does not go away -- particularly if it ...


Using saccadic eye movements as objective measures of tolerance in methadone dependent individuals during the hydromorphone challenge test.  


Substitute methadone prescribing is one of the main modes of treatment for opiate dependence. This study examined the relationship between methadone dose (measured by daily dose and methadone's active (R)-enantiomer blood levels) and opiate receptor function. Nine subjects on substitute methadone (30 - 90 mg daily) received three subcutaneous injections 1.5 hours apart (saline, 5 mg and 10 mg hydromorphone, a short-acting opiate agonist) followed by measures of functional response in particular saccadic eye movements (SEMs), as well as self-report measures. Ten mg of hydromorphone significantly slowed SEM parameters (peak velocity by 15%, p < 0.005; peak acceleration by 20%, p < 0.025; peak deceleration by 26%, p < 0.025) and the SEM velocity changes correlated significantly with (R)-methadone levels (r = 0.844, p < 0.005) and with the oral dose of methadone being taken (r = 0.829, p < 0.005). Although a similar trend was observed for 5 mg, this was not significant. These finding suggest that, at higher methadone doses (resulting in higher plasma concentrations), there is significant tolerance to the action of agonists. Such studies may help in refining our understanding of the actions of methadone and the SEM measure could help in defining the degree of tolerance in individuals using street heroin. PMID:12745417

Melichar, J K; Myles, J S; Eap, C B; Nutt, D J



Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  


... ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear ?? ??? ?? ??? ... ??? (Korean) Bilingual Hepatitis B Foundation Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ?? ??-?? (??? ??) - ??? ( ...


Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements using ultrasound pachymetry, ultrasound biomicroscopy, and the Artemis-2 VHF scanner in normal eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the precision of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements taken with the handheld ultrasound pachymeter (USP), ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the Artemis-2 very high frequency ultrasound scanner (VHFUS) on normal subjects. Design Prospective study. Methods One eye from each of 61 normal subjects was randomly selected for this study. The measurements of the CCT were taken with the USP, VHFUS, and UBM. Results were compared statistically using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and limits of agreement. Results The average CCT (± standard deviation) was 530.1 ± 30.5 ?m, 554.9 ± 31.7 ?m, and 559.5 ± 30.7 ?m for UBM, VHFUS, and USP respectively. The intraobserver repeatability analyses of variance are not significant for USP, UBM, and VHFUS. P-values were 0.17, 0.19, and 0.37 respectively. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the three different methods of measuring CCT (P = 0.0001). The ANOVA test revealed no statistically significant difference between USP and VHFUS (P > 0.05), yet statistical significant differences with UBM versus USP and UBM versus VHFUS (P < 0.001). There were high correlations between the three instruments (P < 0.0001). The mean differences (and upper/lower limits of agreement) for CCT measurements were 29.4 ± 14.3 (2.7/56), 4.6 ± 8.6 (?14.7/23.8), and ?24.8 ± 13.1 (?50.4/0.8) for USP versus UBM, USP versus VHFUS, and UBM versus VHFUS, respectively. Conclusion The UBM produces CCT measurements that vary significantly from those returned by the USP and the VHFUS, suggesting that the UBM may not be used interchangeably with either equipment for monitoring the CCT in the clinical setting.

Al-Farhan, Haya M; Al-Otaibi, Wafa'a Majed



Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children.

Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan



Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.



Reliability of manual measurements of corneal thickness obtained from healthy canine eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).  


The purpose of this study was to manually measure corneal thickness in canine eyes using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device and to assess intra- and inter-observer reliability of this technique. Twenty healthy dogs with a mean age of 4.7 y were examined. A 6-mm corneal pachymetry protocol was carried out by 1 operator using 1 SD-OCT device in both eyes of each animal. Measurements were obtained manually and in duplicate by 2 independent investigators (> 24 h apart), using the built-in caliper function. Measurements included epithelial thickness (ET), non-epithelial thickness (NET), and central corneal thickness (CCT). The overall mean ET, NET, and CCT for all eyes examined were 72.3 ± 4.6 ?m, 538.9 ± 42.5 ?m, and 611.2 ± 40.3 ?m, respectively. There was no significant difference in ET, NET, or CCT based on the eye examined [oculus dexter (OD) versus oculus sinister (OS)], age, or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in replicate measurements of ET, NET, or CCT done by the same operator, although a small but significant difference was noted between operators for ET measurements only. The mean difference in ET between operators was 0.6 ?m (P = 0.03). The coefficient of variation ranged from 0.5% to 9.27% and intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.35 to 0.97. Based on these results, manual measurements of corneal thickness in canine eyes using a portable SD-OCT device provided ET, NET, and CCT measurements with clinically acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability. PMID:24982554

Alario, Anthony F; Pirie, Christopher G



Black Eye  


... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...


Eye Problems  


... following symptoms: sudden appearance of spots and strings floating in your field of vision; flashes of light ... experiencing eye pain, and do you see dark, floating spots? You may have an inflammation inside the ...


Eye Complications  


... and strikes the back of the eye, the retina. The retina records the images focused on it and converts ... brain receives and decodes. One part of the retina is specialized for seeing fine detail. This tiny ...


Dry eyes  


... dry eyes include: Aging Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... Don't smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...


Corneal thickness measurements and frequency doubling technology perimetry abnormalities in ocular hypertensive eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIt has been suggested that some patients currently diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT) may have thicker than average corneas that result in an overestimation of their true intraocular pressure. Consequently, patients with OHT with greater corneal thickness may be at a lower risk for functional glaucomatous damage, including visual field loss measured with frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry. The purpose

Felipe A Medeiros; Pamela A Sample; Robert N Weinreb



Coping with the Green-Eyed Monster: Conceptualizing and Measuring Communicative Responses to Romantic Jealousy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines communicative responses to romantic jealousy. Finds 12 superordinate categories and 67 tactics in communicative responses to jealousy. Develops measures for six types of interactive responses (integrative communication, distributive communication, active distancing, general avoidance/denial, expression of negative affect, and violent…

Guerrero, Laura K.; And Others



Coping with the green?eyed monster: Conceptualizing and measuring communicative responses to romantic jealousy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communicative responses to jealousy perform critical functions in interpersonal relationships: They can reduce uncertainty, help maintain or repair relationships, and aid the jealous person in saving face and restoring self?esteem. The three studies reported herein concentrate on conceptualizing and measuring communicative responses to jealousy that are relevant to these functions. Study 1 is a descriptive, qualitative analysis of respondents' communicative

Laura K. Guerrero; Peter A. Andersen; Peter F. Jorgensen; Brian H. Spitzberg; Sylvie V. Eloy



Overview of the development of the Korean exposure factors handbook.  


A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam



Measurement of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film in the human eye using a curvature sensor for the optimization of retinal imaging with adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic topography of the tear film in the human eye is measured using a curvature sensor. The time series of topographies obtained are used to determine the contribution of the tear film to the overall aberrations of the human eye, giving us a better understanding of ocular aberrations. An overview of the optical arrangement is presented together with the evolution with time of the wavefront transmitted through the tear film, the change in RMS wavefront error produced and the variation of individual Zernike components. The impact on ophthalmic adaptive optics is discussed.

Gruppetta, S.; Koechlin, L.; Lacombe, F.; Puget, P.



There's More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: Measuring Tangible and Intangible Capital in Two Marginal Communities in Rural Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A missing link in economics has been what Veblen in 1908 termed intangible capital. This includes common norms, trust and high levels of cooperative performance. Intangibles are invisible to the eye and not easily measured in quantitative terms. They nevertheless involve visible, socioeconomic outcomes and should therefore rightly be seen as…

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sorensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke



The Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean College Stress Inventory (KCSI), which is designed to measure Korean college students' experiences and symptoms of career stress. Even though there have been numerous scales related to career issues, few scales measure the career stress construct and its dimensions. Factor structure, internal…

Choi, Bo Young; Park, Heerak; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min



Protein size resolution in human eye lenses by dynamic light scattering after in vivo measurements: first analysis of a clinical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser light source powers of our instrument LEPOSIAR are minimized so that dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements can be conducted with lowest intensity levels on human eye lenses (3.2 mW/cm2) within measurement times of 3 to 5 seconds. We describe an extension of DLS and an eye lens characterization along the optical axis (OA), revealing the molecular size ranges together with distributions found in lens regions parallel to the OA. The microstructures of various lens regions are separated by the analyzed radius distributions reflecting the visco-elastic properties of the eye lens. Detailed analysis and applied statistical categorization of results are described. The data obtained by DLS allow for an objective interpretation of opacity occurrences on molecular size range which are related to refraction anomalies. Apart from changes in color and fluorescence properties, the refractive anomalies can be assumed as the origin of the cataract. The bimodal radius distributions are characterized as a function of patient ages varying from 9 to 85 years. Our clinical study on 42 subjects proves a size decrease of the monomeric fraction with age, whereby their relative frequency of occurrence decreases. The larger polymeric radius fractions which are detected in lenses of all subjects increase with their age. An increase of protein polymer size is likely to be linked to the decrease of the (gamma) -crystallin fraction in old eye lens nuclei. Our preliminary analysis of clinical results is corresponding to the chemical gradients parallel to the OA of the lenses which are reported by O. Hockwin after examination on extracted eye lenses. The normalization of the lens densitometric data derived after Scheimpflug- photography against the protein size fraction analysis by DLS is performed. As a comparison mean between both techniques on identical eye lenses, an absorption corrected densitometry is conducted for the first time.

Dierks, Karsten; Dieckmann, Matthias; Niederstrasser, Dirk; Schwartz, R.; Wegener, A.



Eye Drop Tips  


... Putting in Eye Drops Prescription eye drops for glaucoma help maintain the pressure in your eye at ... a "Best Technique" for Putting in Eye Drops? Glaucoma Eye Drops: Suggestions on Use Glaucoma and the ...


LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... Video LASIK (Femtosecond) 0:50 Subscribe for Eye Health Info Sign up for our monthly e-mail ...


Korean NPIs Scope Over Negation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that Korean negative polarity items (NPIs) are interpreted above the scope of negation, in contrast to NPIs in English which are interpreted within the scope of negation. On the syntactic side, we argue that the grammar of Korean requires a syntactic licensing mechanism, to constrain the distribution of NPIs to only negative claus es. On

Peter Sells; Shin-Sook Kim



Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.


The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean.

Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup



Eye investigation with optical microradar techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems exist in ophthalmology, where accurate measurements of eye structure and its parameters can be provided using optical radar concept is of remote sensing. Coherent and non-coherent approaches are reviewed aiming cornea shape measurement and measurement of aberration distribution in the elements and media of an eye. Coherent radar techniques are analyzed taking into account non- reciprocity of eye

Vasyl V. Molebny; Ioannis G. Pallikaris; Leonidas P. Naoumidis; Vitalij N. Kurashov; Igor H. Chyzh



The Draize eye test.  


Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by an exigency for public protection, the Draize eye test became a governmentally endorsed method to evaluate the safety of materials meant for use in or around the eyes. The test involves a standardized protocol for instilling agents onto the cornea and conjunctiva of laboratory animals. A sum of ordinal-scale items of the outer eye gives an index of ocular morbidity. Advances in ocular toxicology are challenging the validity, precision, relevance, and need of the Draize eye test. Preclinical product-safety tests with rabbits and other mammals also raise ethical concerns of animal wellbeing. Some use the Draize test as a rallying point for how animals are treated in science and industry. A battery of cellular systems and computer models aim to reduce and ultimately to replace whole-animal testing. Molecular measures of ocular toxicity may eventually allow comprehensive screening in humans. The Draize eye test was created and refined for humanitarian reasons and has assuredly prevented harm. Its destiny is to be progressively supplanted as in vitro and clinical alternatives emerge for assessing irritancy of the ocular surface. PMID:11425356

Wilhelmus, K R



Korean atomic bomb victims.  


After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

Sasamoto, Yukuo



Symmetry Between the Right and Left Eyes of the Normal Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measured with Optical Coherence Tomography (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the limits of the normal amount of interocular symmetry in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained with third-generation time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT3). Methods Both eyes of normal volunteers were scanned using the peripapillary standard and fast RNFL algorithms of OCT3. Results A total of 108 volunteers were included in the analysis. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age of the volunteers was 46.0 ± 15.0 years (range 20–82). Forty-two participants (39%) were male and 66 (61%) were female. Mean RNFL thickness correlated extremely well, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.89 for both algorithms (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.93). The mean RNFL thickness of the right eye measured 1.3 ?m thicker than the left on the standard scan (SD 4.7, 95% CI 0.4–2.2, P = .004) and 1.2 ?m on the fast scan (SD 5.2, 95% CI 0.1–2.2, P = .026). The 95% tolerance limits on the difference between the mean RNFL thicknesses of right minus left eye was ?10.8 and +8.9 ?m with the standard scan algorithm and ?10.6 and +11.7 ?m with the fast scan algorithm. Conclusions Mean RNFL thickness between the 2 eyes of normal individuals should not differ by more than approximately 9 to 12 ?m, depending on which scanning algorithm of OCT3 is used and which eye measures thicker. Differences beyond this level suggest statistically abnormal asymmetry, which may represent early glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

Budenz, Donald L.



Three unrecorded marine fish species from Korean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three marine fish species are recorded for the first time from Korean waters: a molid (Ranzania laevis, 1 specimen, 279.8 mm SL) and bramid ( Pterycombus petersii, 3 specimens, 95.3-214.0 mm SL) collected from a large purse seine off Jeju Island, in the southern sea of Korea, and a carangid ( Carangoides dinema, 1 specimen, 194.5 mm SL) from a set net in coastal waters off Busan, in the southeastern sea of Korea. R. laevis is characterized by a wedge-shaped body and truncated clavus; P. petersii by the dorsal fin origin above or behind the posterior margin of eye, and dorsal and anal fins depressible; and C. dinema by a row of black blotches along the second dorsal fin base, the curved part of the lateral line longer than straight part, and 18 and 16 dorsal and anal fin rays, respectively. New Korean names are proposed for all three species.

Park, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jin Koo; Moon, Jee Hwan; Kim, Cheol Bum



Korean Preschoolers' Advanced Inhibitory Control and Its Relation to Other Executive Skills and Mental State Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed executive function and mental state understanding in Korean preschoolers. In Experiment 1, forty 3.5- and 4-year-old Koreans showed ceiling performance on inhibition and switching measures, although their performance on working memory and false belief was comparable to that of Western children. Experiment 2 revealed a similar…

Oh, Seungmi; Lewis, Charlie



The Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ): A Validation Study in a Korean Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement scores of the learning organization culture, the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ), in a Korean context. A total of 1,529 cases from 11 firms in two major Korean conglomerates were analyzed. Rigorous translation procedures, including both…

Song, Ji Hoon; Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Chermack, Thomas J.



Googly Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Boss, Susan



Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using

Vasyl V. Molebny; Igor H. Chyzh; Vjacheslav M. Sokurenko; Ioannis G. Pallikaris; Leonidas P. Naoumidis



The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world.

Scott, Robert



Eye Injuries (For Parents)  


... chemicals something embedded in the eye severe eye pain blood in the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as ...


Why Do Eyes Water?  


... out of your nose. Continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides crying. Anything ... can still bug your eyes. Eyes might also water if you're around an onion that's being ...


Eye-tracking = reading the mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye activity measures are utilized to make inferences about human activity. While much is known how to use the eye to infer workload, less is known about inferring higher-level cognitive processes from lower-level eye movements. The main question addressed in the workshop is how to use eye activity measures in order to support higher-level cognitive processes. The workshop mainly serves

Tjerk de Greef; Assaf Botzer; Peter-Paul van Maanen



Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)



Airbags and Eye Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although airbags measurably reduce the overall risk of injury to adults (including eye injury), and death from motor vehicle accidents, injuries attributed to airbag deployment have been reported. To identify reported cases of ocular trauma related to airbag deployment, a MEDLINE search from 1991 to 2000 was performed. A total of 263 injuries in 101 patients were identified. Patient demographics,

Joel A Pearlman; K. G. Au Eong; Ferenc Kuhn; Dante J Pieramici



Eye contricks  

PubMed Central

Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

Wade, Nicholas J



Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

Kim, Eunhyun



Characteristics of Type D personality in Korean adolescents.  


To examine the prevalence of the Type D construct using the Korean version of the Type D Personality-14 (DS14) on the Korean youth population and to identify relationships between the Type D construct and other mental health measures. Adolescent participants aged 13-18 years were recruited from 12 schools (7 middle schools and 5 high schools) in Ansan city, located in the southwest area of Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. A total of 4,899 students were assessed with the Korean version of the DS14, Beck depression inventory (BDI), Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI), Adolescent Mental health Problem behavior Questionnaire (AMPQ), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korean version (AUDIT-K). We found significant differences in all the measured scales and subscale scores between two groups, those with Type D personality and those without (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). When comparing the distributions of the high risk participants identified by the results of BDI, K-ESI, AMPQ, and AUDIT-K between participants with either Type D or non-Type D personality, a significantly higher proportion of high risk participants were in the Type D personality group according to all measures (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). In conclusions, Type D adolescents experience various and more severe mental health problems. Type D personality was more related with internalizing symptoms in Korean adolescents. DS14 can be useful in a community mental health program designed for adolescents. PMID:22899442

Lee, Moon-Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Cha, Jae Yeon; Lee, Hongjae



Comparison of Goldmann Applanation Tonometry and Dynamic Contour Tonometry in the Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Eyes with Different Corneal Thicknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) in the evaluation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with different corneal thicknesses. Methods: GAT and DCT were performed in 70 eyes of 35 subjects aged between 21 and 59 years. Thirty eyes had normal, nonoperated corneas and 40 eyes had reduced central corneal thickness (CCT) following myopic

A. M. Roszkowska; L. De Grazia; M. Cirone; G. Ferreri



Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye

Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.


Recent studies of eye movements in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grouping the studies under the general topic headings of techniques of measurement, analysis of the reading process, training to improve eye movements, typography and eye movements, and eye movements and fatigue the author reviews the relevant research literature which has appeared since January, 1945. In general there has been a dimunition of interest in this area. However, there has appeared

Miles A. Tinker



Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.



Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean

Bonacich, Edna; And Others


Relationship Between Visual Field Sensitivity and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal, Ocular Hypertensive and Glaucomatous Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the correlation between automated achromatic perimetry (AAP) and the output of two retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysers: scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Quantitative RNFL measurements with GDx-VCC and Stratus-OCT were obtained in one eye from 52 healthy subjects, 38 ocular hypertensive (OHT) patients and 94 glaucomatous patients. All patients underwent a complete examination, including AAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA). The relationship between RNFL measurements and SITA visual field global indices were assessed by means of the following methods: analysis of variance, bivariate Pearson's correlation coefficient, multivariate linear regression techniques and nonlinear regression models, and the coefficient of determination (r2) was calculated. Results RNFL thickness values were significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in healthy and ocular hypertensive eyes for both nerve fiber analysers (P?0.001), except for the inferior 120° average thickness in GDx-VCC. Linear regression models constructed for GDx-VCC measurements and OCT-derived RNFL thickness with SITA visual field global indices demonstrated that, for the mean deviation, the only predictor in the model was the nerve fiber indicator for GDx-VCC (r2=0.255), and for the pattern standard deviation, the predictors in the model were the nerve fiber indicator for GDx-VCC (r2=0.246) and the maximum thickness in the superior quadrant for Stratus-OCT (r2=0.196). The best curvilinear fit was obtained with the cubic model. Conclusions Quantitative measurements of RNFL thickness using either GDx-VCC or OCT correlate moderately with visual field global indices in moderate glaucoma patients. We did not find a correlation between visual field global indices and RNFL thickness in early glaucoma patients. Further study is needed to develop new analytical methods that will increase RNFL analyser's sensitivity in early glaucoma patients.

Lleo-Perez, Antonio; Ortuno-Soto, Amparo; Rahhal, M.S.; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A.



Alleviating Syntactic Term Mismatches in Korean Text Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a Korean information-retrieval system that can alleviate syntactic term mismatches by segmenting compound nouns as well as by normalizing noun phrases and which can provide appropriate similarity measurements. Discusses weighting phrasal terms and describes experimental results that considered recall and precision. (Author/LRW)

Yun, Bo-Hyun; Kwak, Yong-Jae; Rim, Hae-Chang



An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0o) and side pose (34o). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98o for frontal pose and 2.87o for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas



The effects of lubricant eye drops on visual function as measured by the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay test  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two marketed ocular lubricants on the visual decay in dry eye patients using the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay (IVAD) test. Methods: This controlled, randomized, double-masked crossover study compared the effects of a polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol-based (PEG/PG) tear and a carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC)/glycerin tear on the visual acuity decay between blinks of dry eye patients. At visit 1 (Day 0), baseline IVAD measurements were recorded prior to instillation of a single drop of randomized study medication. IVAD testing was repeated at 15-, 45-, and 90-minutes post-instillation. Reading rate and functional blink rate were also evaluated. At the second visit (Day 7 ± 3), study procedures were repeated using crossover treatment. Results: Forty-eight (48) subjects with dry eye (61.1 ± 14.8 years old, 79.2% female, 95.8% white) completed the study. Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significantly longer time to one-line loss of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as determined by the IVAD test at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear (P = 0.0365). Measurements of median time at BCVA, reading rate, and functional blink rate were similar for both treatments. Both formulations were well tolerated in the population studied. Conclusions: Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significant improved maintenance of visual acuity between blinks at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability of an artificial tear to extend visual acuity maintenance between blinks, as measured by the IVAD test.

Torkildsen, Gail



Allelic frequencies of 20 visible phenotype variants in the korean population.  


The prediction of externally visible characteristics from DNA has been studied for forensic genetics over the last few years. Externally visible characteristics include hair, skin, and eye color, height, and facial morphology, which have high heritability. Recent studies using genome-wide association analysis have identified genes and variations that correlate with human visible phenotypes and developed phenotype prediction programs. However, most prediction models were constructed and validated based on genotype and phenotype information on Europeans. Therefore, we need to validate prediction models in diverse ethnic populations. In this study, we selected potentially useful variations for forensic science that are associated with hair and eye color, iris pattern, and facial morphology, based on previous studies, and analyzed their frequencies in 1,920 Koreans. Among 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 SNPs were polymorphic, 6 SNPs were very rare (minor allele frequency < 0.005), and 4 SNPs were monomorphic in the Korean population. Even though the usability of these SNPs should be verified by an association study in Koreans, this study provides 10 potential SNP markers for forensic science for externally visible characteristics in the Korean population. PMID:23843775

Lim, Ji Eun; Oh, Bermseok



Allelic Frequencies of 20 Visible Phenotype Variants in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

The prediction of externally visible characteristics from DNA has been studied for forensic genetics over the last few years. Externally visible characteristics include hair, skin, and eye color, height, and facial morphology, which have high heritability. Recent studies using genome-wide association analysis have identified genes and variations that correlate with human visible phenotypes and developed phenotype prediction programs. However, most prediction models were constructed and validated based on genotype and phenotype information on Europeans. Therefore, we need to validate prediction models in diverse ethnic populations. In this study, we selected potentially useful variations for forensic science that are associated with hair and eye color, iris pattern, and facial morphology, based on previous studies, and analyzed their frequencies in 1,920 Koreans. Among 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 SNPs were polymorphic, 6 SNPs were very rare (minor allele frequency < 0.005), and 4 SNPs were monomorphic in the Korean population. Even though the usability of these SNPs should be verified by an association study in Koreans, this study provides 10 potential SNP markers for forensic science for externally visible characteristics in the Korean population.

Lim, Ji Eun



Development and validation of the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL) questionnaire, a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure for the assessment of the burden of dry eye on patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and validate a comprehensive patient-reported outcomes instrument focusing on the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL). Methods Development and validation of the IDEEL occurred in four phases: 1) focus groups with 45 dry eye patients to develop a draft instrument, 2) item generation, 3) pilot study to assess content validity in 16 patients and 4) psychometric validation in 210 subjects: 130 with non-Sjögren's keratoconjunctivitis sicca, 32 with Sjögren's syndrome and 48 controls, and subsequent item reduction. Results Focus groups identified symptoms and the associated bother, the impact of dry eye on daily life and the patients' satisfaction with their treatment as the central concepts in patients' experience of dry eye. Qualitative analysis indicated that saturation was achieved for these concepts and yielded an initial 112-item draft instrument. Patients understood the questionnaire and found the items to be relevant indicating content validity. Patient input, item descriptive statistics and factor analysis identified 55 items that could be deleted. The final 57-item IDEEL assesses dry eye impact constituting 3 modules: dry eye symptom-bother, dry eye impact on daily life comprising impact on daily activities, emotional impact, impact on work, and dry eye treatment satisfaction comprising satisfaction with treatment effectiveness and treatment-related bother/inconvenience. The psychometric analysis results indicated that the IDEEL met the criteria for item discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and floor/ceiling effects. As expected, the correlations between IDEEL and the Dry Eye Questionnaire (a habitual symptom questionnaire) were higher than between IDEEL and Short-Form-36 and EuroQoL-5D, indicating concurrent validity. Conclusion The IDEEL is a reliable, valid and comprehensive questionnaire relevant to issues that are specific to dry eye patients, and meets current FDA patient-reported outcomes guidelines. The use of this questionnaire will provide assessment of the impact of dry eye on patient dry eye-related quality of life, impact of treatment on patient outcomes in clinical trials, and may aid in treatment effectiveness evaluation.



Bevacizumab in Inflammatory Eye Disease  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To report the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA) on visual acuity and macular thickness in patients with inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or cystoid macular edema (CME). DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. METHODS: Each eye received 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab at baseline. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at 1- to 2-month intervals, with additional injections at the discretion of the physician. Comprehensive evaluations, including Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BVCA) and optical coherence tomography measurements, were performed at each visit. Main outcome measures were BCVA and central subfield thickness (CST), as measured by optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Thirty-four eyes of 30 patients with inflammatory CNV (n = 21 eyes of 19 patients; 9 male, 10 female) or CME (n = 13 eyes of 11 patients; 4 male, 7 female) were identified. Median ages were 52 years (range, 7 to 83) and 67 years (range, 17 to 83) for the CNV and CME groups, respectively. The median length of follow-up for CNV eyes was 7 months (range, 1 to 28) while the median follow-up for CME eyes was 13 months (range, 1 to 20). Both groups received a median of two injections (range, 1 to 9 for CNV and 1 to 4 for CME). For eyes with CNV, BCVA improved significantly at follow-up month 1, but was not different from baseline thereafter; CST remained unchanged throughout follow-up. For eyes with CME, neither BCVA nor CST changed significantly over the course of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab appears to stabilize BCVA and CST for eyes with inflammatory CNV or CME.




Down Syndrome: Eye Problems  


... eye problems. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...


Eye muscle repair  


... The condition is more commonly known as "crossed eyes." Surgery may be recommended when strabismus does not improve ... Eye muscle surgery does not fix the poor vision of a lazy (amblyopic) eye. The child may have to ...


Policy decision-making and implementation of Korean rail reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy decision-making and implementation of Korean rail reform: a theoretical analysis and implications for rail reforms Korean rail reforms have been executed since 1998 and the Korean Congress passed three rail reform Acts, The Basic Act of Rail Industry Development, The Public Entity Act of Korean Rail Facility, and The Public Corporation Act of Korean Rail Operation, in 2003. The

C Mo



Vowel Quality and Consonant Voicing: The Production of English Vowels and Final Stops by Korean Speakers of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the quality of three English vowels and their Korean counterpart vowels by measuring F1/F2 frequencies and investigating how the different vowel qualities influenced consonant voicing. Participants were six native speakers (NS) of English and six NS of Korean who were graduate students at a large U.S. university. F1/F2…

Ryoo, Mi-Lim




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.


The Korean Sounding Rocket Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the Korea National Space Program, the Korean government has led the Sounding Rocket Program by Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) providing enhanced capabilities across a spectrum of earth sciences and/or astrophysics-related disciplines. In this paper, the Korean Sounding Rocket Program during 1993-2002 is introduced. This program includes Korea Sounding Rocket (KSR)-I, KSR-II, and KSR-III, and a total of five soundings were carried out. Two had flown in KSR-I series, two in KSR-II, and one in KSR-III. The main mission objective is to provide the opportunity to scientists for researching earth sciences and/or astrophysics and to improve Korean rocket development technologies including payload instruments, flight systems, ground systems, operational techniques, and interfaces between subsystems. As demand increased for launching of low-orbit earth satellites internally and externally, the Korean government was ambitiously firing the Korea Space Launch Vehicle (KSLV) Program in 2002, based on experience throughout the Sounding Rocket Program and preparing the world market for space launch vehicles.

Cho, Gwang-Rae; Park, Jeong-Joo; Chung, Eui-Seung; Hwang, Seung-Hyun



Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.  


The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung



Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels  

PubMed Central

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population.

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young



Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. Methods A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008–2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. Results Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4–48.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.7–4.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.6–24.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4–80.4) in 20–29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9–17.3) in 60–69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97–2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76–0.93, p = 0.002). Conclusions This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

Kim, Eun Chul; Morgan, Ian G.; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Kang, Seungbum; Jee, Donghyun



Management of thyroid eye disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. In most instances it is mild and non-progressive, but in 3%-5% of cases it is severe. Non-severe TED requires only supportive measures, such as eye ointments, sunglasses and prisms. By contrast, severe TED requires aggressive treatment, either medical (high-dose glucocorticoids, orbital radiotherapy) or surgical (orbital decompression). The

Luigi Bartalena; Claudio Marcocci; Maria Laura Tanda; Aldo Pinchera



Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 ?m tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 ?l/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient ?a and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.



Attention to food and beverage advertisements as measured by eye-tracking technology and the food preferences and choices of youth.  


The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (P<0.05). Associations were no longer significant after controlling for demographic characteristics. Attention to advertising was not significantly associated with food/beverage choices. Research with larger samples is needed to more fully understand the role of attention. Future research should also examine the association between attention to advertising and purchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice. PMID:24332473

Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E



The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling,Sturnus vulgaris, is a diurnal, ground feeding bird of the order Passeriformes. Aspects of its visual fields, eye movements and the optical structure of its eye are described.1.The magnitude of eye movements as a function of elevation in the median sagittal plane of the head was measured (Fig. 1). Maximum eye movement amplitude (32°) occurs in a plane

Graham R. Martin



Infant eyes: A window on cognitive development  

PubMed Central

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking “under the hood” if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants’ gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous datasets from eye-trackers requires users to think hard about what they are measuring and what these measures mean for making inferences about underlying cognitive processes. The present commentary highlights these concerns, both technical and interpretive, and reviews the five articles that comprise this Special Issue.

Aslin, Richard N.



Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)



General factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.  


Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion. PMID:24570802

Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee



The Evolution of Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyes are the preeminent source of sensory information for the brain in most species, and many features of eyes reflect evolutionary solutions to particular selective pressures, both from the nonbiological environment and from other animals. As a result, the evolution of eyes, among all the sense organs, has attracted considerable attention from scientists. Paired eyes in the three major phyla,

Russell D. Fernald



Evaluation of Factors Influencing Grip Strength in Elderly Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Grip strength has been used as a measure of function in various health-related conditions. Although grip strength is known to be affected by both physical and psychological factors, few studies have looked at those factors comprehensively in a population-based cohort regarding elderly Koreans. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential factors influencing grip strength in elderly Koreans. Methods We evaluated dominant hand grip strengths in 143 men and 123 women older than 65 years who participated in a population-based cohort study, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Individuals who had a history of surgery for musculoskeletal disease or trauma in the upper extremity were excluded. Factors assessed for potential association with grip strength were; 1) demographics such as age and gender, 2) body constructs such as height, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD), 3) upper extremity functional status using disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores, and 4) mental health status using a depression scale and the short form-36 (SF36) mental health score. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify factors independently associated with grip strength. Results Grip strengths of dominant hands in elderly Koreans were found to generally decrease with aging, and were significantly different between men and women, as expected. Multivariate analyses indicated that grip strength was independently associated with age, height and BMI in men (R2 = 21.3%), and age and height (R2 = 19.7%) in women. BMD, upper extremity functional status, or mental health status were not found to be associated with grip strength. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in elderly Koreans, grip strength is mainly influenced by age and height in both men and women, and additionally by BMI in men. BMD or self-reported physical or mental health status was not found to influence grip strength in elderly Koreans. This information may be helpful in future studies using grip strength as a measure of function in elderly Koreans.

Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Ki Woong; Paik, Nam-Jong; Jang, Hak Chul; Chang, Chong Bum; Baek, Goo Hyun; Lee, Young Ho



Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players.

Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee



Genetic and QTL analysis of pericarp thickness and ear architecture traits of Korean waxy corn germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pericarp thickness and ear traits are important selection criteria for breeding fresh market waxy corn. This research was\\u000a conducted to better understand genetic control of these traits in popular South Korean germplasm now grown in Illinois. Pericarp\\u000a thickness on five kernel regions, and ten inflorescence architecture traits were measured on ears from 264 F2:3 families from a cross between Korean

Eunsoo ChoeTorbert; Torbert R. Rocheford


Factors of Breast Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to assess breast cancer screening rates and explore factors related to all three measures of\\u000a breast cancer screening, mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE), among Korean immigrants\\u000a in the United States. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean women aged 40 and older in Cook County, Illinois. Of\\u000a this group,

Eunice E. Lee; Louis F. Fogg; Georgia R. Sadler



Optical properties of the mouse eye  

PubMed Central

The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the mouse eye and found that it follows predictions of the water-filled schematic mouse eye. Results indicate that the optical quality of the mouse eye assessed by measurement of its aberrations is remarkably good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements predict that adaptive optics based on this method of wavefront sensing will provide improvements in retinal image quality and potentially two times higher lateral resolution than that in the human eye.

Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.



Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type 2 diabetes.  


Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts. PMID:22752687

Choi, Sarah E; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna



Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts.

Choi, Sarah E.; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna



Acceptance of background noise levels in bilingual (Korean-English) listeners.  


The acceptable noise level (ANL) is the maximum amount of background noise that listeners are willing to accept while listening to speech. ANL has not been studied in listeners who use languages other than English. The purpose of this study was to explore whether ANLs obtained from Korean listeners in both English and Korean were comparable to ANLs obtained from monolingual English listeners. The results showed that ANLs obtained in English (ANL-E) did not differ significantly for the bilingual and monolingual listeners. Additionally, a cross-language comparison, within bilinguals, showed that ANLs obtained using Korean (ANL-K) speech stimuli were not significantly different from ANL-E. Finally, speech perception in noise did not correlate with ANLs in English or Korean for the bilingual listeners. Results suggest that the ANL measure is language independent within bilinguals and may be of potential clinical use in minority language groups. PMID:17039767

von Hapsburg, Deborah; Bahng, Junghwa



Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.



The evil eye: a cautious look.  


This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence. PMID:21267658

Berger, Allan S



Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.  


In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D



Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.  


The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. PMID:23557676

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook



Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)



Construction of Korean Astronomical Journal DB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korean Astronomical Data Center (KADC) in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has developed a database of astronomical journals published by the Korean Astronomical Society and the Korean Space Science Society. It consists of all bibliographic records of the Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society (JKAS), Publications of the Korean Astronomical Society (PKAS), and Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences (JASS). The KADC provides useful search functions in the search page such as search criterion of bibcode, publication date, author names, title words, or abstract words. The journal name is one of the search criterion in which more than one journal can be designated at the same time. The criterion of author name is provided bilingually: English or Korean. The abstract and full text can be downloaded as PDF files. It is also possible to search papers related to a specific research topic published in Korean astronomical journals, provided by the KADC, which often cannot be found in the worldwide Astrophysics Data System (ADS) services. The KADC will become basic infrastructure for the systematic construction of bibliographic records, and hence, make the society of Korean astronomers more interactive and collaborative.

Sung, Hyun-Il; Kim, Soon-Wook; Yim, In Sung; Sang, Jian



A Korean Hand Game for American Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the usefulness of the Korean hand game called "Flying Wild Geese" in the social studies classroom that appeals to the young learner, enables students to gain an appreciation of another culture, and assists Korean American children to adapt. Describes how to play the game and provides suggestion on using the game. (CMK)

Harris, Judy J.



Korean-American Entrepreneurs. CELCEE Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many Korean Americans, the American dream of building a better future in the United States for their families is realized through a focus on entrepreneurship. Their formula for entrepreneurial success is simple and effective: (1) identifying a business opportunity; and (2) working hard to turn the opportunity into a business success. Korean

Park, Sung


The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko



A Comparative Study between an American and a Republic of Korean Textbook Series" Coverage of Measurement and Geometry Content in First through Eighth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the content of geometry and measurement appearing in first- through eighth-grade textbooks in the United States and the Republic of Korea. American textbooks devoted a greater number of pages to measurement and geometry content, introduced the content earlier, presented concepts and skills more independently of each other, and presented…

Kim, Hy



Thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a Korean population sample of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the S-methylation of the cytotoxic drugs 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine. Red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity is subject to genetic polymorphism, and we have previously demonstrated an interethnic difference in TPMT activity. To investigate whether there was a race-related difference in RBC TPMT activity, TPMT was measured in a Korean population sample

Jeong Ok Park-Hah; Bjřrg Klemetsdal; Roy Lysaa; Kwang Hae Choi; Jarle Aarbakke



Koreans in Japan: A Minority's Changing Relationship with Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koreans form the largest ethnic minority group in Japan. The present study explores the situation of Korean pupils in Japanese schools by analyzing recent changes in four areas:(1) governmental and school-level policies, (2) school level programs targeted at Korean children, (3) Korean pupils' academic achievements and (4) their micro-level…

Okano, Kaori H.



Korean Elderly in America: Acculturation and Changes in Life Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the numbers of Korean immigrants, particularly Korean elders continues to increase, their adjustment problems and service needs are beginning to receive attention in communities with a large influx of Asian immigrants. To examine Korean elders' use of filial and formal support systems in dealing with their problems, 151 older Koreans living in…

Koh, Yang K.; Bell, William G.


Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)  


... conjunctivitis with redness of the eye and mucoid debris on the eyelashes. Overview Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is ... Inflammatory causes such as chemicals, fumes, dust, and debris Allergies Injuries Oral genital contact with someone who ...


Common Eye Disorders  


... to amblyopia include strabismus, an imbalance in the positioning of the two eyes; more nearsighted, farsighted, or ... Page Strabismus Strabismus involves an imbalance in the positioning of the two eyes. Strabismus can cause the ...


Get Your Eyes Tested  


... Find Services Near You National Health Observances Health Care Reform Adults Women and Pregnant Women Children Related Resources En espańol Home > Health Topics A to Z > Doctor Visits > Screening Tests > Get Your Eyes Tested Get Your Eyes Tested ...


LASIK eye surgery  


LASIK is eye surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...


Diabetic Eye Problems  


... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...


Normal Eye Anatomy  


... the way an image focuses on the retina. Credit: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health Ref#: ... adult lens in cross section (slit lamp picture). Credit: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health Ref#: ...


Eye Disease Images  


... dpi (5M, TIFF) Description: A fundus photo showing neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Credit: National Eye Institute, ... dpi (4M, TIFF) 300 dpi (4M, TIFF) Description: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Credit: National Eye Institute, ...


Korean Self-Report Version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective Although several self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) have been developed and used widely, few psychometric studies have established the construct validity of this measure. Therefore, we developed Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS and evaluated its factor structure, reliability, and validity. Methods A non-clinical student sample (n=206) and a clinical OCD sample (n=199) completed the Korean self-report version and other measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and anxiety. Results Consistent with the originally proposed structure, confirmatory factor analyses supported a factor structure comprised of Obsessions and Compulsions factors in the Korean self-report version. Two subscale scores and the total score of the Korean self-report version showed good internal consistency and convergent validity, but relatively poor discriminant validity. Applying a cutoff score of 16, 84% of OCD patients and 93% of the non-clinical sample were classified correctly. Conclusion Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS is a psychometrically sound and valid measure for assessing OCD symptoms as compared with the clinician-administered version. The originally proposed division of OCD severity into obsessions and compulsions appears accurate in the Korean self-report version. The cutoff score for the Korean self-report version needs adjustment based on further researches.

Seol, Soon-Ho; Kwon, Jun Soo



Protective area of laser eye protectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective definition of the protective area of laser eye protectors is discussed. First an appropriate test method is described, which is based on the current eye protection standard EN 168. For a variety of already CE type approved laser eye protectors, i.e. for different goggle and spectacle types, results of corresponding measurements are shown. From these results the requirements on the vertical and horizontal angle ranges are derived, which have to be covered by laser eye protectors. This proposal will be implemented in the currently processed amendments of the laser safety standards EN 207 and EN 208.

Sutter, E.; Schirmacher, A.



Opaque Contact Lens For Tracking Motion Of Eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Opaque contact lens facilitates measurements of movements of eye; particularly, torsional movements. Lens, marked with pair of indices at diameter of 0.5 mm, provides stable, high-contrast reference for measurements of angular position and velocity of eye by use of video-image-analysis techniques. Intended for use in experiments on response of eye to vestibular balance mechanism.

Zografos, James L., II; Gibson, Charles R.



Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle


Eye Injuries in Sports  


... protection for your specific sport. When can an athlete with an eye injury return to play? Athletes with a serious eye injury should be examined ... should feel comfortable and have adequate vision. The athlete should wear eye protection. For a less serious ...


Dwarf Eye Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

Science Teacher, 2005



Lasik eye surgery - discharge  


LASIK is eye surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the front of the eye) in ... improves. At the first doctor visit after the surgery, the eye shield will be removed and the doctor will ...


Psychological Stress and Arterial Stiffness in Korean Americans  

PubMed Central

Objective Arterial stiffness is identified as a causative factor for hypertension. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological stress and arterial stiffness in Korean Americans. Methods A convenience sample of 102 Korean Americans (aged 21–60 years, 60% women) was recruited from North Carolina. Psychological stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, the Social, Attitudinal, Familiar, and Environmental (SAFE) Acculturative Stress Scale, and the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) using the SphygmoCor system (AtCor Medical, Australia). Results This study shows that the emotional stress response, measured by anxiety, significantly predicted arterial stiffness (?= .25, p=.008), independently of such confounding factors as age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), gender, body mass index, smoking, education, and income. Anxiety was neither related to age (r=.12, p=.212) nor MAP (r=.14, p=.151). Additionally, this sample of Korean Americans had higher levels of psychological stress when compared to previous findings from studies of other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Conclusion Findings demonstrate that anxiety is a significant and independent determinant of arterial stiffness. Given that anxiety was not related to MAP, these findings suggest that arterial stiffness may be a pathway to explain the connection between anxiety and hypertension risk. Studies that scrutinize the relationship between anxiety and arterial stiffness are an important next step for future research. Further studies are also recommended to explore cultural factors and individual characteristics that may affect anxiety in Korean Americans.

Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; Carlson, John; Carlson, Barbara W; Rowsey, Pamela J



Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.



Hwabyung: The construction of a korean popular illness among korean elderly immigrant women in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural construction of Hwabyung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome, is explored among a sample of 20 elderly Korean immigrant women in the United States. Hwabyung results when distressed emotions associated with the specifically Korean way of perceiving and reacting to intolerable and tragic life situations cause bodily symptoms by interfering with the harmony of “Ki” (vital energy). Korean elderly immigrants

Keum Young Chung Pang



Fiber optic point-source for in-vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering in the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber optic point-source was designed for in vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering. The point-source consists of an optical fiber, with a core diameter of about 8 micrometers , mounted in a stainless steel cannula. At the tip of the cannula the entrance face of a 1-mm micro prism is fixed. The hypotenuse face of the prism is

Per G. Soderberg; Per-Arne Torstensson; Claes M. Beckman; Jianming Ren; Peep Algvere; Bjorn M. Tengroth



Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan



EMDR Effects on Pursuit Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units

Zoi Kapoula; Qing Yang; Audrey Bonnet; Pauline Bourtoire; Jean Sandretto; Jeremy Miles



A coronary heart disease prediction model: the Korean Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of this study were to develop a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk model among the Korean Heart Study (KHS) population and compare it with the Framingham CHD risk score. Design A prospective cohort study within a national insurance system. Setting 18 health promotion centres nationwide between 1996 and 2001 in Korea. Participants 268?315 Koreans between the ages of 30 and 74?years without CHD at baseline. Outcome measure Non-fatal or fatal CHD events between 1997 and 2011. During an 11.6-year median follow-up, 2596 CHD events (1903 non-fatal and 693 fatal) occurred in the cohort. The optimal CHD model was created by adding high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides to the basic CHD model, evaluating using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and continuous net reclassification index (NRI). Results The optimal CHD models for men and women included HDL-cholesterol (NRI=0.284) and triglycerides (NRI=0.207) from the basic CHD model, respectively. The discrimination using the CHD model in the Korean cohort was high: the areas under ROC were 0.764 (95% CI 0.752 to 0.774) for men and 0.815 (95% CI 0.795 to 0.835) for women. The Framingham risk function predicted 3–6 times as many CHD events than observed. Recalibration of the Framingham function using the mean values of risk factors and mean CHD incidence rates of the KHS cohort substantially improved the performance of the Framingham functions in the KHS cohort. Conclusions The present study provides the first evidence that the Framingham risk function overestimates the risk of CHD in the Korean population where CHD incidence is low. The Korean CHD risk model is well-calculated alternations which can be used to predict an individual's risk of CHD and provides a useful guide to identify the groups at high risk for CHD among Koreans.

Jee, Sun Ha; Jang, Yangsoo; Oh, Dong Joo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Seong-Wook; Seung, Ki-Bae; Mok, Yejin; Jung, Keum Ji; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Young Duk; Baek, Soo Jin; Lee, Duk Chul; Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Moon Jong; Sung, Jidong; Cho, BeLong; Kim, Eung Soo; Yu, Byung-Yeon; Lee, Tae-Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Yong-Jin; Oh, Jang-Kyun; Kim, Sung Hi; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang Baek; Park, Sat Byul; Lee, Soon Young; Yoo, Cheol-In; Kim, Moon Chan; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Park, Joo-sung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Gyu Jang; Woodward, Mark



Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.



Eye health and adolescence.  


Complete development of eyes occurs between 8 and 11 years, though longitudinal growth of axial length may occur up to 13 years (approximately). Except a few, most of the eye diseases affecting adolescence age group are similar to adult type. Diseases like myopia, keratoconus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, juvenile diabetic retinopathy and injuries to eye are exclusively diseases of adolescence that are commonly encountered. Psychologically, impact of eye disease on adolescent mind may be profound, thinking they might lose their eyesight. Early detection of diseases, prevention of injuries, health education and frequent eye check-up are essential. PMID:16570772

Biswas, P N; Baidya, K P; Nandi, K



Asian values scale: comparisons of Korean and Korean-American high school students.  


This study was intended to examine mean differences on the Asian Values Scale between Korean and Korean-American high school students. For 199 Korean and 217 second generation Korean-American high school students, means on emotional self-control and collectivism were significantly different. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of Korean high school students (M=4.5, SD=0.6) and second-generation Korean-American high school students (M=3.9, SD=0.5) indicated significant differences (p<.001). This present study contrasts directly with Kim, Atkinson, and Yang's past findings of no differences between first- and second-generation Asian college students. PMID:16673975

Lee, Sang Bok



Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts.

Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young



HUMAN EYE OPTICS: Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm.

Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu



Eye-tracking measures reveal how changes in the design of aided AAC displays influence the efficiency of locating symbols by school-age children without disabilities.  


PURPOSE Many individuals with communication impairments use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems involving letters, words, or line drawings that rely on the visual modality. It seems reasonable to suggest that display design should incorporate information about how users attend to and process visual information. The organization of AAC symbols can influence the speed and accuracy with which children select a target symbol on a display. This research examined why some displays facilitate responding. METHOD Eye-tracking technology recorded point-of-gaze while children without disabilities engaged in a visual search task with 2 AAC displays. In 1 display, symbols sharing an internal color were clustered together. In the other display, like-colored symbols were distributed. Dependent measures were (a) latency to fixate on the target compared with distracters and (b) the number of fixations to target and distracters. RESULTS Participants were significantly slower to fixate on the target when like-colored symbols were distributed; there was a significant increase in the number of fixations to distracters that did not share color with the target. CONCLUSIONS Efficient search was related to minimizing fixations to nonrelevant distracters. Vulnerability to distraction can be a significant problem in individuals with disabilities who use AAC. Minimizing the intrusion of such distraction may, therefore, be of importance in AAC display design. PMID:24129007

Wilkinson, Krista M; O'Neill, Tara; McIlvane, William J



Culturally familiar environment among immigrant Korean elders.  


This study's purpose was to describe the concept of familiarity for immigrant Korean elders as expressed through clothing, objects, songs/music, foods, and associated feelings. A descriptive exploratory design with in-depth, face-to-face interviews was used. A convenience sample of 14 immigrant Korean elders, age 63 to 82 years, was recruited from a Korean senior apartment complex. Interviews were tape-recorded and then transcribed in Korean by the first author. Constant comparative analysis was used to derive eight themes related to feelings and practice associated with culturally familiar items: homesickness, comfort, pleasure, mixed feelings, attachment, pride, nostalgic practice, and essentiality. These findings about familiarity could be utilized with ethnic minority elders to enhance their sense of belonging and physical and psychological comfort. PMID:16758718

Son, Gwi-Ryung; Kim, Hye-Ryoung



Visual fatigue monitoring system based on eye-movement and eye-blink detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we proposed a visual fatigue monitoring system based on eye-movement and eye-blink detection. It analyzes the eye-movement and number of blinks based on the assumption that saccade movement of the eye decreases and the number of eye blink increases when visual fatigue of viewer is accumulated. The proposed system has an infrared single camera and an infrared light source. Then, the pupil of the eye can be detected by applying binary threshold to Purkinje image. The threshold is automatically selected by two constraints which are the eccentricity of ellipse fitting and the size of the pupil. Finally, total amount of eye movement and the number of eye blinks are measured by using the positions of the pupil. The results were obtained while watching stereoscopic videos after personal calibration procedure. The results show that saccade movement of the eye decreases as the visual fatigue of the viewer is accumulated. However, the number of eye blinks shows large variance along the time axis which implies it is not proper for visual fatigue monitoring system.

Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Sunghwan; Choi, Jaeseob; Shin, Hyoungchul; Sohn, Kwanghoon



The prevalence of obesity and the level of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides in Korean preschool children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the degree of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides for Children (KDAGC). In a cross-sectional study based on a child care center-based survey in Seoul, Korea, we collected parental-reported questionnaires (n = 2,038) on children's weight and height, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the quality of dietary and activity behaviors based on the 2009 KDAGC Adherence Index (KDAGCAI) which was developed as a composite measure of adherence to the KDAGC. Overweight and obesity were determined according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentile from the 2007 Korean national growth chart. Associations were assessed with generalized linear models and polytomous logistic regression models. Approximately 17.6% of Korean preschool children were classified as overweight or obese. Obese preschoolers had lower adherence to the KDAGCAI compared to those with lean/normal weight. Preschoolers with a high quality of dietary and activity behaviors had a 51% decreased odds ratio (OR) of being obese (highest vs. lowest tertile of KDAGCAI-score, 95% CI 0.31, 0.78; P = 0.001); the associations were more pronounced among those who were older (P = 0.048) and lived in lower income households (P = 0.014). A greater frequency of vegetable consumption, but not fruit, was associated with a borderline significant reduction in the prevalence of obesity. Our findings support the association between obesity prevention and high compliance with the Korean national dietary and activity guideline among preschool children.

Choi, Yuni; You, Yeji; Go, Kyeong Ah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; You, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Seungmin



Eye drop neurology.  


Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure. PMID:24520179

Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T



What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  


... include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , tonometry , visual field test and visual acuity test . Dilation: Drops are placed ... Elevated pressure is a possible sign of glaucoma. Visual field test: This test measures your side (peripheral) vision. It ...


Embryonic quail eye development in microgravity.  


The US-Russian joint quail embryo project was designed to study the effects of microgravity on development of Japanese quail embryos incubated aboard Mir. For this part of the project, eyes from embryonic days 14 and 16 (E14 and E16) flight embryos were compared with eyes from several groups of ground-based control embryos. Measurements were recorded for eye weights; eye, corneal, and scleral ring diameters; and numbers of bones in scleral ossicle rings. Transparency of E16 corneas was documented, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe corneal innervation. In addition, corneal ultrastructure was observed at the electron microscopic level. Except for corneal diameter of E16 flight embryos, compared with that of one of the sets of controls, results reported here indicate that eye development occurred normally in microgravity. Fixation by cracking the shell and placing the egg in paraformaldehyde solution did not adequately preserve corneal nerves or cellular ultrastructure. PMID:10797121

Barrett, J E; Wells, D C; Paulsen, A Q; Conrad, G W



Brow archetype preferred by korean women.  


The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women.The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal.Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, ?). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0.541), or monthly income (P = 0.1696, ?).The result of this study might be useful in facial rejuvenation surgeries as well as in brow esthetics or tattooing of eyebrows. PMID:25006898

Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk



Phonological Development of Word-Initial Korean Obstruents in Young Korean Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially.…

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol



The Korean Church as an Agency for the Assimilation of Koreans in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is based on the hypothesis that a functional relationship exists between the emergence of Korean Christian churches in America and an increasing number of Korean immigrants to the United States. The categories investigated include: (1) demographic characteristics of church membership; (2) the purely religious role of the churches; (3)…

Lee, Don Chang


Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

SciTech Connect

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in…

Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung



Corneal hysteresis in patients with dry eye  

PubMed Central

Purpose To measure corneal hysteresis and intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with dry eye and to compare with normal subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study consists of 70 eyes of 40 patients with dry eye (group 1) and 75 eyes of 40 normal subjects (group 2). Eyes were diagnosed as dry eye or normal according to the clinical symptoms, biomicroscopical evaluation, and Schirmer test. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) were measured by the Ocular Response Analyser (ORA). Results Mean CH values were 10.56±0.25?mm?Hg and 10.34±0.26?mm?Hg, mean CRF values were 10.75±0.28?mm?Hg and 10.70±0.28?mm?Hg, mean CCT values were 542±3.20??m and 543±3.89??m in group 1 and group 2, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for these three parameters. IOPcc values measured with ORA were 15.73±0.36?mm?Hg in group 1 and 16.60±0.33?mm?Hg in group 2, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions Corneal biomechanical parameters such as CH and CRF are not influenced in dry eye. Also statistical difference was not found between the two groups according to CCT and IOPcc values.

Firat, P G; Doganay, S



North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant health study.



An Eye for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

Ostwald, Thomas



Preparation and Characterization of an Extract of German Cockroach From a Korean Source  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cockroach (CR) is an important cause of respiratory allergic disorders. We prepared a German CR extract in a standardized way and analyzed its allergenic properties. Methods The extract was prepared from German CR (Blattella germanica) obtained from a Korean colony, and its allergenic activity was compared with that of the commercial Hollister-Stier (HS) extract. The concentrations of Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were measured, and an in vitro specific IgE binding inhibition assay was performed to assess IgE reactivity. Proteolytic activity was examined by gelatin zymography. Results Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were detected at 405 U/mg and 273 ng/mg, respectively, in the Korean extract, and at 187 U/mg and 56 ng/mg, respectively, in the HS extract. The Korean extract showed 94.2% inhibition of IgE reactivity, as compared with the HS extract. A similar pattern of IgE-reactive bands was detected for the two extracts, indicating that their allergenic components are similar. The proteolytic activities of the Korean and HS extracts were found to be similar in gelatin zymography. The endotoxin levels in the Korean and HS extracts were 3,440 EU/mL and 6,580 EU/mL, respectively. Conclusions The German CR extract was prepared in a standardized way. The extract produced in this study will be useful for the development of allergy diagnostics and immunotherapeutic agents.

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Shil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Hong, Chein-Soo



Health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants.  


Despite the nation-wide efforts to improve the health status of minority immigrants, studies documenting the outcomes of these efforts are lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants to the US In this descriptive study, 70 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited from a Korean senior center and church. Health care utilization was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and hypertension management was ascertained through the objective measurement of blood pressure and a self-report questionnaire. Result indicated that 87 % of elderly Korean immigrants received regular health check-ups. Although their hypertension was not managed effectively, all participants with a diagnosis of hypertension were aware of it and were taking blood pressure medications. This study provides an overview of health care utilization and hypertension management in elderly Korean immigrants as well as ideas on ways to reach out to minority older adults for further health promoting interventions. PMID:23054538

Sin, Mo-Kyung; Hirsch, Anne



The average eye.  


For statistical and other purposes one needs to be able to determine an average eye. An average of refractive errors is readily calculated as an average of dioptric power matrices. A refractive error, however, is not so much a property of the eye as a property of the compensating lens in front of the eye. As such, it ignores other aspects of the optical character of the eye. This paper discusses the difficulties of finding a suitable average that fully accounts for the first-order optics of a set of optical systems. It proposes an average based on ray transferences and logarithms and exponentials of matrices. Application to eyes in particular is discussed. PMID:15491486

Harris, W F



Imaging in the aging eye  

SciTech Connect

Retinal imaging may seem a simple endeavor, given that the eye is far more transparent and accessible than internal organs such as the heart. Optical imaging techniques allow high resolution, with measurements of living tissues reported in microns, in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging. Most retinal imaging techniques are less invasive than endoscopy. There is a long-standing acceptance of retinal imaging as an important set of techniques in research and medicine.(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

Elsner, Ann E. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Remky, Andreas [Augenklinik der RWTH, Aachen, (Germany); Walker, Joseph P. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States); Wing, Glenn L. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Raskauskas, Paul A. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fletcher, Donald C. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kelley, Linda M. [Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States); Kiesel, Cheryl [Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States)



Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals of selected regions in the eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier. Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 600 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)



Ocular aberrations in barn owl eyes.  


Optical quality in barn owl eyes is presented in terms of measuring the ocular wavefront aberrations with a standard Tscherning-type wavefront aberrometer under natural viewing conditions. While accommodative state was uncontrolled, all eyes were focused within 0.4D with respect to the plane of the aberrometer. Total RMS wavefront error was between 0.06 and 0.15 microm (mean: 0.10 microm, STD: 0.03 microm, defocus cancelled) for a 6 mm pupil. The results suggest that image quality in barn owl eyes is excellent. PMID:17845811

Harmening, Wolf M; Vobig, Michael A; Walter, Peter; Wagner, Hermann



Examining the Health Information–Seeking Behaviors of Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Korean Americans suffer from high levels of cancer incidence and have low cancer screening rates. A significant number of Korean Americans lack adequate information about cancer screening tests. However, little is known about their health behaviors. This article examines exposure to mass media and health information–seeking behaviors for Korean Americans, and their associations with demographic characteristics influencing variations in

Kyeung Mi Oh; Gary L. Kreps; Jungmi Jun; Elizabeth Chong; Lolita Ramsey



Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul



Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

Cha, Mi Yang



The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin



Distinguishing Samples of Spoken Korean from Rhythmic and Regional Competitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined characteristics of the acoustic signature of languages in connection with identification of the target language, Korean. In one experiment, listeners were asked to distinguish spoken samples of Korean from competitor languages sharing syllable based rhythm. In another, listeners attempted to distinguish Korean from languages spoken in the…

Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna



Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at the development of non-contact dry eye diagnosis based on an infrared thermal imager system, which was used to measure the cooling of the ocular surface temperature of normal and dry eye patients. A total of 108 subjects were measured, including 26 normal and 82 dry eye patients. We have observed that the dry eye patients have a fast cooling of the ocular surface temperature than the normal control group. We have developed a simplified algorithm for calculating the temperature decay constant of the ocular surface for discriminating between normal and dry eye. This study shows the diagnostic of dry eye syndrome by the infrared thermal imager system has reached a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 75%, and the area under the ROC curve 0.841. The infrared thermal imager system has a great potential to be developed for dry eye screening with the advantages of non-contact, fast, and convenient implementation.

Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chen, Chih Yen; Cheng, Hung You; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chang, David O.



Advocacy for eye care  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya



Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.  


Abstract Purpose: Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Materials and methods: Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Results: Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). Conclusions: The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags. PMID:24502301

Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J



Dosimetry and physical treatment planning for iodine eye plaque therapy  

SciTech Connect

The dosimetry of eye plaques loaded with iodine-125 seeds (type 6702) was performed by means of computer calculations and measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Measurements of the depth dose distribution (2-25.5 mm) along the transverse axis of a single seed were performed in water equivalent phantom material. The transverse axis attenuation and geometry factor F(r) was obtained by applying a least squares fit to the measured data. Based on the resulting radial dose function, a computer program was developed which calculates dose distributions within the eye for arbitrary loading and placement of the eye plaque. The computational results were verified by TLD measurements in an eye phantom.

Alberti, W.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Muskalla, K.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D. (Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen, (F.R.Germany))



Rapid eye movement latency in children and adolescents.  


Rapid eye movement sleep distribution changes during development, but little is known about rapid eye movement latency variation in childhood by age, sex, or pathologic sleep states. We hypothesized that: (1) rapid eye movement latency would differ in normal children by age, with a younger cohort (1-10 years) demonstrating shorter rapid eye movement latency than an older group (>10-18 years); (2) rapid eye movement latency in children would differ from typical adult rapid eye movement latency; and (3) intrinsic sleep disorders (narcolepsy, pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) would disrupt normal developmental patterns of rapid eye movement latency. A retrospective chart review included data from clinic visits and of rapid eye movement latency and other parameters measured by overnight polysomnography. Participants included 98 control children, 90 children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 13 children with narcolepsy. There were no statistically significant main effects of age category or sex on rapid eye movement latency. Rapid eye movement latency, however, exhibited a significant inverse correlation with age within the older control children. Healthy children exhibited rapid eye movement latencies significantly longer than adults. Normal control patients demonstrated significantly longer rapid eye movement latency than obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy patients. PMID:18725060

Mason, Thornton B A; Teoh, Laurel; Calabro, Kristen; Traylor, Joel; Karamessinis, Laurie; Schultz, Brian; Samuel, John; Gallagher, Paul R; Marcus, Carole L



Ocular aberrations in barn owl eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical quality in barn owl eyes is presented in terms of measuring the ocular wavefront aberrations with a standard Tscherning-type wavefront aberrometer under natural viewing conditions. While accommodative state was uncontrolled, all eyes were focused within 0.4D with respect to the plane of the aberrometer. Total RMS wavefront error was between 0.06 and 0.15?m (mean: 0.10?m, STD: 0.03?m, defocus cancelled)

Wolf M. Harmening; Michael A. Vobig; Peter Walter; Hermann Wagner



Some statistical characteristics of large deepwater waves around the Korean Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between significant wave height and period, the variability of significant wave period, the spectral peak enhancement factor, and the directional spreading parameter of large deepwater waves around the Korean Peninsula have been investigated using various sources of wave measurement and hindcasting data. For very large waves comparable to design waves, it is recommended to use the average value

Kyung-Duck Suh; Hyuk-Dong Kwon; Dong-Young Lee



Model eyes for evaluation of intraocular lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In accordance with the present international standard for intraocular lenses (IOLs), their imaging performance should be measured in a model eye having an aberration-free cornea. This was an acceptable setup when IOLs had all surfaces spherical and hence the measured result reflected the spherical aberration of the IOL. With newer IOLs designed to compensate for the spherical aberration of the cornea there is a need for a model eye with a physiological level of spherical aberration in the cornea. A literature review of recent studies indicated a fairly high amount of spherical aberration in human corneas. Two model eyes are proposed. One is a modification of the present ISO standard, replacing the current achromat doublet with an aspheric singlet cut in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The other also has an aspheric singlet cut in PMMA, but the dimensions of it and the entire model eye are close to the physiological dimensions of the eye. They give equivalent results when the object is at infinity, but for finite object distances only the latter is correct. The two models are analyzed by calculation assuming IOLs with different degrees of asphericity to elucidate their sensitivity to variation and propose tolerances. Measured results in a variant of the modified ISO model eye are presented.

Norrby, Sverker; Piers, Patricia; Campbell, Charles; van der Mooren, Marrie



Why is allergic eye disease a problem for eye workers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is allergic eye disease, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in particular, a problem for eye workers and patients in hot climates? A large number of children are affected Over a quarter of 2,250 children seen at a tertiary referral paediatric eye clinic in East Africa had vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Even more came flocking to screening clinics complaining of itchy eyes. This

Anthony Hall



Diabetes - Eye Complications  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... can be prevented or delayed through good diabetes management. When they occur, these diseases can be treated ... as retinopathy, cataract, and glaucoma. Prevention through successful management of diabetes helps prevent and delay these eye ...


Eye Injuries at Home  


... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...


Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms  


... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...


What Is Dry Eye?  


... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...


Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment  


... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...


Using Eye Makeup  


... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...


Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis  


... Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 ...


Multimodal eye recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III



Eye Injuries at Work  


... happen in the fields of manufacturing, construction and mining, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. ... Providers EyeWiki contact us sitemap Reproducing text or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US ...


Dry eye syndrome  


... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... t smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...


Molecular epidemiology of Korean porcine sapeloviruses.  


To evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine sapeloviruses (PSVs) in Korea, a total of 100 diarrhea fecal samples from pigs were analyzed by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays with primer pairs specific for the VP1 gene. Overall, 34 % of the diarrhea samples tested positive for PSV, and a high proportion of infections occurred along with a variety of other enteric viruses and bacteria. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 genes revealed pronounced genetic diversities between PSVs from Korean and elsewhere. Our results indicate that PSV infections are very common in Korean pigs with diarrhea. The infecting strains are genetically diverse. PMID:24232913

Son, Kyu-Yeol; Kim, Deok-Song; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Kwon, Hyoung-Jun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Ryu, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh



Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts.

Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.



Dense Deposit Disease in Korean Children: A Multicenter Clinicopathologic Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic characteristics of dense deposit disease (DDD) in Korean children and to determine whether these characteristics differ between Korean and American children with DDD. In 2010, we sent a structured protocol about DDD to pediatric nephrologists throughout Korea. The data collected were compared with previously published data on 14 American children with DDD. Korean children had lower 24-hr urine protein excretion and higher serum albumin levels than American children. The light microscopic findings revealed that a higher percentage of Korean children had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patterns (Korean, 77.8%; American, 28.6%, P = 0.036), whereas a higher percentage of American children had crescents (Korean, 0%; American, 78.6%, P < 0.001). The findings from the electron microscopy revealed that Korean children were more likely to have segmental electron dense deposits in the lamina densa of the glomerular basement membrane (Korean, 100%; American, 28.6%, P = 0.002); mesangial deposit was more frequent in American children (Korean, 66.7%; American, 100%, P = 0.047). The histological findings revealed that Korean children with DDD were more likely to show membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patterns than American children. The degree of proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia was milder in Korean children than American children.

Park, Se Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Ha, Tae-Sun; Lim, Beom Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Park, Yong Hoon; Lee, Dae Yeol; Kim, Pyung Kil; Kim, Kyo Sun; Chung, Woo Yeong



Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.  


Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors. PMID:21404760

Chang, Bocheol



Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.


Keratoconus - a Review from a Tertiary Eye-Care Center?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To understand the clinical pattern of keratoconus in patients visiting a tertiary eye-care center. This may improve the knowledge of the disease and treatment options. Methods The records from a tertiary eye-care hospital-based center were reviewed retrospectively to collect the required data. Medical records from 187 patients who had visited the contact lens clinic in the course of a three-month period were reviewed. The data available on demographics, year of diagnosis of keratoconus, topographic measurements, slit-lamp biomicroscopic findings, previously used or currently advised refractive correction, visual acuity and contact lens parameters were reviewed and recorded. Results Of the 187 patients, 365 eyes were included in the study. Six eyes that had previous corneal grafting and 3 eyes that were fellow normal eyes of unilateral keratoconus were excluded. The patients’ mean age was 21.3±6.96 years. There were 172 (47.12%) eyes previously diagnosed as keratoconus and 193 (52.87%) eyes that had been newly diagnosed as keratoconus. In the newly diagnosed group, 188 eyes were fitted with different types of contact lenses and 5 eyes were advised surgery. In the previously diagnosed group, 138 eyes and 6 eyes continued wearing conventional and multicurve custom rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, respectively. Of the remaining 28 eyes, 3 eyes were fitted with RGP lenses, 16 were refitted with piggyback, 2 with multicurve custom RGP and 7 were advised for scleral lenses or surgery. Conclusion This study brings out the clinical profile of keratoconus patients in a tertiary eye-care center in south India. The findings in this study stresses out the importance of defining the treatment options in keratoconus with the appropriate contact lenses.

Mahadevan, Rajeswari; Arumugam, Amudha Oli; Arunachalam, Valarmathi; Kumaresan, Brindha



Peak torque and electromyographic responses during fatiguing concentric muscle actions with eyes-open versus eyes-closed.  


This study compared peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) mean frequency responses during fatiguing muscle actions with eyes-open vs eyes-closed. On four separate days, 21 men (M age = 23 yr.) performed 100 repeated maximal concentric muscle actions of the forearm flexors with eyes-open, eyes-closed, eyes-closed for first 50 muscle actions, and eyes-closed for the last 50 muscle actions while surface EMG signals were collected from the biceps brachii. The data were examined with seven separate repeated measures analyses of variance. There were no mean differences among the conditions for initial, average, and final peak torque, percent decline, the linear slope coefficient for the decline in peak torque, as well as the linear slope coefficient and y-intercept for the normalized EMG mean frequency vs repetition number relationships. These findings indicate performance during fatiguing muscle actions is not influenced by whether participants have their eyes open or closed throughout testing. PMID:24032332

Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M



Spirometric Standards for Healthy Children and Adolescents of Korean Chinese in Northeast China  

PubMed Central

In China there are 1,923,842 Korean Chinese, who live mostly (92.27%) in the country's three northeast provinces. In spite of this sizeable number, no spirometric data are available at present on them. The present study investigated normal spirometric reference values for the Korean Chinese children and adolescents. Spirometry was performed in 443 healthy Korean Chinese children and adolescents aged 8-18 yr with measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). Reference equations for FEV1, FVC, PEF and MMEF were derived by using multiple regression analysis. All of the measured spirometric parameters correlated positively with height and age significantly (P < 0.001). The predicted values of FVC and FEV1 were higher than values obtained by using Caucasian and other Asian equations (P < 0.001). A set of spirometric reference equations has been derived using a relatively large, healthy, non-smoking young Korean Chinese population with a wide range of ages and heights, the results of which differ from those gained from several other reference equations. These reference equations should be used for evaluation of lung function in this population.

Feng, Kui; Chen, Li; Han, Shao-Mei



Korean Supervisors' Experiences in Clinical Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demand for mental health services in Korea is increasing, and a corresponding rise in the number of trainees in counseling psychology results in a need for effective supervision. Using a grounded theory approach, this study explored Korean supervisors' experiences in supervision to better understand the current status of supervision practice…

Bang, Keeyeon; Park, Jeeseon



Interlocking Ownership in the Korean Chaebol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses how a dominant entrepreneur of the Korean chaebol is able to exercise control, despite having a tiny shareholding, through strategic interlocking ownership. The entrepreneur organises his intimate group, consisting of three clusters of in-house shareholders, and they together have controlling interests in only a few subsidiaries, mainly public companies. These central subsidiaries, as quasi-holding companies, control most

Dong-Woon Kim



Effect of Korean Seasonings on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Korean peoples have a custom of eating raw fish, and food poisoning due to Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a common enteropathogenic contaminant of sea fish, is frequently encountered in warm seasons among peoples eating raw fish. Raw sea fish and shell fish are...

B. Kim D. Chun J. K. Chung



Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling.

Koh, Hesung Chun



Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the use of eye tracking measures (saccades, smooth-pursuit eye movements, fixations during scene and face perception, and pupillary dilation) to study typical and clinical populations of children and adolescents and evaluates the use of these measures. The studies are evaluated with a focus on points that may be of general…

Karatekin, Canan



Stress free configuration of the human eye.  


Numerical simulations of eye globes often rely on topographies that have been measured in vivo using devices such as the Pentacam or OCT. The topographies, which represent the form of the already stressed eye under the existing intraocular pressure, introduce approximations in the analysis. The accuracy of the simulations could be improved if either the stress state of the eye under the effect of intraocular pressure is determined, or the stress-free form of the eye estimated prior to conducting the analysis. This study reviews earlier attempts to address this problem and assesses the performance of an iterative technique proposed by Pandolfi and Holzapfel [1], which is both simple to implement and promises high accuracy in estimating the eye's stress-free form. A parametric study has been conducted and demonstrated reliance of the error level on the level of flexibility of the eye model, especially in the cornea region. However, in all cases considered 3-4 analysis iterations were sufficient to produce a stress-free form with average errors in node location <10(-6)mm and a maximal error <10(-4)mm. This error level, which is similar to what has been achieved with other methods and orders of magnitude lower than the accuracy of current clinical topography systems, justifies the use of the technique as a pre-processing step in ocular numerical simulations. PMID:23041490

Elsheikh, Ahmed; Whitford, Charles; Hamarashid, Rosti; Kassem, Wael; Joda, Akram; Büchler, Philippe



Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing  

PubMed Central

The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers’ temporal viewing strategies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point-of-interest, and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli.

Wang, Helena X.; Freeman, Jeremy; Merriam, Elisha P.; Hasson, Uri; Heeger, David J.



Detection of vigilance performance using eye blinks.  


Research has shown that sustained attention or vigilance declines over time on task. Sustained attention is necessary in many environments such as air traffic controllers, cyber operators, and imagery analysts. A lapse of attention in any one of these environments can have harmful consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine if eye blink metrics from an eye-tracker are related to changes in vigilance performance and cerebral blood flow velocities. Nineteen participants performed a vigilance task while wearing an eye-tracker on four separate days. Blink frequency and duration changed significantly over time during the task. Both blink frequency and duration increased as performance declined and right cerebral blood flow velocity declined. These results suggest that eye blink information may be an indicator of arousal levels. Using an eye-tracker to detect changes in eye blinks in an operational environment would allow preventative measures to be implemented, perhaps by providing perceptual warning signals or augmenting human cognition through non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. PMID:23722006

McIntire, Lindsey K; McKinley, R Andy; Goodyear, Chuck; McIntire, John P



Eye trauma epidemiology in regional australia.  


Abstract Purpose: To describe the epidemiology of eye trauma presenting to a regional referral health service in New South Wales, Australia. Methods: A two-stage retrospective and prospective case series study was conducted. Patients who presented with eye trauma to Wagga Wagga Base Hospital (WWBH) emergency department (ED) during a one-year review period formed the retrospective case series (RCS). Patient inclusion was determined using Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms and International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes applied to medical records. Patients presenting with eye trauma to the WWBH ED or its ophthalmology service over a prospective 80-day study period formed the prospective case series (PCS). The main outcome measures were patient demographics, eye trauma incidence for Wagga Wagga and the Murrumbidgee region and injury details. Results: A total of 411 and 117 eye injuries were identified for the RCS and PCS, respectively. Mean age was 35.5?±?18.6 years (RCS) and 34.1?±?17.1 years (PCS), with male predominance (77.9%, RCS; 89.7%, PCS). The incidence of eye trauma in Wagga Wagga and Murrumbidgee was estimated from the PCS at 537.1 and 334.4, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. A large proportion of injuries were work-related (40.2% RCS, 45.8% PCS). Protective eyewear use in work-related injuries was low (27.6% RCS, 39.0% PCS). Conclusions: Eye trauma remains a significant public health concern with a high incidence in Wagga Wagga and the Murrumbidgee region. Protective eyewear compliance is low in work-related eye injuries. Patient demographic and occupational factors may be targeted to reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24963663

Northey, Luke Cameron; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Curran, Shane; McGirr, Joseph



[Quantitative analysis of smooth pursuit eye movement].  


Abnormalities of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) have been estimated, mainly using the wave form on an electro-oculogram, in a qualitative way. Many methods for quantitative analysis of SPEM have been designed, though most are still uncommon in present clinical use. Using a personal computer, we developed a method of automatic quantitative analysis of ocular tracking eye movement recorded by electro-oculography (EOG). The design concept of this method is based on the observation that eye movement during ocular tracking consists of two different kinds of eye movements, one is SPEM and the other is saccade. The combination of SPEM and saccade (composite eye movement: CEM) commonly appears during ocular tracking. These two kinds of eye movement are essentially different not only in behavior but also about involved neural pathway in the central nervous system. From this point of view, we believe that the two kinds of eye movements involved in ocular tracking should be evaluated separately. The analysis method is outlined as follows. A horizontal sinusoidally moving visual target was employed to elicit ocular tracking eye movements. The test frequencies were set at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8Hz, and the amplitude of target motion was 15 deg at each frequency. The 20 seconds of eye movement data measured by EOG were fed into the computer through a digital-analog converter for further analysis. Using our original saccade detection algorithm, based on the physiological behavior of saccades, the saccadic components were detected and removed from the eye movement wave. The remaining parts, fragments of SPEM, were connected by means of interpolating defective parts. The reconstructed wave was a slow cumulative eye position curve (SCEP). Sinusoidal target motion, CEM and SCEP were processed by the FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) method. Bode plots were applied to summarize the gain and phase of responses to SCEP and the target motion wave. These processes enable us to estimate abnormalities of SPEM such as low gain, abnormal phase shift and large trends in tested duration. We conclude that the method described here is useful for quantitative estimation of SPEM in clinical neuro-otological examinations. PMID:7782976

Hashiba, M; Yasui, K; Watabe, H; Matsuoka, T; Baba, S



Changes of the eye optics after iris constriction?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the possible change in the optics of the human eye after iris constriction. Methods Ocular aberrations were measured under natural viewing conditions in 26 eyes. The measured eyes fixated on a dim target while the contralateral eye was either occluded (so the measured eye had a large pupil) or highly illuminated (so the measured eye had a small pupil). The measured eyes fixated to a dim target placed 0.5 D beyond the subject’s far point. Zernike values obtained in both situations were compared within the same pupil diameter corresponding to the one obtained under the high illumination condition. Results Significant variation in some aberration coefficients were found between the two illumination conditions. Specially, spherical aberration (SA) increased significantly after pupil miosis (P = .0017). The mean increase of SA measured was 0.018 microns, for a 3-mm pupil. Mean values of other ocular aberrations also vary significantly after pupil miosis (changes were larger than the standard deviation of the repeated measurements). A mean paraxial hyperopic shift of one third of diopter was found after iris constriction. Conclusion Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.

Montes-Mico, Robert; Hernandez, Patricio; Fernandez-Sanchez, Vicente; Bonaque, Sergio; Lara, Francisco; Lopez-Gil, Norberto



Job Information Deprivation in the United States: A Case Study of Korean Immigrants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the methods of job information acquisition used by recent Korean immigrants. Indicates the Koreans most frequently use personal contact with other Koreans. Reviews findings from the perspective of labor market segmentation. (Author/MK)

Kim, Kwang Chung; And Others



31 CFR 500.586 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR transactions concerning certain North Korean property. 500.586 Section transactions concerning certain North Korean property. (a) Subject to the limitations...the property of North Korea or a North Korean national arises on or after June...



31 CFR 500.586 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR transactions concerning certain North Korean property. 500.586 Section transactions concerning certain North Korean property. (a) Subject to the limitations...the property of North Korea or a North Korean national arises on or after June...



Facial perception of conspecifics: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially attend to proper orientation and open eyes.  


This paper reports on the use of an eye-tracking technique to examine how chimpanzees look at facial photographs of conspecifics. Six chimpanzees viewed a sequence of pictures presented on a monitor while their eye movements were measured by an eye tracker. The pictures presented conspecific faces with open or closed eyes in an upright or inverted orientation in a frame. The results demonstrated that chimpanzees looked at the eyes, nose, and mouth more frequently than would be expected on the basis of random scanning of faces. More specifically, they looked at the eyes longer than they looked at the nose and mouth when photographs of upright faces with open eyes were presented, suggesting that particular attention to the eyes represents a spontaneous face-scanning strategy shared among monkeys, apes, and humans. In contrast to the results obtained for upright faces with open eyes, the viewing times for the eyes, nose, and mouth of inverted faces with open eyes did not differ from one another. The viewing times for the eyes, nose, and mouth of faces with closed eyes did not differ when faces with closed eyes were presented in either an upright or inverted orientation. These results suggest the possibility that open eyes play an important role in the configural processing of faces and that chimpanzees perceive and process open and closed eyes differently. PMID:20213188

Hirata, Satoshi; Fuwa, Koki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Fujita, Shin



Biological Profiles of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

In 1945, many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. This study compared the biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea with those of a representative sample of Koreans obtained during a similar period. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and urinalysis of survivors (n=414) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=414) recruited from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005. Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels (p<0.01) in the survivors. Conversely, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and the proportion of positive urine occult blood (p<0.01) were lower in the survivors. Our findings suggest that biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors were adversely affected by radiation exposure.

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Su-Young; Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jin-Kook



The Mean Gaze Path: Information Reduction and Non-Intrusive Attention Detection for Eye Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Eye tracking is the process of measuring the movements,of the eye. This typically includes measuring the point of gaze (where the subject is looking), or simply measuring the motion of the eye relative to the head. There is a multitude of already existing and upcoming uses of eye-tracking, within fields ranging from human-computer interaction, psychology studies, marketing research and

Alexander Torstling



Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of QOLIE-10 in Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose It is necessary in clinical practice to screen patients with epilepsy for quality-of-life factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE)-10 survey and to determine its reliability and validity. Methods Data were collected from 397 adult epilepsy patients. The ten items of QOLIE-10 were derived from the Korean version of QOLIE-31. We assessed factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Test-retest was performed in 97 patients. Results The ten items of QOLIE-10 were grouped into two factors: epilepsy effects/role function (driving, social, work, physical effect, mental effect, and memory) and mental health (overall quality of life, depression, and energy). The internal consistency reliability coefficient (Cronbach's ?) was 0.843 for epilepsy effects/role function and 0.606 for the mental-health scale. Test - retest data revealed statistically significant correlations for individual items (range, r=0.66-0.38) and scales (range, r=0.63-0.48), except for one item, driving (r=0.21, p=0.133). QOLIE-10 was significantly correlated with the source scales in the Korean version of QOLIE-31 and with several external measures. The QOLIE-10 scores discriminated between patient groups according to their seizure severity and level of education. Conclusions QOLIE-10 was derived from the Korean version of QOLIE-31. The results of this study show that QOLIE-10 can be applied as a screening measure of quality of life in Korean epilepsy patients.

Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Byung-In



Development and Evaluation of Korean Version of Quality of Sexual Function (QSF-K) in Healthy Korean Women.  


This study was done to develop a Korean version of the Quality of Sexual Function (QSF-K) and evaluate the validity and reliability of the QSF-K. The participants were 220 women who visited the Center for Uterine Cancer at the National Cancer Center in Korea. Participants completed the scale once and then again at a two to four week interval. The QSF-K, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC-QLQ-C30) were used in this study. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha were analyzed. In the analysis of the reliability, Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 and the ICC was 0.70. The validity measured with the AUC of the QSF-K comparing the FSFI and Global Health/QOL of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 was 0.717 and 0.728, respectively. Specifically, the AUC of the sexual activity level of the QSF-K was 0.838 in the FSFI comparison. The AUC of the psycho-somatic QOL of the QSF-K was 0.758 in the Global Health/QOL of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 comparison. Approximately half of the women (51.8%) had mild complaints/problems. The Korean version of the QSF was developed and validated. PMID:24932074

Lee, Yumi; Lim, Myong Cheol; Son, Yedong; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Kim, Jung-Sup; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon



The Draize Eye Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by

Kirk R Wilhelmus



Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael



Through Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

Narva, Sara



Are Eyes ever Autophanous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLONEL HERSCHEL'S letter in NATURE of January 18, followed by that of Mr. Hunt, have no doubt interested others besides myself. I do not think that there is any reason to suppose that any animal's eyes are ``autophanous, '' however general the belief to the contrary may be among those not given to accurate observation. I can add to the

C. V. Boys



Administering Eye Medications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.


Pursuit Eye Movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)



A novel frameshift mutation in the EYA1 gene in a Korean family with branchio-oto-renal syndrome.  


Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by branchial cleft fistulae or cysts, preauricular pits, ear malformations, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. Mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophilia eyes absent gene (EYA1) are the most common cause of BOR syndrome. In this study, we found a Korean family showing clinical features of the disease. Mutation analysis of the EYA1 gene revealed a novel one-base-pair deletion resulting in truncated protein (c.321delT; p.Ala107fs). This is the first report of BOR syndrome caused by deletion mutation of the EYA1 gene in Korea. PMID:19667416

Lee, Jong Dae; Kim, Shi-Chan; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Hye-Jin; Choi, Soo-Young; Kim, Un-Kyung



Diversity and Special Education: Korean InterAgency Network (KIN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity and Special Education: Korean Inter-Agency Network (KIN) explores issues relating to ethno cultural identity and special education. The paper outlines potential needs within the Korean-Canadian community, and identifies a source of support that has been developed by the community itself. Cobb concludes that agencies, such as the Korean Inter-Agency Network, can provide a vital link between schools and communities

Cam Cobb



Enterprise resource planning survey of Korean manufacturing firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To report a recently completed study on enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation in Korean manufacturing firms.Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An online survey was conducted (with e-mail invitation and telephone call reminder) to collect data from 306 Korean manufacturing firms.Findings – This study presents the issues related to ERP implementation in Korean manufacturing firms, including pre-implementation activities, implementation experiences, ERP system

Pairin Katerattanakul; Soongoo Hong; Jinyoul Lee



Nonamblyopic eye visual acuity through Bangerter filters  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the amount of visual acuity degradation induced by Bangerter filters in the better-seeing eye and to evaluate its stability over time in children with moderate amblyopia. Methods Visual acuity with and without a Bangerter filter was measured in the nonamblyopic eye of 186 children with moderate amblyopia who were then treated with either patching or with the Bangerter filters. A 0.2 filter was used for amblyopia of 20/80 and a 0.3 filter for amblyopia from 20/40 to 20/63. For the 89 children randomized to Bangerter filters, visual acuity was also measured in the nonamblyopic eye with and without the filters at both 6 weeks and 12 weeks after initiating treatment. Results Mean degradation in visual acuity of the nonamblyopic eye at baseline was 5.1 logMAR lines with the 0.2 filter and 4.8 logMAR lines with the 0.3 filter. The degradation with each filter did not always agree with the manufacturer’s specifications. Over time, the amount of degradation with the filters decreased. Conclusions The 0.2 and 0.3 Bangerter filters degrade nonamblyopic eye visual acuity sufficiently in amblyopic children. Because the amount of degradation decreases over time, it is recommended to periodically apply a new filter when using this type of amblyopia treatment.

Rutstein, Robert P.; Foster, Nicole C.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kraker, Raymond T.; Lee, Dave H.; Melia, Michele; Quinn, Graham E.; Tamkins, Susanna M.; Wallace, David K.



Relation between insulin resistance and hematological parameters in elderly Koreans—Southwest Seoul (SWS) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the relation between insulin resistance and hematological parameters in elderly Koreans. This study included 1314 non-diabetic subjects over the age of 60, selected from a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in 1999 in Seoul, Korea. We measured fasting and post-load 2 h plasma glucose, insulin levels, lipid profiles, anthropometric measures, and hematological parameters. The degree

K. M Choi; J Lee; Y. H Kim; K. B Kim; D. L Kim; S. G Kim; D. H Shin; N. H Kim; I. B Park; D. S Choi; S. H Baik



Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns  


... required by state law to put drops or ointment in a newborn's eyes to prevent disease. In ... To treat infection, topical antibiotic eye drops and ointments, oral antibiotics, and intravenous (given through a vein) ...


Simple Solutions for Dry Eye  


... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...


Protecting Your Eyes at Work  


... significantly more eye protection. They have lenses and frames that are much stronger than regular eyeglasses. Safety ... for the Z87 mark on the lens or frame. Safety glasses provide eye protection for general working ...


Eye Bank Association of America  


... to content Skip to Navigation Find an Eye Bank Near You MEMBER LOGIN ALERT (April 11, 2014): ... is the nationally-recognized accrediting body for eye banks. Since 1961, EBAA member banks have restored sight ...


Thermographic Eye Temperature as an Index to Body Temperature in Ponies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared thermography (IRT) is a passive, remote, and noninvasive method of measuring surface temperatures. Select surface locations, such as the eye, could indicate body temperature. To investigate whether thermographic eye temperatures were associated with body temperatures and could be used to detect febrile ponies, we measured IRT eye temperatures, rectal temperatures, and implanted thermal microchip temperatures from 24 male ponies

Shylo R. Johnson; Sangeeta Rao; Stephen B. Hussey; Paul S. Morley; Josie L. Traub-Dargatz



Assessment of the Contribution of Chemical Species to the Eye Irritation Potential of Photochemical Smog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eye irritation measurements are available from smog chamber solar irradiations of selected hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxide mixtures. These results have been used to compute eye irritation intensity parameters for formaldehyde, acrolein, peroxyacetyl nitrate an...

A. P. Altshuller



Eye investigation with optical microradar techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many problems exist in ophthalmology, where accurate measurements of eye structure and its parameters can be provided using optical radar concept is of remote sensing. Coherent and non-coherent approaches are reviewed aiming cornea shape measurement and measurement of aberration distribution in the elements and media of an eye. Coherent radar techniques are analyzed taking into account non- reciprocity of eye media and anisoplanatism of the fovea, that results in an exiting image being not an auto- correlation of the point-spread function of a single pass, even in the approximation of spatial invariance of the system. It is found, that aberrations of the cornea and lens are not additive, and may not be brought to summary aberrations on the entrance aperture of the lens. Anisoplanatism of the fovea and its roughness lead to low degree of coherence in scattered light. To estimate the result of measurements, methodology has been developed using Zernike polynomials expansions. Aberration distributions were gotten from measurements in 16 points of an eye situated on two concentric circles. Wave aberration functions have been approximated using least-square criterion. Thus, all data were provided necessary for cornea ablation with PRK procedure.

Molebny, Vasyl V.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.; Kurashov, Vitalij N.; Chyzh, Igor H.




EPA Science Inventory

In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...


Cyclodextrins in Eye Drop Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, eye drop formulations are aqueous solutions. Many drugs that are useful in topical application to the eye are not sufficiently water soluble to be dissolved in simple aqueous solutions. This problem is approached through hydrophilic prodrugs, suspensions, lipid based solutions and excipients such as cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins can be used to form aqueous eye drop solutions with lipophilic drugs, such

Einar Stefánsson; Thorsteinn Loftsson



Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades.

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose experimental adaptive eye model based on flexible 18-electrode bimorph mirror reproducing human eye aberrations up to 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials at frequency of 10Hz. The accuracy of aberrations reproduction in most cases is better than ?/10 RMS. The model is introduced to aberrometer for human eye aberrations compensation to improve visual acuity test.

Galetskiy, Sergey O.; Kudryashov, Alexey V.



Biomedical Devices for the Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the structure and function of the human eye, learning some amazing features about our eyes, which provide us with sight and an understanding of our surroundings. Students also learn about some common eye problems and the biomedical devices and medical procedures that resolve or help to lessen the effects of these vision deficiencies, including vision correction surgery.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Epidemiology of influenza virus in Korean poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological information on currently circulating influenza viruses in poultry in Korea has not been available. We performed the surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the live poultry markets where chickens, ducks, geese, and doves are sold. H9N2, H3N2, and H6N1 influenza viruses were isolated from poultry in the Korean live bird markets. H9N2 influenza viruses were mainly isolated from chickens;

Sang Heui Seo; Hyun Soo Kim



Study on Korean pine needle rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needle rust of Korean pine is a common disease in the forest region in Yichun of Heilongjiang Province. It mainly harms\\u000a the needles of young trees which are under the age of fifteen. The pathogenic fungus is identified asColeosporium saussureae Th ü m. Needle rust doesn’t cause pine trees to die, but reduces the growth rate of young trees.

Gao Yuhai



Applications of the Visible Korean Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible Korean Human (VKH) consisting of magnetic resonance, computer tomography, anatomic, and segmented images was created.\\u000a In the VKH, several techniques were developed and numerous data were acquired. The VKH techniques majorly contributed to the\\u000a generation of advanced segmented images, Visible Living Human, and Visible Mouse. Also, a software for sectional anatomy,\\u000a three dimensional images for virtual dissection and virtual

Min Suk Chung; Jin Seo Park



Comparison of mandibular arch forms of Korean and Vietnamese patients by using facial axis points on three-dimensional models  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was aimed at comparing the mandibular arch forms of Korean and Vietnamese patients by using facial axis (FA) points on three-dimensional (3D) models. Methods Mandibular casts of 68 Korean (Class I malocclusion, 30; Class II malocclusion, 38) and 78 Vietnamese (Class I malocclusion, 41; Class II malocclusion, 37) patients were scanned in their occluded positions and grouped according to arch form (tapered, ovoid, and square). The FA point of each tooth was digitized on the 3D mandibular models. The measurements and frequency distributions of the arch forms were compared between the ethnic groups. Results The Vietnamese patients had significantly greater intercanine depth and intercanine and intermolar width-to-depth ratios than the Korean patients (p < 0.05). The frequency distributions of the arch forms were also significantly different (p = 0.038), but no sexual dimorphism was found. Conclusions Vietnamese people tend to have deeper and wider arches than Korean people. The three arch forms are evenly distributed in Korean people, but Vietnamese people frequently have square arches. Clinicians should identify the correct arch form of an ethnic group before initiating orthodontic treatment.

Lee, Kil-jun; Trang, Vu Thi Thu; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong



Longer Eye Contact Improves ADHD Children's Compliance with Parents' Commands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effectiveness of eye contact in reducing ADHD children's problems with compliance. Seventy-six parents of ADHD boys between ages 5 and 10 were randomized into two treatment groups and a control group. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that, as hypothesized, eye contact was effective in reducing ADHD children's problems with…

Kapalka, G. M.



Eye fixation related potentials in a proof reading task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye fixation related potential (EFRP) associated with the occurrence of fixation pauses can be obtained by averaging EEGs at termination of saccades. EFRP is a kind of ERP measurable at the eye movement situation. Variations of EFRP were examined during a proof reading task for a long time. Two paragraphs of sentences were presented on the left and the

Yuji Takeda; Masakazu Sugai; Akihiro Yagi



Light Transmittance of Ocular Media in Living Rabbit Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure the transmittance of electromagnetic radia- tion, particularly visible light, through the ocular media of living and whole rabbit eyes. Pre- vious determinations have been carried out on excised cadaver eyes. Methods. A specially designed fiberoptic probe (outer diameter, 0.9 mm) was placed in the vitreous in front of the retina using

Peep V. Algvere; Per-Arne L. Torstensson; M. Tengroth


Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.  


This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J



Korean SDO Data Center for Asian Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacecraft Solar Dynamic Observatory(SDO) satellite launched on Feb. 11,2010 by NASA for the five year mission to study the solar energy and its influence on space weather. Space Weather Prediction Center in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute(KASI) is constructing Korean Data Center of SDO for Asia region based on the letter of agreement between KASI and NASA for space weather research. SDO produces the data amount of about 1.5 TB/day and its raw data amount of about 550 TB /year. Stanford University in USA has been already operating the data center for scientific raw data, but there is a limit to use its data for space weather research and space weather service in real time because of network environment. Korean Data Center for SDO will provide scientific data not only to Korean institutes and Universities but also to international space weather societies. KASI has designed the data transfer system by using GLORIAD(10G/sec) in order to get higher performance and stability. After the first construction of data transfer and storage system in this year, we will start to distribute high quality SDO data for solar physics and space weather research in Asia region.

Park, Young-deuk



Combining EEG and eye tracking: identification, characterization, and correction of eye movement artifacts in electroencephalographic data  

PubMed Central

Eye movements introduce large artifacts to electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) and thus render data analysis difficult or even impossible. Trials contaminated by eye movement and blink artifacts have to be discarded, hence in standard EEG-paradigms subjects are required to fixate on the screen. To overcome this restriction, several correction methods including regression and blind source separation have been proposed. Yet, there is no automated standard procedure established. By simultaneously recording eye movements and 64-channel-EEG during a guided eye movement paradigm, we investigate and review the properties of eye movement artifacts, including corneo-retinal dipole changes, saccadic spike potentials and eyelid artifacts, and study their interrelations during different types of eye- and eyelid movements. In concordance with earlier studies our results confirm that these artifacts arise from different independent sources and that depending on electrode site, gaze direction, and choice of reference these sources contribute differently to the measured signal. We assess the respective implications for artifact correction methods and therefore compare the performance of two prominent approaches, namely linear regression and independent component analysis (ICA). We show and discuss that due to the independence of eye artifact sources, regression-based correction methods inevitably over- or under-correct individual artifact components, while ICA is in principle suited to address such mixtures of different types of artifacts. Finally, we propose an algorithm, which uses eye tracker information to objectively identify eye-artifact related ICA-components (ICs) in an automated manner. In the data presented here, the algorithm performed very similar to human experts when those were given both, the topographies of the ICs and their respective activations in a large amount of trials. Moreover it performed more reliable and almost twice as effective than human experts when those had to base their decision on IC topographies only. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated an optimal balance of false positive and false negative at an area under curve (AUC) of more than 0.99. Removing the automatically detected ICs from the data resulted in removal or substantial suppression of ocular artifacts including microsaccadic spike potentials, while the relevant neural signal remained unaffected. In conclusion the present work aims at a better understanding of individual eye movement artifacts, their interrelations and the respective implications for eye artifact correction. Additionally, the proposed ICA-procedure provides a tool for optimized detection and correction of eye movement-related artifact components.

Plochl, Michael; Ossandon, Jose P.; Konig, Peter



Introduction to Symptoms of Eye Disorders  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... the Eyes Vision Loss, Sudden Other Eye Symptoms Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Symptoms of Eye ...


Eye blink detection based on eye contour extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eye blink detection is one of the important problems in computer vision. It has many applications such as face live detection and driver fatigue analysis. The existing methods towards eye blink detection can be roughly divided into two categories: contour template based and appearance based methods. The former one usually can extract eye contours accurately. However, different templates should be involved for the closed and open eyes separately. These methods are also sensitive to illumination changes. In the appearance based methods, image patches of open-eyes and closed-eyes are collected as positive and negative samples to learn a classifier, but eye contours can not be accurately extracted. To overcome drawbacks of the existing methods, this paper proposes an effective eye blink detection method based on an improved eye contour extraction technique. In our method, eye contour model is represented by 16 landmarks therefore it can describe both open and closed eyes. Each landmark is accurately recognized by fast classifier which is trained from the appearance around this landmark. Experiments have been conducted on YALE and another large data set consisting of frontal face images to extract the eye contour. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of affording accurate eye location and robust in closed eye condition. It also performs well in the case of illumination variants. The average time cost of our method is about 140ms on Pentium IV 2.8GHz PC 1G RAM, which satisfies the real-time requirement for face video sequences. This method is also applied in a face live detection system and the results are promising.

Wang, Liting; Ding, Xiaoqing; Fang, Chi; Liu, Changsong; Wang, Kongqiao



The small eye phenotype in the EPIC-Norfolk eye study: prevalence and visual impairment in microphthalmos and nanophthalmos  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of small eyes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study. Design Community cross-sectional study. Setting East England population (Norwich, Norfolk and surrounding area). Participants 8033 participants aged 48–92?years old from the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study, Norfolk, UK with axial length measurements. Participants underwent a standardised ocular examination including visual acuity (LogMAR), ocular biometry, non-contact tonometry, autorefraction and fundal photography. A small eye phenotype was defined as a participant with one or both eyes with axial length of <21?mm. Outcome measures Prevalence of small eyes, proportion with visual impairment, demographic and biometric factors. Results Ninety-six participants (1.20%, 95% CI 0.98% to 1.46%) had an eye with axial length less than 21?mm, of which 74 (77%) were women. Prevalence values for shorter axial lengths were <20?mm: 0.27% (0.18% to 0.41%); <19?mm: 0.17% (0.11% to 0.29%); <18?mm: 0.14% (0.08% to 0.25%). Two participants (2.1%) had low vision (presenting visual acuity >0.48 LogMAR) and one participant was blind (>1.3 LogMAR). The prevalence of unilateral visual impairment was higher in participants with a small eye. Multiple logistic regression modelling showed presence of a small eye to be significantly associated with shorter height, lower body mass index, higher systolic blood pressure and lower intraocular pressure. Conclusions The prevalence of people with small eyes is higher than previously thought. While small eyes were more common in women, this appears to be related to shorter height and lower body mass index. Participants with small eyes were more likely to be blind or to have unilateral visual impairment.

Day, Alexander C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Broadway, David C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J



Eye movement abnormalities.  


Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien



Laser eye protection bleaching with femtosecond exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measured optical density of various laser eye protection samples is presented as a function of irradiance using femtosecond laser pulses. We show that the protective quality of some eyewear degrades as irradiance increases. In previous studies this problem has been demonstrated for samples irradiated by nanosecond pulses, but the current study shows that some modern laser eye protection seems to be robust except for the irradiance level possible with ultrashort laser pulse exposure. We discuss the most likely saturation mechanisms in this pulse duration regime and its relevance to laser safety.

Stolarski, Jacob; Hayes, Kristy L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Stolarski, David J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.



Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

Brickell, Henry M.



Ophthalmologist in patients' eyes.  


It seems that patient's knowledge about ophthalmologist's work is very insufficient, especially about what type of examination should be undertaken for refraction condition during the "simple" eye check-up and which serious systemic diseases could be discovered thorough eye examinations. The aim of the study was to determine patients' knowledge about ophthalmologist examinations during the check-up for refraction condition, knowledge about differences between ophthalmologists and opticians, main sources of patients' ophthalmologic cognition and the main reasons for coming to special locations. Patients (311) were examined by applying the questionnaire, immediately before the eye check-up at three various refraction units. Statistical analysis used Chi-square test and test of significance between proportions, except for patients' age where Student t-test was used. Differences were statistically significant at p = 0.05. The findings show that the patients' knowledge about eye examination during the check-ups for refraction abnormalities was not satisfactory. Twenty-two percent (22%) of examined patients did not know the differences between ophthalmologists and opticians and 16% believed that after computer testing of refraction further ophthalmologic examinations were not necessary. The main sources of medical cognition were the mass media while twenty percent (20%) of the participating patients named doctor's lectures as the source of their cognition. This study revealed that a lot of work needs to be done to improve patients' education and indirectly for better screening of very serious systemic diseases and blind threatening diseases which could be discovered during the first visit for spectacle prescription. PMID:16193684

Derk, Biljana Andrijevi?; Dapi?, Natasa Kovac; Milinkovi?, Branko; Loncar, Valentina Lacmanovi?; Miji?, Vesna



Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website highlights the history and use of satellites and remote-sensing technology to determine the state of the planet. A timeline covers the history of satellites from 1858 to 2000, including both accomplishments and failures. The Eye contains slide shows and images from satellites covering the topics of volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, floods, dams, ozone, deforestation, desertification, overpopulation, exploration of space, and human conflict. A section on classroom ideas provides activities for K-12 classrooms.


Hypertension and the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to being the chief cause of death in developed countries, systemic hypertension is also a leading cause of visual\\u000a impairment. The eye is an end arteriolar system and is therefore susceptible to changes in blood pressure. It is also the\\u000a only place where blood vessels can be clearly viewed by noninvasive techniques. This paper reviews current research into

James S. Wolffsohn; Peter G. Hurcomb



Geometric adjustments to account for eye eccentricity in processing horizontal and vertical eye and head movement data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neglecting the eccentric position of the eyes in the head can lead to erroneous interpretation of ocular motor data, particularly for near targets. We discuss the geometric effects that eye eccentricity has on the processing of target-directed eye and head movement data, and we highlight two approaches to processing and interpreting such data. The first approach involves determining the true position of the target with respect to the location of the eyes in space for evaluating the efficacy of gaze, and it allows calculation of retinal error directly from measured eye, head, and target data. The second approach effectively eliminates eye eccentricity effects by adjusting measured eye movement data to yield equivalent responses relative to a specified reference location (such as the center of head rotation). This latter technique can be used to standardize measured eye movement signals, enabling waveforms collected under different experimental conditions to be directly compared, both with the measured target signals and with each other. Mathematical relationships describing these approaches are presented for horizontal and vertical rotations, for both tangential and circumferential display screens, and efforts are made to describe the sensitivity of parameter variations on the calculated results.

Huebner, W. P.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.



Cortexin diffusion in human eye sclera  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the diffusion of cytamines, a typical representative of which is cortexin, is important for evaluating the drug dose, necessary to provide sufficient concentration of the preparation in the inner tissues of the eye. In the present paper, the cortexin diffusion rate in the eye sclera is measured using the methods of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance spectroscopy. The technique for determining the diffusion coefficient is based on the registration of temporal dependence of the eye sclera scattering parameters caused by partial replacement of interstitial fluid with the aqueous cortexin solution, which reduces the level of the OCT signal and decreases the reflectance of the sclera. The values of the cortexin diffusion coefficient obtained using two independent optical methods are in good agreement. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, Valerii V; Ghosn, M G; Larin, Kirill V; Kamenskikh, T G



Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California  

PubMed Central

This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms.

Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong



Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.  


Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh



Occupational radiation dose to eyes from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in light of the revised eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection  

PubMed Central

Objective: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure that combines the use of X-ray fluoroscopy and endoscopy for examination of the bile duct. Published data on ERCP doses are limited, including staff eye dose from ERCP. Occupational eye doses are of particular interest now as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended a reduction in the dose limit to the lens of the eye. The aim of this study was to measure occupational eye doses obtained from ERCP procedures. Methods: A new eye lens dosemeter (EYE-D™, Radcard, Krakow, Poland) was used to measure the ERCP eye dose, Hp(3), at two endoscopy departments in Ireland. A review of radiation protection practice at the two facilities was also carried out. Results: The mean equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of a gastroenterologist is 0.01?mSv per ERCP procedure with an undercouch X-ray tube and 0.09?mSv per ERCP procedure with an overcouch X-ray tube. Staff eye dose normalised to patient kerma area product is also presented. Conclusion: Staff eye doses in ERCP have the potential to exceed the revised ICRP limit of 20?mSv per annum when an overcouch X-ray tube is used. The EYE-D dosemeter was found to be a convenient method for measuring lens dose. Eye doses in areas outside of radiology departments should be kept under review, particularly in light of the new ICRP eye dose limit. Advances in knowledge: Occupational eye lens doses from ERCP procedures have been established using a new commercially available dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter.

Gallagher, A; Malone, L; O'Reilly, G



Pre- and post-head processing for single- and double-scrambled sentences of a head-final language as measured by the eye tracking method.  


Using the eye-tracking method, the present study depicted pre- and post-head processing for simple scrambled sentences of head-final languages. Three versions of simple Japanese active sentences with ditransitive verbs were used: namely, (1) SO?O?V canonical, (2) SO?O?V single-scrambled, and (3) O?O?SV double-scrambled order. First pass reading times indicated that the third noun phrase just before the verb in both single- and double-scrambled sentences required longer reading times compared to canonical sentences. Re-reading times (the sum of all fixations minus the first pass reading) showed that all noun phrases including the crucial phrase before the verb in double-scrambled sentences required longer re-reading times than those required for single-scrambled sentences; single-scrambled sentences had no difference from canonical ones. Therefore, a single filler-gap dependency can be resolved in pre-head anticipatory processing whereas two filler-gap dependencies require much greater cognitive loading than a single case. These two dependencies can be resolved in post-head processing using verb agreement information. PMID:23516001

Tamaoka, Katsuo; Asano, Michiko; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko



On Homology of Arthropod Compound Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Eyes serve as models to understand the evolution of complex traits, with broad implications for the origins of evolutionary novelty. Discussions of eye evolution are relevant at many taxonomic levels, especially within arthropods where compound eye distribution is perplexing. Either compound eyes were lost numerous times or very similar eyes evolved separately in multiple lineages. Arthropod compound eye homology




Biophysics of the Eye in Computer Vision: Methods and Advanced Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eyes have it! This chapter describes cutting-edge computer vision methods employed in advanced vision sensing technologies for medical, safety, and security applications, where the human eye represents the object of interest for both the imager and the computer. A camera receives light from the real eye to form a sequence of digital images of it. As the eye scans the environment, or focuses on particular objects in the scene, the computer simultaneously localizes the eye position, tracks its movement over time, and infers measures such as the attention level, and the gaze direction in real time and fully automatic. The main focus of this chapter is on computer vision and pattern recognition algorithms for eye appearance variability modeling, automatic eye detection, and robust eye position tracking. This chapter offers good readings and solid methodologies to build the two fundamental low-level building blocks of a vision-based eye tracking technology.

Hammoud, Riad I.; Hansen, Dan Witzner


Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared experimental wave aberrations in pseudophakic eyes with aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) to simulate aberrations from numerical ray tracing on customized computer eye models using corneal topography, angle ?, ocular biometry, IOL geometry, and IOL tilt and decentration measured on the same eyes. We found high correlations between real and simulated aberrations even for the eye with only the cornea, and these increased on average when the IOL geometry and position were included. Relevant individual aberrations were well predicted by the complete eye model. Corneal spherical aberration and horizontal coma were compensated by the IOL, and in 58.3% of the cases IOL tilt and decentration contributed to compensation of horizontal coma. We conclude that customized computer eye models are a good representation of real eyes with IOLs and allow understanding of the relative contribution of optical, geometrical and surgically-related factors to image quality. Corneal spherical aberration is reduced by aspheric IOLs, although other corneal high order aberrations are still a major contributor to total aberrations in pseudophakic eyes. Tilt and decentration of the IOLs represent a relatively minor contribution of the overall optical quality of the eye.

Rosales, P.; Marcos, S.



Intraocular pressure and influencing systemic health parameters in a Korean population  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and systemic health parameters such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: A total of 30,893 healthy subjects underwent automated multiphasic tests, including non-contact tonometry, automated perimetry, fundus photography, and blood samplings for total cholesterol, HDL, and TG. Seven age groups were divided by decades ranging from 20 to 29 years to 80 + years. The association between IOP and BMI, plasma lipid profiles was examined using cross-sectional analysis. Results: The mean age of subjects was 47.7 years. The mean IOP of subjects was 15.4 ± 3.2 mmHg for both eyes. The mean IOP of men was significantly higher than women (P = 0.000). By multiple linear regression analysis, IOP was positively associated with gender (male), BMI, total cholesterol, and TG and negatively associated with age (P = 0.000). BMI, total cholesterol, and TG had significantly positive correlations with IOP after adjusting for age, gender, and other variables which can influence the IOP (P = 0.000). Conclusions: In a Korean population, the mean IOP, total cholesterol, TG, and BMI values of men were higher than women. IOP was found to increase with total cholesterol, TG, BMI, and to decrease with only age regardless of sex.

Han, Young Sang; Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Jong Soo



The role of culture, family processes, and anger regulation in Korean American adolescents' adjustment problems.  


Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11 to 15 years old (M = 13.0, SD = 1.2). Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific versus common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye toward prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519

Park, Irene J K; Kim, Paul Y; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Kim, May



The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort  

PubMed Central

The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) is a population-based longitudinal study of health determinants among elderly Koreans. The target population of the KSHAP are people aged 60 years or older and their spouses living in a rural community of Korea. A complete enumeration survey was conducted in the first wave of the KSHAP on 94.7% (814 of 860) of the target population between December 2011 and July 2012. The KSHAP-Health Examination (KSHAP-HE) cohort consists of 698 people who completed additional health examinations at a public health center (n=533) or at their home (n=165). Face-to-face questionnaires were used to interview participants on their demographics, social network characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, cognitive function, and depression symptoms. Health center examinations included anthropometric measures, body impedance analysis, resting blood pressure measurement, radial artery tonometry, bone densitometry, the timed up-and-go test, and fasting blood analysis. However, only anthropometric measures, blood pressure measurement, and non-fasting blood analysis were available for home health examinations. Collaboration is encouraged and access to the KSHAP baseline data will be available via the website of the Korean Social Science Data Archive (

Lee, Ju-Mi; Lee, Won Joon; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Choi, Wungrak; Lee, Jina; Sung, Kiho; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik



The common NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO) gene rearrangement in Korean patients with incontinentia pigmenti.  


Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder characterized by highly variable abnormalities of the skin, eyes and central nervous system. A mutation of the nuclear factor-?B essential modulator (NEMO) located at Xq28 is believed to play a role in pathogenesis and the mutation occurs mostly in female patients due to fatal consequence of the mutation in males in utero. This study was designed to identify the common NEMO rearrangement in four Korean patients with IP. Deletion of exons 4 to 10 in the NEMO, the most common mutation in IP patients, was detected in all of the patients by the use of long-range PCR analysis. This method enabled us to discriminate between NEMO and pseudogene rearrangements. Furthermore, all of the patients showed skewed XCI patterns, indicating pathogenicity of IP was due to cells carrying the mutant X chromosome. This is the first report of genetically confirmed cases of IP in Korea. PMID:20890435

Song, Min-Jung; Chae, Jong-Hee; Park, Eun-Ae; Ki, Chang-Seok



Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.



A Handbook for Teaching Korean-Speaking Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A handbook designed to facilitate effective instruction of Korean immigrant students in California has five parts. The first gives an overview of the language group, outlining their socioeconomic experience in California and the United States, reasons for immigrating, the Korean educational system, and attitudes toward schooling and involvement…

Park, Chong K.


Going West? Spatial polarization of the North Korean port system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes North Korean ports in light of existing models of port system evolution. It reviews the economic and political factors shaping port concentration in developed, developing, and socialist countries. A database on vessel movements allows for the analysis of individual North Korean port traffic by total capacity circulated, cargo type, fleet nationality, immediate origin and destination, and berthing

César Ducruet; Stanislas Roussin; Jin-Cheol Jo



Technology transfer in the IT industry: A Korean perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Korean Government announced ambitious IT strategy to establish Korea as one of leaders in world IT market. To implement this strategy, technology transfer from research lab to market should be successfully performed. This study is to identify factors influencing technology transfer and to examine contribution of these factors on success of technology transfer in Korean IT industry. Survey results

Tae Kyung Sung



Correlates of Korean Hangul Acquisition among Kindergartners and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two separate studies, 100 South Korean kindergartners and 100 second graders were administered tests of speed of processing and phonological-processing skills as well as a Korean Hangul reading test. Speed of processing tasks were significantly correlated with most of the reading-related tasks but not with Hangul reading itself. Across studies,…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; McBride-Chang, Catherine



Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.


Evidentials and Interrogatives: A Case Study from Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My aims in this thesis are to establish how evidentiality is grammatically encoded in Korean, and to investigate the semantic nature of evidential morphemes in Korean, which helps us to explain the semantic and pragmatic behavior of evidential markers in non-declarative sentences, such as interrogatives. By doing so, this thesis also shows the…

Lim, Dong Sik



Korean Science Teachers' Understanding of Creativity in Gifted Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the passing of Korea's Gifted Education Act, creativity has come to the forefront in considering the future of Korea's economic prosperity in the global economy (Korean Educational Development Institute, 2003). The purpose of this study was to examine the understanding of creativity among Korean science teachers of gifted students. Sixty…

Seo, Hae-Ae; Lee, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee



The Korean textile industry: still competitive, after all these years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a vital part of the economy, the Korean textile industry has been challenged by the recent reduction of international trade barriers, particularly as this industry was fully integrated into General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 2005. The textile industries in Japan and many other countries have also faced difficulties. This study examines future prospects for the Korean

Lila J. Truett; Dale B. Truett



North Korean Special Purpose Forces an Assessment of the Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to assess the threat that the North Korean Special Forces pose, and to explore how this threat might be deterred or countered. This thesis will answer three questions. First, in the event of a second Korean War, what will the...

M. S. Durtschi



Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil



Interlanguage Pragmatic Features of Japanese and Korean Learners of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the interlanguage pragmatic strategies used by Japanese and Korean learners of English. Data was collected from a project carried out jointly by Korean and Japanese university students. Observation, analysis, and discussion of student data suggest that interspeaker understanding and sensitivity to pragmatic variables of the target…

Park, Kyung-Ja; Nakano, Michiko



Identifying Balanced Action Learning: Cases of South Korean Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…

Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol



Difficulties in Quality Doctoral Academic Advising: Experiences of Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines difficulties encountered by international students in establishing strong and supportive academic advising relationships, with a special focus on Korean doctoral students in the USA. Interviews about barriers, experienced and perceived, to quality advising interactions were conducted with eight Korean international students…

Kim, Youngjoo



Developing Cultural Competence in Working with Korean Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors provide an in-depth examination of the historical background, cultural values, family roles, and community contexts of Korean Americans as an aid to both researchers and clinicians in developing cultural competence with this particular group. First, the concept of cultural competence is defined. A brief history of Korean immigration…

Kim, Irene J.; Kim, Luke I. C.; Kelly, James G.



Korean Text Detection and Binarization in Color Signboards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection and binarization are very important steps in text understanding. Natural scene images bring new challenges to correctly extract interested text regions. In the paper, efficient text detection and binarization methods are used to extract Korean text from color signboards of shops. First, we detect the main Korean text in color signboards by combining the horizontal edge profile in

Toan Nguyen Dinh; Jonghyun Park; Gueesang Lee



Korean adolescents' smoking behavior and its correlation with psychological variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of the study were to explore the prevalence of smoking behavior among Korean adolescents, reveal the factors affecting their smoking behavior, and identify a possible correlation between smoking behavior and psychological variables. A total of 1335 adolescents, randomly selected from junior high and high schools in Seoul, was surveyed. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to assess adolescents' smoking

Young-Ho Kim



The Korean Wave: A Marketing and Innovation Diffusion View  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surge in Korean popular culture exports (cinema, live and recorded music, and television program content), commenced in the late 1990's. While its causes have been the subject of speculation from a mainly sociological perspective, its growth and spread from an international marketing perspective has been less researched. After seeking to clarify the content and scope of the Korean Wave,

James Y. Yoo; John Stanton


Community-based colorectal cancer intervention in underserved Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information

Grace X. Ma; Steve Shive; Yin Tan; Wanzhen Gao; Joanne Rhee; Micah Park; Jaesool Kim; Jamil I. Toubbeh



Trust in Government and News Media among Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean immigrants to the United States provide insights into how individuals assess trust in mass media similarly to trust in government in some countries, such as in Korea where press and government are closely related. But this close relationship does not hold in the United States, this mail survey of 239 Korean immigrants finds. As contact with the new country

Steven H. Chaffee; Clifford I. Nass; Seung-Mock Yang



Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen



Eye movements in depth to visual illusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perceive the three-dimensional (3D) environment that surrounds us with deceptive effortlessness. In fact, we are far from comprehending how the visual system provides us with this stable perception of the (3D) world around us. This thesis will focus on the interplay between visual perception of depth and its closely related action system, eye movements in depth. The human visual system is comprised of a sensory (input) and an output (motor) system. Processed information from the sensory system can result in two explicit measurable response types: conscious visual perception and ocular motor behavior. It is still a matter of debate whether conscious visual perception and action (including hand- and arm-movements) use the same information or whether the visual system has separate channels processing information for perception and action. In this thesis, we study (1) if separate channels, one for eye movements and one for conscious visual perception, indeed exist, and (2) if so, if there is a direct input from the perceptual pathway to the motor pathway. Assuming that either eye movements and conscious visual perception are based on information from a common source (a negative answer to issue 1) or perception can directly influence, or guide, eye movements (an affirmative answer to research question 2), (eye) movements reflect our conscious visual perception. If so, eye movements could provide us with an alternative method to probe our conscious visual perception, making explicit perceptual reports superfluous. In this thesis we focus on depth perception and the two types of eye movements that are closest related to depth perception, namely vergence (an eye movement that gets a certain depth plane into focus) and saccades (a rapid eye movement to change gaze direction). Over the last 20 years it has been shown that depth perception is based on a weighted combination of depth cues available such as linear perspective, occlusion and binocular disparity. How eye movements are planned, however, is still unclear. Several studies have reported that eye movements are, to varying degrees, correlated with perception and thus concluded that perception guides eye movements. However, in most of these studies depth perception was correlated to the depth cues and a clear distinction between cues and perception could not be made. A way to make a dissociation between cues and perception, is to make use of depth reversal illusions: stimuli that can induce multiple equally likely depth interpretations while the stimulus cues remain the same. That means that perception can alternate, while cues remain constant leading to a dissociation between perception and cues. In several different studies we show that in the case of vergence, eye movements are planned based on depth cues (mainly disparity) and are uncorrelated to perception. In the case of saccades, we show that the direction of saccades is highly correlated to perception, but seems to be subserved by a separate system combining cues using very similar weights as for perception.

Wismeijer, D. A.



Biochemical methane potential and solid state anaerobic digestion of Korean food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an anaerobic digestion process for Korean food wastes containing 15–30% total solids (TS) the biochemical methane potentials (BMP) of their components and mixture (mixed food waste, MFW) were measured. The methane yields of cooked meat, cellulose (as control), boiled rice, fresh cabbage and MFW were 482, 356, 294, 277 and 472 ml CH4\\/gVS added and anaerobic

Ho Nam Chang; Soon Chul Park



Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.  


In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sřrensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Břrsting, Claus; Morling, Niels



ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.  


Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

Harriet, E Hollander



"Heritage" Language Learning and Ethnic Identity: Korean Americans' Struggle with Language Authorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how second-generation Korean-American students form and transform their senses of ethnicity through their participation in Korean language classes. An ethnographic study was carried out at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where most Korean language courses were populated by second- and 1.5-generation Korean Americans.…

Jo, Hye-young



How Does Power Influence on Learning in Korean Organizations? How to Facilitate Learning in Korean Organizations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject into which this study inquired was the relationship between learning and power in Korean context. This study presents two case studies in two different organizations in Korea. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews, observation and document analysis. Power semantics, rhetorical visions and informal learning model…

Kim, Young-Saing



The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking…

Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun



Being a Korean Studying Koreans in an American School: Reflections on Culture, Power, and Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent debates on situated knowledge highlight the issue of the researcher's position in the research process, challenging the traditional assumption of the insider/outsider dichotomy. Drawing on my fieldwork among Korean immigrant parents in an American school, I describe my shifting positions in negotiation and scrutinize the ways my reflexivity…

Lim, Minjung



A Construct-Related Validity Study on a Korean Version of the Perceptual Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of a Korean version of the Perceptual Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire. The instrument was developed to measure the learning-style preferences of students of English as a second language and English as a foreign language and has gained wide currency as a classroom diagnostic tool and survey…

Isemonger, Ian; Sheppard, Chris



Assessment of PTSD and Other Mental Disorders in World War II and Korean Conflict POW Survivors and Combat Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental disorders were assessed in 326 prisoners of war (POWs) of the World War II (WWII) European theater, WWII Pacific theater, and Korean Conflict (KC) and in combat veterans of both wars. Diagnoses were identified using a structured diagnostic interview including a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module. POW trauma severity was measured by a trauma events index, captivity weight loss,

Patricia B. Sutker



Establishment of an isoflavone database for usual Korean foods and evaluation of isoflavone intake among Korean children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian populations including Koreans are assumed to have a higher isoflavone intake due to the higher consumption of soybean. However, it is difficult to estimate isoflavone intake because there is no isoflavone database in Korea. In this study, an isoflavone database was established with sys- tematic review. Literature with analytical values of Korean soybeans and its products were collected and

Min Kyung; Yoon Ju Song; Hyojee Joung; Shan-ji Li; Hee Young Paik



NSDL National Science Digital Library

EyeGaze is a British company that has developed video technology that can be used by profoundly and partially deaf people. One example of their services and technology is a remote video interpreting centre. The project is managed by a team of Deaf and hearing individuals with diverse skills and experiences, "which affords us a holistic view of issues surrounding communication, information delivery and the Deaf community." The website provides an overview of their research and services, as well as some information on issues in the deaf community.


Eyes in Various Species Can Shorten to Compensate for Myopic Defocus  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We demonstrated that eyes of young animals of various species (chick, tree shrew, marmoset, and rhesus macaque) can shorten in the axial dimension in response to myopic defocus. Methods. Chicks wore positive or negative lenses over one eye for 3 days. Tree shrews were measured during recovery from induced myopia after 5 days of monocular deprivation for 1 to 9 days. Marmosets were measured during recovery from induced myopia after monocular deprivation, or wearing negative lenses over one or both eyes, or from wearing positive lenses over one or both eyes. Rhesus macaques were measured after recovery from induced myopia after monocular deprivation, or wearing negative lenses over one or both eyes. Axial length was measured with ultrasound biometry in all species. Results. Tree shrew eyes showed a strong trend to shorten axially to compensate for myopic defocus. Of 34 eyes that recovered from deprivation-induced myopia for various durations, 30 eyes (88%) shortened, whereas only 7 fellow eyes shortened. In chicks, eyes wearing positive lenses reduced their rate of ocular elongation by two-thirds, including 38.5% of eyes in which the axial length became shorter than before. Evidence of axial shortening in rhesus macaque (40%) and marmoset (6%) eyes also occurred when exposed to myopic defocus, although much less frequently than that in eyes of tree shrews. The axial shortening was caused mostly by the reduction in vitreous chamber depth. Conclusions. Eyes of chick, tree shrew, marmoset, and rhesus macaque can shorten axially when presented with myopic defocus, whether the myopic defocus is created by wearing positive lenses, or is the result of axial elongation of the eye produced by prior negative lens wear or deprivation. This eye shortening facilitates compensation for the imposed myopia. Implications for human myopia control are significant.

Zhu, Xiaoying; McBrien, Neville A.; Smith, Earl L.; Troilo, David; Wallman, Josh



Look beyond the red eyes!  

PubMed Central

This is a case of a 63-year-old gentleman who presented with persistent red eyes to the eye clinic for several months. He had been seen in the eye department on several visits when he was noted to have red ears too. This led to further review in the rheumatology and ear, nose and throat clinic to confirm the diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis. He was treated successfully with systemic steroids.

Kumar, Anupma



Emmetropization and Eye Growth in Young Aphakic Chickens  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish a chick model to investigate the trends of eye growth and emmetropization after early lensectomy for congenital cataract. Methods Four monocular treatments were applied: lens extraction (LX); sham surgery/-30 D lens; LX/+20 D lens; and LX/+30-D lens (nine per group). Lens powers were selected to slightly undercorrect or overcorrect the induced hyperopia in LX eyes and to induce comparable hyperopia in sham-surgery eyes. Refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured over a 28-day period. External ocular dimensions were obtained when the eyes were enucleated on the last day. Results The growth patterns of experimental (Exp) eyes varied with the type of manipulation. All eyes experiencing hyperopia initially grew more than their fellow eyes and exhibited myopic shifts in refraction. The sham/-30 D lens group showed the greatest increase in optical axial length, followed by the LX group, and then the LX/+20 D lens group. The Exp eyes of the LX/+30 D lens group, which were initially slightly myopic, grew least, and showed a small hyperopic shift. Lensectomized eyes enlarged more equatorially than axially (i.e., oblate), irrespective of the optical treatment applied. Conclusions The refractive changes observed in young, aphakic eyes are consistent with compensation for the defocus experienced, and thus emmetropization. However, differences in the effects of lensectomy compared to those of sham surgery raise the possibility that the lens is a source of essential growth factors. Alterative optical and mechanical explanations are offered for the oblate shapes of aphakic eyes.

Ai, Likun; Li, Jing; Guan, Huan; Wildsoet, Christine F.



Environmental quality of Korean coasts as determined by modified Shannon-Wiener evenness proportion.  


The coast of the Korean peninsula experiences a range of human impacts, including pollution, shipping, reclamation, and aquaculture, that have motivated numerous local studies of macrobenthic organisms. In this paper, 1,492 subtidal stations were compiled from 23 studies (areas) to evaluate environmental quality on a broader scale. A common index in biomonitoring, Shannon-Wiener evenness proportion (SEP), could not incorporate azoic or single-species samples. This shortcoming was overcome by developing an inverse function of SEP (ISEP), which was positively correlated with independent measures of water quality available for nine sites and was not biased by the size of the sampling unit. Additionally, at Shihwa Dike, where samples were collected before and after reinstating a tidal connection with the ocean, ISEP values improved over time, as expected. Thus, it is now possible to assign Korean subtidal sites to seven ISEP "grades" and to use their values and trends to guide coastal management. PMID:19862634

Yoo, Jae-Won; Lee, Yong-Woo; Ruesink, Jennifer L; Lee, Chang-Gun; Kim, Chang-Soo; Park, Mi-Ra; Yoon, Kon-Tak; Hwang, In-Seo; Maeng, Jun-Ho; Rosenberg, Rutger; Hong, Jae-Sang



Reading between Eye Saccades  

PubMed Central

Background Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

Blais, Caroline; Fiset, Daniel; Arguin, Martin; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bub, Daniel; Gosselin, Frederic



Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.



Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.



Obesity and Eye Diseases  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of these associations, particularly with the different cataract subtypes, remains to be determined. There is strong evidence that obesity is associated with elevated intraocular pressure, but there is no convincing data to support a more direct association between obesity and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Studies to date have not found a consistent pattern of association between obesity and risk of age-related maculopathy or diabetic retinopathy. Thus, while obesity may be a risk factor for many ocular conditions, the present literature is inadequate to establish any convincing associations. Furthermore, whether weight loss reduces the risk of eye diseases remains unresolved. Because of the potential public health impact of obesity, there is a greater need to understand its ocular effects.

Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.



Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat.

Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.



Refractive sectors in the visual field of the pigeon eye.  

PubMed Central

Scheiner's principle has been used in electroretinographic optometry to refract the photoreceptor plane in different regions of the visual field of the pigeon eye. Along the horizon and in the upper visual field the eye is emmetropic, or nearly so. Below the horizon the eye becomes progressively more myopic at more negative elevations, refractive state falling to -5D at -90 deg. Lower field myopia is not an artifact of oblique astigmatism, nor of an aberration symmetrical about the optical axis. It is suggested that lower field myopia is a biological adaptation suited to keep the photoreceptors in the upper retina conjugate with the ground. Refractive state below the horizon can be fitted with a sine function by varying a parameter H (eye-ground height). The value of H agrees well with directly measured eye-ground height.

Fitzke, F W; Hayes, B P; Hodos, W; Holden, A L; Low, J C



Differences in the Size of the Pupil of the Eye as a Measure of Learning Capacity and the Learning Process in Kindergarten and High School Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether or not cognitive processes differ between advantaged and disadvantaged groups; (2) the capacity of pupil response to measure cognitive ability as compared to measurements of cognitive processes depending on verbal ability and environment; (3) whether pupil response can predict future…

Polt, James M.