Sample records for korean eyes measured

  1. Korean Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Dry Eye: Development and Validation of Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hyon, Joon Young; Lee, Doh; Chung, Eui-Sang; Song, Jong-Suk; Choi, Chul Young; Lee, Jungbok

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy of newly developed guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye. Methods This retrospective, multi-center, non-randomized, observational study included a total of 1,612 patients with dry eye disease who initially visited the clinics from March 2010 to August 2010. Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye were newly developed from concise, expert-consensus recommendations. Severity levels at initial and final visits were determined using the guidelines in patients with 90 ± 7 days of follow-up visits (n = 526). Groups with different clinical outcomes were compared with respect to clinical parameters, treatment modalities, and guideline compliance. Main outcome measures were ocular and visual symptoms, ocular surface disease index, global assessment by patient and physician, tear film break-up time, Schirmer-1 test score, ocular surface staining score at initial and final visits, clinical outcome after three months of treatment, and guideline compliance. Results Severity level was reduced in 47.37% of patients treated as recommended by the guidelines. Younger age (odd ratio [OR], 0.984; p = 0.044), higher severity level at initial visit, compliance to treatment recommendation (OR, 1.832; p = 0.047), and use of topical cyclosporine (OR, 1.838; p = 0.011) were significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes. Conclusions Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye can be used as a valid and effective tool for the treatment of dry eye disease. PMID:24882952

  2. Driver eye height measurement

    E-print Network

    Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

    1978-01-01

    was establish d in the early sixties when passenger vehicles were styled differentl; than tnda; . The changing design of passenger cars has resulted in a considerable lowering in the eye heights of drivers between 1960 and 1978. The objective of this ress rch... of passenger cars now view the road from a height lower than 3. 75 ft but virtually none have driver eye heights less than 3. 25 ft (0. 99'tu). On t'nls basis it is recommended that a new driver eye height standard of 3. 25 ft (0. 99 m), or onc meter...

  3. Validity of DIBELS Early Literacy Measures with Korean English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderwood, Michael L.; Nam, Jeanie E.; Sun, Jennifer W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of two Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) early literacy measures with first-grade Korean speaking English Learners (ELs). A total of 30 first-grade Korean ELs were screened three times during the year using early literacy measures from DIBELS. A sample of students was…

  4. Total cholesterol and lipoprotein composition are associated with dry eye disease in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the relationship between dyslipidemia and dry eye disease (DED) in a Korean population. Methods This population-based study enrolled 5,627 adults (aged >19?years) who were participating in the first year of the fifth annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Clinically diagnosed DED and its symptoms were surveyed, and biochemical blood analysis data were collected. Dyslipidemia was defined as any of the following: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol?>?200?mg/dL), hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride?>?150?mg/dL), low levels of high-density lipoprotein (<40?mg/dL), or high levels of low-density lipoprotein (>100?mg/dL). Results After adjusting for demographics (age and body mass index), lifestyle (smoking, drinking, exercise, and residential district), and medical factors (diabetes, hypertension, previous ophthalmic surgery, menopause, and rheumatologic disease), elevated serum cholesterol level was found to be associated with increased likelihood of DED (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.127–2.78) in women. Conclusions DED in a Korean population was found to be associated with high serum cholesterol levelsThe results of this study highlight the significance of eye examinations and independent lipid profile monitoring in patients with dyslipidemia because of its possible correlation with DED progression. PMID:23734839

  5. Effect of Korean Red Ginseng supplementation on dry eye syndrome in glaucoma patients – A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Minkyo; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with glaucoma have difficulty using antiglaucoma eye drops because of dry eye symptom. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of Korean Red Ginseng on dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma treated with antiglaucoma eye drops. Methods Forty-nine participants were allocated to the Korean Red Ginseng (3 g/day; n = 24) or placebo (n = 25) groups for 8 weeks. Tear film stability, fluorescein corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, tear production, grade of meibomian gland dysfunction, and dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were evaluated at baseline and on completion of the treatment. Results Almost all patients displayed dry eye symptoms and signs at baseline. After the 8-week intervention, Korean Red Ginseng supplementation significantly improved the tear film stability and total Ocular Surface Disease Index score, as compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Conclusion Korean Red Ginseng supplementation may provide an additional treatment option for dry eye and patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. PMID:25535471

  6. Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2009-11-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

  7. Digitally calibrated eye movement measurement system.

    PubMed

    Baczkowski, L S; Enderle, J D; Engelken, E J

    1991-01-01

    A less expensive instrumentation alternative to record horizontal eye movements is presented in the form of a feasibility study. Currently, there are several techniques used to accurately measure eye position for research purposes. To implement these techniques, significant financial resources are required. The proposed technique costs less than $3000.00 and is based upon the limbus position technique. A linear charged coupled device (CCD) image array sensor and a biconvex lens are used to determine the position of the pupil. The self scanned CCD array is controlled by four analog clock signals generated from digital logic. The CCD video output signal is converted to a TTL compatible signal. The TTL signal is used to create a digital number based upon the limbus image formation upon the CCD pixels. This digital number is processed using standard signal acquisition techniques and is recorded on the hard drive disk of an IBM PC/AT compatible system. The C programming language is used to acquire the data and control calibration of the system. FORTRAN software is used to implement digital signal processing algorithms and estimate eye position. PMID:2065149

  8. Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongsup.

    1991-01-01

    As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base case scenario (a one-day surprise attach by North Korea) whether arms control measures will stabilize or destabilize the military status quo on the Peninsula in terms of North Korea's extent of penetration in the actual war situations. Four alternative measures are derived from the analysis: (1) Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs); (2) Establishment of Asymmetric Non-Deployment Zone (NDZ); (3) Reduction of the joint US-South Korean Team Spirit' exercises and North Korea's Forward Deployed Forces; and, (4) Reduction of South Korean and US forces and North Korean Forces. Findings indicate that establishment of the NDZ and a North Korean unilateral reduction are estimated to best achieve the goal of South Korean arms control.

  9. Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Yongsup

    1991-01-01

    As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base

  10. Clinical Application of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurements in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Shim, Jung Yeon; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo Bin; Song, Dae Jin; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Lee, Joo-Shil

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologic mediator of various physiologic functions. Recent evidence suggests the clinical utility of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) as a biomarker for assessing asthma and other respiratory diseases. FeNO methodologies have been recently standardized by international research groups and subsequently validated in several Korean population studies. Normal ranges for FeNO have been reported for various ethnic groups, and the clinical utility has been widely evaluated in asthma and various respiratory diseases. Based on current evidence including most of Korean population data, this position paper aims to introduce the methodological considerations, and provide the guidance for the proper clinical application of FeNO measurements in Korean populations. PMID:25553257

  11. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  12. Measuring vergence over stereoscopic video with a remote eye tracker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Daugherty; Andrew T. Duchowski; Donald H. House; Celambarasan Ramasamy

    2010-01-01

    A remote eye tracker is used to explore its utility for ocular vergence measurement. Subsequently, vergence measurements are compared in response to anaglyphic stereographic stimuli as well as in response to monoscopic stimulus presentation on a standard display. Results indicate a highly significant effect of anaglyphic stereoscopic display on ocular vergence when viewing a stereoscopic calibration video. Significant convergence measurements

  13. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, P V [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. EEG and eye-tracking based measures for enhanced training.

    PubMed

    Soussou, Walid; Rooksby, Michael; Forty, Charles; Weatherhead, James; Marshall, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a project whose goal was to establish the feasibility of using unobtrusive cognitive assessment methodologies in order to optimize efficiency and expediency of training. QUASAR, EyeTracking, Inc. (ETI), and Safe Passage International (SPI), teamed to demonstrate correlation between EEG and eye-tracking based cognitive workload, performance assessment and subject expertise on X-Ray screening tasks. Results indicate significant correlation between cognitive workload metrics based on EEG and eye-tracking measurements recorded during a simulated baggage screening task and subject expertise and error rates in that same task. These results suggest that cognitive monitoring could be useful in improving training efficiency by enabling training paradigms that adapts to increasing expertise. PMID:23366217

  15. Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.

    PubMed

    Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ?, values for the major, ?L, and minor, ?s, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the "Patient Activation Measure 13" (PAM13-K) in Patients With Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yang-Heui; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Ham, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Patient Activation Measure 13 (PAM13) using Rasch analysis. The sample consisted of 270 Korean patients with osteoarthritis. The PAM13 was translated into Korean using a standardized forward-backward translation approach. In this study, the Cronbach's ? coefficient was .88, the average interitem correlation was .34, and the average item-rest correlation was .55. The difficulty ranking of the item in this study differed from that in the original version. We did not need to collapse response categories. A total of 57.5% of the variance was explained by the residuals, indicating unidimensionality. The results suggest that the PAM13-K is a reliable and valid measure of activation. Further research is needed to validate item responsiveness and intervention effects. PMID:24986844

  17. How to measure the Transverse Chromatic Aberration of the human eye in off-axis angles

    E-print Network

    1 How to measure the Transverse Chromatic Aberration of the human eye in off-axis angles Bita Daemi.2. Anatomy of the human eye and helpful all the time. I learnt a lot from you, not only in optics of the eye also in how

  18. Non-contact measurement of linear external dimensions of the mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Wisard, Jeffrey; Chrenek, Micah A.; Wright, Charles; Dalal, Nupur; Pardue, Machelle T.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Biometric analyses of quantitative traits in eyes of mice can reveal abnormalities related to refractive or ocular development. Due to the small size of the mouse eye, highly accurate and precise measurements are needed to detect meaningful differences. We sought a non-contact measuring technique to obtain highly accurate and precise linear dimensions of the mouse eye. Laser micrometry was validated with gauge block standards. Simple procedures to measure eye dimensions on three axes were devised. Mouse eyes from C57BL/6J and rd10 on a C57BL/6J background were dissected and extraocular muscle and fat removed. External eye dimensions of axial length (anterior-posterior (A-P) axis) and equatorial diameter (superior-inferior (S-I) and nasal-temporal (N-T) axes) were obtained with a laser micrometer. Several approaches to prevent or ameliorate evaporation due to room air were employed. The resolution of the laser micrometer was less than 0.77 microns, and it provided accurate and precise non-contact measurements of eye dimensions on three axes. External dimensions of the eye strongly correlated with eye weight. The N-T and S-I dimensions of the eye correlated with each other most closely from among the 28 pair-wise combinations of the several parameters that were collected. The equatorial axis measurements correlated well from the right and left eye of each mouse. The A-P measurements did not correlate or correlated poorly in each pair of eyes. The instrument is well suited for the measurement of enucleated eyes and other structures from most commonly used species in experimental vision research and ophthalmology. PMID:20067806

  19. Eye Movements in Autistic, Mentally Retarded and Normal Young Children: Simultaneous Measurement by an Eye Camera System for Autistic Children (ECSA) and an Electro-Oculography (EOG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itoh, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements and saccadic eye movements in Japanese autistic, mentally retarded, and normal young children were simultaneously measured by an eye camera system (ECS) and an electro-oculography (EOG) system. The ECS was developed in the laboratory of the Research Institute for the Education of Exceptional Children at Tokyo Gakugei…

  20. Comparison of optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurements of the axial length of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Nakhli, Fouad R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurement of the axial length of the eye. Materials and methods This prospective study enrolled 55 (68 eyes) consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery at Dhahran Eye Specialist Hospital (DESH). Every eye underwent two measurements each with an optical biometer and with applanation ultrasound. Only patients with cataract and no other ophthalmic pathology or disease were enrolled. Comparison, correlation and repeatability of axial length with both devices were analyzed. Agreement between devices was evaluated. A regression formula to convert measurements between devices was investigated. A p value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. Results There was strong repeatability (99.4%) and agreement (r = 0.987) between both devices (p < 0.001); the difference between devices was mainly in short eyes (p = 0.031). Conclusion Optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurements of axial length correlate well. However, optical biometry is preferable in short eyes. PMID:25473345

  1. Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-09-01

    The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

  2. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-01-01

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  3. Looking at the Japan-Residing Korean Identities through the Eyes of the “Outsiders Within”: Application and Extension of Co-cultural Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Matsunaga; Chie Torigoe

    2008-01-01

    Using co-cultural theory (Orbe, 1998b) as an interpretive framework, this study analyzed the publicly available narratives of Japan-Residing Koreans (e.g., autobiography) and explored how these marginalized people in Japan manage their ethnic identity. Our analysis revealed that Japan-Residing Koreans' identity management was complex and challenging due to the ambivalence of their positionality. The “neither\\/nor” nature of their identity makes the

  4. In-situ Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation on the Aircraft Altitude over Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Kim, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the comparison between the measured and modeled cosmic radiation on aircraft altitude over Korean peninsula. We performed the measurement with a radiation spectrometer, Liulin-6K on board a Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force aircraft accomplishing the high-altitude (above 9 km) flight over Korea, and the modeled data was obtained from the operational modeling program, CARI-6M developed by FAA. A number of measurements for the flight mission at high-altitude have been executed to evaluate the exposed dose of cosmic radiation. Both the measured and the calculated data show that the exposed radiation dose enhances dramatically as the altitude increases. The results reveal that the exposed dose rate of aircrews at high-altitude flight is 2-3 orders of magnitude (1-2 mSv/hour) higher than the exposure rate at sea level. It is inferred that the annual total dose of radiation for the aircrews at high-altitude could be higher than the annually public limit (1 mSv) recommended by ICRP. Finally, since neutrons are the dominant components reflecting among total cosmic radiation above 9 km, we try to analyze the relationship between the neutron count from the neutron monitor on the ground and the effective dose from the on board spectrometer. Based on these results, it is suggested that the annual criterion and the proper managing procedure of exposed dose for the flight aircrews of ROK Air Force should be regulated.

  5. Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79?±?1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63?±?0.06 to 1.15?±?0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

  6. Social Understanding in Autism: Eye Gaze as a Measure of Core Insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Ruffman; Wendy Garnham; Paul Rideout

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-eight children with autism and 33 MLD children were given two tasks tapping social understanding and a control task tapping probability understanding. For each task there was a measure of eye gaze (where children looked when anticipating the return of a story character or an object) and a verbal measure (a direct question). We found that eye gaze was better

  7. Bayesian Machine Learning Classifiers for Combining Structural and Functional Measurements to Classify Healthy and Glaucomatous Eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Bowd; Jiucang Hao; Ivan M. Tavares; Felipe A. Medeiros; Linda M. Zangwill; Te-Won Lee; Pamela A. Sample; Robert N. Weinreb; Michael H. Goldbaum

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE. To determine whether combining structural (optical coherence tomography, OCT) and functional (standard auto- mated perimetry, SAP) measurements as input for machine learning classifiers (MLCs; relevance vector machine, RVM; and subspace mixture of Gaussians, SSMoG) improves diagnostic accuracy for detecting glaucomatous eyes compared with us- ing each measurement method alone. METHODS. Sixty-nine eyes of 69 healthy control subjects (aver- age

  8. Space Radiation Measurement on the Polar Route onboard the Korean Commercial Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Ho-Sung

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed by the policy research project of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, which title is "Developing safety standards and management of space radiation on the polar route". In this research, total six experiments were performed using Korean commercial flights (B747). Three of those are on the polar route and the other three are on the north pacific route. Space radiation exposure measured on the polar route is the average 84.7 uSv. The simulation result using CARI-6M program gives 84.9 uSv, which is very similar to measured value. For the departure flight using the north pacific route, the measured space radiation is the average 74.4 uSv. It seems that is not so different to use the polar route or not for the return flight because the higher latitude effect causing the increase of space radiation is compensated by the shortened flight time effect causing decreasing space radiation exposure.

  9. Saccadic eye movement analysis as a measure of drug effects on human psychomotor performance

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, A. N.; Marshall, R. W.; Richens, A.

    1984-01-01

    1 Analysis of human horizontal saccadic eye movements can provide measurements of central nervous system depression and stimulation. 2 Effects on saccadic eye movements have been observed in normal volunteers with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates and related compounds, carbamazepine, amphetamine and ethanol. 3 A suite of programmes have been developed to allow the generation, collection and analysis of saccadic eye movements using a CBM 3032, 8032 or BBC B microcomputer. The system allows almost continuous sampling and rapid analysis of movements. PMID:6151850

  10. Assessment of Eye Fatigue Caused by 3D Displays Based on Multimodal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively. PMID:25192315

  11. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four

    E-print Network

    Tang, Hua

    Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America Abstract Pigmentation using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek

  12. Nutritional Issues of Korean Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cha-Nam Shin; Helen Lach

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural

  13. Eye Tracking Research and Technology: Towards Objective Measurement of Data Quality

    PubMed Central

    Reingold, Eyal M.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods for objectively measuring eye tracking data quality are explored. The first method works by tricking the eye tracker to detect an abrupt change in the gaze position of an artificial eye that in actuality does not move. Such a device, referred to as an artificial saccade generator, is shown to be extremely useful for measuring the temporal accuracy and precision of eye tracking systems and for validating the latency to display change in gaze contingent display paradigms. The second method involves an artificial pupil that is mounted on a computer controlled moving platform. This device is designed to be able to provide the eye tracker with motion sequences that closely resemble biological eye movements. The main advantage of using artificial motion for testing eye tracking data quality is the fact that the spatiotemporal signal is fully specified in a manner independent of the eye tracker that is being evaluated and that nearly identical motion sequence can be reproduced multiple times with great precision. The results of the present study demonstrate that the equipment described has the potential to become an important tool in the comprehensive evaluation of data quality. PMID:24771998

  14. Eye Tracking Research and Technology: Towards Objective Measurement of Data Quality.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Eyal M

    2014-03-01

    Two methods for objectively measuring eye tracking data quality are explored. The first method works by tricking the eye tracker to detect an abrupt change in the gaze position of an artificial eye that in actuality does not move. Such a device, referred to as an artificial saccade generator, is shown to be extremely useful for measuring the temporal accuracy and precision of eye tracking systems and for validating the latency to display change in gaze contingent display paradigms. The second method involves an artificial pupil that is mounted on a computer controlled moving platform. This device is designed to be able to provide the eye tracker with motion sequences that closely resemble biological eye movements. The main advantage of using artificial motion for testing eye tracking data quality is the fact that the spatiotemporal signal is fully specified in a manner independent of the eye tracker that is being evaluated and that nearly identical motion sequence can be reproduced multiple times with great precision. The results of the present study demonstrate that the equipment described has the potential to become an important tool in the comprehensive evaluation of data quality. PMID:24771998

  15. MEASUREMENT OF FIREBRAND PRODUCTION AND HEAT RELEASE RATE (HRR) FROM BURNING KOREAN PINE TREES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel L. Manzello; Alexander Maranghides; John R. Shields; William E. Mell; Yoshihiko Hayashi; Daisaku Nii

    A series of real scale fire experiments were performed to determine the mass and size distribution of firebrands generated from Korean Pine (pinus koraiensis) trees. The experiments were performed at the Building Research Institute (BRI) in Tsukuba, Japan. The tree height was fixed and tree moisture content was varied to examine the influence that this parameter has on the mass

  16. Evaluation of a video tracking device for measurement of horizontal and vertical eye rotations during locomotion.

    PubMed

    DiScenna, A O; Das, V; Zivotofsky, A Z; Seidman, S H; Leigh, R J

    1995-05-01

    We have evaluated a video-based method for measuring binocular horizontal and vertical eye movements of human subjects by comparing it with the magnetic search coil technique. This video tracking system (VTS) uses multiple infrared light sources and small video cameras to simultaneously measure the positions of reflected corneal images and the center of the pupil. The system has a linear range of approximately +/- 40 degrees horizontally and +/- 30 degrees vertically, a sampling rate of 120 Hz (180 Hz with the head fixed), and system noise with standard deviation of < 0.04 degree. The binocular eye-tracking system is light-weight (190 g), being mounted on goggles that, with the eyes in primary position, permit a field of view of 60 degrees horizontally and vertically. The VTS is insensitive to translations of the tracker relative to the eyes. By placing the video preprocessing unit on a cart, eye movements may be recorded while subjects walk through distances up to 100 feet. In comparison with the magnetic search coil technique, the VTS generally provides reliable measurements of horizontal and vertical eye position; eye velocity is noisier than corresponding coil signals, but superior to electro-oculography. PMID:7475237

  17. Ocular blood flow measurements in healthy human myopic eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Benavente-Pérez; Sarah L. Hosking; Nicola S. Logan; David C. Broadway

    2010-01-01

    Background  To evaluate the haemodynamic features of young healthy myopes and emmetropes, in order to ascertain the perfusion profile\\u000a of human myopia and its relationship with axial length prior to reaching a degenerative state.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The retrobulbar, microretinal and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) of one eye of each of twenty-two high myopes (N?=?22, mean spherical equivalent (MSE) ??5.00D), low myopes (N?=?22,

  18. Measuring positive emotions in cows: Do visible eye whites tell us anything?

    PubMed

    Proctor, Helen S; Carder, Gemma

    2015-08-01

    Insight into the emotional lives of animals is of utmost importance to the welfare of the billions of animals in our care, yet little is known about how to measure these states. Scientific understanding of how to measure and interpret positive emotional states is particularly lacking, although recent years have seen a notable increase in such studies. This study explored whether the percentage of visible eye whites is a valid measure of a low arousal, positive emotional state in dairy cows (Bos taurus), by using stroking as the positive stimulus. Thirteen dairy cows were studied over a period of two months, and a total of 372 full 15minute focal observations were performed. Each focal observation comprised three 5minute phases: pre-stroking (baseline), stroking (stimulus), and post-stroking (post-stimulus), and the focal cow's behaviours were recorded throughout each observation, and the focal eye was filmed for later analysis. Following data collection we calculated the percentage of visible eye white at nine pre-determined measurement points throughout each focal observation. The eye white data were analysed using the one-way repeated measures ANOVA test. The percentage of visible eye white dropped during stroking compared with during both the pre-stroking and post-stroking phases (ANOVA: F1.242, 14.9=4.32, P=0.025). The behaviours were analysed using Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. Behaviours known to be associated with positive emotions in cows were performed during the stroking phase of the focal observation, supporting the use of stroking as a stimulus to induce a positive, low arousal emotional state. This study has explored the potential of visible eye whites as a measure of positive emotions and arousal, and our results support previous studies which suggest that eye whites may serve as a dynamic measure of emotion and arousal. PMID:25862928

  19. Toward an Appropriate Baseline for Measures of Eye Movement Behavior During Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Scott A.; Shillcock, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    In empirical studies of human eye movement behavior during reading, it is common to compute various summary measures from the data, but these measures are typically not evaluated with respect to corresponding measures of baseline performance. The authors present a method for deriving an appropriate baseline by mapping the actual behavior to a…

  20. Measuring Cognitive Load with Electroencephalography and Self-Report: Focus on the Effect of English-Medium Learning for Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated a reliable and valid method for measuring cognitive load during learning through comparing various types of cognitive load measurements: electroencephalography (EEG), self-reporting, and learning outcome. A total of 43 college-level students underwent watching a documentary delivered in English or in Korean. EEG was…

  1. Measurements of eye lens doses in interventional cardiology using OSL and electronic dosemeters†.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, R M; Vano, E; Fernandez, J M; Ginjaume, M; Duch, M A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the appropriateness of OSL and electronic dosemeters to estimate eye lens doses at interventional cardiology environment. Using TLD as reference detectors, personal dose equivalent was measured in phantoms and during clinical procedures. For phantom measurements, OSL dose values resulted in an average difference of -15 % vs. TLD. Tests carried out with other electronic dosemeters revealed differences up to ±20 % versus TLD. With dosemeters positioned outside the goggles and when TLD doses were >20 ?Sv, the average difference OSL vs. TLD was -9 %. Eye lens doses of almost 700 ?Sv per procedure were measured in two cases out of a sample of 33 measurements in individual clinical procedures, thus showing the risk of high exposure to the lenses of the eye when protection rules are not followed. The differences found between OSL and TLD are acceptable for the purpose and range of doses measured in the survey. PMID:24464819

  2. Measuring the scaling properties of temporal and spatial patterns: from the human eye to the foraging albatross

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Richard

    Measuring the scaling properties of temporal and spatial patterns: from the human eye, we will move on to a physical system ­ movements of the human eye as a person looks at patterns projected on a screen. The human eye is chosen because it highlights the challenges of interpreting real

  3. Horizontal Eye Position Affects Measured Vertical VOR Gain on the Video Head Impulse Test

    PubMed Central

    McGarvie, Leigh A.; Martinez-Lopez, Marta; Burgess, Ann M.; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Curthoys, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/hypothesis: With the video head impulse test (vHIT), the vertical VOR gain is defined as (vertical eye velocity/vertical head velocity), but compensatory eye movements to vertical canal stimulation usually have a torsional component. To minimize the contribution of torsion to the eye movement measurement, the horizontal gaze direction should be directed 40° from straight ahead so it is in the plane of the stimulated canal plane pair. Hypothesis: as gaze is systematically moved horizontally away from canal plane alignment, the measured vertical VOR gain should decrease. Study design: Ten healthy subjects, with vHIT measuring vertical eye movement to head impulses in the plane of the left anterior-right posterior (LARP) canal plane, with gaze at one of five horizontal gaze positions [40°(aligned with the LARP plane), 20°, 0°, ?20°, ?40°]. Methods: Every head impulse was in the LARP plane. The compensatory eye movement was measured by the vHIT prototype system. The one operator delivered every impulse. Results: The canal stimulus remained identical across trials, but the measured vertical VOR gain decreased as horizontal gaze angle was shifted away from alignment with the LARP canal plane. Conclusion: In measuring vertical VOR gain with vHIT the horizontal gaze angle should be aligned with the canal plane under test. PMID:25852637

  4. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  5. Modeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of theModeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of the Human EyeHuman Eye

    E-print Network

    Ribak, Erez

    of the Human EyeHuman Eye Introduction The eye as an optical system suffers from both longitudinal chromatic.Software modeling of the eye and LCA corrector We designed a two-triplet air-spaced system, using glasses, WA, USA). The chromatic eye model was added to the simulation, and optimization was performed

  6. RELATIONSHIP OF MEASURES OF FRAILTY TO VISUAL FUNCTION: THE BEAVER DAM EYE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E. K. Klein; Ronald Klein; Michael D. Knudtson; Kristine E. Lee

    Purpose: To investigate the association of standard measures of frailty to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Methods: Time to walk a measured course, handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow rate, ability to stand from a sitting position without using arms, best-corrected visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity were assessed at the third examination (1998-2000) of the Beaver Dam Eye Study. The study

  7. Spectral- and time-domain optical coherence tomography measurements of macular thickness in normal eyes and in eyes with diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, M A; Sepah, Y J; Symons, R C A; Channa, R; Hatef, E; Khwaja, A; Bittencourt, M; Heo, J; Do, D V; Nguyen, Q D

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report macular thickness values in normal eyes and eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) using time-domain (TD) and spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to derive a conversion equation. Methods The index study was a prospective investigation conducted on 80 eyes from 40 normal subjects and 130 eyes from 118 patients with DME seen in our clinic. Retinal thickness values from the central 1?mm of the macula and surrounding four ETDRS subfields were acquired using TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) and SD-OCT (SPECTRALIS HRA+OCT). Measurements of the central (C) subfield from both devices were used to derive a conversion equation. The equation was used to predict SD-OCT values using measurements from TD-OCT. Agreement between predicted and actual SD-OCT measurements was assessed. Results In normal eyes, the mean difference between TD-OCT and SD-OCT measurements of the C subfield was 76??m (CI95=74 and 77, respectively). The conversion equation, y=1.029x+72.49, was derived. In eyes with DME, using the equation, SPECTRALIS-predicted values were 5% higher than actual measurements, with 95% of predicted values falling within 9% of the actual measurements. Relocating SD-OCT grids to match the location on TD-OCT resulted in predicted values falling within 7% of actual measurements. Conclusions The percent difference between actual thickness measurements from SPECTRALIS and predicted thickness measurements, using the conversion equation, was within reported limits of repeatability of Stratus in eyes with DME. Our equation may help correlate OCT values from both devices in standard care and clinical trials for DME. PMID:22134597

  8. Technical support for microwave experiments on the eye lens; interferometric measurement of eye lens motion under microwave pulse exposure. Annual report 1 March 1980-31 August 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, N.C.

    1981-10-01

    A research program at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is concerned with the mechanism by which microwave exposure produces cataracts in the eye lens. Science Applications, Inc. (SAI) is supporting WRAIR personnel in system design, equipment assembly, and operation of experiments to measure the physical effects in the eye lens as it is subjected to microwave pulses of varying peak power levels. This report describes an ongoing project using a laser interferometer and rat eye lens in vitro. The experiment is presently in the data collection phase, with no firm conclusions yet drawn.

  9. Single-shot dimension measurements of the mouse eye using SD-OCT.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minshan; Wu, Pei-Chang; Fini, M Elizabeth; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Itakura, Tatsuo; Zhang, Xiangyang; Jiao, Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the feasibility and advantage of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for single-shot ocular biometric measurement during the development of the mouse eye. A high-resolution SD-OCT system was built for single-shot imaging of the whole mouse eye in vivo. The axial resolution and imaging depth of the system are 4.5 ?m (in tissue) and 5.2 mm, respectively. The system is capable of acquiring a cross-sectional OCT image consisting of 2,048 depth scans in 85 ms. The imaging capability of the SD-OCT system was validated by imaging the normal ocular growth and experimental myopia model using C57BL/6J mice. The biometric dimensions of the mouse eye can be calculated directly from one snapshot of the SD-OCT image. The biometric parameters of the mouse eye including axial length, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth, and retinal thickness were successfully measured by the SD-OCT. In the normal ocular growth group, the axial length increased significantly from 28 to 82 days of age (P < .001). The lens thickness increased and the vitreous chamber depth decreased significantly during this period (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). In the experimental myopia group, there were significant increases in vitreous chamber depth and axial length in comparison to the control eyes (P = .040 and P < .001, respectively). SD-OCT is capable of providing single-shot direct, fast, and high-resolution measurements of the dimensions of young and adult mouse eyes. As a result, SD-OCT is a potentially powerful tool that can be easily applied to research in eye development and myopia using small animal models. PMID:22421200

  10. Using eye movement and pupil dilation measures to examine the role of awareness in fear conditioning.

    E-print Network

    Helmstetter, Fred J.

    Using eye movement and pupil dilation measures to examine the role of awareness in fear-Milwaukee, WI, USA Medical College of Wisconsin, WI, USA Abstract The role of explicit contingency awareness is independent of awareness (Balderston et al., 2010; Knight et al., 2009; Schultz et al., 2010). However, other

  11. Using eye movement and pupil dilation measures to examine the role of awareness in fear conditioning

    E-print Network

    Helmstetter, Fred J.

    Using eye movement and pupil dilation measures to examine the role of awareness in fear Background The role of explicit contingency awareness in fear conditioning is a topic of considerable debate. Several experiments suggest that CR expression is independent of awareness (Balderston et al., 2010

  12. Measuring word recognition in reading: eye movements and event-related potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara C. Sereno; Keith Rayner

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of visual word recognition has been a major accomplishment of cognitive science. Two on-line methodologies, eye movements and event-related potentials, stand out in the search for the holy grail – an absolute time measure of when, how and why we recognize visual words while reading. Although each technique has its own experimental limitations, we suggest, by means of

  13. Noninvasive measurement of pharmacokinetics by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the eye of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosz, Michael; Strobel, Steffen; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Osl, Franz; Scheuer, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: For generating preclinical pharmacokinetics (PKs) of compounds, blood is drawn at different time points and levels are quantified by different analytical methods. In order to receive statistically meaningful data, 3 to 5 animals are used for each time point to get serum peak-level and half-life of the compound. Both characteristics are determined by data interpolation, which may influence the accuracy of these values. We provide a method that allows continuous monitoring of blood levels noninvasively by measuring the fluorescence intensity of labeled compounds in the eye and other body regions of anesthetized mice. Procedures: The method evaluation was performed with four different fluorescent compounds: (i) indocyanine green, a nontargeting dye; (ii) OsteoSense750, a bone targeting agent; (iii) tumor targeting Trastuzumab-Alexa750; and (iv) its F(-alxea750 fragment. The latter was used for a direct comparison between fluorescence imaging and classical blood analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found an excellent correlation between blood levels measured by noninvasive eye imaging with the results generated by classical methods. A strong correlation between eye imaging and ELISA was demonstrated for the F( fragment. Whole body imaging revealed a compound accumulation in the expected regions (e.g., liver, bone). Conclusions: The combination of eye and whole body fluorescence imaging enables the simultaneous measurement of blood PKs and biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled compounds.

  14. Precise measurement of individual rapid eye movements in REM sleep of humans.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Atsumi, Y

    1997-09-01

    An automated analyzer for individual eye movements (EMs) has been developed that enables precise analyses of their incidence. Three new parameters for each EM are obtained: EM magnitude, the angle and speed of eyeball rotation, and the energy of each EM. All rapid eye movement (REM) sleep EMs from 40 nights of polysomnography for 20 healthy young men were analyzed. The mean frequency of eye movement (EM frequency) was 15.9 per minute. Compared to conventionally analyzed rapid eye movement (REM) density, EM frequency was more sensitive to differences among sleep cycles, nights, and individuals. The mean EM rotation was 6.27 +/- 0.021 degrees, the mean speed of rotation was 58.73 +/- 0.18 degrees/second, and mean energy was 525.85 +/- 3.82 degrees2/second. The distribution of changes in these new parameters differed from conventional measures across REM episodes. The conventional measures, REM episode duration, and REM density increased progressively in successive REM episodes in an ascent-to-right pattern. However, the new parameters peaked in the second, followed by relatively low values, producing an inverted V pattern. This discrepancy could indicate physiological mechanisms of EM that are not revealed in conventional measures of REM sleep intensity. PMID:9406327

  15. Scleral birefringence as measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and ocular biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamanari, Masahiro; Nagase, Satoko; Fukuda, Shinichi; Ishii, Kotaro; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yasui, Takeshi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between scleral birefringence and biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo is investigated. Scleral birefringence near the limbus of 21 healthy human eyes was measured using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Spherical equivalent refractive error, axial eye length, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured in all subjects. IOP and scleral birefringence of human eyes in vivo was found to have statistically significant correlations (r = -0.63, P = 0.002). The slope of linear regression was -2.4 × 10(-2) deg/?m/mmHg. Neither spherical equivalent refractive error nor axial eye length had significant correlations with scleral birefringence. To evaluate the direct influence of IOP to scleral birefringence, scleral birefringence of 16 ex vivo porcine eyes was measured under controlled IOP of 5-60 mmHg. In these ex vivo porcine eyes, the mean linear regression slope between controlled IOP and scleral birefringence was -9.9 × 10(-4) deg/?m/mmHg. In addition, porcine scleral collagen fibers were observed with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy. SHG images of porcine sclera, measured on the external surface at the superior side to the cornea, showed highly aligned collagen fibers parallel to the limbus. In conclusion, scleral birefringence of healthy human eyes was correlated with IOP, indicating that the ultrastructure of scleral collagen was correlated with IOP. It remains to show whether scleral collagen ultrastructure of human eyes is affected by IOP as a long-term effect. PMID:24877003

  16. Axial length measurement acquisition rates of two optical biometers in cataractous eyes

    PubMed Central

    Epitropoulos, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the ability of two optical biometers to acquire the axial length (AL) measurement in cataractous eyes. Methods This prospective, comparative, single-center study comprised 105 eyes (63 patients). AL was acquired by the composite mean value of 20 measurements (composite-20 IM) and five measurements (composite-5 IM) (IOLMaster® 500 version 7.1 software), and the standard mean value of the first five measurements (standard-5 LS, Lenstar LS 900®). Anterior chamber depth (ACD) and average keratometry (K) readings were acquired. Results AL was acquired in 83.8%, 92.4%, and 84.8% of eyes for the composite-5 IM, composite-20 IM, and standard-5 LS, respectively. Standard-5 LS AL measurements were significantly shorter (P<0.001). IOLMaster® 500-acquired ACD (corneal epithelium to lens) measurements were significantly shorter (P<0.001). IOLMaster® 500 average K measurements were significantly steeper (P<0.001). Conclusion The composite-20 IM had the highest AL acquisition success rate of the three versions evaluated. AL, ACD, and average Ks were statistically different between the two biometers, although the differences were clinically insignificant. PMID:25092960

  17. Lyin’ Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

  18. Axial Length Measurement Failure Rates with the IOLMaster and Lenstar LS 900 in Eyes with Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Pesudovs, Konrad; Yang, Xin; Bao, Fangjun; Yu, Ayong; Lin, Shishi; Feng, Yifan; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate axial length (AL) measurement failure rate with the IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss AG, Germany) and Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Switzerland) in eyes with cataract. Methods Two hundred and ninety-six eyes of 170 patients with cataract were enrolled. Cataract type and severity were graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) and AL measurements were attempted with IOLMaster (version 5.4) and Lenstar LS 900 (version 1.1). Chi-squared analysis was used to assess if the difference in AL measurement acquisition rate was statistically significant between the two devices. The association of the different cataract types and severity with the AL measurement acquisition rate was evaluated with logistic regression analysis. Results AL measurements were obtained in 184 eyes (62.16%) using the IOLMaster and 191 eyes (64.53%) using the Lenstar, which corresponds to a failure rate of 37.84% and 35.47% respectively. Chi-square analysis indicated no significant difference between the Lenstar and IOLMaster for AL measurement failure rate (x2 = 0.356, P = 0.550). Logistic regression analysis indicated no association between acquisition rates and cortical or nuclear cataracts with either device. There was a statistically significant association between acquisition rates and increasing severity of posterior subcapsular cataracts with the IOLMaster (? = -1.491, P<0.001) and Lenstar LS 900 (? = -1.507, P<0.001). Conclusion The IOLMaster and Lenstar LS 900 have similar AL measurement failure rates (35–38%) for Chinese public hospital cataract patients. Increasing severity of posterior subcapsular cataracts was problematic for both devices. PMID:26061554

  19. Eye lens dosimetry in interventional cardiology: results of staff dose measurements and link to patient dose levels.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M; Aleksandric, S; Arandjic, D; Ostojic, M

    2013-01-01

    Workers involved in interventional cardiology procedures receive high eye lens dose if protection is not used. Currently, there is no suitable method for routine use for the measurement of eye dose. Since most angiography machines are equipped with suitable patient dosemeters, deriving factors linking staff eye doses to the patient doses can be helpful. In this study the patient kerma-area product, cumulative dose at an interventional reference point and eye dose in terms of Hp(3) of the cardiologists, nurses and radiographers for interventional cardiology procedures have been measured. Correlations between the patient dose and the staff eye dose were obtained. The mean eye dose was 121 µSv for the first operator, 33 µSv for the second operator/nurse and 12 µSv for radiographer. Normalised eye lens doses per unit kerma-area product were 0.94 µSv Gy?¹ cm?² for the first operator, 0.33 µSv Gy?¹ cm?² for the second operator/nurse and 0.16 µSv Gy?¹ cm?² for radiographers. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a weak but significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the eye dose and the kerma-area product for all three staff categories. These values are based on a local practice and may provide useful reference for other studies for validation and for wider utilisation in assessing the eye dose using patient dose values. PMID:23152146

  20. HotEye (tm) Based Coordinate Measuring Machine for Forging Industry

    SciTech Connect

    OG Technologies

    2003-06-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a 3 dimensional measurement system for the domestic forging industry based on HotEye{trademark}. This technology will allow high definition camera to accurately image a red hot object. The project marries conventional Coordinate Measurement Machine ''CMM'' technology to HotEye{trademark} technology to permit the accurate measurement of forged parts while they are at high temperature. Being able to take such measurements will dramatically reduce the amount of scrap produced by the domestic forging industry. This industry wastes a significant amount of energy because of the high rate of scrap it produces. OGT will: (1) Develop a 3D measurement sensor head that will work on a part at a temperature up to 1,450 C with an accuracy of 0.1mm or better and with a scanning speed of less than 10 seconds for an area of 100mm x 100mm. (2) Develop a Virtual-Fixturing software package to alleviate the need of precise hard fixturing. (3) Integrate the 3D measurement sensor head and the Virtual-Fixturing software into a standard CMM, both hardware (replacing the probes) and software (data format and user interface match) so that the system can automatically perform a complete preprogrammed measurement of a hot product. (4) Test and evaluate the system in a forging facility.

  1. Measurement of Central Corneal Thickness Using Ultrasound Pachymetry and Orbscan II in Normal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Mohammad Mehdi; Einollahi, Bahram; Einollahi, Neda; Rezaei, Javad; Roshandel, Danial; Feizi, Sepehr

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ultrasound pachymetry and Orbscan II for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) in normal eyes. Methods: The current study was performed at Labbafinejad Medical Center (LMC), Tehran, Iran. Three hundred eyes from 150 healthy individuals referred for keratorefractive surgery were assessed first by Orbscan II and then by ultrasound pachymetry, and CCT values were recorded and compared. Results: Overall, Orbscan II overestimated CCT as compared to ultrasound pachymetry by about 2.4% (mean values 547.6 ± 34.7 versus 534.8 ± 34.7, respectively, P < 0.001). The difference was more significant when CCT was less than 500 microns (mean values 493.2 ± 16.9 versus 479.9 ± 15.6, mean overestimation: 2.6%, P < 0.001). There was good linear correlation between the two methods (Pearson's correlation r = 0.968, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Orbscan II has good correlation with ultrasound pachymetry for measurement of CCT in normal eyes; however Orbscan II should not be used to evaluate corneal thickness before keratorefractive surgeries, as it tends to overestimate corneal thickness and may result in undesirable, low residual stromal thickness. PMID:26005545

  2. Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea. PMID:25671075

  3. Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs when the eye does not ... epitheliopathy (LNE). What are the types of dry eye? 1) Aqueous tear-deficient dry eye is a ...

  4. Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Shin, Hyehyung; Yon, Miyong; Nam, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Dohee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Cho-Il

    2012-10-01

    Previous Korean total diet studies (KTDSs) have estimated dietary exposure to toxic chemicals based on 110-120 representative foods selected from over 500 foods appeared in the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which would result in a possible underestimation. In order to find measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to heavy metals, this study examined the feasibility of mapping foods to the representative foods in the KTDS by comparing estimates. In mapping, those foods not analyzed in the 2009 KTDS (443 out of 559 foods appeared in the 2007 KNHANES) were mapped to the 114 representative foods used in the 2009 KTDS based on the closeness in regards to biological systematics and morphological similarity. Dietary exposures to total mercury and lead were re-estimated using the content of total mercury and lead in 114 foods analyzed in the 2009 KTDS, food intake, and individual's own body weight for respondents in the 2007 KNHANES instead of mean body weight of Koreans used in the 2009 KTDS. The re-estimates of exposure with mapping were approximately 50% higher than the original estimates reported in the 2009 KTDS. In addition, mapping enabled the comparison of percentile distribution of the exposure among populations of different age groups. In conclusion, estimates via mapping resulted in a more comprehensive estimation of dietary exposure to heavy metals present in foods that Koreans consume. PMID:23198023

  5. Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eunmi; Shin, Hyehyung; Yon, Miyong; Nam, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Dohee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Choi, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Previous Korean total diet studies (KTDSs) have estimated dietary exposure to toxic chemicals based on 110-120 representative foods selected from over 500 foods appeared in the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which would result in a possible underestimation. In order to find measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to heavy metals, this study examined the feasibility of mapping foods to the representative foods in the KTDS by comparing estimates. In mapping, those foods not analyzed in the 2009 KTDS (443 out of 559 foods appeared in the 2007 KNHANES) were mapped to the 114 representative foods used in the 2009 KTDS based on the closeness in regards to biological systematics and morphological similarity. Dietary exposures to total mercury and lead were re-estimated using the content of total mercury and lead in 114 foods analyzed in the 2009 KTDS, food intake, and individual's own body weight for respondents in the 2007 KNHANES instead of mean body weight of Koreans used in the 2009 KTDS. The re-estimates of exposure with mapping were approximately 50% higher than the original estimates reported in the 2009 KTDS. In addition, mapping enabled the comparison of percentile distribution of the exposure among populations of different age groups. In conclusion, estimates via mapping resulted in a more comprehensive estimation of dietary exposure to heavy metals present in foods that Koreans consume. PMID:23198023

  6. The energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays measured by the High Resolution Fly's Eye detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reil, Kevin Alexander

    This dissertation will present the energy spectrum of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) above 1018eV (1 EeV). The measurement is made using data from the stereo High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Observatory (HiRes). Data using both an average atmospheric calibration and preliminary hourly atmospheric corrections are presented. To carry out this study, a full stereo Monte Carlo with direct CORSIKA input, the Dugway atmosphere and the HiRes optics and electronics has been developed. An intrinsic energy resolution of less than 10% over all energies discussed will be shown. The measured spectrum is significantly lower than both the Fly's Eye stereo and AGASA measurements [1, 2]. However, the measurement is within error of the Fly's Eye measurement when including systematic atmospheric uncertainty. A systematic shift in energy scale of 40% is required to bring this measurement into agreement with AGASA.

  7. Psychometric Properties of a Korean Measure of Person-Directed Care in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Minhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity and reliability of a person-directed care (PDC) measure for nursing homes in Korea. Method: Managerial personnel from 223 nursing homes in 2010 and 239 in 2012 were surveyed. Results: Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis for the first sample generated a 33-item PDC measure with eight factors.…

  8. Measurement and standardization of eye safety for optical radiation of LED products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Tongsheng; Peng, Zhenjian

    2013-06-01

    The blue light hazard (BLH) to human eye's retina is now a new issue emerging in applications of artificial light sources. Especially for solid state lighting sources based on the blue chip-LED(GaN), the photons with their energy more than 2.4 eV show photochemical effects on the retina significantly, raising damage both in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The photobiological safety of artificial light sources emitting optical radiation has gained more and more attention worldwide and addressed by international standards IEC 62471-2006(CIE S009/E: 2002). Meanwhile, it is involved in IEC safety specifications of LED lighting products and covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to artificial optical radiation. In practical applications of the safety standards, the measuring methods of optical radiation from LED products to eyes are important in establishment of executable methods in the industry. In 2011, a new project to develop the international standard of IEC TR62471-4,that is "Measuring methods of optical radiation related to photobiological safety", was approved and are now under way. This paper presents the concerned methods for the assessment of optical radiation hazards in the standards. Furthermore, a retina radiance meter simulating eye's optical geometry is also described, which is a potential tool for blue light hazard assessment of retinal exposure to optical radiation. The spectroradiometric method integrated with charge-coupled device(CCD) imaging system is introduced to provide more reliable results.

  9. Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ?49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ?80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ?13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

  10. Activities to Further Nonproliferation and Encourage Confidence Building Measures on the Korean Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Olsen

    In the post-summit climate a number of confidence building measures (CBMs) are available. Most importantly, at this time the necessary political will exists to improve the North-South situation. Official announcements since the summit have created CBM opportunities in the area of trade and economic cooperation, where cooperation on pragmatic technical goals could confirm the promise of the summit agreements. It

  11. The resolving power of diurnal superposition eyes measured with an ophthalmoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Land

    1984-01-01

    1.The eyes of skipper butterflies and agaristid moths are of the superposition type, and they have fully open pupils in daylight. The quality of the images in these eyes was examined with an ophthalmoscopic technique. Images of objects shown to the eye in a plane at infinity could be photographed on the retina.2.In the agaristid moths the retinal mosaic was

  12. "You Don't Need to Be Mean. We're Friends, Right?": Young Korean-American Children's Conflicts and References to Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2014-01-01

    In the eyes of adults, conflicts between children are often treated as problematic social interactions that should be prevented. This study describes how young Korean-American children's conflict negotiation was a central part of their peer culture at a Korean heritage language school in the United States. Eleven young Korean-American…

  13. Design and validation of a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer for measurements of the eye over a wide field of view

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Thibos, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral vision and off-axis aberrations not only play an important role in daily visual tasks but may also influence eye growth and refractive development. Thus it is important to measure off-axis wavefront aberrations of human eyes objectively. To achieve efficient measurement, we incorporated a double-pass scanning system with a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) to develop a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer (SSHA). The prototype SSHA successfully measured the off-axis wavefront aberrations over +/? 15 degree visual field within 7 seconds. In two validation experiments with a wide angle model eye, it measured change in defocus aberration accurately (<0.02?m, 4mm pupil) and precisely (<0.03?m, 4mm pupil). A preliminary experiment with a human subject suggests its feasibility in clinical applications. PMID:20173936

  14. Memory-related eye movements challenge behavioral measures of pattern completion and pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Hussey, Erin P; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-06-01

    The hippocampus creates distinct episodes from highly similar events through a process called pattern separation and can retrieve memories from partial or degraded cues through a process called pattern completion. These processes have been studied in humans using tasks where participants must distinguish studied items from perceptually similar lure items. False alarms to lures (incorrectly reporting a perceptually similar item as previously studied) are thought to reflect pattern completion, a retrieval-based process. However, false alarms to lures could also result from insufficient encoding of studied items, leading to impoverished memory of item details and a failure to correctly reject lures. The current study investigated the source of lure false alarms by comparing eye movements during the initial presentation of items to eye movements made during the later presentation of item repetitions and similar lures in order to assess mnemonic processing at encoding and retrieval, respectively. Relative to other response types, lure false alarms were associated with fewer fixations to the initially studied items, suggesting that false alarms result from impoverished encoding. Additionally, lure correct rejections and lure false alarms garnered more fixations than hits, denoting additional retrieval-related processing. The results suggest that measures of pattern separation and completion in behavioral paradigms are not process-pure. PMID:24493460

  15. Accuracy of axial length measurements from immersion B-scan ultrasonography in highly myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-Hua; Chen, Bing; Peng, Guang-Hua; Li, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the accuracy of axial length (AL) measurements obtained from immersion B-scan ultrasonography (immersion B-scan) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in patients with high myopia and cataracts. METHODS Immersion B-scan, contact A-scan ultrasonography (contact A-scan), and the IOLMaster were used to preoperatively measure the AL in 102 eyes from 102 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the AL: one containing patients with 22 mm?AL<26 mm(group A) and the other containing patients with AL?26 mm (group B). The mean error (ME) was calculated from the difference between the AL measurement methods predicted refractive error and the actual postoperative refractive error. RESULTS In group A, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (23.48±1.15) didn't differ significantly from those measured by the IOLMaster (23.52±1.17) or from those by contact A-scan (23.38±1.20). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.090±0.397 D) didn't differ significantly from those of IOLMaster (-0.095±0.411 D) and contact A-scan (-0.099±0.425 D). In group B, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (27.97±2.21 mm) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (27.86±2.18 mm), but longer than those measured by Contact A-scan (27.75±2.23 mm, P=0.009). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.635±0.157 D) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (-0.679±0.359 D), but differed significantly from those of contact A-scan (-0.953±1.713 D, P=0.028). CONCLUSION Immersion B-scan exhibits measurement accuracy comparable to that of the IOLMaster, and is thus a good alternative in measuring AL in eyes with high myopia when the IOLMaster can't be used, and it is more accurate than the contact A-scan. PMID:24967188

  16. Discrimination between normal and glaucomatous eyes with visual field and scanning laser polarimetry measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lauande-Pimentel, R.; Carvalho, R.; Oliveira, H.; Goncalves, D.; Silva, L.; Costa, V.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the ability of structural parameters (as determined by retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) measurements obtained with the scanning laser polarimeter (SLP-NFA/GDx)) and functional parameters (as determined by automated perimetry) to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes.?METHODS—In a case-control study, a total of 91 normal subjects and 94 patients with glaucoma underwent automated perimetry and RNFL measurements obtained with the SLP. Three independent scans of each eye were obtained and a mean image was created and used for further analysis. Only one eye per individual was randomly included in the study. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 12 RNFL parameters were calculated according to the SLP internal normative database. The Se and Sp of the visual field (VF) global indices and the glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) were also calculated according to the instrument's normative database. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were built for each SLP parameter and VF index. Fisher's linear discriminant formulas (LDFs) were developed for VF indices (VF LDF), SLP measurements (SLP LDF), and both examinations (combined LDF).?RESULTS—According to the SLP internal database, the parameters with better Se and Sp were: superior/nasal ratio (Se = 58.5%; Sp = 86.8%), and GDx the number (Se = 43.3%; Sp = 96.7%). The construction of an ROC curve for the number resulted in Se = 84% and Sp = 79%. The creation of LDFs improved both the sensitivities and specificities when compared with isolated parameters SLP LDF (Se = 90.4%; Sp = 82.4%), VF LDF (Se = 89.4%; Sp = 89.0%), and combined LDF (Se = 93.0%; Sp = 90.1%). The sensitivity to diagnose early and moderate glaucomatous damage observed with the GHT was lower than that obtained with the number (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Creation of LDFs enhanced the Se and Sp for both VF and SLP. Integration of SLP and VF in a combined LDF reached the highest Se/Sp relation, suggesting that these examinations may be additive concerning the diagnosis of glaucoma. The SLP parameter the number may be more sensitive than the GHT in diagnosing early and moderate glaucomatous damage.?? PMID:11316722

  17. Does Rebound Tonometry Probe Misalignment Modify Intraocular Pressure Measurements in Human Eyes?

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Ian G.; Laughton, Deborah S.; Coldrick, Benjamin J.; Drew, Thomas E.; Sallah, Marium; Davies, Leon N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the influence of positional misalignments on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with a rebound tonometer. Methods. Using the iCare rebound tonometer, IOP readings were taken from the right eye of 36 healthy subjects at the central corneal apex (CC) and compared to IOP measures using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT). Using a bespoke rig, iCare IOP readings were also taken 2?mm laterally from CC, both nasally and temporally, along with angular deviations of 5 and 10 degrees, both nasally and temporally to the visual axis. Results. Mean IOP?±?SD, as measured by GAT, was 14.7 ± 2.5?mmHg versus iCare tonometer readings of 17.4 ± 3.6?mmHg at CC, representing an iCare IOP overestimation of 2.7 ± 2.8?mmHg (P < 0.001), which increased at higher average IOPs. IOP at CC using the iCare tonometer was not significantly different to values at lateral displacements. IOP was marginally underestimated with angular deviation of the probe but only reaching significance at 10 degrees nasally. Conclusions. As shown previously, the iCare tonometer overestimates IOP compared to GAT. However, IOP measurement in normal, healthy subjects using the iCare rebound tonometer appears insensitive to misalignments. An IOP underestimation of <1?mmHg with the probe deviated 10 degrees nasally reached statistical but not clinical significance levels. PMID:24073330

  18. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements Obtained by Three Different Devices in Healthy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez de la Fuente, Carmen; Sanchez-Cano, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the normal values and the repeatability of the Galilei Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer (GDSA), the biometer IOL Master, and the autokerato/refractometer WAM 5500 in anterior segment examinations. Methods. Eighty-eight eyes from 88 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. The repeatability was assessed, calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The correlations among the repeated measurements showed nearly perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81) for all of the parameters, except corneal astigmatism Galilei (0.79) and WAM (0.68). There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) between the values of the flat simulated keratometry (SimK) and the steep SimK measured by GDSA and the other methods; however, there were no statistically significant differences for the values obtained with the IOL Master and WAM 5500 (P = 0.302 and P = 0.172, resp.) or between the values of the ACD (P < 0.001) and WTW (P = 0.007) measured by the IOL Master and GDSA. Conclusions. The anterior segment measurements from the IOL Master and WAM 5500 were highly repeatable, comparable, and well correlated. In healthy young persons, the evaluated parameters had very good repeatability, although significant differences were found between the GDSA and IOL Master and between the GDSA and WAM 5500. PMID:24987687

  19. Biometric measurement of the mouse eye using optical coherence tomography with focal plane advancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangtian Zhou; Jing Xie; Meixiao Shen; Jianhua Wang; Liqin Jiang; Jia Qu; Fan Lu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that high-resolution biometry is possible in mouse eyes in vivo, using real-time OCT with focal plane advancement by a stepper motor.Methods: OCT images of eyes were taken from nine 29-day-old C57BL\\/6 mice(18 eyes) on two consecutive days. A custom-built real-time OCT instrument with a stepper motor was used to advance the focal plane from the corneal apex

  20. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Listen Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  1. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  2. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  3. Eye redness

    MedlinePLUS

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

  4. Measurement of retinal adhesive force in the in vivo rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Kita, M; Negi, A; Kawano, S; Honda, Y; Maegawa, S

    1990-04-01

    A new method to evaluate the retinal adhesive force, which was defined as the force needed to achieve adhesive failure per unit length, in the in vivo rabbit eye was tested. A small dome-shaped retinal detachment (bleb) was made in the posterior pole by injecting balanced salt solution into the subretinal space. A separate measuring micropipette with a tip diameter of 5 microns was inserted into the subretinal space. The subretinal pressure was measured directly with the resistance servonulling method as the solution was injected repeatedly into the subretinal space. According to Laplace's law, the retinal adhesive force per unit length in normal Dutch rabbits was calculated to be (1.8 +/- 0.2) X 10(2) dyn/cm (n = 87). This value was about five times larger than that reported previously with in vitro peeling methods. The new method will resolve several problems encountered in the previous methods and will allow for the measurement of the retinal adhesive force more physiologically and precisely. PMID:2335431

  5. Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the howland aberroscope technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Atchison; Michael J. Collins; Christine F. Wildsoet; James Christensen; Michael D. Waterworth

    1995-01-01

    Further development of the objective version of the Howland and Howland [1976] Science, 193, 580–582; (1977) Journal of the Optical Society of America, 67, 1508–1518] aberroscope technique for measuring ocular aberrations is described. Compensation for refractive corrections and calibration is discussed. The technique was used to investigate the effect of accommodation upon the monochromatic aberrations of the right eyes of

  6. Blood velocity measurement in the posterior segment of the rabbit eye using combined spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walid Abdallah; Amani Fawzi; Hitenkumar Patel; Grant Dagliyan; Naoki Matsuoka; Edward Grant; Mark Humayun

    2010-01-01

    Background  It is challenging for the current Doppler imaging to detect blood flow in small retinal vessels. Power Doppler, with its high\\u000a sensitivity to detect minimal blood flow, can be used with spectral Doppler to measure blood velocity in small vessels of\\u000a the eye and orbit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixteen eyes of twelve normal pigmented rabbits were studied, using a dedicated small animal, high-resolution

  7. Quantitative Measurement of Eyestrain on 3D Stereoscopic Display Considering the Eye Foveation Model and Edge Information

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Hwan; Lee, Won Oh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user's gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD), stereoscopic disparity (SD), frame cancellation effect (FCE), and edge component (EC) of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors. PMID:24834910

  8. Cuffless and Noninvasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Mean Arterial Pressure and Pulse Pressure using Radial Artery Tonometry Pressure Sensor with Concept of Korean Traditional Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Jung Kang; Young Huh; Kyung-Chul Kim

    2007-01-01

    Parameters for noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular disease. We developed a new method to measure blood pressure (BP) noninvasively without cuff. In Korean traditional medicine, the degree of the pulse depth is one of the important criteria to diagnosis. We combined this concept with pulse wave analysis. With clinical data obtained from 163 subjects, we selected APm (applied pressure

  9. Measures of Body Shape and Adiposity as Related to Incidence of Age-Related Eye Diseases: Observations From the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Kerri P.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effect of obesity on the incidence of age-related eye disease. Methods. Participants of the Beaver Dam Eye Study were examined every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988–1990 through 2008–2010). Lens and fundus photographs were used to evaluate presence and severity of cataract and macular degeneration. Height and weight were measured at all examinations. Waist and hip circumference were measured at all examinations beginning at the first follow-up (1993–1995). Models of ocular outcomes over 15 years were stratified by sex and smoking status. Results. Overall, 2641 participants contributed 5567 person-visits to 15-year incidence analysis. Female nonsmokers had increased risk of late AMD associated with higher body mass index (BMI; hazard ratio [HR] per 2.5 kg/m2 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.50, P < 0.001), waist to hip ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.95, 95% CI 1.33–2.86, P < 0.001), waist circumference (HR per 5 cm 1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, P < 0.001), and waist to height ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.74, 95% CI 1.31–2.31, P < 0.001). Increased BMI was also associated with early AMD in female nonsmokers (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19, P = 0.02). Conclusions. Female nonsmokers had risk of late AMD associated with increasing measures of greater obesity and increased risk of early AMD associated with greater BMI. PMID:24667857

  10. Evaluating eye fixation and color contrast effects in the measurement of visual lobe sizes: comment on Tsang, et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Kweon

    2014-12-01

    The visual lobe refers to the useful field of view, functional visual field, or conspicuity area in single eye fixation, and the visual lobe size is determined by the conspicuity of target presented amongst background characters. This comment discusses a study by Tsang, Chan, and Yu (2013) that investigated the effect of color contrast on the visual lobe. First, this comment suggests a way to improve the precision of their method for measuring a visual lobe. Measuring positions of the participants' eyes during visual search with an eye tracker would allow checking the eyes' fixation on the center of the search field, improving the precision of visual lobe measurement. This comment also suggests a more optimal experimental design to investigate the effect of color contrast on visual lobe size. Tsang, et al. used colors for target and background that had similar contrast (i.e., differences in chromaticity) for the experiments. If the color-contrast ratio in each experiment condition had differed enough, the color contrast effect on the visual lobe could have been investigated more effectively. PMID:25375825

  11. Biomechanical parameters of the cornea measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer in normal eyes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relationships between Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) parameters corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal response factor (CRF) and ocular dimensions, age and intraocular pressure. Methods Two hundred and twelve eyes of 212 participants with no ocular pathology had CH and CRF measured with the ORA. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the Dynamic Contour tonometer and central corneal thickness (CCT) was also evaluated. Partial least squares linear regression (PLSLR) analyses were performed to examine the relationships between each response variable, CH and CRF, and the predictor variables age, corneal curvature (CC), axial length (AL), CCT and IOP. Results CH was positively associated with CCT and negatively associated with age (scaled coefficients: CCT 0.62, p?measured variation in CH and CRF, respectively, suggesting other factors also affect the values of these measurements. PMID:24479520

  12. A Fuzzy-Based Fusion Method of Multimodal Sensor-Based Measurements for the Quantitative Evaluation of Eye Fatigue on 3D Displays

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Choi, Jong-Suk; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of 3-dimensional (3D) content, considerable research related to the 3D human factor has been undertaken for quantitatively evaluating visual discomfort, including eye fatigue and dizziness, caused by viewing 3D content. Various modalities such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses have been investigated. However, the majority of the previous research has analyzed each modality separately to measure user eye fatigue. This cannot guarantee the credibility of the resulting eye fatigue evaluations. Therefore, we propose a new method for quantitatively evaluating eye fatigue related to 3D content by combining multimodal measurements. This research is novel for the following four reasons: first, for the evaluation of eye fatigue with high credibility on 3D displays, a fuzzy-based fusion method (FBFM) is proposed based on the multimodalities of EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and subjective evaluation (SE); second, to measure a more accurate variation of eye fatigue (before and after watching a 3D display), we obtain the quality scores of EEG signals, eye BR, FT and SE; third, for combining the values of the four modalities we obtain the optimal weights of the EEG signals BR, FT and SE using a fuzzy system based on quality scores; fourth, the quantitative level of the variation of eye fatigue is finally obtained using the weighted sum of the values measured by the four modalities. Experimental results confirm that the effectiveness of the proposed FBFM is greater than other conventional multimodal measurements. Moreover, the credibility of the variations of the eye fatigue using the FBFM before and after watching the 3D display is proven using a t-test and descriptive statistical analysis using effect size. PMID:25961382

  13. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  14. Morphometric measurement of Schlemm's canal in normal human eye using anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guohua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    We have used anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography to measure Schlemm's canal (SC) morphometric values in the living human eye. Fifty healthy volunteers with 100 normal eyes were measured in the nasal and temporal side. Comparison with the published SC morphometric values of histologic sections proves the reliability of our results. The statistical results show that there are no significant differences between nasal and temporal SC with respect to their diameter, perimeter, and area in our study (diameter: t=0.122, p=0.903; perimeter: t=-0.003, p=0.998; area: t=-1.169, p=0.244); further, no significant differences in SC morphometric values are found between oculus sinister and oculus dexter (diameter: t=0.943, p=0.35; perimeter: t=1.346, p=0.18; area: t=1.501, p=0.135).

  15. Creativity and Confucianism Among American and Korean Educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Hee Kim; Hang Eun Lee; Ki-Byung Chae; Lori Anderson; Christopher Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in creative styles and Confucian ideas between Koreans and Americans and to examine the relationship between creativity and Confucianism. A total number of 579 educators (227 American and 352 Korean) participated in this study. Eastern-Western Perspective Scale was used to measure participants’ level of Confucianism and the Torrance Tests of Creative

  16. Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

  17. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  18. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  19. Rapid, Accurate, and Non-Invasive Measurement of Zebrafish Axial Length and Other Eye Dimensions Using SD-OCT Allows Longitudinal Analysis of Myopia and Emmetropization

    PubMed Central

    Collery, Ross F.; Veth, Kerry N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2?=?0.9548, R2?=?0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of ?0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of ?0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors. PMID:25334040

  20. Oxygen distribution and vascular injury in the mouse eye measured by phosphorescence-lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David F.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Grosul, Pavel; Vaccarezza, M. Noel; Kuroki, Akiko; Bennett, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Maps of the oxygen distribution in the retina of the mouse eye were obtained by phosphorescence-lifetime imaging. Phosphor dissolved in the blood was excited by modulated light and phosphorescence imaged through microscope optics with an intensified-CCD camera. Phosphorescence lifetimes and oxygen pressures were calculated for each pixel of the images. The resolution was sufficient to permit the detection of anomalies that result in reduced oxygen pressures in individual retinal capillaries. High-resolution maps of oxygen distribution in the retina can provide greater understanding of the role of oxygen and vascular function in diseases of the eye. PMID:16149347

  1. Electronic tongue-based discrimination of Korean rice wines (makgeolli) including prediction of sensory evaluation and instrumental measurements.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bo-Sik; Lee, Jang-Eun; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2014-05-15

    A commercial electronic tongue was used to discriminate Korean rice wines (makgeolli) brewed from nine cultivars of rice with different amino acid and fatty acid compositions. The E-tongue was applied to establish prediction models with sensory evaluation or LC-MS/MS by partial least squares regression (PLSR). All makgeollis were classified into three groups by principal components analysis, and the separation pattern was affected by rice qualities and yeast fermentation. Makgeolli taste changed from the complicated comprising sweetness, saltiness, and umami to the uncomplicated, such as bitterness and then, sourness, with a decrease of amino acids and fatty acids in the rice. The quantitative correlation between E-tongue and sensory scores or LC-MS/MS by PLSR demonstrated that E-tongue could well predict most of the sensory attributes with relatively acceptable r(2), except for bitterness, but could not predict most of the chemical compounds responsible for taste attributes, except for ribose, lactate, succinate, and tryptophan. PMID:24423539

  2. Diurnal Choroidal Thickness Changes in Normal Eyes of Turkish People Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayranc?; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Ozp?nar, Yavuz; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To analyse the diurnal variation of central choroidal thickness (CCT) in healthy emetropic patients during working hours. Methods. Fifty healthy young emmetrpic volunteers were included in this study. CCT was measured at 9?AM and 4?PM with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) with enhanced depth imaging. Diurnal variation of CCT, the correlation between rigth and left eyes and the demographic factors affecting this variation were assessed. Findings. The mean CCT at 9?AM and 4?PM was 308.7 ± 64.5??m and 308.7 ± 62??m, respectively, with a mean diurnal amplitude of ?0.03 ± 14.7??m, ranging between ?55??m and 47??m, the difference was statistically insignificant (P: 0.9). There were positive correlations between right and left eyes among CCT measurements at 9?AM, 4?PM and the mean amplitude of diurnal change (r: 0.65, P < 0.01; r: 0.60, P < 0.01; r: 0.45, P: 0.00, resp.). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the magnitude of diurnal change and age (r: ?0.27, P: 0.01). Conclusion. Although the mean CCT in the all group does not show significant variation during working hours, the pattern of diurnal variation may vary from person to person according to age, and there is a great harmony between the two eyes. PMID:23589769

  3. Factor Structure of Attention Capacities Measured With Eye-Tracking Tasks in 18-Month-Old Toddlers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T C; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2013-12-23

    Objective: Attention capacities are critical for adaptive functioning and development. Reliable assessment measures are needed for the study of attention capacities in early childhood. In the current study, we investigated the factor structure of the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers Using Eye-tracking (UTATE) test battery that assesses attention capacities in 18-month-old toddlers with eye-tracking techniques. Method: The factor structure of 13 measures of attention capacities, based on four eye-tracking tasks, was investigated in a sample of 95 healthy toddlers (18 months of age) using confirmatory factor analysis. Results: Results showed that a three-factor model best fitted the data. The latent constructs reflected an orienting, alerting, and executive attention system. Conclusion: This study showed support for a three-factor model of attention capacities in 18-month-old toddlers. Further study is needed to investigate whether the model can also be used with children at risk of attention problems. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:24366780

  4. A Validation of Eye Movements as a Measure of Elementary School Children's Developing Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Stern, Elsbeth

    2008-01-01

    The number line estimation task captures central aspects of children's developing number sense, that is, their intuitions for numbers and their interrelations. Previous research used children's answer patterns and verbal reports as evidence of how they solve this task. In the present study we investigated to what extent eye movements recorded…

  5. Measurement of Eye Diagrams and Constellation Diagrams of Optical Sources Using Linear Optics and Waveguide Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dorrer; Christopher Richard Doerr; I. Kang; Roland Ryf; J. Leuthold; P. J. Winzer

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the characterization of optical sources with high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, and phase sensitivity using linear optical sampling. Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams are reconstructed using the interference of the source under test with a train of sampling pulses. This concept is implemented using a waveguide optical hybrid, which splits and recombines the sources and adjusts the phase

  6. Intraobserver and interobserver repeatability of ocular components measurement in cataract eyes using a new optical low coherence reflectometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjana Bjeloš Ron?evi?; Mladen Buši?; Ivan ?ima; Biljana Kuzmanovi? Elabjer; Damir Bosnar; Daliborka Mileti?

    2011-01-01

    Background  The purpose of the study was to assess intraobserver and interobserver repeatability of eight ocular components measurement\\u000a in cataract eyes using the optical low-coherence reflectometer Lenstar LS 900®.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Five consecutive measurements of ocular components were taken by two examiners using the Lenstar. Components analyzed were:\\u000a central corneal thickness, lens thickness, anterior chamber depth, axial length, retinal thickness, keratometry, white-to-white\\u000a distance,

  7. Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1992-01-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

  8. Refractive errors in a rural Korean adult population: the Namil Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Y C; Kim, J M; Park, K H; Kim, C Y; Kim, T-W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of refractive errors, including myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia, in rural adult Koreans. Methods We identified 2027 residents aged 40 years or older in Namil-myeon, a rural town in central South Korea. Of 1928 eligible residents, 1532 subjects (79.5%) participated. Each subject underwent screening examinations including autorefractometry, corneal curvature measurement, and best-corrected visual acuity. Results Data from 1215 phakic right eyes were analyzed. The prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent (SE) +0.5 D) was 41.8% (95% CI: 38.9?44.4%), of astigmatism (cylinder eyes >1.0 D) was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.9?15.8%). Myopia prevalence decreased with age and tended to transition into hyperopia with age up to 60?69 years. In subjects older than this, the trend in SE refractive errors reversed with age. The prevalence of astigmatism and anisometropia increased consistently with age. The refractive status was not significantly different between males and females. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia in rural adult Koreans was similar to that of rural Chinese. The prevalence of high myopia was lower in this Korean sample than in other East Asian populations, and astigmatism was the most frequently occurring refractive error. PMID:24037232

  9. GMS-based"Future Time" Rainfall Data Assimilation for Mesoscale Weather Prediction over Korean Peninsula and Future Prospects with GPM Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Ou, Mi-Lim

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the use of satellite-derived nowcasted (short-term forecasted) rainfall over 3-hour time periods to gain an equivalent time increment in initializing a nonhydrostatic mesoscale model used for predicting convective rainfall events over the Korean peninsula. Infrared (IR) window measurements from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) are used to specify latent heating for a spinup period of the model - but in future time -- thus initializing in advance of actual time in the framework of a prediction scenario. The main scientific objective of the study is to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach insofar as data assimilation, in which the nowcasted assimilation data are derived independently of the prognostic model itself. Although there have been various recent improvements in formulating the dynamics, thermodynamics, and microphysics of mesoscale models, as well as computer advances which allow the use of high resolution cloud-resolving grids and explicit latent heating over regional domains, spinup remains at the forefront of unresolved mesoscale modeling problems. In general, non-realistic spinup limits the skill in predicting the spatial-temporal distribution of convection and precipitation, primarily in the early hours of a. forecast, stemming from standard prognostic variables not representing the initial diabatic heating field produced by the ambient convection and cloud fields. The long-term goal of this research is to improve short-range (12-hour) quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) over the Korean peninsula through the use of innovative data assimilation methods based on geosynchronous satellite measurements. As a step in ths direction, a non-standard data assimilation experiment in conjunction with GMS-retrieved nowcasted rainfall information introduced to the mesoscale model is conducted. The 3-hourly precipitation forecast information is assimilated through nudging the associated diabatic heating during the early stages of a forecast period. This procedure is expected to enhance details in the moisture field during model integration, and thus improve spinup performance, assuming the errors in the future time latent heating data ate less than intrinsic model background errors.

  10. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Erp, Jan B. F.

    2014-01-01

    While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 min segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz. PMID:25352774

  11. Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

  12. 3-D eye movement measurements on four Comex's divers using video CCD cameras, during high pressure diving.

    PubMed

    Guillemant, P; Ulmer, E; Freyss, G

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the vulnerability of the vestibular system regarding barotraumatism (1) and deep diving may induce immediate neurological changes (2). These extreme conditions (high pressure, limited examination time, restricted space, hydrogen-oxygen mixture, communication difficulties etc.) require adapted technology and associated fast experimental procedure. We were able to solve these problems by developing a new system of 3-D ocular movements on line analysis by means of a video camera. This analyser uses image processing and forms recognition software which allows non-invasive video frequency calculation of eye movements including torsional component. As this system is immediately ready for use, we were able to realize the subsequent examinations in a maximum time of 8 min for each diver: oculomotor tests including saccadic, slow and optokinetic traditional automatic measurements; vestibular tests regarding spontaneous and positional nystagmus, and reactional nystagmus to the pendular test. For pendular induced nystagmus we used appropriate head positions to stimulate separately the lateral and the posterior semicircular canal, and we measured the gain by operating successively in visible light and complete darkness. Recordings were done during a simulated onshore dive to an ambient pressure corresponding to a depth of 350 m. The above examinations were completed on the first and last days by caloric tests with the same video system analyser. The results of the investigations demonstrated perfect tolerance of the oculomotor and vestibular systems of these 4 divers thus fulfilling the preventive conditions defined by Comex Co. We were able to overcome the limitations due to low cost PC computer operation and cameras (necessity of adaptation to pressure, focus difficulties and direct light exposure eye reflexions). We still have on line accurate measurements even on the torsional component of the eye movement. Due to this technological efficiency we also present some mathematical aspects of the software. PMID:8749142

  13. Comparison of Retinal Thickness Measurements between the Topcon Algorithm and a Graph-Based Algorithm in Normal and Glaucoma Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianling; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Weifang; Xiang, Dehui; Chen, Haoyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Chen, Xinjian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlation and agreement between the Topcon built-in algorithm and our graph-based algorithm in measuring the total and regional macular thickness for normal and glaucoma subjects. Methods A total of 228 normal eyes and 93 glaucomatous eyes were enrolled in our study. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination and Topcon 3D-OCT 2000 scan. One eye was randomly selected for each subject. The thickness of each layer and the total and regional macular thickness on an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart were measured using the Topcon algorithm and our three-dimensional graph-based algorithm. Correlation and agreement analyses between these two algorithms were performed. Results Our graph search algorithm exhibited a strong correlation with Topcon algorithm. The macular GCC thickness values for normal and glaucoma subjects ranged from 0.86 to 0.91 and from 0.78 to 0.90, and the regional macular thickness values ranged from 0.79 to 0.96 and 0.70 to 0.95, respectively. Small differences were observed between the Topcon algorithm and our graph-based algorithm. The span of 95% limits of agreement of macular GCC thickness was less than 28 ?m in both normal and glaucoma subjects, respectively. These limits of total and regional macular thickness were 15.5 ?m and 23.1 ?m for normal subjects and 29.1 ?m and 46.4 ?m for glaucoma subjects, respectively. Conclusion Our graph-based algorithm exhibited a high degree of agreement with the Topcon algorithm with respect to thickness measurements in normal and glaucoma subjects. Moreover, our graph-based algorithm can segment the retina into more layers than the Topcon algorithm does. PMID:26042671

  14. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  15. Eye Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye protection equipment? Most farm supply and hardware retailers carry sunglasses, safety glasses, goggles and welding masks ... radiation can lead to the development of cataracts. Growths on parts of the eye and skin cancers ...

  16. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eye may also occur. Certain types of skull fractures can cause bruising around the eyes, even without ... Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or participating in sports where there is a high likelihood of injury ...

  17. Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Janknecht, P; Funk, J

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy and reproducibility of the optic nerve head analyser (ONHA) and the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) were compared and the performance of the HRT in measuring fundus elevations was evaluated. The coefficient of variation of three repeated measurements in a model eye and in volunteers and the relative error in a model eye was calculated. With ONHA measurements the pooled coefficient of variation in volunteers was 9.3% in measuring cup areas and 8.4% in measuring the cup volume. In a model eye the pooled coefficient of variation was 7.6% for the parameter 'cup area' and 9.9% for the parameter 'cup volume'. The pooled relative error in the model eye was 6.6% for the parameter 'cup area' and 5.1% for the parameter 'cup volume'. With HRT measurements in volunteers the pooled coefficient of variation of both the parameters 'volume below contour' and 'volume below surface' was 6.9%. In the model eye the pooled coefficient of variation was 2.4% for the 'volume below contour' and 4.1% for the parameter 'volume below surface'. The pooled relative error in the model eye was 11.3% for the 'volume below contour' and 11% for the 'volume below surface'. The pooled relative error in measuring retinal elevations in the model eye was 3.8%. The coefficient of variation was 3.5%. The accuracies of the HRT and ONHA were similar. However, as the ONHA 'cup volume' is unreliable in patients because of the design of the ONHA whereas the HRT volume parameters are reliable it seems reasonable to assume that the HRT is superior to the ONHA. Only the HRT is capable of quantifying retinal elevations. Images PMID:7803352

  18. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r?0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r?-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

  19. A New Fundus Camera Technique to Help Calculate Eye-Camera Magnification A Rapid Means to Measure Disc Size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Quigley; Pascale Dube ´

    Conclusions: The focusing knob position reflects the spectacle refraction of the eye being photographed, and spectacle refraction is known to correlate well with eye- camera magnification. Therefore, focusing knob posi- tion can be used to help calculate eye-camera magnifi- cation and, hence, true retinal object size. Clinical Relevance: The true size of the optic nerve head is important for the

  20. A New Fundus Camera Technique to Help Calculate Eye-Camera Magnification: A Rapid Means to Measure Disc Size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Quigley; Pascale Dube ´

    2003-01-01

    Conclusions: The focusing knob position reflects the spectacle refraction of the eye being photographed, and spectacle refraction is known to correlate well with eye- camera magnification. Therefore, focusing knob posi- tion can be used to help calculate eye-camera magnifi- cation and, hence, true retinal object size. Clinical Relevance: The true size of the optic nerve head is important for the

  1. The Correlation between Angle Kappa and Ocular Biometry in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Rang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate normative angle kappa data and to examine whether correlations exist between angle kappa and ocular biometric measurements (e.g., refractive error, axial length) and demographic features in Koreans. Methods Data from 436 eyes (213 males and 223 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II. We used ocular biometric measurements, including refractive spherical equivalent, interpupillary distance and axial length, to investigate the correlations between angle kappa and ocular biometry. The IOL Master ver. 5.02 was used to obtain axial length. Results The mean patient age was 57.5 ± 12.0 years in males and 59.4 ± 12.4 years in females (p = 0.11). Angle kappa averaged 4.70 ± 2.70 degrees in men and 4.89 ± 2.14 degrees in women (p = 0.48). Axial length and spherical equivalent were correlated with angle kappa (r = -0.342 and r = 0.197, respectively). The correlation between axial length and spherical equivalent had a negative correlation (r = -0.540, p < 0.001). Conclusions Angle kappa increased with spherical equivalent and age. Thus, careful manipulation should be considered in older and hyperopic patients when planning refractive or strabismus surgery. PMID:24311927

  2. Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments that may have modified their central integrators and thus require monitoring. Patients with gaze-evoked nystagmus can be flagged by comparing to the above established normative criteria.

  3. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  4. Korean Peninsula Maritime Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk Kyoon Kim

    2010-01-01

    In the unique situation of the Korean Peninsula, which is still technically in a state of war, maritime issues are increasingly becoming critical in the relations between South Korea and North Korea. While cooperation in maritime affairs has helped to ease tensions and paved a way to reconciliatory efforts, maritime disputes adjacent to the Northern Limit Lines in the West

  5. Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Motor Vehicle Safety Safety with Car Seats and Booster Seats ... Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Traumatic Brain Injury Brain Scan ? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF ...

  6. Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data demonstrated the feasibility of administrating this experimental paradigm to a diverse sample of healthy adult college students (N = 44). Results revealed that individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly related to a self-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype, suggesting that individual variation in the broad autism phenotype is related to individual differences in gaze allocation. PMID:23921972

  7. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Using Eye Makeup Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  8. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Tweet Lazy eye correction or treatment should ... Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Lazy eye patch treatment If refractive amblyopia is a problem, ...

  9. Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

  10. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B.; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Methods. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. Results. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. Conclusions. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression. PMID:26185762

  11. Military confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: possible first steps toward cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vannoni

    1997-01-01

    The Korean Peninsula is one of the world`s most tense military confrontational sites. Nearly 2 million North Korean, South Korean, and U.S. troops face each other along the 255-km long military demarcation line. Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment where

  12. Effects of eye-glasses, hair, headgear, and clothing on measured head-related transfer functions Part Ib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements show high HRTF repeatability, consequences of different measurement methods, and conditions covering the whole three-dimensional space [Riederer, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (Abstracts) 46, 1036 (1998), preprint 4846]. This study concentrates on specific effects on HRTFs carefully re-measured on the same Cortex dummy head applying Sennheiser KE4-211-2 microphones at its silicone putty blocked ear-canal entrances, employing 252 sound incidents including seven elevations. The effects of five different wigs (synthetic, natural, thick, thin, long and short hair) with varied hairstyles, four hats (cap, bicycle helmet, mens and womens trilby), clothes (alpaca pullover, bicycling drymax-jacket) and spectacles were investigated under 28 combinations. The influences are highly dependent on direction, frequency, and case. Clothes and eye-glasses affect minimally HRTF; hair has a stronger effect, depending on the actual hairdo (typically above 7 kHz). Hats alter intensively HRTFs (typically above 5 kHz), depending on the model. The measurements give deeper insight to the development of idiosyncratic features in binaural localization cues. The second part of the study addresses their perceptual effects [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation; thanks to Finnish Broadcasting Company, Mr. Hellstrom; Mrs. Chen.

  13. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Biomonitoring Examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Young Son; Jinheon Lee; Domyung Paek; Jong-Tae Lee

    2009-01-01

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To

  14. The Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Bo Young; Park, Heerak; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean College Stress Inventory (KCSI), which is designed to measure Korean college students' experiences and symptoms of career stress. Even though there have been numerous scales related to career issues, few scales measure the career stress construct and its dimensions. Factor structure, internal…

  15. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  16. Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.

    2013-03-01

    Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

  17. Serum measurements of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer among Korean men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Kyu Hong; Byung Kyu Han; Jae Seung Jeong; Seong Jin Jeong; Ki Hyuk Moon; Seok Soo Byun; Sang Eun Lee

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the relationships of serum testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels with prostate cancer risk and also with known prognostic parameters of prostate cancer in Korean men who received radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for clinically-localized prostate cancer.Methods:Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were determined in 592 patients who subsequently received prostate

  18. An exploration of through-the-eye intraocular pressure measurement device

    E-print Network

    Chiu, Flora T. (Flora Tze Kwan)

    2005-01-01

    Glaucoma, caused by an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the leading causes of blindness. As constant monitoring of IOP is essential in the treatment of glaucoma, the IOP measurement techniques described in ...

  19. Korean American Digital Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by the Korean Heritage Library (KHL) at the University of Southern California, this archive brings together a wide collection of digitized materials related to the Korean-American experience in a single searchable interface. The database indexes over 11,000 pages of documents, more than 1,300 photos, and some oral history recordings from five collections, which are described on the homepage. While the archive offers numerous options for searching (word or phrase, name, title, subject, etc.), a browse function would be a very helpful addition. Initial returns include a brief description and the option to mark records for printing. Full records contain a thumbnail image (or link to the audio), title, rights owner, distribution restrictions, and a contact email address, among other details.

  20. In the eyes of the beholder: A non-self-report measure of workplace deviance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Susan M; Bing, Mark N; Davison, H Kristl; Woehr, David J; McIntyre, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Because employees may be reluctant to admit to performing deviant acts, the authors of this study reexamined the commonly used self-report measure of workplace deviance developed by R. J. Bennett and S. L. Robinson (2000). Specifically, the self-report measure was modified into a non-self-report measure based on multiple other-reported assessments to address methodological concerns with self-reported information regarding deviant workplace behaviors. The authors assessed the psychometric properties of this new measure by first conducting an exploratory factor analysis, which indicated a 3-factor structure (production deviance, property deviance, and personal aggression). Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis on a different sample verified these findings. Taken together, the results suggest that the content and psychometric qualities of this non-self-report measure of workplace deviance closely represent S. L. Robinson and R. J. Bennett's (1995) original typology of workplace deviance. The potential usefulness of this measure in organizational studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186905

  1. Objective accommodation measurements in prepresbyopic eyes using an autorefractor and an aberrometer

    PubMed Central

    Win-Hall, Dorothy M.; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To test the repeatability of the iTrace wavefront aberrometer (Tracey Technologies, Inc.) and the WR-5100K autorefractor (Grand Seiko Co., Ltd.) and to measure accomodation in young and phakic prepresbyopic subjects. SETTING University of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, Texas, USA. METHODS This study comprised 30 young adults and 15 prepresbyopic subjects. Accommodation was stimulated with near charts presented at various distances. Measurements were repeated 3 times for each target distance with both instruments. For test–retest reliability, the entire protocol was repeated on 3 additional days in 3 prepresbyopic subjects as well as twice on the same day in the young adults. RESULTS The mean age was 25.5 years ± 3.25 (SD) (range 21 to 31 years old) in the young adult group and 41.2 ± 2.98 years (range 38 to 49 years) in the prepresbyopic group. Bland-Altman analysis of repeated measures of the young subjects had limits of agreements (LoA) of 1.58 diopters (D) or less for each instrument and when compared between instruments. Normalized mean stimulus response functions in the prepresbyopic group were similar for the 2 instruments. Bland-Altman analysis of the accommodation measurements between the 2 instruments showed a mean difference of 0.07 D and an LoA of 0.70 D. Repeated measures of 3 prepresbyopic subjects had a range of standard deviations from 0.07 to 0.51 D. CONCLUSION The accommodative responses measured with the 2 instruments were not significantly different, and testing showed both instruments to be suitable for objective measurement of accommodation in a phakic prepresbyopic population with low accommodative amplitudes. PMID:18471632

  2. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-04-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake. PMID:20461202

  3. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake. PMID:20461202

  4. Timed and Untimed Grammaticality Judgments Measure Distinct Types of Knowledge: Evidence from Eye-Movement Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfroid, Aline; Loewen, Shawn; Jung, Sehoon; Park, Ji-Hyun; Gass, Susan; Ellis, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) have been used to elicit data reflecting second language (L2) speakers' knowledge of L2 grammar. However, the exact constructs measured by GJTs, whether primarily implicit or explicit knowledge, are disputed and have been argued to differ depending on test-related variables (i.e., time pressure and item…

  5. Eye dilation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greyson Orlando (None; )

    2006-12-11

    The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

  6. Discrepancy between subjectively reported symptoms and objectively measured clinical findings in dry eye: a population based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rui; Yao, Kai; Hu, Yuedong; Chen, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the discrepancy between patient-reported symptoms and measured clinical findings and influencing factors in dry eye (DE). Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed in July–August 2007 in northeast China. The study was performed on populations originating from two rural districts that are respectively located approximately 377 and 177?km from our hospital. Participants 2600 eligible residents from 1300 households were identified; valid responses were obtained from 2262 residents (mean age 48 (range 12–88) years; 926 men and 1336 women; response rate 87%). Primary outcome measures Patient-reported symptoms of DE, tear film break up time (BUT) and Schirmer scores (Schirmer II). Results Subjects with normal BUT and Schirmer scores without any DE symptoms were defined as the control group. Those with abnormal BUT and Schirmer scores and symptoms of DE were defined as the DE group. Subjects with disparities between the occurrence of DE symptoms and measured clinical findings were regarded as the discrepancy. Out of 2262 subjects, the discrepant group contained 960 subjects (42.44%) with significant difference (?2=4.027, p=0.045<0.05). Factors that influenced the subjective reporting of DE symptoms included gender, smoking status, environment and age. Schirmer II test and tear film BUT values were remarkably different among control, DE and discrepant groups. Conclusions Development of DE can be related to many factors. It is of great importance to put forward the preclinical phase concept (patients who are symptomatic for DE and yet show no aqueous deficiency or evaporative signs) and to screen outpatients with DE-inducing features. Future interventions should focus on patients demonstrating a discrepancy between self-reported symptomology and measured clinical findings. PMID:25168038

  7. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  8. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  9. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  10. The Korean War: A Bibliography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robinson, Ken.

    This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

  11. Measurement of the glucose transport time delay between the blood and aqueous humor of the eye for the eventual development of a noninvasive glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Cameron, B D; Baba, J S; Coté, G L

    2001-01-01

    In the recent past, several noninvasive optically based methods have been proposed for physiologic glucose sensing. One proposed optical sensing site has been the eye, which, due to its unique optical properties, can be considered as a transparent optical window into the body. In particular, the aqueous humor within the anterior chamber of the eye has been shown to contain glucose levels correlated to those of blood. Concern, however, has been expressed that using the aqueous humor solution as a measure of blood glucose may be problematic due to the potential transport time delay between the blood and the aqueous humor glucose concentrations. This investigation was performed to measure the transport time delay in a rabbit model. The time delay between the blood and aqueous humor glucose concentrations was measured invasively in five New Zealand White rabbits over a series of weeks. An anesthesia protocol containing the drug Xylazine was used to elevate the blood glucose levels to a level commonly seen in diabetic patients. The difference between the glucose peak location times occurring in the blood and aqueous humor glucose response was measured and defined as the transport time delay. The average transport time lag was measured to be under 5 min. This measured time delay indicates that, indeed, the eye could potentially be used as a sensing site for indirect blood glucose measurements and may eventually aid the development of a noninvasive glucose sensor due to its unique optical properties compared to other biological tissues. PMID:11478325

  12. Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following symptoms: sudden appearance of spots and strings floating in your field of vision; flashes of light ... experiencing eye pain, and do you see dark, floating spots? You may have an inflammation inside the ...

  13. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from your retina to the optic nerve. These fibers meet at the optic disc. As fluid pressure within your eye increases, it damages these sensitive nerve fibers and they begin to die. As they die, ...

  14. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Eye Injuries KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Emergencies > Eye ... do not delay flushing the eye first. Black Eyes and Blunt Injuries A black eye is often ...

  15. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard [Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Klinische Strahlenphysik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, D 45122 Essen (Germany); Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate distribution, which then can be used as input for a refined clinical treatment planning system. The improved dose rate measurements will facilitate a clinical study, which could correlate the therapeutic outcome of a brachytherapy treatment with an applicator and its individual dose rate distribution.

  16. Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop marks were clearly visible following a dry season in spring 2011. These patterns are in coincidence with higher conductivity patterns caused by a higher amount of silt and clay. Good correlations were found for LAI measurements taken during a growing season with underlying sediments especially in the early stages of plant development. Finally, ECa measurements of two heterogeneous fields were used for a 3D layer inversion which will be further implemented into landscape models. This study shows that multiple EMI measurements can be successfully used to recover buried river systems, highlight possible sample locations and support farmers to manage their fields more precisely.

  17. The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean. PMID:22993518

  18. Effectiveness of in-office blood pressure measurement by eye care practitioners in early detection and management of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    AlAnazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.; AlMubrad, Turki M.; Ahmed, Hany K.; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the number of hypertensive patients, the optometrist is able to identify by routinely taking blood pressure (BP) measurements for patients in “at-risk” groups, and to sample patients' opinions regarding in-office BP measurement. Many of the optometrists in Saudi Arabia practice in optical stores. These stores are wide spread, easily accessible and seldom need appointments. The expanding role of the optometrist as a primary health care provider (PHCP) and the increasing global prevalence of hypertension, highlight the need for an integrated approach towards detecting and monitoring hypertension. METHODS Automated BP measurements were made twice (during the same session) at five selected optometry practices using a validated BP monitor (Omron M6) to assess the number of patients with high BP (HBP) -in at-risk groups-visiting the eye clinic routinely. Prior to data collection, practitioners underwent a two-day training workshop by a cardiologist on hypertension and how to obtain accurate BP readings. A protocol for BP measurement was distributed and retained in all participating clinics. The general attitude towards cardiovascular health of 480 patients aged 37.2 (±12.4)y and their opinion towards in-office BP measurement was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS A response rate of 83.6% was obtained for the survey. Ninety-three of the 443 patients (21.0%) tested for BP in this study had HBP. Of these, (62 subjects) 66.7% were unaware of their HBP status. Thirty of the 105 subjects (28.6%) who had previously been diagnosed with HBP, still had HBP at the time of this study, and only 22 (73.3%) of these patients were on medication. Also, only 25% of the diagnosed hypertensive patients owned a BP monitor. CONCLUSION Taking BP measurements in optometry practices, we were able to identify one previously undiagnosed patient with HBP for every 8 adults tested. We also identified 30 of 105 previously diagnosed patients whose BP was poorly controlled, twenty-two of whom were on medication. The patients who participated in this study were positively disposed toward the routine measurement of BP by optometrists. PMID:26086018

  19. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring…

  20. The Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ): A Validation Study in a Korean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement scores of the learning organization culture, the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ), in a Korean context. A total of 1,529 cases from 11 firms in two major Korean conglomerates were analyzed. Rigorous translation procedures, including both…

  1. The application of cooperative monitoring techniques to a conceptual limited deployment zone in the Korean peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vannoni; R. Duggan

    1996-01-01

    The Korean peninsula is the site of a tense military confrontation. Relations between North and South Korea improved during the early 1990`s but the process is now frozen. Confidence building measures, particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries would decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for direct negotiations. The Korean Institute for

  2. Korean Preschoolers' Advanced Inhibitory Control and Its Relation to Other Executive Skills and Mental State Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Seungmi; Lewis, Charlie

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed executive function and mental state understanding in Korean preschoolers. In Experiment 1, forty 3.5- and 4-year-old Koreans showed ceiling performance on inhibition and switching measures, although their performance on working memory and false belief was comparable to that of Western children. Experiment 2 revealed a similar…

  3. Countercurrents from the West: “blue-eyed” Zen masters, Vipassan? meditation, and Buddhist psychotherapy in contemporary Korea.

    PubMed

    Bongseok Joo, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassan? meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa S?n practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy. This new wave of transnational influence from the West has changed not only the way Koreans practice Buddhism but also how they perceive Buddhist history and their own identities. In addition, the perceived “prestige” of Buddhism in the West has provided a new rhetorical strategy to defend Buddhism against other religions, particularly Korean evangelical Christianity. PMID:22145173

  4. Adaptation of vertical eye alignment in relation to head tilt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Maxwell; Clifton M. Schor

    1996-01-01

    Binocular visual feedback is used to continually calibrate binocular eye alignment so that the retinal images of the two eyes remain in correspondence. Past experiments have shown that vertical eye alignment (measured as vertical phoria) can be altered by training to disparities that vary as a function of orbital eye position. The present experiments demonstrate that vertical eye alignment can

  5. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley A. Weaver; Kathryn L. Loftis; Stefan M. Duma; Joel D. Stitzel

    2011-01-01

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within

  6. Prevalence of dry eye in Japanese eye centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hikichi; A. Yoshida; Y. Fukui; T. Hamano; M. Ri; K. Araki; K. Horimoto; E. Takamura; K. Kitagawa; M. Oyama; Y. Danjo; S. Kondo; H. Fujishima; I. Toda; K. Tsubota

    1995-01-01

    • Background: The purpose of the investigation was to ascertain the prevalence of dry eye in new outpatients. • Methods: A total of 2127 consecutive new outpatients seen in eight Japanese centers from April 1992 to January 1993 underwent comprehensive examinations, including double vital staining and measurement of tear film break-up time, basal tear secretion, and tear clearance. Dry eye

  7. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

  8. Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2011-05-01

    This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number of eye fixations during information searching and spent the same amount of time on the overall instructional materials regardless of format. However, the total number of eye fixations on the picture areas was significantly greater for the multiple-page than for the single-page presentation. A significant difference was found in the duration of students' eye fixation durations on the picture areas under the two conditions, with students spending more time on the picture area of the multiple-page than of the single-page presentation. Greater pupil size was found when participants viewed the multiple-page presentation, implying that this presentation format was associated with a higher cognitive load. The participants' eye-movement data for specific areas was recorded and analyzed to determine students' information processing patterns and strategies and for triangulation with the quantitative findings. Discussion of the research findings and suggestions for future research are provided.

  9. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  10. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  11. Driver eye height measurement 

    E-print Network

    Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

    1978-01-01

    and natural resources in the United States. Figure 2 shows the increase in the percentage of smaller cars ao compared to regular-size cars. For a full list of makes of cars by market segment refer tn Table I. 90 80 ola SMALLER 70 VEHICLES SOLD...% of the vehicles in operation are more than ten years old, a changing market can quickly alter the distribution between full-size and smaller rare. Of a total of 98 million passenger cars in operation in 1976, 60 million or 61% are smaller cars in the categories...

  12. Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to administer drops or ointment, you should avoid direct contact with your child’s eyes or drainage from them until the medication has been used for several days and there is evidence of clearing of the redness. Carefully wash your ...

  13. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  14. Egg Development and Early Life History of Korean Endemic Species Korean Spotted Sleeper, Odontobutis interrupta (Pisces: Odontobutidae)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Kim, Na-ri; Yoo, Dong-Jae; Yun, Seong-Min; Han, Ji-Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    The egg development and early life history of Korean spotted sleeper, Odontobutis interrupta which is Korean endemic species from Sora-choen was investigated. The Korean spotted sleeper were caught at Sora-myeon, Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea at May in 2014. The fertilized eggs were 4.23 ± 0.05 mm in long diameter and had oil globules. Hatching time of the embryo began about 442 hr 14 min after fertilization under water temperature of 19.5°C. The newly hatched larvae were 4.27 ± 0.35 mm in total length and their anus were not yet opened. 3 days after hatching postlarvae was measured 6.20 ± 0.11 mm in total length. 10 days after hatching postlarvae was measured 6.69 ± 0.14 mm in total length. PMID:25949196

  15. Airbags and Eye Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel A Pearlman; K. G. Au Eong; Ferenc Kuhn; Dante J Pieramici

    2001-01-01

    Although airbags measurably reduce the overall risk of injury to adults (including eye injury), and death from motor vehicle accidents, injuries attributed to airbag deployment have been reported. To identify reported cases of ocular trauma related to airbag deployment, a MEDLINE search from 1991 to 2000 was performed. A total of 263 injuries in 101 patients were identified. Patient demographics,

  16. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  17. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  18. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  19. Characteristics of Type D personality in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Cha, Jae Yeon; Lee, Hongjae

    2012-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of the Type D construct using the Korean version of the Type D Personality-14 (DS14) on the Korean youth population and to identify relationships between the Type D construct and other mental health measures. Adolescent participants aged 13-18 years were recruited from 12 schools (7 middle schools and 5 high schools) in Ansan city, located in the southwest area of Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. A total of 4,899 students were assessed with the Korean version of the DS14, Beck depression inventory (BDI), Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI), Adolescent Mental health Problem behavior Questionnaire (AMPQ), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korean version (AUDIT-K). We found significant differences in all the measured scales and subscale scores between two groups, those with Type D personality and those without (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). When comparing the distributions of the high risk participants identified by the results of BDI, K-ESI, AMPQ, and AUDIT-K between participants with either Type D or non-Type D personality, a significantly higher proportion of high risk participants were in the Type D personality group according to all measures (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). In conclusions, Type D adolescents experience various and more severe mental health problems. Type D personality was more related with internalizing symptoms in Korean adolescents. DS14 can be useful in a community mental health program designed for adolescents. PMID:22899442

  20. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  1. Phonological awareness of English by Chinese and Korean bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyunjoo; Schmidt, Anna; Cheng, Tse-Hsuan

    2002-05-01

    This study examined non-native speakers phonological awareness of spoken English. Chinese speaking adults, Korean speaking adults, and English speaking adults were tested. The L2 speakers had been in the US for less than 6 months. Chinese and Korean allow no consonant clusters and have limited numbers of consonants allowable in syllable final position, whereas English allows a variety of clusters and various consonants in syllable final position. Subjects participated in eight phonological awareness tasks (4 replacement tasks and 4 deletion tasks) based on English phonology. In addition, digit span was measured. Preliminary analysis indicates that Chinese and Korean speaker errors appear to reflect L1 influences (such as orthography, phonotactic constraints, and phonology). All three groups of speakers showed more difficulty with manipulation of rime than onset, especially with postvocalic nasals. Results will be discussed in terms of syllable structure, L1 influence, and association with short term memory.

  2. Eye Shape in Emmetropia and Myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Atchison; Catherine E. Jones; Katrina L. Schmid; Nicola Pritchard; James M. Pope; Wendy E. Strugnell; Robyn A. Riley

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSES. To determine axial, vertical, and horizontal eye di- mensions in myopic and emmetropic eyes by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to relate these to different ocular expansion models of myopia development. METHODS. The internal length (cornea to retina), height and width (both retina to retina) were measured in emmetropic and myopic eyes (up to 12 D) of 88

  3. Eye Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.

  4. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  5. Statistical derivation of fPAR and LAI for irrigated cotton and rice in arid Uzbekistan by combining multi-temporal RapidEye data and ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehammer, Andrea; Fritsch, Sebastian; Conrad, Christopher; Lamers, John; Dech, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Land surface biophysical parameters such as the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR) and leaf area index (LAI) are keys for monitoring vegetation dynamics and in particular for biomass and carbon flux simulation. This study aimed at deriving accurate regression equations from the newly available RapidEye satellite sensor to be able to map regional fPAR and LAI which could be used as inputs for crop growth simulations. Therefore, multi-temporal geo- and atmospherically corrected RapidEye scenes were segmented to derive homogeneous patches within the experimental fields. Various vegetation indices (VI) were calculated for each patch focusing on indices that include RapidEye's red edge band and further correlated with in situ measured fPAR and LAI values of cotton and rice. Resulting coefficients of determination ranged from 0.55 to 0.95 depending on the indices analysed, object scale, crop type and regression function type. The general relationships between VI and fPAR were found to be linear. Nonlinear models gave a better fit for VI-LAI relation. VIs derived from the red edge channel did not prove to be generally superior to other VIs.

  6. The Eye Mouse, an eye communication device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Norris; E. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    The Eye Mouse is a communication aid designed for the severely disabled. Specifically, it provides the user with a means to control an ordinary PC mouse with a combination of eye movements and blinks. By constantly monitoring the electrooculogram signal (EOG) of the user, the Eye Mouse (EM) is able to recognize several intentional eye motions and in turn, control

  7. Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

  8. Renal Manifestations and Visceral Adiposity in Apparently Healthy Korean Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Won Lee; Urhee Bae; Duk-Chul Lee; Hye-Ree Lee; Jae-Yong Shim; John A. Linton

    2008-01-01

    Aims: It was the aim of this study to investigate the relationship between normal renal function – estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – and visceral adiposity measured by CT in apparently healthy Korean women. Methods: A total of 425 apparently healthy women were recruited. We assessed body composition with CT and divided the study population into 2 groups based on

  9. Blitzkrieg or Sitzkrieg? Assessing a second Korean War

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    Static and dynamic measures, developed for conventional force balance assessment in Central Europe during the Cold War, are applied to the situation on the Korean Peninsula. Many of the Cold War analytical techniques in the context of the post?Cold War situation, are applied to one of the two major regional theaters that the US military is prepared to fight in.

  10. Market change and diversity in the Korean movie market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sora Park

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationships among the different, measurable aspects of media diversity (source, content and exposure) were examined. The aim was to look at how changes in the market environment affect the diversity of movies that are exhibited. The Korean movie market since the late 1980s provides a fruitful example of how an increased exhibition outlet affects the source,

  11. What is the value of incorporating tear osmolarity measurement in assessing patient response to therapy in dry eye disease?

    PubMed Central

    Amparo, Francisco; Jin, Yiping; Hamrah, Pedram; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Dana, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between changes in tear osmolarity, symptoms, and corneal fluorescein staining in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Design Retrospective, clinic-based cohort study. Methods In this single-institution study, we reviewed the charts of 186 patients with DED from whom we had data on tear osmolarity, symptoms, and corneal fluorescein staining from two separate visits. Main outcomes included the correlation of the changes between the two visits for tear osmolarity (TearLab® system), symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index© [OSDI]), and corneal fluorescein staining (modified Oxford scheme). For tear osmolarity and corneal fluorescein staining the scores from the eye with highest readings were analyzed. The correlations were repeated on subgroups based on proposed cutoffs for DED severity and on patients’ treatment. Results We found a modest, though statistically significant, correlation between changes in corneal fluorescein staining and symptoms of DED (R = .31; P < .001). However, there was no correlation between the recorded change in tear osmolarity and symptoms (R = ?.091; P = .38) or between changes in tear osmolarity and corneal fluorescein staining (R = ?.02; P = .80). This lack of correlation was consistent in all the subgroups studied. A multivariate analysis revealed that changes in corneal fluorescein staining had predictive value on symptom changes, while tear osmolarity changes did not. Conclusions Changes in tear osmolarity do not correlate significantly with changes in patient symptoms or corneal fluorescein staining in dry eye disease. PMID:24060433

  12. Videoanalysis of involuntary eye movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripal, Anatoli V.; Usanova, Tatjana B.; Abramov, Anton V.; Usanov, Dmitry A.

    2002-07-01

    The method for monitoring of involuntary eye motion on the basis of image processing and analysis technology is posed. The efficiency of the program for the object movement analysis by its trajectory and spectrum is demonstrated. The results of measuring of involuntary eye movements of patients with nystagmus are presented. The measuring results characterizing the nystagmus status changing before and after the squint correction is demonstrated.

  13. An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

  14. Perifoveal microcirculation in eyes with epiretinal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kadonosono, K.; Itoh, N.; Nomura, E.; Ohno, S.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Eyes with epiretinal membranes (ERMs) often have alterations of retinal vessels. The authors studied perifoveal microcirculation in eyes with epiretinal membranes (ERMs) using scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) fluorescein angiography.?METHODS—Mean capillary blood flow velocity (CFV) was measured as an index of perifoveal microcirculation by SLO fluorescein angiography in 26 eyes with ERMs (19 eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membranes, seven eyes with epiretinal membranes after retinal detachment surgery) before and 6 months after vitreous surgery, and in 23 healthy control subjects.?RESULTS—The mean CFV was significantly reduced in eyes with ERMs compared with healthy controls (p=0.012), and the postoperative mean CFV was significantly increased compared with the preoperative mean CFV (p=0.041).?CONCLUSION—Significant changes of capillary blood flow velocity in the perifoveal areas were observed between normal subjects and eyes with epiretinal membranes. This indicates that eyes with ERMs show abnormal haemodynamics in the perifoveal capillaries.?? PMID:10574808

  15. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-print Network

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  16. Physical phantom of typical Korean male for radiation protection purpose.

    PubMed

    Kim, J I; Choi, H; Lee, B I; Lim, Y K; Kim, C S; Lee, J K; Lee, C

    2006-01-01

    Dose distribution within a human body can be measured using physical anthropomorphic phantoms. In an effort to establish reference Korean physical model, the first Korean physical phantom of average Korean adult male was constructed using computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy volunteer. The body dimension of the subject was close to that of average Korean male. The source images were obtained using fusion positron emission tomography machine at Radiation Health Research Institute in Korea, and ported into rapid prototyping process. The physical phantom was composed of three tissue-equivalent materials: epoxy resin, urethane foam and polyurethane representing bone, lungs and soft tissues, respectively. The densities of the tissue-equivalent materials were close to those recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements. To facilitate dose mapping, the phantom was sliced into 2 cm sections. Hole grids for thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeter chips were drilled. To verify the appropriateness of the physical phantom, organ doses of selected organs were measured for reference photon beam, and compared with those computed by tomographic model constructed from the same CT images. Absorbed doses converted from TL relative response showed good agreement within 7% with those calculated. PMID:16410295

  17. Development and validation of the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL) questionnaire, a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure for the assessment of the burden of dry eye on patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a comprehensive patient-reported outcomes instrument focusing on the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL). Methods Development and validation of the IDEEL occurred in four phases: 1) focus groups with 45 dry eye patients to develop a draft instrument, 2) item generation, 3) pilot study to assess content validity in 16 patients and 4) psychometric validation in 210 subjects: 130 with non-Sjögren's keratoconjunctivitis sicca, 32 with Sjögren's syndrome and 48 controls, and subsequent item reduction. Results Focus groups identified symptoms and the associated bother, the impact of dry eye on daily life and the patients' satisfaction with their treatment as the central concepts in patients' experience of dry eye. Qualitative analysis indicated that saturation was achieved for these concepts and yielded an initial 112-item draft instrument. Patients understood the questionnaire and found the items to be relevant indicating content validity. Patient input, item descriptive statistics and factor analysis identified 55 items that could be deleted. The final 57-item IDEEL assesses dry eye impact constituting 3 modules: dry eye symptom-bother, dry eye impact on daily life comprising impact on daily activities, emotional impact, impact on work, and dry eye treatment satisfaction comprising satisfaction with treatment effectiveness and treatment-related bother/inconvenience. The psychometric analysis results indicated that the IDEEL met the criteria for item discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and floor/ceiling effects. As expected, the correlations between IDEEL and the Dry Eye Questionnaire (a habitual symptom questionnaire) were higher than between IDEEL and Short-Form-36 and EuroQoL-5D, indicating concurrent validity. Conclusion The IDEEL is a reliable, valid and comprehensive questionnaire relevant to issues that are specific to dry eye patients, and meets current FDA patient-reported outcomes guidelines. The use of this questionnaire will provide assessment of the impact of dry eye on patient dry eye-related quality of life, impact of treatment on patient outcomes in clinical trials, and may aid in treatment effectiveness evaluation. PMID:22152125

  18. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-02-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  19. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  20. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Job Fireworks Eye Safety The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ... if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision loss or blindness. ...

  1. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 11/2013 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  2. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... test that uses orange dye (fluorescein) and a blue light to detect foreign bodies in the eye. This ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface ...

  3. Crossed eyes (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    People are very sensitive to other individuals' eye positions. By looking at another person's eye position, one can very effectively gauge where they are looking. People are also sensitive to eyes that are ...

  4. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  5. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  6. Korean telecommunication industry in transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-wan Tcha; June S. Park; Suk-gwon Chang; Kwan Ho Song

    2000-01-01

    This paper, as a preface to this special issue, gives an overview of recent developments in Korean telecommunication market and industry. It provides background information that is helpful for understanding the motivations behind research papers contained in this issue. In particular, we discuss the transition of the market structure from monopoly to deregulated competition, the activities in telecommunications R&D, and

  7. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  8. A real-life illusion of assimilation in the human face: eye size illusion caused by eyebrows and eye shadow

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Kazunori; Matsushita, Soyogu; Tomita, Akitoshi; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Does an assimilative illusion like the Delboeuf illusion occur in the human face? We investigated factors that might influence the perceived size of the eyes in a realistic face. Experiment 1 manipulated the position of the eyebrows (high or low), the presence/absence of eye shadow, and the viewing distance (0.6 m or 5 m), then measured the perceived eye size using a psychophysical method. The results showed that low eyebrows (i.e., closer to the eyes) make the eyes appear larger, suggesting that the assimilation of eyes into the eyebrows is stronger when the eye-eyebrow distance is shorter. The results also demonstrated that the application of eye shadow also makes the eyes look larger. Moreover, the effect of eye shadow is more pronounced when viewed from a distance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the eye size illusion demonstrated in Experiment 1, Experiment 2 measured the magnitude of the Delboeuf illusion at a viewing distance of 0.6 m or 5 m, with or without gray gradation simulating the eye shadow that was used in Experiment 1. The experiment demonstrated that the Delboeuf illusion is modulated by viewing distance and gradation in the same way as the eye size illusion. These results suggest that the eye size illusion induced by the eyebrows and the Delboeuf illusion involve the same mechanism, and that eye shadow causes the assimilation of the eyes into itself and enhances assimilation between the eyes and the eyebrows. PMID:25852522

  9. Low cost computer interface using eye tracking

    E-print Network

    Zee, Bernard Chan Heng

    1989-01-01

    are currently being marketed. The difference stems from the way they measure eye positions. Equipment using electro-oculography measure a potential difference between the cornea and retina which changes as the eye moves [2]. The change in potential... various circuitry and programs determine where a reflected exterior lighting source is in relation to the cornea [4]. Further manipula- tion yields eye gaze information. If the camera system is unable to track the subject's head movements...

  10. Factors of Breast Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrants in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunice E. Lee; Louis F. Fogg; Georgia R. Sadler

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess breast cancer screening rates and explore factors related to all three measures of\\u000a breast cancer screening, mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE), among Korean immigrants\\u000a in the United States. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean women aged 40 and older in Cook County, Illinois. Of\\u000a this group,

  11. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Adipose Tissues of Korean Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo-Bang MoonDuk-Hee; Duk-Hee Lee; Yoon Soon Lee; Minkyu Choi; Hee-Gu Choi; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    Studies on residue levels and accumulation profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human adipose tissues of Korean\\u000a populations are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation features of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in adipose tissues of Korean women age 40–68 years.\\u000a The highest concentrations were found for PCBs and DDTs, which

  12. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ? 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  13. A Korean Legend: Hungbu and Nolbu; and Korean Songs We Can Sing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta; And Others

    A Korean legend and a number of Korean songs are presented in this illustrated booklet. English translations and a pronunciation guide are provided. Musical notations are included for the songs presented. (EB)

  14. 78 FR 13139 - Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...Notice 8198] Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 AGENCY...Department of State. ACTION: Designation of the Korean Committee for Space Technology, Paek...

  15. Errors in inflectional morphemes as an index of linguistic competence of Korean Heritage language learners and American learners of Korean

    E-print Network

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-12-31

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to ...

  16. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

  17. Differentiation and healthy family functioning of Koreans in South Korea, South Koreans in the United States, and White Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Prouty, Anne M; Smith, Douglas B; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wetchler, Joseph L; Oh, Jea-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior research on the Bowen Family Systems Theory concept of differentiation of self and its application to individuals, couples, and families of different cultural backgrounds. In this regard, this study examined the impact of differentiation of self on healthy family functioning, family communication, and family satisfaction with 277 participants including South Koreans living in South Korea, South Korean-born citizens living in the United States, and White Americans living in the United States. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis identified the measurement invariance of a differentiation scale (DSI-R) used for the three study groups. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found significant differences between White Americans and South Koreans with regard to the level of differentiation. Results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses found a significant association between differentiation of self and healthy family functioning across the three groups with the American group having significantly higher differentiation than the two South Korean groups." Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24750125

  18. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P

    2006-04-28

    This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye. PMID:16645090

  19. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  20. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  1. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  2. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants' demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  3. Optical properties of the mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the mouse eye and found that it follows predictions of the water-filled schematic mouse eye. Results indicate that the optical quality of the mouse eye assessed by measurement of its aberrations is remarkably good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements predict that adaptive optics based on this method of wavefront sensing will provide improvements in retinal image quality and potentially two times higher lateral resolution than that in the human eye. PMID:21483598

  4. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  5. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News Consumer Alerts In Focus: Genetic Testing and Eye Disease Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  6. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...

  7. Syllable transposition effects in korean word recognition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang H; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for syllable-transposed Korean nonwords were delayed as compared with matched Korean nonwords without syllable transpositions. These findings bolster the case that the syllable provides an important functional unit in Korean word recognition, and suggest a degree of position invariance in syllable representations. PMID:25694048

  8. Laser-generated ultrasound in the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, A.; Payne, P. A.; Rosen, E. S.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    There is a clinical need for an instrument capable of measuring properties of the eye beyond those presently available. In this paper, a new laser ultrasound technique is discussed for assessing the characteristics of eyes—using a novel form of probe. Laser-ultrasound transients were generated within bovine eyes using a frequency doubled Nd: YAG Q-switched laser pulse. A fibre optic delivery system was used with a PVDF probe attached concentrically to its end. By investigating, under saline, fresh postmortem bovine eyes, it is shown that non-invasive measurement is possible for overall dimensions of the eye, as well as the size of the anterior chamber. Ultrasound features can be identified with different interfaces in the layered structure of the eye, with amplitudes dependant on the relative absorption coefficients across internal interfaces.

  9. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence. PMID:21267658

  10. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. PMID:23557676

  11. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

  12. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  13. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  14. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future. PMID:25652712

  15. Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments. Materials and Methods: Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression equations were constructed. Results: It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety. Conclusions: The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults. PMID:24860222

  16. Feasibility of Translaminar Screw Placement in Korean Population: Morphometric Analysis of Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kurniawan, Ferry; Lee, Junho; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement in Koran population, and compare the acceptance rate using previously reported data in American population. Materials and Methods The translaminar lengths, thickness, heights, and sagittal-diagonal measurements were performed. The feasibility analysis was performed using unilateral and bilateral 3.5 mm cervical screw placement on the CT scans within 0.5 mm of safety margin. We also performed radiographic analysis of the morphometric dimensions and the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement at C3-C7. Results Korean population had similar or significantly shorter translaminar lengths and thickness (lengths and thickness in C7 among males; lengths in C6-C7 and thickness in C4 among females) than American population, but had similar or significantly longer translaminar heights and sagittal-diagonal measurements (heights in C3-C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C6 among males; heights in C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C7 among females). Unilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C4-C6 were significantly smaller between Korean and American female population. Bilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3 and C5-C6 were significantly larger between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American female population. Conclusion The feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement is different depending on different ethnics. Subaxial cervical unilateral translaminar screw placement among Korean male population and bilateral placement at C4-C7 among Korean female population are more acceptable than American population. PMID:25510760

  17. Useful Phrases in English: Korean. Language SOS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    This English-Korean phrase book is designed for the English speaking person learning Korean. The useful phrases and vocabulary words are divided into eleven sections: basic needs and safety; greetings and amenities; getting acquainted; directions and classroom articles; calendar, numbers, and time; subjects; shapes, sizes, and colors; body parts…

  18. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    This paper examines the relationship between Korean culture and the historical development of its kindergarten (preschool) curriculum. After reviewing the values that were emphasized in traditional Korean society, focusing on ethics, loyalty and filial piety, propriety, and gender roles, the paper provides examples of how these values influences…

  19. North Korean nuclear crisis and Russia's role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Soo Lee

    2005-01-01

    North Korean government officially admitted to having at least one nuclear bomb at this year. This dramatic change suggested that North Korean government have changed nuclear policy and strategy. Russia will get more economic benefits with South Korea than with North Korea. Russia will maintain friendly relations with North Korea in the future only up to a level that does

  20. Icon Design for Korean Mental Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOOHO JUNG; ROHAE MYUNG

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cultural characteristics exert a strong influence on icon preference and recognition. Nevertheless, no study has been done to investigate the Korean cultural context in icon design. This study selected the most preferred icon among newly designed cultural icons based on Korean mental schemas for this study and two prevalent word processing software icons (one from

  1. Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

  2. Topographic Differences in the Age-Related Changes in the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer of Normal Eyes Measured by Stratus™ Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, William J.; Budenz, Donald L.; Anderson, Douglas R.; Cantor, Louis; Greenfield, David S.; Savell, Jonathan; Schuman, Joel S.; Varma, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether there are regional differences in the age-related changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as measured by time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Fast peripapillary RNFL scans obtained with the Stratus™ time-domain OCT with nominal diameter of 3.46 mm centered on the optic disc were performed on 425 normal subjects over a wide age range. One eye was randomly selected for scanning or analysis. Average RNFL-, clock hour-, and quadrant-specific rates of RNFL thickness change were calculated and compared. Results The 425 study participants ranged in age from 18 to 85 years with mean (±SD) of 46 (±15) years. The mean (±SD) average measured RNFL thickness was 104.7 (±10.8) micrometers (?m). The decline in the average RNFL thickness was 2.4 ?m per decade of age. Changes in RNFL thickness per decade of age ranged from -5.4 (p<0.001) at clock hour 12 to -0.9 (p=0.28) at clock hour 6. Similarly, the rate of thickness change per decade of age in the superior quadrant was -4.3 (p<0.001) versus -1.5 (p=0.006) in the inferior quadrant. The slopes of thinning superiorly and inferiorly were highly significantly different (p=0.001). Conclusions The age-related decline in normal RNFL measurements does not occur at equal rates around the disc and occurs mainly superiorly. PMID:20577113

  3. Comparison of contact lens overrefraction and standard keratometry for measuring corneal curvature in eyes with lenticular opacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Zeh; Douglas D. Koch

    1999-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the accuracy of corneal power measurement by contact lens overrefraction in patients with normal corneas and to determine the suitability of this method for use in intraocular lens (IOL) calculations.

  4. Dose reduction in computed tomography: the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose measured in patients with beryllium oxide-based optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Henrik; Sommer, Marian; Koch, Arne; Hietschold, Volker; Henniger, Jürgen; Abolmaali, Nasreddin

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose to the lens and the testes of patients undergoing CT examinations. Fifty-one male patients underwent CT twice with identical protocols initially without, the second time with protective garments. Doses to the testes and the lenses were recorded with beryllium oxide-based dosimeters. The dose to the testes and lenses from CT exposure was reduced by 96.2% +/- 1.7% and 28.2% +/- 18.5%, when testicle and eye shielding was used, respectively. The effect of the eye shielding on the eye lens dose was found to depend on the x-ray tube position when the eye is primarily exposed during the scan. The maximum eye lens dose reduction achieved was found to be 43.2% +/- 6.5% corresponding to the anterior position of the tube. A significant correlation between the patient's body mass index and dose exposure could not be found. Eye and testicle shields, apart from being inexpensive and easy to use, were proven to be effective in reducing eye lens and testicle radiation dose burden from CT exposures. PMID:19082601

  5. Comparing the Discriminative Validity of Two Generic and One Disease-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in a Sample of Patients with Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krithika Rajagopalan; Linda Abetz; Polyxane Mertzanis; Derek Espindle; Carolyn Begley; Robin Chalmers; Barbara Caffery; Christopher Snyder; J. Daniel Nelson; Trefford Simpson; Timothy Edrington

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to compare the discriminative properties of two generic health-related quality of life (QoL) instruments (SF-36 and EQ-5D) and a newly developed disease-specific patient-reported outcomes instrument (Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL)) to distinguish between different levels of dry eye severity.

  6. The High Resolution Fly's Eye Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Sommers; J. Boyer; G. F. Chen; R. W. Clay; H. Y. Dai; B. R. Dawson; J. W. Elbert; Y. Ho; A. Huang; C. C. H. Jui; M. J. Kidd; D. B. Kieda; B. C. Knapp; S. Ko; C. G. Larsen; W. Lee; E. C. Loh; E. Mannel; T. A. O'Halloran; J. D. Smith; P. Sokolsky; J. K. K. Tang; S. B. Thomas; L. R. Wiencke; C. R. Wilkinson; S. Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) is under construction at Dugway, Utah. It measures the longitudinal development profiles of cosmic ray air showers by means of atmospheric scintillation light which is produced in proportion to the number of shower particles at each atmospheric depth. The new detector has greater sensitivity and higher resolution than the former Utah Fly's Eye because

  7. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  8. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  9. Modeling Brand Equity of a U.S. Apparel Brand as Perceived by Generation Y Consumers in the Emerging Korean Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Young Kim; Dee K. Knight; Lou E. Pelton

    2009-01-01

    This study examined causal relationships among brand awareness, brand perceptions, and purchase intention by focusing on Korean Generation Y (Gen Y) consumers. A total of 235 usable questionnaires were obtained from college students in major cities in South Korea. Structural and measurement models using a correlation matrix with maximum likelihood was estimated using LISREL 8.53. Findings indicated that Korean consumers’

  10. NGC6543: Cat's Eye and Bull's Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Balick; J. M. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Deep Hubble images of NGC 6543 reveal a series of regularly spaced circular concentric ``rings'' that surround the famous Cat's Eye nebula. The rings seen in the lines of Halpha , [O III], and [N II] but not the continuum. These photoionized rings are almost certainly the result of periodic spherical mass pulsations by the nucleus before the Cat's Eye

  11. The Korean Version of the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale: Psychometric Properties and the Connection to Trauma among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Uk; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Objective The Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale (A-DES) is a screening measure for dissociative experience in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Methods The Korean version of the A-DES was administered to a normative group of 371 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and a traumatized group of 33 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with known trauma. Results The internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha=0.91) and the test-retest correlation of the A-DES was high (r=0.99). Correlation between the A-DES and other measures of dissociation was moderate (r=0.48). There were no significant age differences in mean total A-DES scores for the normative sample, or for boys or girls separately. Nor were there any significant gender differences for any age group. The mean total score of the A-DES was significantly higher in the traumatized group than in the normative group. There was a statistically significant difference between adolescents with self-reported trauma and those without a trauma history in the normative group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the A-DES is a reliable measure with excellent internal consistency and good stability over a 4-week test-retest interval with single factor structure. It can be used to screen for dissociative symptoms in Korean adolescents between the ages 12 and 18. PMID:20046391

  12. A Novel Method for Measuring Anterior Segment Area of the Eye on Ultrasound Biomicroscopic Images Using Photoshop

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziqiang; Lin, Jialiu; Huang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA), posterior chamber area (PCA), iris cross-section area (ICA) and angle recess area (ARA) were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (p<0.001). Conclusion Measurements of ocular anterior segment areas on UBM images by Photoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring. PMID:25803857

  13. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema -- blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  14. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and captioning. Diabetic ...

  15. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  16. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over ...

  17. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  18. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Free Newsletter Get eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ... or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US and international copyright law. You may link from your website to any ...

  19. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email Print + Share Approximately 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease experience eye problems. Most of these are treatable ... may resolve on its own as the patient’s inflammatory bowel disease starts to improve. DRY EYES A deficiency in ...

  20. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  1. The questionably dry eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Mackie; D. V. Seal

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate

  2. Dry your eyes 1 Running head: DRY YOUR EYES

    E-print Network

    Mataric, Maja J.

    Dry your eyes 1 Running head: DRY YOUR EYES Dry Your Eyes: Examining the Roles of Robots 90089-0781 dfseifer@usc.edu--mataric@usc.edu #12;Dry your eyes 2 Dry Your Eyes: Examining the Roles and relevant issues in childcare, and do not instead distract from those very issues. #12;Dry your eyes 3

  3. The Relationship of Blood Pressure and Other Factors to Serial Retinal Arteriolar Diameter Measurements Over Time: the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Lee, Kristine E.; Gangnon, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship of blood pressure (BP), antihypertensive medication use, and other factors to serial measurements of retinal arteriolar diameters over time in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods Retinal arteriolar diameter was measured by computer-assisted methods and summarized as central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) in 4573 persons aged 43–99 years at 4 examinations (each five years apart) over a 15-year interval. Associations of CRAE with risk factors measured concurrently and 5 years previously were determined using multivariate analyses. Results While adjusting for image quality, refraction, and lens status, age (per 10 years: ? estimate ?0.73, p<.001), systolic BP (SBP, per 10 mmHg: concurrent exam ?2.74, p<.001; previous exam ?1.75, p<0.001), smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker: concurrent exam 4.29, p<.001; previous exam 1.63, p=0.004), body mass index (BMI, per category: concurrent exam ?0.51, p=0.04; previous exam ?0.22, p=0.44), and heavy drinking (current vs. past/never heavy drinker: concurrent exam ?2.54, p=0.03; previous exam ?2.42, p=0.02) were associated with CRAE. In the same model, there were significant interactions between concurrent and previous SBP (?0.11, p=0.003) and between concurrent and previous BMI (0.12, p=0.04). Use of calcium channel blockers at both the concurrent and past exam (vs. neither exam 1.59; P=0.01), but not other classes of antihypertensive drugs was associated with CRAE. Conclusions These data show retinal arteriolar diameter is independently associated with past and current SBP, calcium channel blocker use, smoking status, BMI, and heavy drinking over 5-year intervals. The relationships with CRAE were stronger for concurrent than for past measures of these variables. PMID:22893073

  4. Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically developing school-aged children between 3 and 9 years of age (M = 6:3, SD = 1:8). Results demonstrated that gaze allocation differed significantly between the experimental and control condition. Further, individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly predicted by a parent-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype. This study contributes to a research program that aims to develop and validate an endophenotype measure of ASD. PMID:22847297

  5. Cultural Influence on Empathy: Cross-Cultural Comparison between Korean and Korean American Adolescents

    E-print Network

    Yoon, Hyun Hee

    2014-05-23

    alliance with the U. S. after the Korean War. A great deal of cultural exchange and westernization occurred in Korean society due to the political, economic, and military alliances between Korea and the U.S. over the past half-century 21 (Cummings..., 1997). These influences might have caused a shift in Korea’s position on the continuum of the Hofested model (Cummings, 1997). Empirical findings about Koreans’ cultural configurations in recent studies, however, represent a portrait...

  6. Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Results Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). Conclusion This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women. PMID:24501665

  7. Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R.

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea. PMID:25276012

  8. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  9. Heartfelt empathy? No association between interoceptive awareness, questionnaire measures of empathy, reading the mind in the eyes task or the director task

    PubMed Central

    Ainley, Vivien; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-01-01

    Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the ‘self.’ However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘other’ in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking (PT). A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness (IA) and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured IA in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the ‘simulationist’ account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognizing emotion, we employed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task’ for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between IA and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive PT ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the ‘Director Task’ but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to IA in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between IA and various components of empathy has yet to be established. PMID:25983715

  10. Astronaut Preflight Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Vascular Compliance are Highly Correlated with Post-Flight Eye Outcome Measures in the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome Following Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Snyder, R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of the first VIIP case occurred in 2005, and adequate eye outcome measures were available for 31 (67.4%) of the 46 long duration US crewmembers who had flown on the ISS since its first crewed mission in 2000. Therefore, this analysis is limited to a subgroup (22 males and 9 females). A "cardiovascular profile" for each astronaut was compiled by examining twelve individual parameters; eleven of these were preflight variables: systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, use of anti-lipid medication, fasting serum glucose, and maximal oxygen uptake in ml/kg. Each of these variables was averaged across three preflight annual physical exams. Astronaut age prior to the long duration mission, and inflight salt intake was also included in the analysis. The group of cardiovascular variables for each crew member was compared with seven VIIP eye outcome variables collected during the immediate post-flight period: anterior-posterior axial length of the globe measured by ultrasound and optical biometry; optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve diameter, and optic nerve to sheath ratio- each measured by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraocular pressure (IOP), change in manifest refraction, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and RNFL of the inferior and superior retinal quadrants. Since most of the VIIP eye outcome measures were added sequentially beginning in 2005, as knowledge of the syndrome improved, data were unavailable for 22.0% of the outcome measurements. To address the missing data, we employed multivariate multiple imputation techniques with predictive mean matching methods to accumulate 200 separate imputed datasets for analysis. We were able to impute data for the 22.0% of missing VIIP eye outcomes. We then applied Rubin's rules for collapsing the statistical results across our 200 multiply imputed data sets to assess the canonical correlation between the eye outcomes and the twelve astronaut cardiovascular variables available for all 31 subjects. Results: A highly significant canonical correlation was observed among the canonical solutions (p<.00001), with an average best canonical correlation of.97. The results suggest a strong association between astronauts' measures of cardiovascular health and the seven eye outcomes of the VIIP syndrome used in this analysis. Furthermore, the "joint test" revealed a significant difference in cardiovascular profile between male and female astronauts (Prob > F = 0.00001). Overall, female astronauts demonstrated a significantly healthier cardiovascular status. Individually, the female astronauts had significantly healthier profiles on seven of twelve cardiovascular variables than the men (p values ranging from <0.0001 to <0.05). Male astronauts did not demonstrate significantly healthier values on any of the twelve cardiovascular variables measured

  11. Parapapillary Chorioretinal Atrophy in Normal and Glaucoma Eyes \\/\\/. Correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josr B. Jonas; Gottfried O. H. Noumann

    1989-01-01

    The parapapillary chorio-pigment-epithelio-retinal atrophy in glaucomatous eyes is significantly larger than in normal eyes. In a previous study its area and frequency have been measured in 582 eyes of 321 patients with chronic primary open-angle glaucoma and in 390 eyes of 231 normal subjects. In the current study the parapapillary changes were correlated with intrapapillary morphometric data and with perimetric

  12. Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials: Insight into Parafoveal Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Baccino; Yves Manunta

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying cognition, which combines eye movements (EM) and event-related potentials (ERP) to track the cognitive processes that occur during a single eye fixation. This technique, called eye-fixation-related potentials (EFRP), has the advantage of coupling accurate time measures from ERPs and the location of the eye on the stimulus, so it can be used

  13. Thyroid Eye Disease: Protruding, Irritated Eyes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be possible to completely eliminate all of the consequences of thyroid eye disease, surgery to correct these conditions is generally successful in satisfactorily restoring function, comfort, and cosmetic appearance. Who performs the surgery? Patients are most ...

  14. The prevalence of obesity and the level of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides in Korean preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yuni; You, Yeji; Go, Kyeong Ah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; You, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Seungmin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the degree of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides for Children (KDAGC). In a cross-sectional study based on a child care center-based survey in Seoul, Korea, we collected parental-reported questionnaires (n = 2,038) on children's weight and height, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the quality of dietary and activity behaviors based on the 2009 KDAGC Adherence Index (KDAGCAI) which was developed as a composite measure of adherence to the KDAGC. Overweight and obesity were determined according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentile from the 2007 Korean national growth chart. Associations were assessed with generalized linear models and polytomous logistic regression models. Approximately 17.6% of Korean preschool children were classified as overweight or obese. Obese preschoolers had lower adherence to the KDAGCAI compared to those with lean/normal weight. Preschoolers with a high quality of dietary and activity behaviors had a 51% decreased odds ratio (OR) of being obese (highest vs. lowest tertile of KDAGCAI-score, 95% CI 0.31, 0.78; P = 0.001); the associations were more pronounced among those who were older (P = 0.048) and lived in lower income households (P = 0.014). A greater frequency of vegetable consumption, but not fruit, was associated with a borderline significant reduction in the prevalence of obesity. Our findings support the association between obesity prevention and high compliance with the Korean national dietary and activity guideline among preschool children. PMID:23766882

  15. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  16. Regression methods when the eye is the unit of analysis

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Robert J; Rosner, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The eye is often the unit of measurement for outcomes, and frequently also for covariates, in vision research, and measurements in the two eyes of the same person are often strongly but far from perfectly correlated. Advances have occurred in development and accessibility of analytic approaches to evaluate determinants of eye-specific outcomes including information from both eyes of some subjects. Methods We illustrate available regression approaches to analyze correlated outcomes from both eyes in data sets with both eye- and subject-specific exposures and potential confounding variables. We consider cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs, and discrete, continuous, and time-to-event outcomes. Results Across a range of study designs and measurement scales for the outcome variable, we show the under-estimation of P-values and widths of confidence intervals that occurs when the correlation between paired eyes in a person is ignored, and the reduced precision that occurs in separate analyses of right or left eyes, or in analyses of persons rather than eyes. By comparison, regression models with the eye as the unit of analysis and appropriate consideration of the correlation between paired outcomes generally offer maximal use of available data, enhanced interpretability of covariate-outcome associations, and efficient use of information from subjects who contribute only one eye to analyses. Conclusions For many studies in vision research, the now widely available regression models that appropriately treat the eye as the unit of analysis offer the best analytic approach. PMID:22568429

  17. The North Korean nuclear dilemma.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-01-01

    The current nuclear crisis, the second one in ten years, erupted when North Korea expelled international nuclear inspectors in December 2002, then withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and claimed to be building more nuclear weapons with the plutonium extracted from the spent fuel rods heretofore stored under international inspection. These actions were triggered by a disagreement over U.S. assertions that North Korea had violated the Agreed Framework (which froze the plutonium path to nuclear weapons to end the first crisis in 1994) by clandestinely developing uranium enrichment capabilities providing an alternative path to nuclear weapons. With Stanford University Professor John Lewis and three other Americans, I was allowed to visit the Yongbyon Nuclear Center on Jan. 8, 2004. We toured the 5 MWe reactor, the 50 MWe reactor construction site, the spent fuel pool storage building, and the radiochemical laboratory. We concluded that North Korea has restarted its 5 MWe reactor (which produces roughly 6 kg of plutonium annually), it removed the 8000 spent fuel rods that were previously stored under IAEA safeguards from the spent fuel pool, and that it most likely extracted the 25 to 30 kg of plutonium contained in these fuel rods. Although North Korean officials showed us what they claimed was their plutonium metal product from this reprocessing campaign, we were not able to conclude definitively that it was in fact plutonium metal and that it came from the most recent reprocessing campaign. Nevertheless, our North Korean hosts demonstrated that they had the capability, the facility and requisite capacity, and the technical expertise to produce plutonium metal. On the basis of our visit, we were not able to address the issue of whether or not North Korea had a 'deterrent' as claimed - that is, we were not able to conclude that North Korea can build a nuclear device and that it can integrate nuclear devices into suitable delivery systems. However, based on the capabilities we saw, we must assume that North Korea has the capability to produce a crude nuclear device. On the matter of uranium enrichment programs, our host categorically denied that North Korea has a uranium enrichment program - he said, 'we have no program, no equipment, and no technical expertise for uranium enrichment.' The denials were not convincing at the time and since then have proven to be quite hollow by the revelations of A.Q. Khan's nuclear black market activities. There is no easy solution to the nuclear crisis in North Korea. A military strike to eliminate the nuclear facilities was never very attractive and now has been overcome by events. The principal threat is posed by a stockpile of nuclear weapons and weapons-grade plutonium. We have no way of finding where either may be hidden. A diplomatic solution remains the only path forward, but it has proven elusive. All sides have proclaimed a nuclear weapons-free Korean Peninsula as the end goal. The U.S. Government has chosen to negotiate with North Korea by means of the six-party talks. It has very clearly outlined its position of insisting on complete, verifiable, irreversible dismantlement of all North Korean nuclear programs. North Korea has offered several versions of 're-freezing' its plutonium program while still denying a uranium enrichment program. It has insisted on simultaneous and reciprocal steps to a final solution. Regardless of which diplomatic path is chosen, the scientific challenges of eliminating the North Korean nuclear weapons programs (and its associated infrastructure) in a safe, secure, and verifiable manner are immense. The North Korean program is considerably more complex and developed than the fledgling Iraqi program of 1991 and Libyan program of 2004. It is more along the lines, but more complex than that of South Africa in the early 1990s. Actions taken or not taken by the North Koreans at their nuclear facilities during the course of the ongoing diplomatic discussions are key to whether or not the nuclear program can be eliminated safely and securel

  18. Review of Korean Dacetini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae)

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    , Formicidae, Korea INTRODUCTION The Dacetini is a tribe of ants that are all predators, most of them smallReview of Korean Dacetini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) Dong-Pyeo LYU, Byeong-MOON CHOI1

  19. Overweight Korean Adolescents and Academic Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Hoon Cho; Dayton M. Lambert; Hyun Jae Kim; Seung Gyu Kim

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and being overweight among South Korean high school students was examined. Data\\u000a used in the regression were from the Korean Education and Employment Panel Survey. The theoretical framework that poor school\\u000a performance increases the risk of adolescents’ being overweight, which, in turn, causes poor school performance, was supported.\\u000a With no other direct or indirect association

  20. Health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Hirsch, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Despite the nation-wide efforts to improve the health status of minority immigrants, studies documenting the outcomes of these efforts are lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants to the US In this descriptive study, 70 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited from a Korean senior center and church. Health care utilization was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and hypertension management was ascertained through the objective measurement of blood pressure and a self-report questionnaire. Result indicated that 87 % of elderly Korean immigrants received regular health check-ups. Although their hypertension was not managed effectively, all participants with a diagnosis of hypertension were aware of it and were taking blood pressure medications. This study provides an overview of health care utilization and hypertension management in elderly Korean immigrants as well as ideas on ways to reach out to minority older adults for further health promoting interventions. PMID:23054538

  1. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  2. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  3. Human security in the Korean Penninsula: A case of the north Korean drug trafficking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woosang Kim

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of human security as it is currently developing and try to locate the concept of human security within the context of comprehensive security and national security. As a case study, we also introduce the historical trend of North Korean drug trafficking and discuss its impact on human security around the Korean peninsula. We

  4. Horizontal Eye Position in Thyroid Eye Disease: A Retrospective Comparison with Normal Individuals and Changes after Orbital Decompression Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare horizontal eye positions between proptotic thyroid eye disease patients and normal individuals, and to examine positional changes after orbital decompression surgery in thyroid eye disease patients. Methods The present case-controlled and retrospective comparative study included 78 proptotic thyroid eye disease patients who underwent bilateral orbital decompression surgery [lateral orbital wall decompression (Group L), 47 patients; medial orbital wall decompression (Group M), 9 patients; and balanced orbital decompression (Group B), 22 patients] and 143 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. The interpupillary distance was measured to determine horizontal eye positions before and 3 months after surgery in thyroid eye disease patients and was also examined in control eyes. Horizontal eye shifts were calculated by subtracting postoperative from preoperative interpupillary distances. Results Preoperative interpupillary distances in thyroid eye disease patients were significantly larger than in controls. The interpupillary distances were significantly decreased postoperatively in Groups M and B, but were significantly increased in Group L. The order of the magnitude of the horizontal shifts was Groups M>B>L. Conclusions Proptotic thyroid eye disease patients preoperatively showed laterally displaced eyes in comparison with controls. However, the eyes shifted medially after the medial orbital wall decompression and the balanced orbital decompression, although the former showed more shift. Medial orbital wall or balanced orbital decompression can be used to correct both lateral and anterior displacement of the eyes. PMID:25469505

  5. Demographic Features of Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Jaeryung; Ahn, Soh-Eun; Park, Choul Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical and demographic features of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel) in Korean patients since the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods We reviewed medical records of patients who were diagnosed with MacTel from 2009 to 2013. All patients underwent fluorescein angiography and SD-OCT and were classified as type 1 or type 2 according to the classification system proposed by Yannuzzi. Results Over a period of 5 years, 4 (18.2%) patients were diagnosed with type 1 MacTel and 18 (81.8%) patients were diagnosed with type 2 MacTel. All patients with type1 MacTel were male, and their mean age was 51 ± 8.6 years. Among patients with type 2 MacTel, 3 (16.7%) were male, 15 (83.3%) were female, and the mean age was 60 ± 13.6 years. Whereas all type 1 MacTel patients had either metamorphopsia or mild scotoma, of the 18 patients with type 2 MacTel, only 4 (22.2%) had those symptoms, 10 (55.6%) complained of only mild visual impairment, and the other 4 (22.2%) had no symptoms. Intraretinal cystoid spaces were observed in 26 (72.2%) of 36 eyes with type 2 MacTel by SD-OCT. These cystoid spaces had irregular boundaries and did not correspond to angiographic leakages. Conclusions Type 2 MacTel was most common in the present study. The wider availability of SD-OCT may have contributed to the diagnosis of type 2 MacTel. Type 2 MacTel may be more prevalent than type 1 in Koreans, which corresponds to the results of Western countries. PMID:26028942

  6. Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chen, Chih Yen; Cheng, Hung You; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chang, David O.

    2006-08-01

    This study aims at the development of non-contact dry eye diagnosis based on an infrared thermal imager system, which was used to measure the cooling of the ocular surface temperature of normal and dry eye patients. A total of 108 subjects were measured, including 26 normal and 82 dry eye patients. We have observed that the dry eye patients have a fast cooling of the ocular surface temperature than the normal control group. We have developed a simplified algorithm for calculating the temperature decay constant of the ocular surface for discriminating between normal and dry eye. This study shows the diagnostic of dry eye syndrome by the infrared thermal imager system has reached a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 75%, and the area under the ROC curve 0.841. The infrared thermal imager system has a great potential to be developed for dry eye screening with the advantages of non-contact, fast, and convenient implementation.

  7. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior of Korean American Dry Cleaner Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sukyung, Ju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Eunice, Lee; Arlene, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe and compare lifestyle physical activity (leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity), using both self-report and an objective measure of step counts, in self-employed Korean American married couples working together at dry cleaners, and (2) examine the relationship between self-report and objective measures of physical activity. Design and Sample Seventy couples participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive, face-to-face interview survey. Measures Two self-reports (28-item Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity Questionnaire and Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire) and one objective measure (New Lifestyles-800 pedometer) were used. Results The husbands spent significantly more time than their wives in moderate- to vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity (207 vs. 122 minutes/week) and occupational physical activity (2,585 vs. 1,065 minutes/week). Most couples (91%) met recommended levels of physical activity based on their occupational physical activity. Pedometer steps correlated significantly only with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Study findings suggest that to increase physical activity in Korean American couples who work in a small business, moderate-intensity lifestyle physical activity interventions across leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity will be more successful than traditional leisure-time interventions. In addition, results suggest that there is a need for interventions that target both members of the married couple. PMID:22092460

  8. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  9. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  10. Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M

    1975-01-01

    The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

  11. Eye Tracking Denis Leimberg

    E-print Network

    Eye Tracking Denis Leimberg Martin Vester-Christensen LYNGBY 2005 Master Thesis IMM-Thesis-2005 discussions, and for introducing the world of eye tracking. Kaare Brandt Petersen, for sparing a day, during- viding us with excellent poker tricks. Peter Ahrendt, for loosing in Hattrick - Thank you

  12. Dry eye diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khanal Santosh; Alan Tomlinson; Angus McFadyen; Charles J. M. Diaper; Kanna Ramaesh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most effective objective tests, applied singly or in combination in the diagnosis of dry eye disease. Two groups of subjects—41 with dry eye and 32 with no ocular surface disease—had symptoms, tear film quality, evaporation, tear turnover rate (TTR), volume and osmolarity, and meibomian gland dropout score assessed.

  13. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date ... Injuries First Aid: Pinkeye Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Corneal Abrasions A ...

  14. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Resources Basic Information Fast Facts Common Eye Disorders Eye Health Tips Burden of Vision Loss Comorbid Conditions Health Across Lifespan ... Division of Diabetes Translation , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social ...

  15. 75 FR 45035 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...Proclamation 8543--National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010 Executive...Proclamation 8543 of July 26, 2010 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010 By the...died for freedom and democracy in the Korean War. This year marks the 60th...

  16. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  17. Distinguishing Samples of Spoken Korean from Rhythmic and Regional Competitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2002-01-01

    Examined characteristics of the acoustic signature of languages in connection with identification of the target language, Korean. In one experiment, listeners were asked to distinguish spoken samples of Korean from competitor languages sharing syllable based rhythm. In another, listeners attempted to distinguish Korean from languages spoken in the…

  18. Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood Na-Ri Shin, Min-Soo Kim, Mi, designated NAL101T , was isolated from gajami-sikhae, a traditional Korean fermented seafood made of flatfish ). Sikhae, a kind of traditional Korean food, also known as jeotgal, consists of fermented fish without

  19. Korean Americans in U.S. Race Relations: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Elaine H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the position of Korean Americans in U.S. history and in current race relations, focusing on the difficult task of building strategic alliances rooted in understanding of the relationships between the well-being of Korean Americans and that of collective American society. Korean Americans have a pivotal role to play in creating a…

  20. A Descriptive Statistical Approach to the Korean Pharmacopuncture Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungdae Kim; Dae-In Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews trends in research related to Korean pharmacopuncture therapy. Specifically, basic and clinical research in pharmacopuncture within the last decade is summarized by introducing categorical variables for classification. These variables are also analyzed for association. This literature review is based on articles published from February 1997 to December 2008 in a Korean journal, the Journal of the Korean

  1. Monochromatic aberrations in the accommodated human eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. He; S. A. Burns; S. Marcos

    2000-01-01

    The wave-front aberration of the human eye was measured for eight subjects using a spatially resolved refractometer (a psychophysical ray-tracing test). The eyes were undilated and presented with accommodative stimuli varying from 0 to ?6 diopters. Monochromatic wave-front aberrations tend to increase with increasing levels of accommodation, although there are substantial individual variations in the actual change in the wave-front

  2. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  3. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in human eyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Dichtl; Jost B. Jonas; Gottfried O. H. Naumann

    1999-01-01

    · Background: A study was carried out to measure the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) at the optic disc border.\\u000a · Methods: RNFL thickness at the optic disc border was histomorphometrically measured on histological sections of 22 human\\u000a eyes with normal optic nerves and 21 human eyes with absolute secondary angle-closure glaucoma. For three eyes with normal

  4. Advocacy for eye care

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

  5. Wilson Center Digital Archive: Korean War Armistice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Korean Armistice Agreement was signed on July 27, 1953, effectively ending hostilities and bringing an end to the Korean War. The Wilson Center has curated this fine collection of documents related to the armistice negotiations from the period of 1951 to 1953. These various papers, reports, and telegrams written originally in Russian, Polish, and Chinese shed light on North Korean, Soviet, and Chinese strategic thinking on the conflict and coinciding armistice. The 62 documents are arranged in chronological order and visitors can scroll through individual items or read transcripts along the way. Items of note include cables from Joseph Stalin to Mao Zedong, along with formal telegrams and reports from the National Security Council.

  6. Hypnosis and eye movements.

    PubMed

    Tebécis, A K; Provins, K A

    1975-07-01

    Eye movements (with closed lids) were studied in a group of highly hypnotizable experimental subjects experienced in self-hypnosis, and compared with a random sample of control subjects that had never been hypnotized and were low in waking suggestibility. Approximately half the experimental subjects rolled their eyes upwards to a greater extent when hypnosis was induced than during eye closure while awake. In some subjects eye flutter occurred during hypnosis, but not in the awake condition. During passive hypnosis the mean rates of rapid eye movements were lower, but those of slow eye movements were higher than during the resting awake condition of the same subjects or the random control subjects. The mean rates of horizontal eye movements during suggestions about begin in a train and watching passing telephone poles were higher for the experimental subjects in the hypnosis and 'imagination' sessions than that of the random control group in the imagination session. A proportion of the experimental subjects made more lateral eye movements during hypnosis than during the imagination session, but an equal proportion did not differ between the two conditions. The mean rates and durations of horizontal eye movements during dreaming about a tennis match were greater during hypnosis ('hypnotic' dream), than during the awake condition a few minutes later ('natural' dream), or the awake condition in the imagination session ('imagination' dream) of the same subjects or random controls. The performance and subjective involvement of the experimental subjects during the Barber suggestibility scale, 'nystagmus' suggestions and 'dreaming' did not differ significantly between the two hypnosis sessions, but in most cases were significantly greater during hypnosis than during the imagination session of the same group or the random control group. PMID:169921

  7. Primary eye care management.

    PubMed

    De Beer, Annelize

    2003-01-01

    Due to a financial recession in South Africa, the registered nurses (RNs) at an excimer laser center faced dismissal. In order to continue a career in ophthalmology, these nurses needed to create their own income. To this end, a primary eye care (PEC) clinic was established to provide examination and treatment(s) to the underprivileged community with the assistance of local ophthalmologists. The PEC clinic, which provides basic services for a nominal fee, has bridged the gap between excellent private eye care and inadequate government eye care. Since 1999, 791 patients have been examined and 515 surgical procedures have been performed. PMID:12703249

  8. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2010-03-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:20309669

  9. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2009-01-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:19130027

  10. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  11. A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies. PMID:26024377

  12. Improving eye cursor's stability for eye pointing tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyong Zhang; Xiangshi Ren; Hongbin Zha

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the stability of eye cursor, we introduce three methods, force field (FF), speed reduction (SR), and warping to target center (TC) to modulate eye cursor trajectories by counteracting eye jitter, which is the main cause of destabilizing the eye cursor. We evaluate these methods using two controlled experiments. One is an attention task experiment, which indicates

  13. Korean Legal Research Resources on the Internet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ryoo, Heija B.

    Created by Heija B. Ryoo, Director of Library Systems and Technical Services at the School of Law Library, Southern Illinois University, this site offers a thorough overview of the South Korean legal system accompanied by numerous links to official sites, primary documents, and other authoritative resources. These are arranged under three major headings on a no-nonsense single page. Please be aware that the information provided for each link varies and that many of the sites require the appropriate plug-in for reading Korean characters, though this is noted by the site.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Korean porcine sapeloviruses.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyu-Yeol; Kim, Deok-Song; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Kwon, Hyoung-Jun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Ryu, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine sapeloviruses (PSVs) in Korea, a total of 100 diarrhea fecal samples from pigs were analyzed by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays with primer pairs specific for the VP1 gene. Overall, 34 % of the diarrhea samples tested positive for PSV, and a high proportion of infections occurred along with a variety of other enteric viruses and bacteria. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 genes revealed pronounced genetic diversities between PSVs from Korean and elsewhere. Our results indicate that PSV infections are very common in Korean pigs with diarrhea. The infecting strains are genetically diverse. PMID:24232913

  15. A Study of the Korean People

    E-print Network

    Smith, Lura McLane

    1911-05-15

    and other provincial offices, the large majority live in Seoul where it is much easier to graft on the public treasury. Even the landed propri- eters live in Seoul. The Yang-Ban is a drone of the first order, being almost entirely paralysed by long... Korean can never keep a secret and it is his business to hear and tell everything he can, creating news if necessary. The Korean language belongs to the Turanian or Ural- Altaic family and is an agglutinative polysyllabic and phonetic language whose...

  16. Eye-steering coordination in natural driving.

    PubMed

    Chattington, M; Wilson, M; Ashford, D; Marple-Horvat, D E

    2007-06-01

    When driving along a winding road, eye movements and steering are tightly linked; the driver looks across to the inside kerb of an approaching bend some time before turning the steering wheel. With the eyes leading, the oculomotor controller assists the neural centres controlling steering; prevention of any eye movements correlated with steering impairs driving, so the coordination is crucial for safety. A key question is therefore what are the limits of acceptable variation in timing and degree of coordination. Over a period of continuous driving on the open road, how much does the relative timing and degree of coordination between eye and steering movements vary? A related question is how brief a period of driving will suffice to measure these coordination parameters. Drivers' eye movements and steering were measured over different time periods ranging from 15 s to 6 min epochs of natural driving along a winding country road to establish the variability in coordination and the minimum time period required to characterise it. We show here that brief periods of driving, 30 s or less, are inadequate for describing eye-steering coordination. But a minute of driving yields an accurate description much of the time; and 2 min is sufficient both to accurately describe this relationship and to show that it is highly consistent for a given individual, and for different people driving the same route. PMID:17256168

  17. Dose reduction in computed tomography: the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose measured in patients with beryllium oxide-based optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Grobe; Marian Sommer; Arne Koch; Volker Hietschold; Jürgen Henniger; Nasreddin Abolmaali

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose to the lens and the testes\\u000a of patients undergoing CT examinations. Fifty-one male patients underwent CT twice with identical protocols initially without,\\u000a the second time with protective garments. Doses to the testes and the lenses were recorded with beryllium oxide-based dosimeters.\\u000a The

  18. Measurement of BOLD Changes Due to Cued Eye-Closure and Stopping During a Continuous Visuomotor Task via Model-Based and Model-Free Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govinda R. Poudel; Richard D. Jones; Carrie R. H. Innes; Richard Watts; Paul R. Davidson; Philip J. Bones

    2010-01-01

    As a precursor for investigation of changes in neural activity underlying lapses of responsiveness, we set up a system to simultaneously record functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), eye-video, EOG, and continuous visuomotor response inside an MRI scanner. The BOLD fMRI signal was acquired during a novel 2-D tracking task in which participants (10 males, 10 females) were cued to either

  19. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies. PMID:9409069

  20. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Techniques of strabismus surgery. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology . 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 11.14. Olitsky SE, Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement ...

  1. Get Your Eyes Tested

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it hard to see fine details Presbyopia (“prez-bee-OH-bee-uh”) – problems seeing things up close Read more ... Today: Small Steps Protect your eyes from the sun by wearing sunglasses and a hat. Find out ...

  2. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our new animation. Watch the video Regenerating the Optic Nerve NEI Audacious Goals Initiative report summarizing input ... also risk factors. Learn more about cataract Healthy Eye Tips Scavenger Hunt NEI will be hosting a ...

  3. The pediatric red eye.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M; Anninger, William

    2014-06-01

    There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options. PMID:24852155

  4. Eye to I

    E-print Network

    Brunstein, Ada

    2007-01-01

    This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

  5. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... next drop in. This will keep the first drop from being washed out by the second before it has had time to work. Store eye drops and all medicines out of the reach of children. Steps For Putting ...

  6. Gender Stereotypes Depicted by Western and Korean Advertising Models in Korean Adolescent Girls’ Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoungtae Nam; Guiohk Lee; Jang-Sun Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Using content analysis based on Goffman’s (1979) typology, the authors examined gender role stereotypes in Korean fashion magazines targeting adolescent girls. Korean women\\u000a were more stereotypically portrayed than any other group as smiling, pouting, and with a childlike or cute expression. On\\u000a the other hand, Western women were more stereotypically portrayed than any other group in the categories of licensed

  7. A View from Asia Vladmir Putin's Korean Opportunity: Russian Interests in the North Korean Nuclear Crises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esook Yoon; Dong Hyung Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines Russia's strategic interests related to the regional security dilemma surrounding North Korean nuclear weapons programs. Based on two basic principles—a nuclear-free Korean peninsula and political resolution of the crisis—the Putin administration has attempted to represent itself as an even-handed broker striving to normalize the situation. Peaceful resolution of the crisis would benefit not only Russia and but

  8. Eye–Mouth–Eye Angle as a Good Indicator of Face Masculinization, Asymmetry, and Attractiveness (Homo sapiens)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Danel; Boguslaw Pawlowski

    2007-01-01

    Past research on male facial attractiveness has been limited by the reliance on facialmetric measures that are less than ideal. In particular, some of these measures are face size dependent and show only weak sexual dimorphism, which limits the ability to identify the relationship between masculinization and attractiveness. Here, the authors show that eye–mouth–eye (EME) angle is a quantitative and

  9. Changes of the eye optics after iris constriction?

    PubMed Central

    Montés-Micó, Robert; Hernández, Patricio; Fernández-Sánchez, Vicente; Bonaque, Sergio; Lara, Francisco; López-Gil, Norberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the possible change in the optics of the human eye after iris constriction. Methods Ocular aberrations were measured under natural viewing conditions in 26 eyes. The measured eyes fixated on a dim target while the contralateral eye was either occluded (so the measured eye had a large pupil) or highly illuminated (so the measured eye had a small pupil). The measured eyes fixated to a dim target placed 0.5 D beyond the subject’s far point. Zernike values obtained in both situations were compared within the same pupil diameter corresponding to the one obtained under the high illumination condition. Results Significant variation in some aberration coefficients were found between the two illumination conditions. Specially, spherical aberration (SA) increased significantly after pupil miosis (P = .0017). The mean increase of SA measured was 0.018 microns, for a 3-mm pupil. Mean values of other ocular aberrations also vary significantly after pupil miosis (changes were larger than the standard deviation of the repeated measurements). A mean paraxial hyperopic shift of one third of diopter was found after iris constriction. Conclusion Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.

  10. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  11. Constraints on Noun Incorporation in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khym, Hangyoo

    1997-01-01

    A study of the noun incorporation phenomenon in Korean suggests that noun incorporation occurs at D-structure and obeys the Head Movement Constraint syntactically, and the Theme-Only Constraint semantically. First, the structure of "sunrise"-type words is identified, showing that before derivation through nominalization of the affix "-i,"…

  12. Women in the South Korean Military

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doo-Seung Hong

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the changing role of women in the Korean armed forces and explores the issue of gender integration in the military. During the past half-century, the utilization of women in the armed forces has been limited in Korea due to constitutional and cultural restraints. Yet the expansion of utilizing females in the military is becoming a global trend.

  13. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused

  14. China, US and the North Korean issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Ong

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the strategic interests of China and the US in the North Korean issue. It examines their different perceptions of North Korea. For China, North Korea is needed as a friendly buffer state as well as a political ally. As the lone superpower and lynchpin of international security, the US wants to stop unpredictable North Korea from further

  15. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  16. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  17. Detection of vigilance performance using eye blinks.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Lindsey K; McKinley, R Andy; Goodyear, Chuck; McIntire, John P

    2014-03-01

    Research has shown that sustained attention or vigilance declines over time on task. Sustained attention is necessary in many environments such as air traffic controllers, cyber operators, and imagery analysts. A lapse of attention in any one of these environments can have harmful consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine if eye blink metrics from an eye-tracker are related to changes in vigilance performance and cerebral blood flow velocities. Nineteen participants performed a vigilance task while wearing an eye-tracker on four separate days. Blink frequency and duration changed significantly over time during the task. Both blink frequency and duration increased as performance declined and right cerebral blood flow velocity declined. These results suggest that eye blink information may be an indicator of arousal levels. Using an eye-tracker to detect changes in eye blinks in an operational environment would allow preventative measures to be implemented, perhaps by providing perceptual warning signals or augmenting human cognition through non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. PMID:23722006

  18. Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Helena X; Freeman, Jeremy; Merriam, Elisha P; Hasson, Uri; Heeger, David J

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers' temporal viewing strategies while they viewed naturalistic movies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point of interest and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli. PMID:22262911

  19. Eye movements during emotion recognition in faces.

    PubMed

    Schurgin, M W; Nelson, J; Iida, S; Ohira, H; Chiao, J Y; Franconeri, S L

    2014-01-01

    When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear, sadness, shame, and disgust) and neutral facial expressions. Participant eye movements primarily fell in five distinct regions (eyes, upper nose, lower nose, upper lip, nasion). Distinct fixation patterns emerged for each emotion, such as a focus on the lips for joyful faces and a focus on the eyes for sad faces. These patterns were strongest for emotional faces but were still present when viewers sought evidence of emotion within neutral faces, indicating a goal-driven influence on eye-gaze patterns. Experiment 2 verified that these fixation patterns tended to reflect attention to the most diagnostic regions of the face for each emotion. Eye movements appear to follow both stimulus-driven and goal-driven perceptual strategies when decoding emotional information from a face. PMID:25406159

  20. Perceiving depth order during pursuit eye movement.

    PubMed

    Naji, Jenny J; Freeman, Tom C A

    2004-12-01

    Pursuit eye movements alter retinal motion cues to depth. For instance, the sinusoidal retinal velocity profile produced by a translating, corrugated surface resembles a sinusoidal shear during pursuit. One way to recover the correct spatial phase of the corrugation's profile (i.e. which part is near and which part is far) is to combine estimates of shear with extra-retinal estimates of translation. In support of this hypothesis, we found the corrugation's spatial phase appeared ambiguous when retinal shear was viewed without translation, but unambiguous when translated and viewed with or without a pursuit eye movement. The eyes lagged the sinusoidal translation by a small but persistent amount, raising the possibility that retinal slip could serve as the disambiguating cue in the eye-moving condition. A yoked control was therefore performed in which measured horizontal slip was fed back into a fixated shearing stimulus on a trial-by-trial basis. The results showed that the corrugation's phase was only seen unambiguously during the real eye movement. This supports the idea that extra-retinal estimates of eye velocity can help disambiguate ordinal depth structure within moving retinal images. PMID:15474575

  1. An acoustic and aerodynamic study of stops in tonal and non-tonal dialects of Korean

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2010-03-29

    ABSTRACT This study investigates the acoustic and aerodynamic properties of well&ndashknown three&ndashway distinction of Korean voiceless stops in two dialects, which differ in their tonal systems: non&ndashtonal Seoul Korean (standard Korean...

  2. Three-dimensional Surface-wave Group-velocity Tomography of the Southern Korean Peninsula Using Ambient Seismic Noise Cross-correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Choi; T. Kang; C. Baag

    2007-01-01

    The uppermost crustal velocity structure of the southern Korean peninsula is investigated based on surface-wave group-velocity using the cross-correlation technique of ambient seismic noise. We use seismograms from 91 accelerograph stations in the southern Korean peninsula recorded during August of 2005. From the correlation results of 4095 data pairs, arrival times of Green's functions between pair of stations are measured

  3. The global impact of eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Négrel, A D; Thylefors, B

    1998-09-01

    Using data compiled from the ophthalmic literature and WHO's Blindness Data Bank, the available information on eye injuries from an epidemiological and public health perspective has been extensively reviewed. This collection of data has allowed an analysis of risk factors, incidence, prevalence, and impact of eye injuries in terms of visual outcome. However, most of the estimates are based on information from More Developed Countries (MDCs). The severity of eye injuries can be assessed through proxy indicators such as: (i) potentially blinding bilateral injuries; (ii) open-globe injuries; (iii) endophthalmitis; (iv) enucleation or (v) defined visual impairment. Major risk factors for ocular injuries include age, gender, socioeconomic status and lifestyle. The site where the injury occurs is also related to a risk situation. Available information indicates a very significant impact of eye injuries in terms of medical care, needs for vocational rehabilitation and great socioeconomic costs. The global pattern of eye injuries and their consequences emerging from the present review, undertaken for planning purposes in the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness, suggests that: some 55 million eye injuries restricting activities more than one day occur each year; 750,000 cases will require hospitalization each year, including some 200,000 open-globe injuries; there are approximately 1.6 million blind from injuries, an additional 2.3 million people with bilateral low vision from this cause, and almost 19 million with unilateral blindness or low vision. Further epidemiological studies are needed to permit more accurate planning of prevention and management measures; a standardized international template for reporting on eye injuries might be useful to this effect, along the lines of the reporting occurring through the US Eye Injury Registry. PMID:9805347

  4. A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL SPECIES TO THE EYE IRRITATION POTENTIAL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eye irritation measurements are available from smog chamber solar irradiations of selected hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxide mixtures. These results have been used to compute eye irritation intensity parameters for formaldehyde, acrolein, peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate...

  6. Graves' ophthalmopathy evaluated by infrared eye-movement recordings

    SciTech Connect

    Feldon, S.E.; Unsoeld, R.

    1982-02-01

    Thirteen patients with varying degrees of Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined using high-resolution infrared oculography to determine peak velocities for horizontal eye movements between 3 degrees and 30 degrees. As severity of the orbital disease increased, peak velocities became substantially lower. Vertical-muscle surgery failed to have any effect on peak velocity of horizontal eye movements. In contrast, orbital decompression caused notable improvement in peak velocity of eye movements. Eye-movement recordings, which provide a measure of extraocular muscle function rather than structure, may provide a safe, sensitive, and accurate method for classifying and following up patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  7. Association between C reactive protein level and depressive symptoms in an elderly Korean population: Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo Mi; Lee, Ju-Mi; Choi, Wungrak; Youm, Yoosik; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms has been reported inconsistently. Moreover, there were only a few studies conducted in an Asian population. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between C reactive protein (CRP) and depressive symptoms in an elderly Korean population. Design, setting and participants This study used data from the Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project Health Examination Cohort, which started in 2011. Among participants aged 60 or over recruited from a rural community, 569 (224 men and 345 women) without a history of stroke, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or CRP?20?mg/L were employed for cross-sectional analyses. As a marker of systemic inflammation, CRP was measured. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between CRP and depressive symptoms. Results In men, CRP levels had significant associations with depressive symptoms before (?=0.420, p=0.010) and after (?=0.336, p=0.025) adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, number of comorbidities, smoking status, alcohol intake, marital status, education and sleep duration. However, in women, the association between CRP and depressive symptoms was not significant before (p=0.250) and after (p=0.256) adjustment. Conclusions Our findings suggest that elevated CRP levels are independently associated with the presence of depressive symptoms in elderly Korean men. PMID:25712819

  8. Causes of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoung-Soon; Kang, Min-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed at analyzing the causes of death of prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War (1950-1953) who fought for the Communist side (North Korea and the People's Republic of China). In 1998, the United States Department of Defense released new information about the prisoners including, 7,614 deaths of the POW during the Korean War. The data on the causes of death of the POWs during the Korean War provides valuable information on the both the public health and history of the conflict. Materials and Methods To analyze the causes of death of the POWs, we classified the clinical diagnosis and findings on 7,614 deaths into 22 chapters, as outlined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision (ICD-10). Second, we traced changes in the monthly death totals of POWs as well as deaths caused by common infectious diseases and external causes of death including injury over time from August 1950 to September 1953. Results The most common category of causes of deaths of POWs was infectious disease, 5,013 (65.8%) out of 7,614 deaths, followed by external causes including injury, 817 (10.7%). Overall, tuberculosis and dysentery/diarrhea were the most common causes of death. Deaths caused by acute and chronic infection, or external causes showed different patterns of increases and decline over time during the Korean War. Conclusion The information and data on POWs' deaths during the Korean War reflects the critical impact of the POWs' living conditions and the effect of public health measures implemented in POW camps during the war. PMID:23364985

  9. Traumatic eye injuries as a result of blunt impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Chiara; Esposito, Luca; Bonora, Nicola; Limido, Jerome; Lacome, Jean-Luc; Rossi, Tommaso

    2013-06-01

    The detachment or tearing of the retina in the human eye as a result of a collision is a phenomenon that occurs very often. This research is aimed at identifying and understanding the actual dynamic physical mechanisms responsible for traumatic eye injuries accompanying blunt impact, with particular attention to the damage processes that take place at the retina. To this purpose, a numerical and experimental investigation of the dynamic response of the eye during an impact event was performed. Numerical simulation of both tests was performed with IMPETUS-FEA, a general non-linear finite element software which offers NURBS finite element technology for the simulation of large deformation and fracture in materials. Computational results were compared with the experimental results on fresh enucleated porcine eyes impacted with airsoft pellets. The eyes were placed in a container filled with 10 percent ballistic gelatin simulating the fatty tissue surrounding the eye. A miniature pressure transducer was inserted into the eye bulb through the optic nerve in order to measure the pressure of the eye during blunt-projectile impacts. Each test was recorded using a high speed video camera. The ocular injuries observed in the impacted eyes were assessed by an ophthalmologist in order to evaluate the correlation between the pressure measures and the risk of retinal damage.

  10. Cognitive strategies and eye movements for searching hierarchical computer displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Hornof; Tim Halverson

    2003-01-01

    This research investigates the cognitive strategies and eye movements that people use to search for a known item in a hierarchical computer display. Computational cognitive models were built to simulate the visual-perceptual and oculomotor processing required to search hierarchical and nonhierarchical displays. Eye movement data were collected and compared on over a dozen measures with the \\

  11. The world in an eye [eye image interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a single image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typical catadioptric system, a corneal one

  12. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  13. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lens is suspended from the wall of the eye by many small fibers (zonules) that attach to its capsule. Ciliary Body: ... the place in the brain where the two optic nerves meet. The individual nerve fibers from each nerve are sorted in the chiasm. ...

  14. Eyes at the interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Bolt

    1982-01-01

    There is little dispute that the main channels of intercommunication of people with the world at large are: sight, sound, and touch; and for people with other people: eye-contact, speech, gesture. Advanced human-computer interfaces increasingly implicate speech i\\/o, and touch or some form of manual input.

  15. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  16. Diagnosis of Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J Bron

    2001-01-01

    Dry eye disease is characterized by symptoms, ocular surface damage, reduced tear film stability, and tear hyperosmolarity. There are also inflammatory components. These features can be identified by various kinds of diagnostic tests (symptom questionnaires, ocular surface staining, tear break-up time, and osmometry), although there may not be a direct correlation between the number or severity of symptoms and the

  17. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  18. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis ... be examined by an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Amblyopia What it is: Amblyopia is a term used ...

  19. Cloning and deliberation: Korean consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sik

    2002-12-01

    This article addresses the 2nd Korean consensus conference on cloning that was held by the Korean National commission for UNESCO in 1999. It notes that the citizens participated directly and handled the important social agenda through deliberative process. The consensus conference is another democratic form derived from preference aggregative democracy in the sense that it basically depends on public judgment of the citizens. Compared to other models (elitist or preference aggregative), it has some advantages: 1. It can solve the problem of political legitimacy. 2. It can check the partiality of expert groups in biotechnology and ethics. 3. It enables us to make informed, responsible decisions. 4. It results in education of citizens' preference. However, we need to expand the deliberative model. First, we need institutional efforts on behalf of future generations because cloning relates to them. Second, we should not include the value of life which cannot be expressed in the form of argument or discourse. PMID:12870502

  20. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  1. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  2. Combining EEG and eye tracking: identification, characterization, and correction of eye movement artifacts in electroencephalographic data.

    PubMed

    Plöchl, Michael; Ossandón, José P; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements introduce large artifacts to electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) and thus render data analysis difficult or even impossible. Trials contaminated by eye movement and blink artifacts have to be discarded, hence in standard EEG-paradigms subjects are required to fixate on the screen. To overcome this restriction, several correction methods including regression and blind source separation have been proposed. Yet, there is no automated standard procedure established. By simultaneously recording eye movements and 64-channel-EEG during a guided eye movement paradigm, we investigate and review the properties of eye movement artifacts, including corneo-retinal dipole changes, saccadic spike potentials and eyelid artifacts, and study their interrelations during different types of eye- and eyelid movements. In concordance with earlier studies our results confirm that these artifacts arise from different independent sources and that depending on electrode site, gaze direction, and choice of reference these sources contribute differently to the measured signal. We assess the respective implications for artifact correction methods and therefore compare the performance of two prominent approaches, namely linear regression and independent component analysis (ICA). We show and discuss that due to the independence of eye artifact sources, regression-based correction methods inevitably over- or under-correct individual artifact components, while ICA is in principle suited to address such mixtures of different types of artifacts. Finally, we propose an algorithm, which uses eye tracker information to objectively identify eye-artifact related ICA-components (ICs) in an automated manner. In the data presented here, the algorithm performed very similar to human experts when those were given both, the topographies of the ICs and their respective activations in a large amount of trials. Moreover it performed more reliable and almost twice as effective than human experts when those had to base their decision on IC topographies only. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated an optimal balance of false positive and false negative at an area under curve (AUC) of more than 0.99. Removing the automatically detected ICs from the data resulted in removal or substantial suppression of ocular artifacts including microsaccadic spike potentials, while the relevant neural signal remained unaffected. In conclusion the present work aims at a better understanding of individual eye movement artifacts, their interrelations and the respective implications for eye artifact correction. Additionally, the proposed ICA-procedure provides a tool for optimized detection and correction of eye movement-related artifact components. PMID:23087632

  3. Combining EEG and eye tracking: identification, characterization, and correction of eye movement artifacts in electroencephalographic data

    PubMed Central

    Plöchl, Michael; Ossandón, José P.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements introduce large artifacts to electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) and thus render data analysis difficult or even impossible. Trials contaminated by eye movement and blink artifacts have to be discarded, hence in standard EEG-paradigms subjects are required to fixate on the screen. To overcome this restriction, several correction methods including regression and blind source separation have been proposed. Yet, there is no automated standard procedure established. By simultaneously recording eye movements and 64-channel-EEG during a guided eye movement paradigm, we investigate and review the properties of eye movement artifacts, including corneo-retinal dipole changes, saccadic spike potentials and eyelid artifacts, and study their interrelations during different types of eye- and eyelid movements. In concordance with earlier studies our results confirm that these artifacts arise from different independent sources and that depending on electrode site, gaze direction, and choice of reference these sources contribute differently to the measured signal. We assess the respective implications for artifact correction methods and therefore compare the performance of two prominent approaches, namely linear regression and independent component analysis (ICA). We show and discuss that due to the independence of eye artifact sources, regression-based correction methods inevitably over- or under-correct individual artifact components, while ICA is in principle suited to address such mixtures of different types of artifacts. Finally, we propose an algorithm, which uses eye tracker information to objectively identify eye-artifact related ICA-components (ICs) in an automated manner. In the data presented here, the algorithm performed very similar to human experts when those were given both, the topographies of the ICs and their respective activations in a large amount of trials. Moreover it performed more reliable and almost twice as effective than human experts when those had to base their decision on IC topographies only. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated an optimal balance of false positive and false negative at an area under curve (AUC) of more than 0.99. Removing the automatically detected ICs from the data resulted in removal or substantial suppression of ocular artifacts including microsaccadic spike potentials, while the relevant neural signal remained unaffected. In conclusion the present work aims at a better understanding of individual eye movement artifacts, their interrelations and the respective implications for eye artifact correction. Additionally, the proposed ICA-procedure provides a tool for optimized detection and correction of eye movement-related artifact components. PMID:23087632

  4. Victimization in South Korean Children's Peer Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schwartz; JoAnn M. Farver; Lei Chang; Yoolim Lee-Shin

    2002-01-01

    This study reports a cross-sectional investigation of the behavioral, academic, and psychosocial correlates of victimization in South Korean children's peer groups. The participants were 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls; from 10–12-years-old) recruited from a primary school in Seoul, South Korea. Multi-informant assessments (peer nominations, teacher ratings, and self-reports) of peer victimization, social behavior, loneliness\\/social dissatisfaction, and academic functioning were

  5. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Bae Baek; Sejong Bae; Byung-Ho Ham; Karan P. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of

  6. Korean honorification: a kind of expressive meaning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Bok Kim; Peter Sells

    2007-01-01

    Honorification in Korean recognizes the elevated social status of a participant in a clause with respect to the subject and\\/or\\u000a the hearer. Honorific marking may be manifest as a nominal suffix, a special honorific form of a noun, an honorific case particle,\\u000a an honorific marker on a verb, or a special honorific form of a verb. Previous accounts have typically

  7. Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

  8. Vergence Eye Movements Under Natural Viewing Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George K. Hung; Kenneth J. Ciuffreda; John L. Semmlow; Jia-Long Horng

    Purpose. To determine whether there are any fundamental differences in vergence dynamics under different viewing conditions, both in instrument space and free space. Methods. Symmetric vergence responses were measured for a variety of conditions under the traditional instrument space as well as the more natural free space viewing environment. Vergence eye movements were recorded objectively in three subjects using the

  9. Development and Uses of an Eye Oximeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd W. Hillman; Matthew H. Smith; Kurt Denninghoff

    2000-01-01

    The eye provides an unique porthole into the physiology of the body. Over the past seven years researchers at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) have been developing a new technique for noninvasively measuring oxygen saturation. The program's main thrust is to address the basic scientific and bioengineering issues of a

  10. Partial Coherence Laser Interferometry in Highly Myopic versus Emmetropic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Gernot F.; Talab, Yassin Djalali; Dietlein, Thomas S.; Dinslage, Sven; Plange, Niklas; Walter, Peter; Mazinani, Babac AE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability of partial coherence laser interferometry for optical biometry in highly myopic eyes. Methods Axial length measurements by the IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ?2 were performed in 52 consecutive myopic subjects with axial length ?26.5 mm and 45 emmetropic patients before cataract surgery. Axial length measurements and SNR were analyzed and compared among the two study groups. Results Axial length measurements were feasible in 46 of 52 (88.5%) highly myopic eyes and in 41 of 45 (91.1%) eyes with normal axial length. To achieve two reliable axial length values with SNR ?2, a mean number of 2.06±0.25 measurements was necessary in myopic eyes and 2.10±0.37 in emmetropic counterparts. Mean SNR after two measurements was 4.98±2.44 in myopic eyes versus 5.56±2.32 in control eyes. Even though successful measurement was independent of preoperative visual acuity, patients with visual acuity better than 20/63 showed significantly higher SNR values. Conclusions Partial coherence laser interferometry shows satisfying feasibility and good signal quality for axial length determination in highly myopic eyes with stable retinal condition and clear media. PMID:25279117

  11. Eye Location Using Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Huang; Harry Wechsler

    1999-01-01

    While there are many eye location methods our technique is the first to approach this location task using naviga- tional routines and to automate the derivation of such rou- tines using learning and evolution rather than manually handcrafting them. The adaptive eye location approach seeks first where salient things are and then what their identity is. Specifically, eye location involves

  12. The World in an Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a sin- gle image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typ- ical catadioptric system, a

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... having eye cancer What happens after treatment for eye cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  14. The Role of Culture, Family Processes, and Anger Regulation in Korean American Adolescents’ Adjustment Problems

    PubMed Central

    Park, Irene J. K.; Kim, Paul Youngbin; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Kim, May

    2010-01-01

    Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11-15 (M = 13.0; SD = 1.2) years old. Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific vs. common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye towards prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519

  15. The role of culture, family processes, and anger regulation in Korean American adolescents' adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Park, Irene J K; Kim, Paul Y; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Kim, May

    2010-04-01

    Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11 to 15 years old (M = 13.0, SD = 1.2). Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific versus common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye toward prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519

  16. Biochemical methane potential and solid state anaerobic digestion of Korean food wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Nam Chang; Soon Chul Park

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop an anaerobic digestion process for Korean food wastes containing 15–30% total solids (TS) the biochemical methane potentials (BMP) of their components and mixture (mixed food waste, MFW) were measured. The methane yields of cooked meat, cellulose (as control), boiled rice, fresh cabbage and MFW were 482, 356, 294, 277 and 472 ml CH4\\/gVS added and anaerobic

  17. Effects of acculturation and social network support on depression among elderly Korean immigrants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bum Jung Kim; Cindy C. Sangalang; Taesuk Kihl

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Acculturation and social network support have been identified as predictors of mental health for immigrant and elderly populations. The present study examined both independent and interactive effects of acculturation and social network support on depressive symptomatology among elderly Korean immigrants.Method: Self-reported measures included sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation, social network support, and depressive symptoms. This study used cross-sectional analysis of a

  18. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-01-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined…

  19. Assessment of PTSD and Other Mental Disorders in World War II and Korean Conflict POW Survivors and Combat Veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia B. Sutker

    1996-01-01

    Mental disorders were assessed in 326 prisoners of war (POWs) of the World War II (WWII) European theater, WWII Pacific theater, and Korean Conflict (KC) and in combat veterans of both wars. Diagnoses were identified using a structured diagnostic interview including a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module. POW trauma severity was measured by a trauma events index, captivity weight loss,

  20. Confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: A conceptual development for the cooperative monitoring of limited-force deployment zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vannoni; R. Duggan; M. K. Nam; K. K. Moon; M. J. Kim

    1997-01-01

    Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of North and South Korea could decrease the risk of conflict on the Korean Peninsula and help create an environment in which to negotiate a peace regime. The Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) and the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to identify potential

  1. THE EFFECT OF AUCTION FORMAT ON EFFICIENCY AND REVENUE IN DIVISIBLE GOODS AUCTIONS: A TEST USING KOREAN TREASURY AUCTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boo-Sung Kangw; Steven L. Pullerz

    This paper measures the efficiency and revenue properties of the two most popular formats for divisible goods auctions: the uniform-price and discriminatory auction. We analyze bids into the Korean Treasury auctions which have used both formats. We find that the discriminatory auction yields statistically higher revenue. Unlike previous work that uses data from only one format, we are able to

  2. Binocular Eye Movement Control and Motion Perception: What Is Being Tracked?

    PubMed Central

    van der Steen, Johannes; Dits, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated under what conditions humans can make independent slow phase eye movements. The ability to make independent movements of the two eyes generally is attributed to few specialized lateral eyed animal species, for example chameleons. In our study, we showed that humans also can move the eyes in different directions. To maintain binocular retinal correspondence independent slow phase movements of each eye are produced. Methods. We used the scleral search coil method to measure binocular eye movements in response to dichoptically viewed visual stimuli oscillating in orthogonal direction. Results. Correlated stimuli led to orthogonal slow eye movements, while the binocularly perceived motion was the vector sum of the motion presented to each eye. The importance of binocular fusion on independency of the movements of the two eyes was investigated with anti-correlated stimuli. The perceived global motion pattern of anti-correlated dichoptic stimuli was perceived as an oblique oscillatory motion, as well as resulted in a conjugate oblique motion of the eyes. Conclusions. We propose that the ability to make independent slow phase eye movements in humans is used to maintain binocular retinal correspondence. Eye-of-origin and binocular information are used during the processing of binocular visual information, and it is decided at an early stage whether binocular or monocular motion information and independent slow phase eye movements of each eye are produced during binocular tracking. PMID:22997286

  3. Associations Between Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Korean Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth. PMID:22468102

  4. Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  5. Korean Non Resident Language Refresher Course: 210 Hour Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The materials presented in this intermediate-advanced refresher course in Korean are intended for those who have already had considerable intensive training in spoken and written Korean. Lessons 1-70 (the first seven weeks of the course) aim to "maintain and develop habitual responses in the use of words and sentences dealing with high frequency…

  6. The Syntax of Inaudible Noun Phrases in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ock-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the interpretation of NP-ellipsis (henceforth, NPE) in Korean. Some unexpected interpretive and grammatical contrasts arise in Korean between pro-forms such as "caki" "self" and "ku" "'3.S.M" (~"he") in object position and their null counterparts in NPE…

  7. Implementing Curriculum Integration: The Experiences of Korean Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Minjeong

    2008-01-01

    This study examines 1) how Korean elementary teachers implement curriculum integration in their teaching practice and 2) what Korean elementary teachers experience in implementing curriculum integration. Several issues evolved from the analysis of three teachers' experiences: firstly, the teachers' lack of theoretical frameworks for curriculum…

  8. The growth of Korean immigrant entrepreneurship in Chicago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    The growth of Korean immigrant entrepreneurship in Chicago is a product of three interacting factors: employment opportunities in the general labour market, resource mobilization, and business opportunity structures. Because of their language barrier and less transferable education and occupational skills in the American labour market, many Korean immigrants could not find white?collar occupations for which they had been trained. Disadvantaged,

  9. Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

  10. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  11. The Experience of Korean Immigrant Grandmothers with Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soohong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the following research question: "What is the experience of Korean immigrant grandmothers in their relationships with their adolescent, U.S. born grandchildren?" In the United States, the situation of Korean immigrant grandparents is complicated because they live in two cultures. Immigrant…

  12. Presidential Election in South Korea and Inter-Korean Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangsoo Lee; Stina Bergman

    2012-01-01

    The post-Kim Jong Il situation on the Korean Peninsula remains tense. This year will be a critical year for the peninsula. Will the new North Korean leadership be successfully stabilized or not? The upcoming presidential election in South Korea will have a great impact on the security situation on the peninsula. The next 12 months are likely to be a

  13. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Tae-woo; Adriane C. Littlefield; Michael Geoffrey Vannoni; Kim Sang-beom; Jennifer Gay Koelm; John Norman Olsen; Kim Myong-jin; Shin Sung-tack

    2003-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence

  14. Developing Cultural Competence in Working with Korean Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Irene J.; Kim, Luke I. C.; Kelly, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors provide an in-depth examination of the historical background, cultural values, family roles, and community contexts of Korean Americans as an aid to both researchers and clinicians in developing cultural competence with this particular group. First, the concept of cultural competence is defined. A brief history of Korean immigration…

  15. Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

  16. Interlanguage Pragmatic Features of Japanese and Korean Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kyung-Ja; Nakano, Michiko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the interlanguage pragmatic strategies used by Japanese and Korean learners of English. Data was collected from a project carried out jointly by Korean and Japanese university students. Observation, analysis, and discussion of student data suggest that interspeaker understanding and sensitivity to pragmatic variables of the target…

  17. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  18. Deregulation and efficiency: the case of private Korean banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Hao; William Curt Hunter; Won Keun Yang

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the productive efficiency of a sample of private Korean banks over the 1985 to 1995 time period. The goal of the analysis is to identify the key determinants of Korean bank efficiency (inefficiency) following the program of deregulation initiated by the government in the early 1980s and augmented in the early 1990s. Using the stochastic frontier cost

  19. Difficulties in Quality Doctoral Academic Advising: Experiences of Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngjoo

    2007-01-01

    This article examines difficulties encountered by international students in establishing strong and supportive academic advising relationships, with a special focus on Korean doctoral students in the USA. Interviews about barriers, experienced and perceived, to quality advising interactions were conducted with eight Korean international students…

  20. Are Korean Secondary School Girls Physically Active During Leisure Time?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minhaeng Cho; Wook-Dong Kwon; Yong-Bae Jeon

    2010-01-01

    Our aims in this study were to identify the types of physical activity during leisure time and to determine if Korean secondary school girls participate in enough physical activity during leisure time to promote health. Of the 1,088 girls randomly selected by a multistaged cluster sampling technique, 705 girls completed questionnaires. Seventy-five percent of Korean secondary school girls spent time

  1. Evidentials and Interrogatives: A Case Study from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Dong Sik

    2010-01-01

    My aims in this thesis are to establish how evidentiality is grammatically encoded in Korean, and to investigate the semantic nature of evidential morphemes in Korean, which helps us to explain the semantic and pragmatic behavior of evidential markers in non-declarative sentences, such as interrogatives. By doing so, this thesis also shows the…

  2. Bilingual Parsing with Factored Estimation: Using English to Parse Korean

    E-print Network

    Smith, David A.

    Bilingual Parsing with Factored Estimation: Using English to Parse Korean David A. Smith and Noah A, and word-to-word trans- lation models, can be effectively combined into a uni- fied bilingual parser and the TM, allowing separate parameter es- timation. We evaluate our bilingual parser on the Penn Korean

  3. [Helping Your Child To Be Safe. Korean Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King County Sexual Assault Resource Center, Renton, WA.

    The guide, intended for limited-English-speaking Korean parents in the United States and written entirely in Korean, discusses the nature and incidence of sexual assault and offers suggestions for keeping children safe from it. It includes several stories about attempted abduction and sexual assault of children and adolescents, defines sexual…

  4. New Challenges to Korean Universities: Increase of Older Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Jae-Eun

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the implications of the recent increase in older students at Korean universities dominated by younger students. A case study design is used to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of older students in a Korean university. Semi-structured interviews of twelve older students, three professors, two administrators, and…

  5. Korean American Pastors' Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Child Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyon Rhee; Janet Chang; Rev. Sam Youn

    2003-01-01

    More than 80 percent of Korean immigrants in the United States attend church on a regular basis. Churches, as informal community organizations, can play a very significant role in protecting children from abuse. This study examines Korean American clerics' knowledge of child abuse, their definition of child abuse, and their familiarity with mandatory child-abuse reporting laws. The study also examines

  6. Accounting for Korean-Speaking Students. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Truman Coll. UF-Truman Coll., Chicago, IL.

    Intended for limited-English speaking, Korean-speaking adult students, this manual contains a 12-chapter course in accounting. It is written in Korean with key terms/concepts and limited amounts of other information (such as proper names and occupation-related vocabulary) in English. Examples are provided in English only. Information provided in…

  7. Teaching Korean Rhythms in Music Class through Improvisation, Composition, and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the characteristics of Korean rhythmic patterns and provide effective ways to teach Korean rhythms based on the theoretical and pedagogical approaches derived from 5,000 years of Korean musical tradition. First, we have provided the fundamental principles of Korean rhythms that represent the culture from…

  8. Korean-English Dual Language Immersion: Perspectives of Students, Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Jeong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of Korean-American students, parents and teachers in a newly instituted 50/50 Korean-English dual language immersion programme, where the majority of the students are of Korean descent. Based on home and school observations, as well as interviews with six Korean-American students and their parents…

  9. Participation Patterns of Korean Adolescents in School-Based Career Exploration Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…

  10. "My Heart Beats in Two Places": Immigration Stories in Korean-American Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Joanne H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of immigration on Korean children through a content and literary analysis of 14 children's picture books. A majority of published children's literature dealing with the subject of Korean Americans or Korean immigration contains culturally specific themes common to the Korean immigration experience. These…

  11. Native and Nonnative Rater Behavior in Grading Korean Students' English Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate rating behavior between Korean and native English speaking (NES) raters. Five Korean English teachers and five NES teachers graded 420 essays written by Korean college freshmen and completed survey questionnaires. The grading data were analyzed with FACETS program. The results revealed Korean raters'…

  12. Reconstruction of the Optical System of the Human Eye with Reverse Ray-Tracing

    E-print Network

    Dainty, Chris

    Reconstruction of the Optical System of the Human Eye with Reverse Ray-Tracing Alexander V the optical system of the human eye from off-axis wavefront measurements. A retinal beacon formed at different aberrations of the human eye with use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949

  13. Corneal temperature in patients with dry eye evaluated by infrared radiation thermometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Fujishima; I Toda; M Yamada; N Sato; K Tsubota

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: The corneal temperature change following each blink was investigated in patients with dry eye using an infrared radiation thermometer. METHODS: Twenty patients with dry eye and 20 normal controls were enrolled in this study. Subjects kept their eyes open for 10 seconds without blinking and corneal temperature was measured every second with a recently improved infrared radiation thermometer. RESULTS:

  14. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye

    E-print Network

    Krekelberg, Bart

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye Movements Till S across eye movements. We first tested the hypothesis that motion signals are integrated by neurons whose receptive fields (RFs) do not move with the eye but stay fixed in the world. Specifically, we measured

  15. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  16. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  17. Reduced Tear Meniscus Dynamics in Dry Eye Patients with Aqueous Tear Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yimin; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Qi; Tao, Aizhu; Shen, Meixiao; Shousha, Mohamed Abou

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To measure the tear meniscus dynamics in aqueous tear deficiency dry eye patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). DESIGN Clinical research study of a laboratory technique. METHODS Twenty-five aqueous tear deficiency dry eye patients and thirty healthy subjects were recruited. Upper and lower tear menisci of one randomly selected eye of each participant were imaged during normal and delayed blinking using OCT. Measured parameters included upper tear meniscus height and volume, lower tear meniscus height and volume, the blink outcome defined as the meniscus volume change during blink action, and open eye outcome defined as the meniscus volume change during open eye period. RESULTS During normal blinking, both tear meniscus height and volume before blink in dry eye patients were significantly smaller than those in healthy subjects, except for the upper tear meniscus volume. During normal blinking, the blink outcome and open eye outcome of lower tear meniscus were significantly smaller in dry eye patients compared to healthy subjects. During delayed blinking, the upper and lower tear menisci heights and volumes significantly increased in both groups. However, dry eye patients had smaller increases than healthy subjects. During delayed blinking, the open eye outcomes of upper and lower tear menisci were smaller in dry eye patients than healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS Dry eye patients appeared to have reduced tear meniscus dynamics during normal blinking and smaller increases of meniscus volume during delayed blinking. Analysis of tear meniscus dynamics may provide more insight in the altered tear system in dry eye patients. PMID:20378096

  18. Through Einstein's Eyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Savage, Craig M.

    Through Einstein's Eyes is the online version of a multimedia project based around how things look at relativistic speeds. It is aimed at high school to early university level physics students. There are two sections. One is fun and spectacular, with a relativistic rollercoaster ride and a tour of the solar system. The other explores the physics of special relativity. CD and DVD versions of the material are available, and are helpful because of the large size of some of the video files.

  19. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively). Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160) and severe VI (VA ?20/200) had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63) group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye. Conclusions The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  20. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

  1. Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.

    PubMed

    Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

    1988-08-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals. PMID:3211676

  2. A novel functional magnetic resonance imaging compatible search-coil eye-tracking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Oeltermann; Shih-Pi Ku; Nikos K. Logothetis

    2007-01-01

    Measuring eye movements (EMs) using the search-coil eye-tracking technique is superior to video-based infrared methods [Collewijn H, van der Mark F, Jansen TC. Precise recording of human eye movements. Vision Res 1975;15(3):447-50], which suffer from the instability of pupil size, blinking behavior and lower temporal resolution. However, no conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-compatible search-coil eye tracker exists. The main

  3. Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

  4. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking…

  5. Being a Korean Studying Koreans in an American School: Reflections on Culture, Power, and Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates on situated knowledge highlight the issue of the researcher's position in the research process, challenging the traditional assumption of the insider/outsider dichotomy. Drawing on my fieldwork among Korean immigrant parents in an American school, I describe my shifting positions in negotiation and scrutinize the ways my reflexivity…

  6. Cultural Identity and Securitising the Korean Peninsula: Transformations in the South Korean Security Narrative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iain Watson

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses South Korea's ‘brand Korea’ initiative and the impact of cultural transformations on the South Korean national security narrative. The paper considers the practices of identity and security representation in South Korea and outlines how cultural transformations in a country which has built its national security on an assumption of racial and ethnic homogeneity are affecting relations between

  7. How Does Power Influence on Learning in Korean Organizations? How to Facilitate Learning in Korean Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Saing

    2006-01-01

    The subject into which this study inquired was the relationship between learning and power in Korean context. This study presents two case studies in two different organizations in Korea. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews, observation and document analysis. Power semantics, rhetorical visions and informal learning model…

  8. Korean Literature for American Students: An Annotated Bibliography of Writing by or about Koreans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy M.

    Compiled for use by students in the United States, this annotated bibliography of materials by or about Koreans contains more than 60 entries. The materials are listed according to the recommended grade level or difficulty and are divided into three sections. The first contains a listing of fiction and autobiography for both elementary and…

  9. Korean Students' Stories from an Aotearoa New Zealand High School: Perceived Affordances of English and Korean Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article is informed by van Lier's ecological approach to linguistics in considering the affordances Korean-born students perceived in using Korean or English language in an Aotearoa New Zealand high school setting. Here, I regard affordances as the students' perceptions of their languages as linguistic resources enabling them to…

  10. Sub-Syllabic Processing in Young Korean-English Bilinguals: Semivowel Placement Differences between Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Seunghyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the…

  11. Use of Traditional Korean Medicine by Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Choi, In Young; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae

    2013-01-01

    Background South Korea has maintained a dual healthcare delivery system that incorporates both traditional Korean and Western medicine. In this research, we identified the determinants of the frequency of using traditional Korean medicine among musculoskeletal patients, who are known to be the most frequent users of complementary and alternative medicine. Methods In this research, we reviewed 2 consecutive years of nationally representative survey data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Panel Survey. We analyzed the utilization of outpatient services by musculoskeletal patients within 12 months of the 2009 survey date. A two-part model was used because some patients did not use traditional Korean medicine and skewness was present in the data on traditional Korean medicine use. In the first part, logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the use of traditional Korean medicine. In the second part, multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage among the subjects who visited traditional Korean medical institutions. Results The frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage was positively associated with ages of 40–49 years and over 60, restrictions on daily life, a greater number of chronic diseases, not being hospitalized, and more frequent visits (more than five times) to conventional hospitals or clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions The important determinants of the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage were age, activity restrictions, the number of chronic diseases, hospitalization history, and the number of visits to conventional hospitals for musculoskeletal disorders. The results contribute to our understanding of the characteristics of traditional Korean medicine users and may be used as a basic resource for related policymaking by government officials and medical professionals. PMID:23658811

  12. Evaluation of a passive solar system applied to Korean school buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.T.; Kang, Y.H.; Yoon, H.K.; Yu, C.K.

    1999-07-01

    Since the early 1980s some Korean primary school buildings have been built with passive solar systems under the guidelines set up by the Korean government. An applied passive solar concept was double-skin wall integrated into the south facade of the building, which was designated to take advantage of convection through the space between the walls and classroom. Some randomly selected buildings were surveyed. The survey results identified some problems in terms of its design, maintenance and operation. The effect of the passive solar system on energy conservation was investigated by monitoring temperatures in a solar classroom and a nonsolar under same conditions. The energy performance of the system was further examined with space temperatures measured in the passive system. It was observed that the applied passive solar system could not achieve its optimum efficiency due to the lack of natural air circulation round the system and the classroom during the heating season.

  13. Eye Size at Birth in Prosimian Primates: Life History Correlates and Growth Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Joshua R.; Muchlinski, Magdalena N.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Rehorek, Susan J.; DeLeon, Valerie B.; Smith, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta) to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius), compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. Conclusions/Significance The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits of nocturnal species, mainly emerge during postnatal development. PMID:22567127

  14. Reliability and Validity of a Korean Version of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jae-Woo; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kang, Min-Gyu; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Won; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There are no specific tools for measurement of the severity of chronic cough in Korea. We developed a Korean version of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and tested its scaling and clinical properties. Methods The LCQ was adapted for Korean conditions following a forward-backward translation procedure. All patients referred to chronic cough clinics at 5 university hospitals between May 2011 and October 2013 completed 2 questionnaires, the LCQ and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), upon presentation and completed the LCQ and the Global Rating of Change (GRC) upon follow-up visits after 2 or 4 weeks. Concurrent validation, internal consistency, repeatability, and responsiveness were determined. Results For the concurrent validation, the correlation coefficients (n=202 patients) between the LCQ and SF-36 varied between 0.42 and 0.58. The internal consistency of the LCQ (n=207) was high for each of the domains with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.82-0.94. The repeatability of the LCQ in patients with no change in cough (n=23) was high, with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.66-0.81. Patients who reported an improvement in cough (n=30) on follow-up visits demonstrated significant improvement in each of the domains of the LCQ. Conclusions The Korean version of the LCQ is a valid and reliable questionnaire for measurement of the severity of cough in patients with chronic cough. PMID:25749761

  15. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

  16. ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Harriet, E Hollander

    2009-10-01

    Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

  17. High-resolution eye tracking using V1 neuron activity

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, James M.; Bondy, Adrian G.; Cumming, Bruce G.; Butts, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of high-acuity visual cortical processing have been limited by the inability to track eye position with sufficient accuracy to precisely reconstruct the visual stimulus on the retina. As a result, studies on primary visual cortex (V1) have been performed almost entirely on neurons outside the high-resolution central portion of the visual field (the fovea). Here we describe a procedure for inferring eye position using multi-electrode array recordings from V1 coupled with nonlinear stimulus processing models. We show that this method can be used to infer eye position with one arc-minute accuracy – significantly better than conventional techniques. This allows for analysis of foveal stimulus processing, and provides a means to correct for eye-movement induced biases present even outside the fovea. This method could thus reveal critical insights into the role of eye movements in cortical coding, as well as their contribution to measures of cortical variability. PMID:25197783

  18. High-resolution eye tracking using V1 neuron activity.

    PubMed

    McFarland, James M; Bondy, Adrian G; Cumming, Bruce G; Butts, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Studies of high-acuity visual cortical processing have been limited by the inability to track eye position with sufficient accuracy to precisely reconstruct the visual stimulus on the retina. As a result, studies of primary visual cortex (V1) have been performed almost entirely on neurons outside the high-resolution central portion of the visual field (the fovea). Here we describe a procedure for inferring eye position using multi-electrode array recordings from V1 coupled with nonlinear stimulus processing models. We show that this method can be used to infer eye position with 1 arc-min accuracy--significantly better than conventional techniques. This allows for analysis of foveal stimulus processing, and provides a means to correct for eye movement-induced biases present even outside the fovea. This method could thus reveal critical insights into the role of eye movements in cortical coding, as well as their contribution to measures of cortical variability. PMID:25197783

  19. Impaired functional visual acuity of dry eye patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiki Goto; Yukiko Yagi; Yukihiro Matsumoto; Kazuo Tsubota

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report dry eye patients’ functional visual acuity, which was measured after sustained eye opening for 10–20 seconds, as a simulation of visual function of daily acts of gazing, which is defined as looking at an object with involuntary blink suppression.METHODS: Interventional clinical nonrandomized comparative trial. We measured ordinary best-corrected visual acuity and functional visual acuity in non-Sjögren’s syndrome

  20. Punctal occlusion for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Wojciechowski, Robert; Schein, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome is a disorder of the tear film and is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. Punctal occlusion is a mechanical treatment in which the tear drainage system is blocked in order to aid in the preservation of natural tears on the ocular surface. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the safety and efficacy of punctal plugs for the management of dry eye. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1950 to June 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2010), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2010), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov). We also searched the Science Citation Index-Expanded database and reference lists of included studies. There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 21 June 2010. Selection criteria We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of collagen or silicone punctal plugs in symptomatic participants diagnosed with aqueous tear deficiency or dry eye syndrome. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study investigators for additional information. Main results Seven randomized controlled trials including 305 participants (601 eyes) met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this review. We did not perform meta-analysis due to appreciable variability in interventions and follow-up intervals. Although punctal plugs provided symptomatic improvement and clinical outcomes also improved from baseline measures, few studies demonstrated a benefit of punctal plugs over the comparison intervention. Reported adverse effects included epiphora (overflow of tears), foreign body sensation, eye irritation, and spontaneous plug loss. Authors’ conclusions This systematic review shows a relative scarcity of controlled clinical trials assessing the efficacy of punctal occlusion therapy in dry eye. Although the evidence is very limited, the data suggest that silicone plugs can provide symptomatic relief in severe dry eye. Moreover, temporary collagen plugs appear similarly effective to silicone plugs on a short-term basis. PMID:20824852

  1. Eyes on the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick

    Eyes on the Universe is an illustrated history of the telescope, beginning with pre-telescopic observatories and the refractors of Galileo, Lippershey and Digges, and ending with the most modern instruments including - of course - the Hubble Space Telescope. Written by Dr Patrick Moore CBE, to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of the world's longest-running television programme, the BBC's The Sky at Night, the book takes an enthusiastic look at the development of astronomical telescopes. It provides its readers with a fascinating overview of the way astronomical telescopes have evolved with technology during the past 450 years. Amateur and professional astronomers alike will find this book both entertaining and instructive.

  2. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sam; Razzouk, Denise; Mari, Jair Jesus de; Shirakawa, Itiro

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%); mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs) use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants. PMID:19347208

  3. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas D.; Glen, Fiona C.; Mönter, Vera M.; Crabb, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient's worse eye (most VF damage) when compared to their better eye (least VF damage). Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P < 0.001) in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range) between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss) of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8) dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades) and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns) when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma. PMID:24883203

  4. Using eye tracking to assess reading performance in patients with glaucoma: a within-person study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas D; Glen, Fiona C; Mönter, Vera M; Crabb, David P

    2014-01-01

    Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient's worse eye (most VF damage) when compared to their better eye (least VF damage). Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P < 0.001) in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range) between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss) of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8) dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of "regressions" (backward saccades) and "unknown" EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns) when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma. PMID:24883203

  5. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  6. Eye Tracking Detects Disconjugate Eye Movements Associated with Structural Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Ritlop, Robert; Reyes, Marleen; Nehrbass, Elena; Li, Meng; Lamm, Elizabeth; Schneider, Julia; Shimunov, David; Sava, Maria; Kolecki, Radek; Burris, Paige; Altomare, Lindsey; Mehmood, Talha; Smith, Theodore; Huang, Jason H.; McStay, Christopher; Todd, S. Rob; Qian, Meng; Kondziolka, Douglas; Wall, Stephen; Huang, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disconjugate eye movements have been associated with traumatic brain injury since ancient times. Ocular motility dysfunction may be present in up to 90% of patients with concussion or blast injury. We developed an algorithm for eye tracking in which the Cartesian coordinates of the right and left pupils are tracked over 200?sec and compared to each other as a subject watches a short film clip moving inside an aperture on a computer screen. We prospectively eye tracked 64 normal healthy noninjured control subjects and compared findings to 75 trauma subjects with either a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan (n=13), negative head CT (n=39), or nonhead injury (n=23) to determine whether eye tracking would reveal the disconjugate gaze associated with both structural brain injury and concussion. Tracking metrics were then correlated to the clinical concussion measure Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) in trauma patients. Five out of five measures of horizontal disconjugacy were increased in positive and negative head CT patients relative to noninjured control subjects. Only one of five vertical disconjugacy measures was significantly increased in brain-injured patients relative to controls. Linear regression analysis of all 75 trauma patients demonstrated that three metrics for horizontal disconjugacy negatively correlated with SCAT3 symptom severity score and positively correlated with total Standardized Assessment of Concussion score. Abnormal eye-tracking metrics improved over time toward baseline in brain-injured subjects observed in follow-up. Eye tracking may help quantify the severity of ocular motility disruption associated with concussion and structural brain injury. PMID:25582436

  7. A Self-Calibrating, Camera-Based Eye Tracker for the Recording of Rodent Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolan, Davide; Graham, Brett J.; Cox, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Much of neurophysiology and vision science relies on careful measurement of a human or animal subject's gaze direction. Video-based eye trackers have emerged as an especially popular option for gaze tracking, because they are easy to use and are completely non-invasive. However, video eye trackers typically require a calibration procedure in which the subject must look at a series of points at known gaze angles. While it is possible to rely on innate orienting behaviors for calibration in some non-human species, other species, such as rodents, do not reliably saccade to visual targets, making this form of calibration impossible. To overcome this problem, we developed a fully automated infrared video eye-tracking system that is able to quickly and accurately calibrate itself without requiring co-operation from the subject. This technique relies on the optical geometry of the cornea and uses computer-controlled motorized stages to rapidly estimate the geometry of the eye relative to the camera. The accuracy and precision of our system was carefully measured using an artificial eye, and its capability to monitor the gaze of rodents was verified by tracking spontaneous saccades and evoked oculomotor reflexes in head-fixed rats (in both cases, we obtained measurements that are consistent with those found in the literature). Overall, given its fully automated nature and its intrinsic robustness against operator errors, we believe that our eye-tracking system enhances the utility of existing approaches to gaze-tracking in rodents and represents a valid tool for rodent vision studies. PMID:21152259

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Yong-Sil; Jung, Na Young; Wang, Sheng-Min; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Chae, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Chung Tai

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ). A Korean version of the SASRQ was produced through forward translation, reconciliation, and back translation. A total of 100 healthy, non-clinical participants were selected through screening and clinical interview, and they each were given a set of questionnaires including SASRQ. Psychometric properties of SASRQ were then examined through statistical analyses. Full-scale and subscales of SASRQ yielded excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.98 and 0.78-0.95, respectively). Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was satisfactory, with coefficient r ranging between 0.47 and 0.71. Convergent validity was also demonstrated by strong correlations between SASRQ and other trauma-related questionnaires. Correlation with Social Desirability Scale, however, was not found to be significant; thus evidenced divergent validity. The Korean version of SASRQ appears to be a reliable and valid measurement tool for assessing symptoms of acute stress disorder. Including clinical samples for comparison with controls would be necessary in future studies. PMID:24265534

  9. EMDR effects on pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Bonnet, Audrey; Bourtoire, Pauline; Sandretto, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale) decreased to a near zero value. Smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded by an Eyelink II video system before and after EMDR. For the five complete sessions, pursuit eye movement improved after their EMDR session. Notably, the number of saccade intrusions-catch-up saccades (CUS)-decreased and, reciprocally, there was an increase in the smooth components of the pursuit. Such an increase in the smoothness of the pursuit presumably reflects an improvement in the use of visual attention needed to follow the target accurately. Perhaps EMDR reduces distress thereby activating a cholinergic effect known to improve ocular pursuit. PMID:20505828

  10. Eye structure and amphibious foraging in albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Anterior eye structure and retinal visual fields were determined in grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses, Diomedea melanophris and D. chrysostoma (Procellariiformes, Diomedeidae), using keratometry and an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique. Results for the two species were very similar and indicate that the eyes are of an amphibious optical design suggesting that albatross vision is well suited to the visual pursuit of active prey both on and below the ocean surface. The corneas are relatively flat (radius ca. 14.5 mm) and hence of low absolute refractive power (ca. 23 dioptres). In air the binocular fields are relatively long (vertical extent ca. 70 degrees) and narrow (maximum width in the plane of the optic axes 26–32 degrees), a topography found in a range of bird species that employ visual guidance of bill position when foraging. The cyclopean fields measure approximately 270 degrees in the horizontal plane, but there is a 60 degrees blind sector above the head owing to the positioning of the eyes below the protruding supraorbital ridges. Upon immersion the monocular fields decrease in width such that the binocular fields are abolished. Anterior eye structure, and visual field topography in both air and water, show marked similarity with those of the Humboldt penguin.

  11. Translation and Validation of the Korean Version of MUDI and MUSIQ with Urinary Incontinent Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young Mi; Song, Jaemann

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Male Urinary Distress Inventory (MUDI) and Male Urinary Symptom Impact Questionnaire (MUSIQ). Patients and Methods A convenient sample of community-dwelling older men with urinary incontinence participated. A cross-sectional survey design was used for this study. A panel of experts completed the initial translation into Korean and back-translated the MUDI and MUSIQ. Upon establishment of the content and translation equivalence between English and Korean versions of the MUDI and MUSIQ, psychometric properties were evaluated for reliability, concurrent, and construct validity with a sample of 143 older men. Results The internal consistencies of both instruments were found to be acceptable, and Cronbach's coefficients were 0.88 for the MUDI-K and 0.92 for the MUSIQ-K. A significant moderate correlation between MUDI-K and MUSIQ-K was found in this study, indicating modest concurrent validity between these 2 instruments (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). For construct validity, the mean scores of the MUDI-K were significantly different for age, marital status, prostate surgery, erectile dysfunction, and depression (p < 0.05). The means scores of MUSIQ-K were significantly different for depression (p < 0.05) only. For both the MUDI-K and MUSIQ-K, 7 factors were extracted, accounting for 68.1% and 72.1% of the variance. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that the MUDI-K and MUSIQ-K can be used as a reliable and valid measure of health-related quality of life in community-dwelling Korean older men with urinary incontinence. PMID:19259358

  12. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Hearing Loss and Hearing Aid Use in Korean Elders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid usage rates among Korean elders by comparing the differences between those with and without hearing loss, and between those who used and did not use hearing aids. Methods: This study was based on data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012). The study sample consisted of 5,447 Koreans aged ?60 years who received a hearing assessment. Hearing loss was measured using a pure tone audiometry test and classified according to the World Health Organization’s criteria. Hearing aid use was assessed by self-report. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between hearing loss, hearing aid use, and related variables. Results: Hearing loss was found in 16.8% of the elders and only 15.9% of them used a hearing aid. Male (95% CI: 1.27–2.15), tinnitus (95% CI: 1.58–2.32), dizziness (95% CI: 1.05–1.73), and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.32–2.38) were the variables most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment. Tinnitus (95% CI: 1.34–4.13) and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.01–5.02) were strongly associated with hearing aid use after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: More than half of South Korean elders aged ?60 and older have hearing loss but the rate of hearing aid use is very low. An aural public health program should address modifiable risk factors, such as tinnitus and noise exposure, and non-modifiable risk factors associated with hearing loss in the elderly. PMID:25905073

  13. The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho

    2013-12-01

    This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul. Kong's fame as a successful practitioner gradually made him express his opinion on various social issues. Kong did not hesitate to utilize his influence to advocate the new "modern" way of living, with special emphasis on speed and efficiency. His engagement in typewriter business since 1949 may also be attributed to his firm belief in the value of speed and efficiency. Although he could not fulfill his dream of being an academic, Kong still remains as an important figure in the history of medicine in modern Korea, not only for his publicity. By closely analyzing Kong's personal story, one can see various aspects of opportunities, personal networks, social norms, and limitations within the colonial setting. PMID:24503921

  14. Eye in the Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic magazine, long known for its educational maps and writing that is easily understood by a variety of readers, has added a feature to its Website. The new online resource from National Geographic, sponsored by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), is called Eye in the Sky, and it showcases what we can learn about our planet using satellites. Here, users can read about the history of satellites and remote-sensing technology and choose from a menu of brief lessons on natural disasters, human impacts on Earth, human conflicts, and exploration of Mars. Each lesson page gives photographs, facts, and short movies (RealPlayer or Windows Media Player). The title "Eye in the Sky" is slightly misleading because most of the images featured are taken at ground-level, and it isn't always clear how some of the lessons fit with the idea of remote sensing. Nevertheless, the site is worth a look, and a few satellite images (of floodplains and the ozone hole, for example) pepper the material here.

  15. Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Yoo, J M; Cho, B K; Kim, H O

    2001-07-01

    The high risk of occupational contact dermatitis in dental personnel are well accepted throughout the world. There are few reports concerning occupational skin disease in dental personnel in Korea. The purposes of this study were to investigate the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians. Recording of personal history, physical examination and patch tests with the Korean standard series and dental screening series were performed in 49 dental technicians. Most of the subjects were exposed to a variety of compounds, including acrylics, metals, plaster, alginate, etc. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand in all 22. The most common clinical feature of hand dermatitis was itching (77.3%); scaling, fissuring and erythema were other common clinical features. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results of 49 dental technicians. 7 positive reactions to the various acrylics were found in 3 subjects. In our study, the frequency and clinical features of the contact dermatitis showed a similarity to other reports, though the patch test results were somewhat different; a higher patch-positive reaction to metals and a relatively lower patch-positive reaction to acrylics than the patch test results reported in Europe. PMID:11422261

  16. Activities of the korean institute of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Sungweon; Kim, Hee Jin

    2014-12-01

    The Korean National Tuberculosis Association (KNTA) set up the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT) in 1970 to foster research and technical activities pertaining to tuberculosis (TB). The KNTA/KIT had successfully conducted a countrywide TB prevalence survey from 1965 to 1995 at 5-year intervals. The survey results (decline in TB rates) established Korea as a country that had successfully implemented national control programs for TB. The KIT developed the Korea Tuberculosis Surveillance System and the Laboratory Management Information System, both of which were transferred to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its establishment. The KIT functions as a central and supranational reference TB laboratory for microbiological and epidemiological research and provides training and education for health-care workers and medical practitioners. Recently, the KIT has expanded its activities to countries such as Ethiopia, Laos, and Timor-Leste to support TB control and prevention. The KIT will continue to support research activities and provide technical assistance in diagnosing the infection until it is completely eliminated in Korea. PMID:25861580

  17. Construction of the Korean VLBI Network (KVN)

    E-print Network

    H. -G. Kim; S. -T. Han; B. W. Sohn; S. -J. Oh; D. -H. Je; S. -O. Wi; M. -G. Song

    2004-12-30

    Korea's new VLBI project to construct the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) started in 2001, as a 7-year project that is fully funded by our government. We plan to build 3 new high-precision radio telescopes of 21-m diameter in 3 places in Korea, which will be exclusively used for VLBI observations. We will install the 2/8, 22 and 43 GHz HEMT receivers within 2007 as a first target, and later we will expand the receiving frequency up to 86 and 129 GHz for astronomical, geodetic, and earth science VLBI research. The millimeter-wave VLBI will be the ultimate goal of KVN. For the front-ends, we are going to install a multi-channel receiver system that employs low-pass filters within a quasi-optical beam transportation system. This receiver system will give reliable phase calibrations for millimeter-wave VLBI as well as enable simultaneous multi-frequency band observations. The hard-disk type new Mark 5 will be used as the main recorder of KVN. We have completed the design of the KVN DAS system of 2 Gsps sampling rate, which will use 4 data streams to meet the multi-channel requirement. A VERA type DAS modified for Mark 5 recorder is also under consideration. A new correlator project for KVN was recently approved from Korean government, and will start in the second half of 2004.

  18. THE AGING EYE EYE INSTITUTE OF NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    the pathogenesis of both macular degeneration and glaucoma. The Center for the Aging Eye will be an outgrowth implications for the management of macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Our macular and glaucoma. Ocular Stem Cell Research Program Through the Center for the Aging Eye, we plan to advance

  19. Confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: A conceptual development for the cooperative monitoring of limited-force deployment zones

    SciTech Connect

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center; Nam, M.K.; Moon, K.K.; Kim, M.J. [Korea Inst. for Defense Analyses, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Arms Control Research Center

    1997-04-01

    Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of North and South Korea could decrease the risk of conflict on the Korean Peninsula and help create an environment in which to negotiate a peace regime. The Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) and the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to identify potential CBMs and define associated monitoring. The project is a conceptual analysis of political and technical options for confidence building that might be feasible in Korea at some future time. KIDA first analyzed current security conditions and options for CBMs. Their conclusions are presented as a hypothetical agreement to strengthen the Armistice Agreement by establishing Limited Force Deployment Zones along the Military Demarcation Line. The goal of the hypothetical agreement is to increase mutual security and build confidence. The CMC then used KIDA`s scenario to develop a strategy for cooperative monitoring the agreement. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing and sharing of agreed information among parties to an agreement and typically relies on the use of commercially available technology. A cooperative monitoring regime must be consistent with the agreement`s terms; the geographic, logistic, military, and political factors in the Korean setting; and the capabilities of monitoring technologies. This report describes the security situation on the Korean peninsula, relevant precedents from other regions, the hypothetical agreement for reducing military tensions, a monitoring strategy for the hypothetical Korean agreement, examples of implementation, and a description of applicable monitoring technologies and procedures.

  20. Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye

    E-print Network

    Kango-Singh, Madhuri

    determination Keywords: Drosophila eye, Dorso-ventral eye patterning, pannier, GATA-1, retinal determination begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA

  1. The challenge of dry eye diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Giacomo; Prabhawasat, Pinita; Kojima, Takashi; Grueterich, Martin; Espana, Edgar; Goto, Eiki

    2008-01-01

    The currently available methods for the diagnosis of dry eye are still far from being perfect for a variety of reasons. This review attempts to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of both traditional tests (such as Schirmer’s test, break-up time and ocular surface staining) and innovative noninvasive procedures, including tear meniscus height measurement, corneal topography, functional visual acuity, tear interferometry, tear evaporimetry and tear osmolarity assessment. PMID:19668387

  2. Hand-Eye Calibration Using Dual Quaternions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Daniilidis

    1999-01-01

    Abstract To relate measurements,made,by a sensor mounted,on a mechanical link to the robot’s coordinate frame, we must first estimate the trans- formation between,these two frames. Many algorithms have been proposed for this so-called hand-eye calibration, but they do not treat the relative position and orientation in a unified way. In this paper, we introduce the use of dual quaternions, which

  3. Comparison of Optical versus Ultrasonic Biometry in Keratoconic Eyes.

    PubMed

    C?nar, Yasin; Cingü, Abdullah Kür?at; Sahin, Muhammed; Sahin, Alparslan; Yüksel, Harun; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; C?nar, Tuba; Caça, Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the measurements of optical versus ultrasonic biometry devices in keratoconic eyes. Materials and Methods. Forty-two eyes of 42 keratoconus (KC) patients enrolled in the study were examined. Clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients were noted, and detailed ophthalmological examination was performed. Following Pentacam measurements, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), and axial length (AL) were obtained using the Lenstar and US biometer to determine the reproducibility of the measurements between the two devices in keratoconic eyes. The Bland-Altman method was used to describe the agreement between the two devices. Results. The Lenstar could not measure at least one of the biometric properties in one eye and did not automatically give the corrected ACD in 2/3 of our study population. The Lenstar measured CCT (average difference 5.4?±?19.6?µm; ICC?=?0.90; P < 0.001), LT (average difference 0.13?±?0.17?mm; ICC?=?0.67; P < 0.001), and AL (average difference 0.10?±?0.76?mm; ICC?=?0.75; P < 0.001) thinner than US biometer, whereas it measured ACD (average difference 0.18?±?0.17?mm; ICC?=?0.85; P < 0.001) deeper than US biometer in keratoconic eyes. Conclusion. Although the difference between the measurements obtained using the two devices might be clinically acceptable, US biometry and Lenstar should not be used interchangeably for biometric measurements in KC patients. PMID:23986865

  4. Validation of a quasi real-time global aberrometer: the EyeMapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedtke, C.; Ehrmann, K.; Falk, D.; Holden, B.

    2012-03-01

    Interest in measuring peripheral refraction rapidly and accurately has been stimulated by increasing evidence that the eye's peripheral refractive state can influence axial growth. In response to this, a new clinical instrument, the EyeMapper, was developed which performs quasi real-time global (central and peripheral) refraction measurements of the human eye. The EyeMapper is an aberrometer comprising a unique deflection system to permit an extremely rapid visual field scan. Refraction measurements are taken from -50° to +50° in 10° steps within 0.45 seconds. Multiple pupil imaging paths through the deflection system provide improved lateral and axial pupil alignment, and by rotating the instrument around its main optical axis, global power maps of the eye can be generated. Using a model eye with a pivoting and translating reflective surface to simulate the peripheral and central retina, the EyeMapper was cross-validated against a conventional aberrometer (COAS-HD, Wavefront Sciences, USA) and an autorefractor (Shin-Nippon NVision K5001, Japan). In addition, the right eyes of ten participants were measured across the horizontal visual field and in one eye, refraction measurements were performed globally. Overall, the EyeMapper showed good agreement and improved repeatability when compared to the other two instruments.

  5. Severe eye injuries in cricket.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N P; Tullo, A B

    1986-01-01

    We report five cases of severe eye injury sustained in cricket, including retinal detachment and rupture of the globe. The eye is at particular risk from a rising ball. We comment on the need for appropriate facial protection for batsmen and close fielders. PMID:3814991

  6. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    ?uru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  7. European hair and eye color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Frost

    2006-01-01

    Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

  8. Eye Strain from Convergence Insufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Mahto

    1972-01-01

    Eye strain and headache are common ocular symptoms, and the main cause in persons aged 15 to 40 is convergence insufficiency. It is more common in females than in males. Many patients are supplied with glasses for eye strain without the causative convergence insufficiency being treated. The treatment in most cases is orthoptic exercises.

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. Eye trauma in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Monk, H

    1991-01-01

    Immediate eye irrigation in the case of chemical burns can substantially decrease the possibility of permanent vision damage. A baseline visual acuity should be on record for medical and legal purposes. Identifying an eye injury and referring the person for appropriate treatment can save vision. PMID:2061932

  11. Eye trauma in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Boyd-Monk, H

    1990-10-01

    A baseline visual acuity should be on record for medical and legal purposes. Identifying an eye injury and referring the person for appropriate treatment can save vision. Immediate eye irrigation in the case of chemical burns can substantially decrease the possibility of permanent vision damage. PMID:2222583

  12. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  13. The Treatment of Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Calonge

    2001-01-01

    The most widely used therapy for dry eye disease is tear replacement by topical artificial tears. Punctal occlusion to prevent the drainage of natural or artificial tears is the most common nonpharmacological treatment. These and other traditional therapies for dry eye disease are only palliative, however, as they replace or conserve the tears without necessarily correcting the underlying disease process.

  14. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  15. Vision and Eye Health in Children 36 to <72 Months: Proposed Data Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L.; Russ, Shirley A.; Repka, Michael X.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To recommend a standardized approach for measuring progress toward national goals to improve preschool children’s eye health. Methods A multidisciplinary panel of experts reviewed existing measures and national vision-related goals during a series of face-to-face meetings and conference calls. The panel used a consensus process, informed by existing data related to delivery of eye and non-eye services to preschool children. Results Currently, providers of vision screening and eye examinations lack a system to provide national- or state-level estimates of the proportion of children who receive either a vision screening or an eye examination. The panel developed numerator and denominator definitions to measure rates of children “who completed a vision screening in a medical or community setting using a recommended method, or received an eye examination by an optometrist or ophthalmologist at least once between the ages of 36 to <72 months.” A separate measure for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and measures for eye examination and follow-up were also developed. The panel recommended that these measures be implemented at national, state, and local levels. Conclusions Standardized performance measures that include all eye services received by a child are needed at state and national levels to measure progress toward improving preschool children’s eye health. PMID:25562477

  16. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars. PMID:26103119

  17. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 59 (2003) 837873 Using eye movement parameters for evaluating

    E-print Network

    Zhang, WJ "Chris"

    2003-01-01

    Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 59 (2003) 837­873 Using eye movement parameters for evaluating human June 2003; accepted 18 June 2003 Abstract A human­machine interface framework provides general categories of measures are used, namely: the performance measure; the physiological measure (the eye movement

  18. Disambiguation of Korean Utterances Using Automatic Intonation Recognition 

    E-print Network

    Jang, Tae-Yeoub; Song, Minsuck; Lee, Kiyeong

    The paper describes a research on a use of intonation for disambiguating utterance types of Korean spoken sentences. Based on tilt intonation theory (Taylor and Black 1994), two related but separate experiments were performed ...

  19. Blacks against Korean Merchants: An Interpretation of Contributory Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, K. Hugh

    1990-01-01

    Examines the 1990 boycott of Korean-owned food stores in Brooklyn by African Americans. Provides background on ethnic conflicts in America, especially those involving Asian Americans. Calls for increased racial and cultural sensitivity in communities and schools. (DM)

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of Astrovirus and Kobuvirus in Korean Dogs

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Sarah; LIM, Seong-In; KIM, Yong Kwan; CHO, Yoon-Young; SONG, Jae-Young; AN, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Astroviruses and kobuviruses are frequently found in mammalian feces, including that of humans. The present study examined fecal samples from 91 Korean dogs suffering from diarrhea. Canine astroviruses (CAstVs) and canine kobuviruses (CKoVs) were identified in 2 (2.1%) and 46 (50.6%) dogs, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis coupled with phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method showed that CAstVs clustered into four genetically diverse groups. Two Korean CAstVs belonged to group 2 alongside strains isolated in Italy and France. Twelve of the Korean CKoVs belonged to a single clade, along with strain UK003 identified in the UK and six CKoVs identified in the USA. Thus, the results suggest that the Korean strain of CAstV is closely related to strains isolated in Europe. Surely, CKoV in South Korea could identify the circulation among dogs population. PMID:24784439

  1. A study of Korean shipbuilders' strategy for sustainable growth

    E-print Network

    Won, Duck Hee

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to develop potential strategies for Korean shipbuilders for sustainable growth by understanding the characteristics of the shipbuilding industry and the current market situation. Before the financial meltdown ...

  2. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Reflexes and the eye.

    PubMed

    Hunyor, A P

    1994-08-01

    Reflexes are an essential part of protective and homeostatic function, both in general terms and with specific reference to ocular structures. A wide range of stimuli and responses, with varying degrees of central processing, is involved in such reflexes. The simplest reflexes are monosynaptic, such as the stretch or myotatic reflex. More complex polysynaptic reflexes are involved in many regulatory and protective functions--these include autonomic as well as somatic reflexes. Ocular autonomic reflexes include the oculocardiac, pupillary, accommodative and lacrimatory reflexes. Ocular somatic reflexes include eyelid and extra-ocular muscle reflexes (such as Bell's phenomenon, vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes). An account of the above reflexes is given in the format of an essay, modified from the FRACO Part I Examination in Physiology. The topic was 'Discuss reflex activities with particular reference to the eye'. The content is based on several of the texts recommended for the Part I Examination, as listed under references. PMID:7818872

  4. CubicEye

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    While we were not able to test this new 3D browser (alas, no W2k machines at the Scout Project at the time of publication), we still felt it well worth a mention after viewing some sample screen shots. CubicEye allows users to navigate and move between five browser windows simultaneously: the windows form the sides and bottom of a cube. Based on the demo sequences, it appears that users can easily rotate the panels and drop and drag links between the panels, in addition to other options. Users whose machines meet the requirements may register to become a beta tester and will receive a password and download instructions. The rest of us can still take a peek and offer a few "oohs" and "ahhs."

  5. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37?weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08?kg. Antenatal scan at 31?weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  6. Eye movements in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Ally, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research. PMID:25182738

  7. The impact of a better-seeing eye and a worse-seeing eye on vision-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Hirneiss, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patients with eye diseases often have a better-seeing eye (BSE) and a worse-seeing eye (WSE). This review will carve out the current knowledge in which the relationship to BSEs and WSEs contributes to overall visual functioning and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). Methods Searches were from database inception to the current date. Terms used for the search were “better eye”, “worse eye”, “utility”, “life quality”, “quality of life”, “VFQ-25”, and “visual acuity”. Results There is a lack of a clear definition for BSE and WSE, and the used definitions are regularly dependent on the underlying eye disease. “BSE” and “WSE” can interact in terms of binocular inhibition or summation. Measured influences of the BSE and WSE on VRQoL are dependent on the underlying instrument used for the measurement. Several studies show impaired VRQoL if only one eye is affected from disease, with unimpaired vision of the BSE. VRQoL can improve significantly when treating the BSE and the WSE. In eye diseases with impairment of the central vision, there is a better correlation between the BSE and VRQoL. However, in eye diseases with peripheral vision impairment, eg, glaucoma, functional parameters of the WSE are better predictors for VRQoL. Conclusion The WSE appears to have a stronger influence on VRQoL than is generally assumed. This is especially the case if the underlying eye disease does not affect central vision but peripheral vision. PMID:25214763

  8. Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  9. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePLUS

    Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  10. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Tweet While contact lenses are safely used ... Video Caring For Your Contact Lenses Find An Eye M.D. Enter zip code here Search by ...

  11. Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vision > Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions Flood-Related Eye Care Precautions As flooding continues to expand across ... lens wearers to avoid exposure to flood-related eye infections and complications Avoid contact with flood waters. ...

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Kim; H. S. Lee; H. J. Park; W. Y. Kim

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to identify risk factors related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Korean elderly population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 404 Korean elderly subjects (118 male, 286 female), aged 60 years or older between 2000 and 2003. The subjects were divided into MetS and control groups based on Adult

  13. Ubiquinone contents in Korean fermented foods and average daily intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hee Pyo; Hyun-Ju Oh

    Coenzyme Q (CoQs, ubiquinones) in food may have antioxidative and other beneficial effects on human health. Data on the ubiquinones (CoQ10 and CoQ9) content of Korean fermented foods were determined, then the Korean daily intake of ubiquinones from those foods was estimated. The analytical method employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification HPLC\\/MS equipped with diode array detection. Contents of

  14. Beijing’s defense strategy and the Korean peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weixing Hu

    1995-01-01

    The Korean peninsula has been one of the key regions for China’s security. With a strong interest in maintaining peace and\\u000a stability on the peninsula, Beijing is readjusting its foreign policy toward two Koreas in the post-cold war era. This article\\u000a examines the recent changes in Beijing’s defense strategy and their implications for the Korean peninsula. It is argued that

  15. KAIST Tree Bank Project for Korean: Present and Future Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Key-sun Choi; Young S. Han; Young G. Han

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the on-going project for building a large annotatedcorpus of Korean written texts undertaken by KAIST1since 1992. Atpresent, the corpus consists of over 5 million word units of Korean covering13 subject fields. The POS tagset used to annotate the corpus contains74 tags. The tagset is designed to provide sufficient recoverability even forhigh level linguistic processing. Current

  16. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  17. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Korean woodroaches Cryptocercus spp.

    PubMed

    Park, Yung Chul; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Matsumoto, Tadao; Santoni, Rossana; Choe, Jae C

    2004-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Northeast Asian Cryptocercus were inferred based on the DNA sequences of mitochondrial COII and 16S rRNA genes and nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The results suggest that two clades exist in Korean populations. The southwestern population (Cryptocercus from Jiri-san) was more closely related to the populations from Northeast China and eastern Russia than to all the other Korean Cryptocercus. According to molecular-based estimated divergence times, the divergence event occurred between Cryptocercus in Jiri-san, Northeast China and eastern Russia and those in the remaining South Korea during the Miocene (7.5-17.4Myr ago), and then the divergence event between Cryptocercus in Jiri-san and those in Northeast China and eastern Russia occurred 0.8-1.9Myr ago. In the Korean Peninsula, Jiri-san is located in the most southwestern region among the high mountains surveyed. The location is the farthest from Northeast China and eastern Russia among sampling localities in South Korea. Thus, it was unexpected that the southwestern populations are more closely related to those from Northeast China and eastern Russia rather than to the other Korean Cryptocercus. Based on Korean topography and estimated divergence times, possible scenarios are proposed for the current geographical distribution of Korean Cryptocercus. PMID:14715235

  18. Evaluation of Corneal Deformation Analyzed with Scheimpflug Based Device in Healthy Eyes and Diseased Ones

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Michele; Cennamo, Michela; Iaccarino, Stefania; Irregolare, Carlo; Bifani, Mario; Gironi Carnevale, Ugo Antonello

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between corneal biomechanical and morphological data in healthy eyes, eyes that underwent myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), keratoconus affected eyes, and keratoconus affected eyes that underwent corneal collagen crosslinking (CCC). Complete clinical eye examination of all eyes was followed by tomographic (Pentacam, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) and biomechanical (Corvis ST, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) evaluation. Differences among Corvis ST (CST) parameters in the different groups have been performed. Linear regression between central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and anterior corneal curvature measured with Sim'K (KM), versus corneal deformation parameters measured with Corvis ST in the different groups, has been run using SPSS software version 18.0. We evaluated 64 healthy eyes of 64 patients with a mean refractive error of ?0.65 ± 1.68?D (measured as spherical equivalent), 17 eyes of 17 patients that underwent myopic PRK for a mean refractive defect of ?4.91 ± 2.05?D (measured as spherical equivalent), 16 eyes of 16 patients affected by keratconus (stage 2-3 of Amsler Classification), and 13 eyes of 13 patients affected by keratoconus that underwent CCC. Our data suggest that corneal curvature would have a greater influence on corneal deformation than CCT; in fact KM values are more strongly associated with more CST parameters both about corneal change in shape and both about the corneal ability to come back at original shape. PMID:25054144

  19. The Human Eye Proteome Project: Perspectives on an emerging proteome

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Enghild, Jan J.; Venkatraman, Vidya; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 285 million people with visual impairment worldwide, of whom 39 million are blind. The pathogenesis of many eye diseases remains poorly understood. The human eye is currently an emerging proteome that may provide key insight into the biological pathways of disease. We review proteomic investigations of the human eye and present a catalogue of 4842 non-redundant proteins identified in human eye tissues and biofluids to date. We highlight the need to identify new biomarkers for eye diseases using proteomics. Recent advances in proteomics now allow the identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins in tissues and fluids, characterization of various post-translational modifications, and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins. To facilitate proteomic studies of the eye, the Human Eye Proteome Project (HEPP) was organized in September 2012. The HEPP is one of the most recent components of the Biology/Disease-driven Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) whose overarching goal is to support the broad application of state-of-the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. The large repertoire of investigative proteomic tools has great potential to transform vision science and enhance understanding of physiology and disease processes that affect sight. PMID:23749747

  20. Spatially resolved Brillouin spectroscopy to determine the rheological properties of the eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Reiß, Stephan; Burau, Gerolf; Stachs, Oliver; Guthoff, Rudolf; Stolz, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Presbyopia is closely associated with the loss of accommodation, and hence with a decline in the viscoelastic properties of the human eye lens. In this article we describe a method for obtaining spatially resolved in vivo measurements of the rheological properties of the eye lens, based on the spectroscopic analysis of spontaneous Brillouin scattering using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA). The multi-pass configuration enhances resolution to the extent that measurements are possible in elastic biological tissue characterized by intense scattering. We also present spatially resolved measurements obtained in extracted animal eyes and lenses. The results yield entirely new insights into the aging process of the eye lens. PMID:21833354