These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Eye Movements and Parafoveal Processing during Reading in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parafoveal word processing was examined during Korean reading. Twenty-four native speakers of Korean read sentences in two conditions while their eye movements were being monitored. The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to create a mismatch between characters displayed before and after an eye movement contingent display change. In the…

Kim, Young-Suk; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian

2012-01-01

2

Korean Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Dry Eye: Development and Validation of Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy of newly developed guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye. Methods This retrospective, multi-center, non-randomized, observational study included a total of 1,612 patients with dry eye disease who initially visited the clinics from March 2010 to August 2010. Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye were newly developed from concise, expert-consensus recommendations. Severity levels at initial and final visits were determined using the guidelines in patients with 90 ± 7 days of follow-up visits (n = 526). Groups with different clinical outcomes were compared with respect to clinical parameters, treatment modalities, and guideline compliance. Main outcome measures were ocular and visual symptoms, ocular surface disease index, global assessment by patient and physician, tear film break-up time, Schirmer-1 test score, ocular surface staining score at initial and final visits, clinical outcome after three months of treatment, and guideline compliance. Results Severity level was reduced in 47.37% of patients treated as recommended by the guidelines. Younger age (odd ratio [OR], 0.984; p = 0.044), higher severity level at initial visit, compliance to treatment recommendation (OR, 1.832; p = 0.047), and use of topical cyclosporine (OR, 1.838; p = 0.011) were significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes. Conclusions Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye can be used as a valid and effective tool for the treatment of dry eye disease. PMID:24882952

Hyon, Joon Young; Lee, Doh; Chung, Eui-Sang; Song, Jong-Suk; Choi, Chul Young; Lee, Jungbok

2014-01-01

3

Driver eye height measurement  

E-print Network

was establish d in the early sixties when passenger vehicles were styled differentl; than tnda; . The changing design of passenger cars has resulted in a considerable lowering in the eye heights of drivers between 1960 and 1978. The objective of this ress rch... of passenger cars now view the road from a height lower than 3. 75 ft but virtually none have driver eye heights less than 3. 25 ft (0. 99'tu). On t'nls basis it is recommended that a new driver eye height standard of 3. 25 ft (0. 99 m), or onc meter...

Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

1978-01-01

4

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Thyroid Eye Disease among Korean Dysthyroid Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of thyroid eye disease among dysthyroid Korean patients and to analyze the relationship between demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease. Methods All dysthyroid patients who visited endocrinology clinics in 24 general hospitals in Korea during a chosen one-week period were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease variables were analyzed as risk factors using multivariable regression models to identify independent associations with thyroid eye disease. Results A total of 1,632 dysthyroid patients were included (1,301 females [79.7%] and 331 males [20.3%]). Two hundred eighty-three of these patients (17.3%) had thyroid eye disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, young age, Graves' disease, dermopathy, anti-thyroid medication treatment, and radioiodine treatment were independent risk factors for thyroid eye disease. Conclusions The lower prevalence of thyroid eye disease in dysthyroid Korean patients and the influence of gender on risk factors in this study are novel findings compared to studies performed involving Europeans. Although the risk factors for thyroid eye disease are understood in part, a more in-depth comparative study of gender and ethnic groups is needed to fully understand the biological significance of the demographic factors. PMID:24311923

Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck

2013-01-01

5

Effect of Korean Red Ginseng supplementation on dry eye syndrome in glaucoma patients – A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Many patients with glaucoma have difficulty using antiglaucoma eye drops because of dry eye symptom. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of Korean Red Ginseng on dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma treated with antiglaucoma eye drops. Methods Forty-nine participants were allocated to the Korean Red Ginseng (3 g/day; n = 24) or placebo (n = 25) groups for 8 weeks. Tear film stability, fluorescein corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, tear production, grade of meibomian gland dysfunction, and dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were evaluated at baseline and on completion of the treatment. Results Almost all patients displayed dry eye symptoms and signs at baseline. After the 8-week intervention, Korean Red Ginseng supplementation significantly improved the tear film stability and total Ocular Surface Disease Index score, as compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Conclusion Korean Red Ginseng supplementation may provide an additional treatment option for dry eye and patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. PMID:25535471

Bae, Hyoung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Minkyo; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

2014-01-01

6

Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

2009-11-01

7

Understanding mechanisms in transitive inferences: an eye-tracking study in Korean reading.  

PubMed

The current experiment examined the mechanism of relational information processing by assessing transitive inferences in different syntactic structures. More specifically, the current experiment focused on whether the demands of conscious inference processing interact with the difficulty of syntactic processing. This research used the eye-tracking method to investigate online processing mechanisms in complex sentences with transitive inference. Overall sentence reading times, accuracy rates of comprehension questions, and the two eye-movement measures of gaze duration and re-reading times were examined in 32 participants. The results showed that inference processing demands affected overall reading times and accuracy rates, while syntactic processing demands did not have an effect on overall reading times or accuracy rates. The results of the eye-tracking measures showed that syntactic processing demands affected gaze duration, while the inference processing demand affected re-reading times. Apparently, the difficulty of inference processing was not affected by the surface form of a sentence. The results of this study suggested that basic processes of sentence interpretation share resources with other cognitive processes such as inference. PMID:24665796

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan

2013-12-01

8

U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

2014-01-01

9

Human eye color difference threshold measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human eye has the ability to distinguish millions of colors, with this feature we can identify very subtle color differences, and the measurement of human eye color difference threshold can provide a visual function diagnosis for testee. In recent years, people begin to focus on studies on visual threshold diagnostic equipment. This paper proposes a human eye color difference threshold measurement system which is based on dual integrating sphere. The system includes two pairs of dual integrating sphere and color control module. Dual integrating sphere uses to mix and produce color, and palette unit which produces primary colors (red (R), green (G), blue (B)) is embedded in dual integrating sphere. At the same time, the embedded palette unit which produces cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) expands color area that the system can generate. One optical path based on dual integrating sphere generates standard color, the other path produces the matching color which is similar to a standard color. In the high-precision closed-loop color control module, photoelectric switch records stepper motor's origin position and limits move displacement. Precision stepper motor pushes the light-blocking panel of the palette unit to a predetermined position, while real-time monitoring the position of the light-blocking panel and mixing the ideal controllable color. Two colors that the system generates are projected onto the same target area. Subjects make a judgment on color difference threshold by observing the target eventually.

Liu, Lin; Zhou, Taogeng

2013-12-01

10

A data envelopment analysis-based balanced scorecard for measuring the comparative efficiency of Korean luxury hotels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to develop a balanced scorecard for measuring the comparative efficiency of Korean luxury hotels and then set the benchmark of performance standards for Korean luxury hotels in the increasingly competitive hotel industry. It also aims to identify the root causes of inefficiencies and then propose ways to improve the competitiveness of Korean luxury hotels. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Hokey Min; Hyesung Min; Seong-Jong Joo

2008-01-01

11

Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

2011-01-01

12

The Eye Tracker System--a system to measure and record saccadic eye movements.  

PubMed

The Eye Tracker System, built at the University of Connecticut at Storrs in the Biomedical Instrumentation Lab, consists of three separate and distinct units brought together as a whole system to measure saccades. A seven row, eleven columned array of LEDs mounted on five degree centers along a concave surface provides targeting for the Eye Tracker System wherein the subject eye follows a pattern of illuminated LEDs as determined by the experimenter. The target system is digitally driven by serial inputs from the Main Command System. Subject positioning is aided by the concave surface of the Target System. The System Console employs a multiple regression Operating System to predict Eye Position. Twenty-four channels utilizing the theory of Infrared Light Reflective Differentiation make measurements of the location of the eye. These optoelectronics are mounted in a specialized head-mounted transducer. The optoelectronics are mounted on the interior of a parabolic surface automatically aiming them towards the limbus. The transducer is styled after an ophthalmologist's test frames and is comfortably worn and adjustable in size to fit any subject. The Main Command System authored under G programming language (LabView) provides a graphic user interface (GUI) that controls the generation of the target pattern. The Main Command System also coordinates the programs that acquire all data, the regression algorithm for the real-time prediction of the eye position and the initial calibration of the system. In addition the application is able to save a retrieve data for further analysis. PMID:12724896

Pruehsner, William R; Liebler, Christopher M; Rodriguez-Campos, Francisco; Enderle, John D

2003-01-01

13

Influences of reference plane and direction of measurement on eye aberration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explored effects of measurement conditions on wave aberration estimates for uncorrected, axially myopic model eyes. Wave aberrations were initially referenced to either the anterior corneal pole or the natural entrance pupil of symmetrical eye models, with rays traced into the eye from infinity (into the eye) to simulate normal vision, into the eye from infinity and then back out of the eye from the retinal intercepts (into/out of the eye), or out of the eye from the retinal fovea (out of the eye). The into-the-eye and out-of-the-eye ray traces gave increases in spherical aberration as myopia increased, but the into/out-of-the-eye ray trace showed little variation in spherical aberration. Reference plane choice also affected spherical aberration. Corresponding residual aberrations were calculated after the models had been optically corrected, either by placing the object or image plane at the paraxial far point or by modifying corneas to simulate laser ablation corrections. Correcting aberrations by ablation was more complete if the original aberrations were referenced to the cornea rather than to the entrance pupil. For eyes corrected by spectacle lenses, failure to allow for effects of pupil magnification on apparent entrance pupil diameter produced larger changes in measured aberrations. The general findings regarding choice of reference plane and direction of measurement were found to be equally applicable to eyes that lacked rotational symmetry.

Atchison, David A.; Charman, W. Neil

2005-12-01

14

Clinical Application of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurements in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologic mediator of various physiologic functions. Recent evidence suggests the clinical utility of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) as a biomarker for assessing asthma and other respiratory diseases. FeNO methodologies have been recently standardized by international research groups and subsequently validated in several Korean population studies. Normal ranges for FeNO have been reported for various ethnic groups, and the clinical utility has been widely evaluated in asthma and various respiratory diseases. Based on current evidence including most of Korean population data, this position paper aims to introduce the methodological considerations, and provide the guidance for the proper clinical application of FeNO measurements in Korean populations. PMID:25553257

Song, Woo-Jung; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Shim, Jung Yeon; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo Bin; Song, Dae Jin; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Lee, Joo-Shil

2015-01-01

15

Preservation and Modification of Culture in Family Socialization: Development of Parenting Measures for Korean Immigrant Families  

PubMed Central

This study aims to describe the family socialization beliefs and practices of Korean immigrant parents through testing psychometric properties of several newly developed items and scales to assess the major components of the Korean traditional concept of family socialization, ga-jung-kyo-yuk. These new measures were examined for validity and reliability. The findings show that Korean immigrant parents largely preserve their traditional and core parenting values, while also showing meaningful, yet not very dramatic, signs of adopting new cultural traits. The results also suggest that the acculturative process may not be simply bilinear but may generate a new, unique and blended value and behavior set from the two (or more) cultures involved. Culturally appropriate practice requires not only further validation of existing knowledge with minority groups, but the development of a theoretical framework of family socialization that recognizes the cultural uniqueness of immigrant families. PMID:24765236

Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Drankus, Dina; Kim, Hyun Jee

2012-01-01

16

The Korean Health Insurance Program: Analysis of Financial and Cost Containment Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost containment is the major determinant of a successful national health insurance system. From this point of view, the financial situation and factors influencing the rise of health care costs in the Korean health insurance program were analyzed. Current measures of cost containment in use are discussed in terms of price cutting and utilization reduction approaches.

Ok Ryun Moon

1991-01-01

17

Retinal layers measurements in healthy eyes and in eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the concordance/symmetry of each retinal layers in individuals without macular pathology and to further characterize the localization of inner retinal thinning in eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade. Methods Retinal layers of one hundred eyes of 50 individuals without macular pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and manually segmented using ImageJ software (developed by Wayne Rasband, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). In the second part of the study, retrospective analysis of 3028 cases of pars plana vitrectomy in University Eye Hospital Cologne, Germany, was conducted, retrieving nine patients with silicone oil-based endotamponade with no macular condition interfering retinal layers measurements. These patients had retinal detachment not involving the macula due to various conditions. In these patients, retinal layer segmentation was performed and compared with the fellow eye. Results There is a moderate-to-high concordance for all retinal layers between the right and the left eye of the same individual. In eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade, the inner retinal layers become subsequently thinner. Ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers contribute most to this thinning, that is, 0.537 ± 0.096 mm3 compared with 0.742 ± 0.117 mm3; p = 0.006. Outer retinal layers were not affected by silicone oil-based endotamponade (p = 0.439 for the differences of calculated outer retinal layers). Conclusion Ganglion cell and inner retinal layers become subsequently thinner after the use of silicone oil-based endotamponade. This study advocates the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography for patient management with silicone oil endotamponade to early detect subsequent retinal thinning. PMID:24238324

Caramoy, Albert; Droege, Katharina M; Kirchhof, Bernd; Fauser, Sascha

2014-01-01

18

Measuring immigration stress of first-generation female Korean immigrants in California: Psychometric evaluation of Demand of Immigration Scale  

PubMed Central

Objectives Immigration involves challenges and distress, which affect health and well-being of immigrants. Koreans are a recent, fast growing, but understudied group of immigrants in the US, and no study has established or evaluated any immigration stress measure among this population. This study explores the psychometric properties of Korean-translated Demands of Immigration (DI) Scale among first-generation female Korean immigrants in California. Analyses included evaluation of factor structure, reliability, validity, and descriptive statistics of subscales. Design A surname driven sampling strategy was applied to randomly select a representative sample of adult female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. Study sample included 555 first-generation female Korean immigrants who were interviewed in Korean language. The 22-item DI scale was used to assess immigration stress in the study sample. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested six correlated factors existed in the DI scale: language barriers, sense of loss, not feeling at home, perceived discrimination, novelty, and occupation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis validated the factor structure. Language barriers accounted for the most variance of the DI Scale (29.11%). The DI scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Conclusion Evidence has been offered that the Korean-translated DI scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool to examine immigration stress among Korean immigrants. The Korean-translated DI scale has replicated factor structure obtained in other ethnicities, but addition of cultural-specific items is suggested for Korean immigrants. High levels of language and occupation related stress warrant attention from researchers, social workers and policy makers. Findings from this study will inform future interventions to alleviate stress due to demands of immigration. PMID:21213157

Ding, Ding; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Norman, Gregory J.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Chhay, Douglas; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2010-01-01

19

An eye behavior measuring device for VR system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an eye-tracking and pupil size-measuring device that interfaces with a computer for applications useful in psychometry, ophthalmology, physiology and virtual reality (VR) systems. This system utilizes a change-coupled device (CCD) camera, appropriate lenses, PC with frame grabber and a DSP unit with various types of VR equipment, i.e., HMD, simulator or LCD projection device. The digital signal processing unit is used to calculate the average brightness and contrast of the VR video image. A CCD camera with various attachments can be mounted on various VR systems to capture the human eye image for testing. An image capture card and a personal computer are used to analyze the test image. From the eye digital image, the computer obtains data on the pupil size and a trace of the tested eye. A pattern recognition computer program and five measurement parameters are used to distinguish the position of the pupil, calculate the pupil location coordinate and analyze the physical conditions of the user. These data can be plotted against the average brightness and contrast of the VR video image in real time. This information is shown on the screen of a personal computer and used for cross-link analysis. This eye-tracking interface can determine the position of a subject's pupil and map that position into a display point on a computer screen. The pupil size and location data versus the average brightness and contrast of a VR video image are computed in real time.

Lin, Chern-Sheng

2002-12-01

20

Eye Movement Measurement in Diagnostic Assessment of Disorders of Consciousness  

PubMed Central

We review the literature to appraise the evidence supporting or disputing the use of eye movement measurement in disorders of consciousness (DOC) with low levels of arousal or awareness, such as minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state (VS), and coma for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We will focus on the effectiveness of each technique in the diagnostic classification of these patients and the gradual trend in research from manual to computerized tracking methods. New tools have become available at clinicians’ disposal to assess eye movements with high spatial and temporal fidelity. The close relationship between eye movement generation and organic dysfunction in the brain allows these tools to be applied to the assessment of severe DOC as a unique supplementary toolset. We posit that eye tracking can improve clinical diagnostic precision for DOC, a key component of assessment that often dictates the course of clinical care in DOC patients. We see the emergence of long-term eye-tracking studies with seamless integration of technology in the future to improve the performance of clinical assessment in DOC. PMID:25120529

Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Cusimano, Michael D.

2014-01-01

21

Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')

2011-12-01

22

Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.  

PubMed

The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ?, values for the major, ?L, and minor, ?s, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

2015-04-01

23

Laser velocimeter for the measurement of eye movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-mixing velocimeter system is demonstrated for the contactless measurements of the tangential speed of a rough surface. This system can be applied to the analysis of the eye movements in a range of angular velocity from 0°\\/s to 500°\\/s, also allowing a discrimination of the rotation direction, with a relative maximum error of 10-20%. I. INTRODUCTION The study of

Giorgio Capelli; Guido Giuliani

2011-01-01

24

Assessment of Axial Length Measurements in Mouse Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare measurements of murine ocular axial lengths (AL) made with 780 nm partial coherence interferometry (PCI) and 1310 nm spectral domain–optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods AL was measured at postnatal day (P) 58 in C57BL/6J mice. Repeated AL measurements were taken using a custom-made 780 nm PCI and a commercial 1310 nm SD-OCT. Intra- and inter-user variability was assessed along the central optical axis as well as two-degree off-axes angles with the SD-OCT. Data were collected and analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha (?), Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability (CR), agreement plots, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Results Axial length measurements agreed well between the two instruments (3.262 ± 0.042 mm for PCI; 3.264 ± 0.047 mm for SD-OCT; n= 20 eyes). The ICC for PCI compared to SD-OCT was 0.92, confirming high agreement between the two instruments. Intra-user ICC for the PCI and SD-OCT were 0.814 and 0.995, respectively. Similarly, inter-user ICC for PCI and SD-OCT were 0.970 and 0.943, respectively. Using SD-OCT, a two-degree misalignment of the eye along the horizontal meridian produced mean differences in AL of ?0.002 ± 0.017 mm relative to the centrally aligned images, while similar misalignment along the vertical meridian created 0.005 ± 0.018 mm differences in AL measurements. Conclusions AL measurements from the 780 nm PCI and 1310 nm SD-OCT correlate well. Multiple statistical indices indicate that both instruments have good precision and agreement for measuring murine ocular axial length in vivo. While the vertical meridian had the greater variability in AL in the small mouse eye; two-degree off-axes differences were within the standard deviation of centrally aligned AL. PMID:22246334

Park, Han na; Qazi, Yureeda; Tan, Christopher; Jabbar, Seema B.; Cao, Yang; Schmid, Gregor; Pardue, Machelle T.

2012-01-01

25

Development of eye-safe lidar for aerosol measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is summarized on the development of an eye safe Raman conversion system to carry out lidar measurements of aerosol and clouds from an airborne platform. Radiation is produced at the first Stokes wavelength of 1.54 micron in the eye safe infrared, when methane is used as the Raman-active medium, the pump source being a Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 micron. Results are presented for an experimental study of the dependence of the 1.54 micron first Stokes radiation on the focusing geometry, methane gas pressure, and pump energy. The specific new technique developed for optimizing the first Stokes generation involves retroreflecting the backward-generated first Stokes light back into the Raman cell as a seed Stokes beam which is then amplified in the temporal tail of the pump beam. Almost 20 percent conversion to 1.54 micron is obtained. Complete, assembled hardware for the Raman conversion system was delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center for a successful GLOBE flight (1989) to measure aerosol backscatter around the Pacific basin.

Singh, Upendra N.; Wilderson, Thomas D.

1990-01-01

26

Measurement of aqueous cells and flare in normal eyes.  

PubMed Central

(abstractThe Kowa laser cell flare meter has been recently introduced to quantify the assessment of aqueous cells and flare in vivo by measurement of light scattering from a low power HeNe beam. Computer analysis of this scattered light can distinguish cells (expressed as cell count) from protein (expressed as photon count/ms), and in-vitro work with albumin solutions has shown that the photon count/ms is linearly related to protein concentration. This study of 106 normal eyes (53 subjects) assesses the accuracy and sensitivity of the instrument and the factors affecting the interpretation of its results. Using in-vitro solutions of human albumin we found a highly significant linear correlation (r = 1, p = 0.0001) between photon count and protein concentration. The results show that the instrument has a photon count/ms reproducibility of 8.26% and that there is a within-subject variability in photon count/ms (aqueous flare) of 12.2% in normal eyes. No significant difference in photon count/ms (aqueous flare) was found to exist between right and left eyes (p greater than 0.4), between sexes (p greater than 0.5), or between irides of different colour (p greater than 0.8). There was also no statistically significant variation in photon counts/ms with time of day over the period of measurement (1000-1900 h) (p = 0.4). There was, however, an increase in photon count/ms with age (r = 0.57, p less than 0.001) and a decrease with pupillary dilatation at both 30 and 60 minutes after instillation of tropicamide 1% (p less than 0.05). An occasional cell was found in only 10.4% of normal eyes, and there was no significant increase in the cell counts on mydriasis (p>0.05). These findings indicate that the Kowa laser flare meter is an accurate and sensitive instrument with potential application in the investigation of blood-aqueous barrier. PMID:2043578

Shah, S M; Spalton, D J; Smith, S E

1991-01-01

27

Photometer for measuring intensity and rhodopsin distributions in intact eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a photometer that measures light transmitted through excised eyes. The instrument, an ocular transmission photometer, employs sensitive single photon-counting techniques, and its usefulness has been tested by the study of the absorbance of rhodopsin in retinal rod cells in situ. We find that absorbances of rat rods agree well with those predicted by microspectrophotometry without making corrections for cellular mosaics. Additional tests of the ocular transmission photometer show that (a) the instrument is sensitive to subtle differences in rhodopsin absorbance, known to exist in specific locations in the rat retina, and (b) using the rate of rhodopsin bleaching as the measure of intensity, we can determine the intensity distribution at several locations across the rat retina.

Williams, Theodore P.; Webbers, Jacob P. P.

1995-09-01

28

Non-contact measurement of linear external dimensions of the mouse eye  

PubMed Central

Biometric analyses of quantitative traits in eyes of mice can reveal abnormalities related to refractive or ocular development. Due to the small size of the mouse eye, highly accurate and precise measurements are needed to detect meaningful differences. We sought a non-contact measuring technique to obtain highly accurate and precise linear dimensions of the mouse eye. Laser micrometry was validated with gauge block standards. Simple procedures to measure eye dimensions on three axes were devised. Mouse eyes from C57BL/6J and rd10 on a C57BL/6J background were dissected and extraocular muscle and fat removed. External eye dimensions of axial length (anterior-posterior (A-P) axis) and equatorial diameter (superior-inferior (S-I) and nasal-temporal (N-T) axes) were obtained with a laser micrometer. Several approaches to prevent or ameliorate evaporation due to room air were employed. The resolution of the laser micrometer was less than 0.77 microns, and it provided accurate and precise non-contact measurements of eye dimensions on three axes. External dimensions of the eye strongly correlated with eye weight. The N-T and S-I dimensions of the eye correlated with each other most closely from among the 28 pair-wise combinations of the several parameters that were collected. The equatorial axis measurements correlated well from the right and left eye of each mouse. The A-P measurements did not correlate or correlated poorly in each pair of eyes. The instrument is well suited for the measurement of enucleated eyes and other structures from most commonly used species in experimental vision research and ophthalmology. PMID:20067806

Wisard, Jeffrey; Chrenek, Micah A.; Wright, Charles; Dalal, Nupur; Pardue, Machelle T.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.

2010-01-01

29

Axial and peripheral eye length measured with optical low coherence reflectometry.  

PubMed

An optical low-coherence reflectometer (OLCR device) is described that allows the precise and noncontact measurement of eye length. The device measures eye length both on-axis and off-axis, thus enabling the determination of eye shape, an ocular parameter thought to be important in the development of refractive error. It is essential for several applications in ophthalmology and vision science. This improved OLCR device operates using a single-beam interferometer with a beam deflection mechanism that allows the precise measurement of eye length along the visual axis and within 15 deg horizontally and vertically from the fovea. The validity of this instrument and its revised software is evaluated by measuring the reproducibility of axial length results in an adult eye and an artificial eye, and by correlating axial eye length measured in a group of ten adult eyes with axial eye length obtained with A-scan ultrasound in the same eyes. The precision obtained with adult subjects is compared with that obtained with children. PMID:14563204

Schmid, Gregor F

2003-10-01

30

Comparison of optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurements of the axial length of the eye  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the relationship between optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurement of the axial length of the eye. Materials and methods This prospective study enrolled 55 (68 eyes) consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery at Dhahran Eye Specialist Hospital (DESH). Every eye underwent two measurements each with an optical biometer and with applanation ultrasound. Only patients with cataract and no other ophthalmic pathology or disease were enrolled. Comparison, correlation and repeatability of axial length with both devices were analyzed. Agreement between devices was evaluated. A regression formula to convert measurements between devices was investigated. A p value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. Results There was strong repeatability (99.4%) and agreement (r = 0.987) between both devices (p < 0.001); the difference between devices was mainly in short eyes (p = 0.031). Conclusion Optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurements of axial length correlate well. However, optical biometry is preferable in short eyes. PMID:25473345

Nakhli, Fouad R.

2014-01-01

31

Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.  

PubMed

Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

2015-01-01

32

Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber  

PubMed Central

Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79?±?1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63?±?0.06 to 1.15?±?0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

2013-01-01

33

The effects of SARS on the Korean hotel industry and measures to overcome the crisis: A case study of six Korean five-star hotels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objectives of this study were: (1) to discuss the impact of the SARS outbreak on the Korean hotel industry; (2) to explore how the crisis management contingency concept was implemented by the Korean hotel industry during this crisis; (3) to examine what the implications are for managers in the hotel industry. Results of this study indicate that the

Samuel Seongseop Kim; Hejin Chun; Heesung Lee

2005-01-01

34

Eye movements - On-line measurement, analysis, and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper outlines the plans and progress related to the development of a Programmed Eye-track Recording System and Eye-coupled Ubiquitous Scene-generator known by the acronym PERSEUS. Particular attention is given to the design and implementation of a computer-based real-time eye-tracking system with associated digital scenic display capability. The accurate eye-tracker developed by Cornsweet and Crane (1973) is selected for this purpose. The discussion covers automatic detection of fixations and saccades, automatic scanpath analysis, fixation-conditional stimulation, and digital scene generation. The all-digital approach to scenic simulation not only eliminates the camera optics and electromechanical servomechanisms of TV-model systems of simulation but also opens the way to the virtually unlimited sequencing of data-base contents and perspectives thereof.

Anliker, J.

1976-01-01

35

Assessment of eye fatigue caused by 3D displays based on multimodal measurements.  

PubMed

With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively. PMID:25192315

Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

2014-01-01

36

Neurophysiological Markers of Vulnerability to Schizophrenia: Sensitivity and Specificity of Specific Quantitative Eye Movement Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye-tracking deficits in schizophrenic patients and relatives have generated interest in using eye movements to mark schizophrenia liability. Efforts to develop specific quantitative measures have provided insight into the nature of the deficit and suggested what underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are involved. This study used receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to evaluate and compare the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of

Matthew T. Avila; Robert P. McMahon; Amie R. Elliott; Gunvant K. Thaker

2002-01-01

37

29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 00, 101-104 Comparison of UHE Composition Measurements by Fly's Eye,  

E-print Network

Measurements by Fly's Eye, HiRes-prototype/MIA and Stereo HiRes Experiments P. Sokolskya , John Belza-fluorescence experiments: Stereo Fly's Eye, HiRes/MIA, and HiRes. A shift of 13 gm/cm2 of the stereo Fly's Eye data , well. These are the Stereo Fly's Eye [1], the HiRes Prototype/MIA[2] and the HiRes[3] experiments. The Fly's Eye

38

Reliability of Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyser Measurements in Virgin and Post-PRK Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) eyes and compare the results between these two groups. Methods Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. Results The intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC?0.90) in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC?0.88). The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r?=?0.437 and 0.483, respectively, p<0.05) and negatively with deformation amplitude (r?=??0.384 and ?0.375, respectively, p<0.05) in both groups. Compared to post-PRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29±0.21 vs. 6.96±0.17 ms, p<0.05) and lower deformation amplitude (1.06±0.07 vs. 1.17±0.08 mm, p<0.05). Conclusions CorVis ST demonstrated reliable measurements for CCT, IOP, and 1st applanation time, as well as relatively reliable measurement for deformation amplitude in both virgin and post-PRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter. PMID:25302580

Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Hua, Yanjun; Eidet, Jon Roger; Hu, Di; Wang, Jingting; Utheim, Tor Paaske

2014-01-01

39

Nutritional Issues of Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural

Cha-Nam Shin; Helen Lach

2011-01-01

40

Test report of an eye-safe laser slant visual range measuring device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eye safe laser ceilometer combined with a lidar receiver was built and tested. The ceilometer was used to detect the slant visual range. The combination of cloud height and slant visual range measurement represents an optimal use for airports.

Werner, C.

1982-02-01

41

A new method for accurate and fast measurement of 3D eye movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Videooculography,(VOG) is an eye movement,measurement,method,used in the objective evaluation of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR). An important requirement of VOG is to accurately estimate pupil center and ocular torsion, irrespective of drooping eyelids, eyelashes, corneal reflection, and blinking. Finding the accurate center of the pupil is particularly important in three-dimensional VOG, since otherwise, significant errors can occur in measuring torsional eye

Soo Chan Kim; Ki Chang Nam; Won Sang Lee; Deok Won Kim

42

Macular Pigment Measurement by Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Older Subjects: The Carotenoids and Age-Related Eye Disease Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS. MPOD in eyes of 54 women, age 50 and 79 years (mean, 66), was studied. The spatial profile of MPOD was measured in the right eye, and two spatial points were also measured in the left eye. Forty-eight of these inexperienced subjects completed the protocol on two separate visits. For a subset of the group, the MPOD at two

D. Max Snodderly; Julie A. Mares; Billy R. Wooten; Lisa Oxton; Michael Gruber

2004-01-01

43

A new method for accurate and fast measurement of 3D eye movements.  

PubMed

Videooculography (VOG) is an eye movement measurement method used in the objective evaluation of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR). An important requirement of VOG is to accurately estimate pupil center and ocular torsion, irrespective of drooping eyelids, eyelashes, corneal reflection, and blinking. Finding the accurate center of the pupil is particularly important in three-dimensional VOG, since otherwise, significant errors can occur in measuring torsional eye movement. A fast algorithm was proposed to accurately ascertain the pupil center, in spite of the complicating factors mentioned above. In this study, real-time three-dimensional VOG, which can measure horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements and calculate the pupil radius, was implemented using the proposed method. When the pupil radius was determined, the vertical position was measured within an error margin of less than 3%, even though only 10% of the pupil was visible. The time required to measure both three-dimensional eye movements and the pupil radius was less than 16 ms. Thus, eye movements can be measured in real-time. The resolutions of horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movement were 0.2 degrees, 0.2 degrees, and 0.1 degrees, respectively, with maximum ranges of +/- 35 degrees, +/- 25 degrees, and +/- 18 degrees. PMID:15963751

Kim, Soo Chan; Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Won Sang; Kim, Deok Won

2006-01-01

44

Measuring three dimensions of eye movement in dynamic situations by means of videooculography.  

PubMed

A primary function of the vestibular system is the stabilisation of the eye during head movement. Consequently, evaluation of reflex eye movements represents an essential means to both clinical diagnosis and researching of the vestibular function. Movements in the eye can be resolved into three orthogonal components, i.e. horizontal, vertical and torsional. As an improvement on most current techniques, which provide only measurement of the horizontal and vertical components, videooculography (VOG) facilitates non-invasive measurement of all three of the defined components. To date, only the scleral coil technique, which involves the semi-invasive placement of coil rings onto the bulbi, yields a continuous measure of eye torsion. Employment of suitable solid-state devices permit the integration of a compact, high resolution video recording system. In the basic configuration, eye movements can be observed and simultaneously recorded for later analysis or documentation. The video images of the eye are obtained by means of a miniaturised CCD video sensor mounted on a light-occluding mask. Image processing of the acquired video images determines horizontal and vertical coordinates of eye position online. Ocular torsion, as reflected by the rotation of the natural iris, is measured for each video frame. The VOG algorithm has been implemented on a PC based workstation, which permits online observation, recording and evaluation of eye movements. In addition, the technique has found clinical application as a portable eye-movement observation and recording system, allowing bedside examination and recording of transient symptoms. Preliminary results from various studies, including the objective evaluation of positional nystagmus (BPPN), are presented. PMID:2068899

Scherer, H; Teiwes, W; Clarke, A H

1991-01-01

45

Nutritional issues of Korean Americans.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural equation modeling were used for analysis. Participants reported retaining elements of the traditional Korean diet regardless of acculturation. The worst eating habits were seen in participants who were younger (t = 4.57), currently not married (t = 3.10), less educated (F = 5.03), and acculturated to American society (F = 5.93) at the p < .05. Clinicians should provide culturally sensitive interventions targeting Korean Americans with poor dietary habits by providing population-specific, tailored interventions about the benefits of healthy eating and modeling healthier recipes for traditional Korean dishes. PMID:21160079

Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen

2011-05-01

46

Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

2005-10-01

47

Horizontal Eye Position Affects Measured Vertical VOR Gain on the Video Head Impulse Test  

PubMed Central

Background/hypothesis: With the video head impulse test (vHIT), the vertical VOR gain is defined as (vertical eye velocity/vertical head velocity), but compensatory eye movements to vertical canal stimulation usually have a torsional component. To minimize the contribution of torsion to the eye movement measurement, the horizontal gaze direction should be directed 40° from straight ahead so it is in the plane of the stimulated canal plane pair. Hypothesis: as gaze is systematically moved horizontally away from canal plane alignment, the measured vertical VOR gain should decrease. Study design: Ten healthy subjects, with vHIT measuring vertical eye movement to head impulses in the plane of the left anterior-right posterior (LARP) canal plane, with gaze at one of five horizontal gaze positions [40°(aligned with the LARP plane), 20°, 0°, ?20°, ?40°]. Methods: Every head impulse was in the LARP plane. The compensatory eye movement was measured by the vHIT prototype system. The one operator delivered every impulse. Results: The canal stimulus remained identical across trials, but the measured vertical VOR gain decreased as horizontal gaze angle was shifted away from alignment with the LARP canal plane. Conclusion: In measuring vertical VOR gain with vHIT the horizontal gaze angle should be aligned with the canal plane under test. PMID:25852637

McGarvie, Leigh A.; Martinez-Lopez, Marta; Burgess, Ann M.; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Curthoys, Ian S.

2015-01-01

48

Measuring Cognitive Load with Electroencephalography and Self-Report: Focus on the Effect of English-Medium Learning for Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated a reliable and valid method for measuring cognitive load during learning through comparing various types of cognitive load measurements: electroencephalography (EEG), self-reporting, and learning outcome. A total of 43 college-level students underwent watching a documentary delivered in English or in Korean. EEG was…

Lee, Hyunjeong

2014-01-01

49

Modeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of theModeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of the Human EyeHuman Eye  

E-print Network

of the Human EyeHuman Eye Introduction The eye as an optical system suffers from both longitudinal chromatic.Software modeling of the eye and LCA corrector We designed a two-triplet air-spaced system, using glasses, WA, USA). The chromatic eye model was added to the simulation, and optimization was performed

Ribak, Erez

50

fMRI measurements of color in macaque and human Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Center,  

E-print Network

fMRI measurements of color in macaque and human Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Center, San Francisco, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USABrian Wandell We have used fMRI to measure responses to chromatic are similar to those previously observed in human fMRI experiments. Secondly, the dorsal and ventral

Wandell, Brian A.

51

Clinical use of three-dimensional video measurements of eye movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noninvasive measurements of three-dimensional eye position can be accurately achieved with video methods. A case study showing the potential clinical benefit of these enhanced measurements is presented along with some thoughts about technological advances, essential for clinical application, that are likely to occur in the next several years.

Merfeld, D. M.; Black, F. O.; Wade, S.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

52

A Model-Based Approach for the Measurement of Eye Movements Using Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a video eye-tracking algorithm which searches for the best fit of the pupil modeled as a circular disk. The algorithm is robust to common image artifacts such as the droopy eyelids and light reflections while maintaining the measurement resolution available by the centroid algorithm. The presented algorithm is used to derive the pupil size and center coordinates, and can be combined with iris-tracking techniques to measure ocular torsion. A comparison search method of pupil candidates using pixel coordinate reference lookup tables optimizes the processing requirements for a least square fit of the circular disk model. This paper includes quantitative analyses and simulation results for the resolution and the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm presented in this paper provides a platform for a noninvasive, multidimensional eye measurement system which can be used for clinical and research applications requiring the precise recording of eye movements in three-dimensional space.

Sung, Kwangjae; Reschke, Millard F.

1997-01-01

53

Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.  

PubMed

Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ? 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (? 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings. PMID:24290729

Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

2014-02-01

54

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

2007-01-01

55

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 17451748 Molybdenum and Zirconium Neutron Total Cross Section Measurements in  

E-print Network

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 17451748 Molybdenum April 2010) Neutron transmission measurements were made on natural molybdenum and zirconium samples range of 0.5 to 20 MeV and are compared to commonly used nuclear data evaluations. Molybdenum shows good

Danon, Yaron

56

Measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM) are actively integrated in various optical systems for dynamic diffractive optical elements imaging. To achieve the best performance, high stability and linearity of phase modulation is required. This article presents results of measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of state of the art LC SLM with HD resolution "HoloEye PLUTO VIS".

Bondareva, A. P.; Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.; Starikov, R. S.; Starikov, S. N.

2014-09-01

57

Using Reading Times and Eye-Movements to Measure Cognitive Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-paced reading and eye-tracking can be used to measure microlevel student engagement during science instruction. These methods imply a definition of engagement as the quantity and quality of mental resources directed at an object and the emotions and behaviors entailed. This definition is theoretically supported by models of reading…

Miller, Brian W.

2015-01-01

58

A new method for accurate and fast measurement of 3D eye movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Videooculography (VOG) is an eye movement measurement method used in the objective evaluation of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR). An important requirement of VOG is to accurately estimate pupil center and ocular torsion, irrespective of drooping eyelids, eyelashes, corneal reflection, and blinking. Finding the accurate center of the pupil is particularly important in three-dimensional VOG, since otherwise, significant errors can occur in

Soo Chan Kim; Ki Chang Nam; Won Sang Lee; Deok Won Kim

2006-01-01

59

Application of eye movement measuring system OBER 2 to medicine and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OBER 2 is an infrared light eye movement measuring system and it works with IBM PC compatible computers. As one of the safest systems for measuring of eye movement it uses a very short period of infrared light flashing time (80 microsecond for each measure point). System has an advanced analog-digital controller, which includes background suppression and prediction mechanisms guaranteeing elimination of slow changes and fluctuations of external illumination frequency up to 100 Hz, with effectiveness better than 40 dB. Setting from PC the active measure axis, sampling rate (25 - 4000 Hz) and making start and stop the measure, make it possible to control the outside environment in real-time. By proper controlling of gain it is possible to get high time and position resolution of 0.5 minute of arc even for big amplitude of eye movement (plus or minus 20 degree of visual angle). The whole communication system can also be driven directly by eye movement in real time. The possibility of automatic selection of the most essential elements of eye movement, individual for each person and those that take place for each person in determined situations of life independently from personal features, is a key to practical application. Hence one of conducted research topic is a personal identification based on personal features. Another task is a research project of falling asleep detection, which can be applied to warn the drivers before falling asleep while driving. This measuring system with a proper expert system can also be used to detect a dyslexia and other disabilities of the optic system.

Ober, Jozef; Hajda, Janusz; Loska, Jacek; Jamicki, Michal

1997-08-01

60

RADIOACTIVITY IN KOREAN FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey conducted to determine contents of beta emitters, strontium-90, ; and cesium-137 in Korean foods is reported. The measurement of total beta ; activities in ashes of foods is carried out using G.M. tube. The specific ; activity of the foods under investigation ranges over 0.44 to 44 pC per gram of ; fresh sample. The chemical procedure ior

T. Kim

1961-01-01

61

Length measurement of the eye using a swept-source interferometer.  

PubMed

In this article, a swept-source setup based on a semiconductor optical amplifier at the central wavelength of 1050 nm for measurements of the axial length inside the eye is presented. The large coherence length is achieved using a tunable optical filter, consisting of a reflective diffraction grating, two Littrow prisms, and a scanner. It was possible to achieve a coherence length of 40 mm, which allowed interference measurements in this range to be made. Measurements of the biomedical data of a human model eye are presented. To realize faster measurements, the data acquisition must be increased to more than 2 MS/s. In further studies, the usage of a field-programmable gate array, to achieve faster measurements, will be considered. PMID:24096435

Al-Mohamedi, Haroun; Prinz, Andreas; Mieskes, Guido; Oltrup, Theo; Bende, Thomas

2014-02-01

62

Lyin' Eyes: Ocular-Motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants' ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a

Anne E. Cook; Douglas J. Hacker; Andrea K. Webb; Dahvyn Osher; Sean D. Kristjansson; Dan J. Woltz; John C. Kircher

2012-01-01

63

Noninvasive measurement of pharmacokinetics by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the eye of mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: For generating preclinical pharmacokinetics (PKs) of compounds, blood is drawn at different time points and levels are quantified by different analytical methods. In order to receive statistically meaningful data, 3 to 5 animals are used for each time point to get serum peak-level and half-life of the compound. Both characteristics are determined by data interpolation, which may influence the accuracy of these values. We provide a method that allows continuous monitoring of blood levels noninvasively by measuring the fluorescence intensity of labeled compounds in the eye and other body regions of anesthetized mice. Procedures: The method evaluation was performed with four different fluorescent compounds: (i) indocyanine green, a nontargeting dye; (ii) OsteoSense750, a bone targeting agent; (iii) tumor targeting Trastuzumab-Alexa750; and (iv) its F(-alxea750 fragment. The latter was used for a direct comparison between fluorescence imaging and classical blood analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found an excellent correlation between blood levels measured by noninvasive eye imaging with the results generated by classical methods. A strong correlation between eye imaging and ELISA was demonstrated for the F( fragment. Whole body imaging revealed a compound accumulation in the expected regions (e.g., liver, bone). Conclusions: The combination of eye and whole body fluorescence imaging enables the simultaneous measurement of blood PKs and biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled compounds.

Dobosz, Michael; Strobel, Steffen; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Osl, Franz; Scheuer, Werner

2014-01-01

64

Lyin' eyes: ocular-motor measures of reading reveal deception.  

PubMed

Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants' ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a "guilty" group that committed one of two mock crimes or an "innocent" group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants' incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and rereading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception-vigilance and strategy-and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

Cook, Anne E; Hacker, Douglas J; Webb, Andrea K; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean D; Woltz, Dan J; Kircher, John C

2012-09-01

65

Scleral birefringence as measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and ocular biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo  

PubMed Central

The relationship between scleral birefringence and biometric parameters of human eyes in vivo is investigated. Scleral birefringence near the limbus of 21 healthy human eyes was measured using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Spherical equivalent refractive error, axial eye length, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured in all subjects. IOP and scleral birefringence of human eyes in vivo was found to have statistically significant correlations (r = ?0.63, P = 0.002). The slope of linear regression was ?2.4 × 10?2 deg/?m/mmHg. Neither spherical equivalent refractive error nor axial eye length had significant correlations with scleral birefringence. To evaluate the direct influence of IOP to scleral birefringence, scleral birefringence of 16 ex vivo porcine eyes was measured under controlled IOP of 5?60 mmHg. In these ex vivo porcine eyes, the mean linear regression slope between controlled IOP and scleral birefringence was ?9.9 × 10?4 deg/?m/mmHg. In addition, porcine scleral collagen fibers were observed with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy. SHG images of porcine sclera, measured on the external surface at the superior side to the cornea, showed highly aligned collagen fibers parallel to the limbus. In conclusion, scleral birefringence of healthy human eyes was correlated with IOP, indicating that the ultrastructure of scleral collagen was correlated with IOP. It remains to show whether scleral collagen ultrastructure of human eyes is affected by IOP as a long-term effect. PMID:24877003

Yamanari, Masahiro; Nagase, Satoko; Fukuda, Shinichi; Ishii, Kotaro; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yasui, Takeshi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

66

New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and ice sheets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mapping and measurement of glaciers and their changes are useful in predicting sea-level and regional water supply, studying hazards and climate change [Haeberli et al., 1998],and in the hydropower industry Existing inventories cover only about 67,000 of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers and are based on data collected over 50 years or more [e.g.,Haeberli et al., 1998]. The data available have proven that small ice bodies are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the Antarctic ice sheet and its fringing ice shelves are undergoing unexpected, rapid change. According to many glaciologists, much larger fluctuations in land ice—with vast implications for society—are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change [Oppenheimer, 1998].

Kieffer, Hugh; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Barry, Roger G.; Bindschadler, Robert; Bishop, Michael P.; MacKinnon, David; Ohmura, Atsumu; Raup, Bruce; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bamber, Jonathan; Braun, Mattias; Brown, Ian; Cohen, Denis; Copland, Luke; DueHagen, Jon; Engeset, Rune V.; Fitzharris, Blair; Fujita, Koji; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hagen, Jon Oue; Hall, Dorothy; Hoelzle, Martin; Johansson, Maria; Kaab, Andi; Koenig, Max; Konovalov, Vladimir; Maisch, Max; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Reeh, Niels; Rignot, Eric; Rivera, Andres; De Ruyter de Wildt, Martiyn; Scambos, Ted; Schaper, Jesko; Scharfen, Greg; Shroder, Jack; Solomina, Olga; Thompson, David; van der Veen, Kees; Wohlleben, Trudy; Young, Neal

2000-01-01

67

Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.  

PubMed

The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades. PMID:19885331

Lee, Choon Shil

2009-10-01

68

Korean Microcar  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Tight urban parking spaces. Don't they just make you wish for a car that could fold itself in half and then park itself? And they must have made the tech-savvy South Koreans wish for that, too, because a professor at the Korea...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-30

69

Techniques for measuring atmospheric aerosols at the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment  

E-print Network

We describe several techniques developed by the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment for measuring aerosol vertical optical depth, aerosol horizontal attenuation length, and aerosol phase function. The techniques are based on measurements of side-scattered light generated by a steerable ultraviolet laser and collected by an optical detector designed to measure fluorescence light from cosmic-ray air showers. We also present a technique to cross-check the aerosol optical depth measurement using air showers observed in stereo. These methods can be used by future air fluorescence experiments.

The HiRes Collaboration

2005-12-15

70

Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

2012-01-01

71

The Eyes Test as a Measure of Individual Differences: How much of the Variance Reflects Verbal IQ?  

PubMed Central

Developed by Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social-perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, a face-processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test), and the Eyes Test to 42 college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples. PMID:22783217

Peterson, Eric; Miller, Stephanie F.

2012-01-01

72

Adjusted color probability codes for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in healthy Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background Though a newly developed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) is at the center of interests for many ophthalmologic researchers and clinicians, its own characteristics are not fully evaluated yet. The main purpose of this study was to establish the adjusted color probability codes for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy Koreans and to compare them with original color codes provided by spectral domain OCT. Methods Two hundred ninety-five healthy Korean eyes were enrolled and their peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT. For each decade of age, the normal thickness reference was determined on the basis of z-scores and the adjusted color probability codes were established. Then the agreements between adjusted and original color codes were calculated using weighted Kappa (Kw) coefficient. Results On the basis of Kw coefficient, the overall agreement between the adjusted and original probability color codes was not excellent (Kw range of 0.500 to 0.806). If the adjusted probability codes were assumed as a standard of comparison, the original color codes showed the false-negative in 11% of eyes and the false-positive in 0.3% of eyes for average RNFL thickness. Conclusions Adjusted color probability codes judged by the Korean normative data showed a discrepancy with original codes. It implies that normal reference and adjusted probability codes for each ethnicity might be needed to determine whether a certain RNFL thickness is within normal range or not. PMID:24678925

2014-01-01

73

Repeatability of On- and Off-Axis Eye Length Measurements using the Lenstar  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the repeatability of eye length measurements made centrally and off-axis using a low-coherence interferometer. Methods Eye length was measured (left eye) in twenty-nine adults with a Haag-Streit Lenstar LS 900. Five measurements were made centrally, 10° temporally, and 10° nasally on the retina by the same examiner at two separate visits. Inter-visit repeatability was assessed by plotting the difference versus the mean of each pair of measurements (bias) and calculating the 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Within-session repeatability was determined by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) of five consecutive measurements at a visit. Due to variability noted 10° nasally, the Sw was also determined on a subset of 10 subjects using five measurements at one visit 30° nasally and 30° temporally. Results The mean ± SD age, spherical equivalent refractive error, and central axial length (at visit 1) were 24.0 ± 1.4 years, ?3.46 ± 2.69 D, and 24.91 ± 1.10 mm, respectively. There was no significant bias for central, 10° nasal, or 10° temporal measurements between visits (all p > 0.09). The 95% LoA were: ±0.05 mm central, ±0.12 mm 10° nasal, and ±0.05 mm 10° temporal. The Sw (visit 1) were: 0.025 mm central, 0.045 mm 10° nasal, and 0.028 mm 10° temporal. The Sw in the subset of subjects with 30° measurements were 0.023 mm (30° nasal) and 0.030 mm (30° temporal). Conclusions Lenstar central and off-axis eye length measurements are very repeatable, though repeatability was not as good 10° nasally on the retina as indicated by the larger 95% LoA between visits and larger Sw. The Sw for measurements centrally and 30° off-axis were similar, suggesting the reduced repeatability 10° nasally is anatomical in nature. Despite greater variability 10° nasally, Lenstar off-axis repeatability is still superior to the repeatability of on-axis ultrasonography. PMID:23208194

Schulle, Krystal L.; Berntsen, David A.

2012-01-01

74

Dosimetry of Strontium eye applicator: Comparison of Monte Carlo calculations and radiochromic film measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strontium-90 eye applicators are a beta-ray emitter with a relatively high-energy (maximum energy about 2.28 MeV and average energy about 0.9 MeV). These applicators come in different shapes and dimensions; they are used for the treatment of eye diseases. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The main aim of our study is to simulate the dosimetry of the SIA.20 eye applicator with Monte Carlo GATE 6.1 platform and to compare the calculated results with those measured with EBT2 films. This means that GATE and EBT2 were used to quantify the surface and depths dose- rate, the relative dose profile and the dosimetric parameters in according to international recommendations. Calculated and measured results are in good agreement and they are consistent with the ICRU and NCS recommendations.

Laoues, M.; Khelifi, R.; Moussa, A. S.

2015-01-01

75

HotEye (tm) Based Coordinate Measuring Machine for Forging Industry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a 3 dimensional measurement system for the domestic forging industry based on HotEye{trademark}. This technology will allow high definition camera to accurately image a red hot object. The project marries conventional Coordinate Measurement Machine ''CMM'' technology to HotEye{trademark} technology to permit the accurate measurement of forged parts while they are at high temperature. Being able to take such measurements will dramatically reduce the amount of scrap produced by the domestic forging industry. This industry wastes a significant amount of energy because of the high rate of scrap it produces. OGT will: (1) Develop a 3D measurement sensor head that will work on a part at a temperature up to 1,450 C with an accuracy of 0.1mm or better and with a scanning speed of less than 10 seconds for an area of 100mm x 100mm. (2) Develop a Virtual-Fixturing software package to alleviate the need of precise hard fixturing. (3) Integrate the 3D measurement sensor head and the Virtual-Fixturing software into a standard CMM, both hardware (replacing the probes) and software (data format and user interface match) so that the system can automatically perform a complete preprogrammed measurement of a hot product. (4) Test and evaluate the system in a forging facility.

OG Technologies

2003-06-09

76

Optical properties of in situ eye lenses measured with X-ray Talbot interferometry: a novel measure of growth processes.  

PubMed

The lens, a major optical component of the eye, has a gradient refractive index, which is required to provide sufficient refractive power and image quality. The refractive index variations across the lens are dependent on the distributions and concentrations of the varying protein classes. In this study, we present the first measurements of the refractive index in the in situ eye lens from five species using a specially constructed X-ray Talbot grating interferometer. The measurements have been conducted in two planes: the one containing the optic axis (the sagittal plane) and the plane orthogonal to this (the equatorial plane). The results show previously undetected discontinuities and fluctuations in the refractive index profile that vary in different species. These may be linked to growth processes and may be the first optical evidence of discrete developmental stages. PMID:21949870

Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Mohri, Satoshi; Regini, Justyn; Pierscionek, Barbara

2011-01-01

77

Reproducibility analysis of measurements with a mechanical semiautomatic eye model for evaluation of intraocular lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical eye models are used to validate ex vivo the optical quality of intraocular lenses (IOLs). The quality measurement and test instructions for IOLs are defined in the ISO 11979-2. However, it was mentioned in literature that these test instructions could lead to inaccurate measurements in case of some modern IOL designs. Reproducibility of alignment and measurement processes are presented, performed with a semiautomatic mechanical ex vivo eye model based on optical properties published by Liou and Brennan in the scale 1:1. The cornea, the iris aperture and the IOL itself are separately changeable within the eye model. The adjustment of the IOL can be manipulated by automatic decentration and tilt of the IOL in reference to the optical axis of the whole system, which is defined by the connection line of the central point of the artificial cornea and the iris aperture. With the presented measurement setup two quality criteria are measurable: the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the Strehl ratio. First the reproducibility of the alignment process for definition of initial conditions of the lateral position and tilt in reference to the optical axis of the system is investigated. Furthermore, different IOL holders are tested related to the stable holding of the IOL. The measurement is performed by a before-after comparison of the lens position using a typical decentration and tilt tolerance analysis path. Modulation transfer function MTF and Strehl ratio S before and after this tolerance analysis are compared and requirements for lens holder construction are deduced from the presented results.

Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Reutterer, Bernd; Lux, Kirsten; Drauschke, Andreas

2014-03-01

78

Eye rubbing-induced changes in intraocular pressure and corneal thickness measured at five locations, in subjects with ocular allergy  

PubMed Central

AIM To assess the effects of eye rubbing on corneal thickness (CT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained 0-30min after habitual eye rubbing in symptomatic patients. METHODS Measurements of IOP and CT were obtained at five locations (central, temporal, superior, nasal and inferior) before, and every 5min for 30min interval after 30s of eye rubbing, for 25 randomly selected eyes of 14 subjects with ocular allergy and 11 age-matched normals. Differences in measurements were calculated in each group [Baseline measurements minus measurements recorded at each time interval after eye rubbing (for IOP), and for each corneal location (for CT)] and comparison were then made between groups (allergic versus control) for differences in any observed effects. RESULTS Within groups, baseline mean IOPs in the allergic patient-group (14.2±3.0 mm Hg) and in the control group (13.1±1.9 mm Hg) were similar at all times, after eye rubbing (P >0.05, for all). The maximum reduction in IOP was 0.8 mm Hg in the control subjects and the maximum increase was also 0.8 mm Hg in the allergic subjects. Between groups (allergic versus control), the changes in IOP remained under 1 mm Hg at all times (P=0.2) after 30min of eye rubbing. Between 0 and 30min of CT measurements after eye rubbing, the mean central CT (CCT), inferior CT (ICT), superior CT (SCT), temporal CT (TCT) and nasal CT (NCT) did not vary significantly from baseline values in the control and allergic-subject groups (P>0.05, for both). Between both groups, changes in CT were similar at all locations (P>0.05) except for the TC which was minimally thinner by about 4.4 µm (P=0.001) in the allergic subjects than in the control subjects, 30min following 30s of eye rubbing. CONCLUSION IOP measured in allergic subjects after 30s of habitual eye rubbing was comparable with that obtained in normal subjects at all times between 0 and 30min. Although, CT in the allergic subjects were similar to those of the control subjects at all times, it varied between +10 and -7.5 µm following eye rubbing, with the temporal cornea showing consistent reductions in thickness in the subjects with allergy. However, this reduction was minimal and was considered to not be clinically relevant. PMID:25709913

Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.; Alanazi, Saud A.

2015-01-01

79

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive\\u000a measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they\\u000a were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In general, who is a happy

Myoung So Kim; Hye Won Kim; Kyeong Ho Cha; Jeeyoung Lim

2007-01-01

80

Individual measurements of angiotensin II concentrations in aqueous humor of the eye.  

PubMed

The presence of constituents of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in ocular tissues and fluids suggests this system is involved in ocular physiology. Angiotensin II (AngII) is the main biological effector of the system, so we measured AngII in plasma and in aqueous humor of the anterior ocular chamber of patients undergoing cataract extraction. Untreated normotensive patients were compared with arterial hypertensive patients taking either diuretics which stimulate the RAS or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors which reduce the production of AngII. Plasma levels of AngII were higher in patients on diuretics (5.46 +/- 1.04 fmol/ml; mean +/- SEM) than in untreated cataract patients (2.28 +/- 0.32 fmol/ml, p < 0.02), and were very low with ACE inhibitors (0.51 +/- 0.18 fmol/ml). In aqueous humor, AngII was measurable in 7 of 11 patients on diuretics (median 1.1 fmol/ml), and in 6 of 16 normotensive patients (median < 0.55 fmol/ml), but not in aqueous humor of 4 patients receiving enalapril or captopril. These results demonstrate the presence of AngII in the eye but do not exclude either its sequestration in the eye or local production. The possibility of individual measurements of intraocular AngII will permit more precise determination of its role in future studies. PMID:7711476

Osusky, R; Nussberger, J; Amstutz, C; Flammer, J; Brunner, H R

1994-01-01

81

The usefulness of non-invasive liver stiffness measurements in predicting clinically significant portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients: Korean data  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) has been proposed as a non-invasive method for estimating the severity of fibrosis and the complications of cirrhosis. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is the gold standard for assessing the presence of portal hypertension, but its invasiveness limits its clinical application. In this study we evaluated the relationship between LSM and HVPG, and the predictive value of LSM for clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) and severe portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Methods LSM was performed with transient elastography in 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients who underwent hemodynamic HVPG investigations. CSPH and severe portal hypertension were defined as HVPG ?10 and ?12 mmHg, respectively. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between LSM and HVPG. Diagnostic values were analyzed based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results A strong positive correlation between LSM and HVPG was observed in the overall population (r2=0.496, P<0.0001). The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for the prediction of CSPH (HVPG ?10 mmHg) was 0.851, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for an LSM cutoff value of 21.95 kPa were 82.5%, 73.7%, 86.8%, and 66.7%, respectively. The AUROC at prediction of severe portal hypertension (HVPG ?12 mmHg) was 0.877, and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV at LSM cutoff value of 24.25 kPa were 82.9%, 70.8%, 80.6%, and 73.9%, respectively. Conclusions LSM exhibited a significant correlation with HVPG in patients with cirrhosis. LSM could be a non-invasive method for predicting CSPH and severe portal hypertension in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:24459641

Hong, Won Ki; Baik, Soon Koo; Shin, Seung Yong; Kim, Jung Min; Kang, Yong Seok; Lim, Yoo Li; Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Youn Zoo; Hwang, Hye Won; Lee, Jin Hyung; Chae, Myeong Hun; Kim, Hyoun A; Kang, Hye Won; Kwon, Sang Ok

2013-01-01

82

Psychometric Properties of a Korean Measure of Person-Directed Care in Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the validity and reliability of a person-directed care (PDC) measure for nursing homes in Korea. Method: Managerial personnel from 223 nursing homes in 2010 and 239 in 2012 were surveyed. Results: Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis for the first sample generated a 33-item PDC measure with eight factors.…

Choi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Minhong

2014-01-01

83

Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test as a Measure of Postflight Ataxia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Astronauts returning from space flight universally exhibit impaired posture and locomotion. Measurement of this impairment is an evolving process. The walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing NASA interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance. METHODS: Seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. RESULTS/ CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular ataxia, as well as providing instant feedback of postural ataxia without the use of complex test equipment.

Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D.L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2010-01-01

84

Black Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

85

An interferometry measure method on vibration spectrum of optical target based on cat-eye effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a simple method for measuring the vibration spectrum of optical target is proposed. It is performed by irradiating a laser beam on the optical window of the target and then making the cat-eye reflected light interfere with the reference incident light. The interference process and intension distribution are studied by using formula derivation and numerical computation. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretic results. By using this method, we can get an interference intension time curve with higher contrast than the signal acquired by direct detection technique, so the optical target hidden in complicated background can be found much more easily and the vibration spectrum of the carrier with optical target can be acquired simply. Also this applied method is simple, effective, convenient for using, and has a high measure accuracy of one wavelength to vibration amplitude, as has been verified by a series of examples of simulated and experiment.

Zhao, Yan-zhong; Sun, Hua-yan; Zheng, Yong-hui; Shan, Cong-miao; Fan, You-chen

2014-06-01

86

Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ?49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ?80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ?13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

2014-01-01

87

Accuracy of axial length measurements from immersion B-scan ultrasonography in highly myopic eyes  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the accuracy of axial length (AL) measurements obtained from immersion B-scan ultrasonography (immersion B-scan) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in patients with high myopia and cataracts. METHODS Immersion B-scan, contact A-scan ultrasonography (contact A-scan), and the IOLMaster were used to preoperatively measure the AL in 102 eyes from 102 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the AL: one containing patients with 22 mm?AL<26 mm(group A) and the other containing patients with AL?26 mm (group B). The mean error (ME) was calculated from the difference between the AL measurement methods predicted refractive error and the actual postoperative refractive error. RESULTS In group A, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (23.48±1.15) didn't differ significantly from those measured by the IOLMaster (23.52±1.17) or from those by contact A-scan (23.38±1.20). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.090±0.397 D) didn't differ significantly from those of IOLMaster (-0.095±0.411 D) and contact A-scan (-0.099±0.425 D). In group B, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (27.97±2.21 mm) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (27.86±2.18 mm), but longer than those measured by Contact A-scan (27.75±2.23 mm, P=0.009). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.635±0.157 D) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (-0.679±0.359 D), but differed significantly from those of contact A-scan (-0.953±1.713 D, P=0.028). CONCLUSION Immersion B-scan exhibits measurement accuracy comparable to that of the IOLMaster, and is thus a good alternative in measuring AL in eyes with high myopia when the IOLMaster can't be used, and it is more accurate than the contact A-scan. PMID:24967188

Yang, Qing-Hua; Chen, Bing; Peng, Guang-Hua; Li, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Yi-Fei

2014-01-01

88

Discrimination between normal and glaucomatous eyes with visual field and scanning laser polarimetry measurements  

PubMed Central

AIM—To evaluate the ability of structural parameters (as determined by retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) measurements obtained with the scanning laser polarimeter (SLP-NFA/GDx)) and functional parameters (as determined by automated perimetry) to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes.?METHODS—In a case-control study, a total of 91 normal subjects and 94 patients with glaucoma underwent automated perimetry and RNFL measurements obtained with the SLP. Three independent scans of each eye were obtained and a mean image was created and used for further analysis. Only one eye per individual was randomly included in the study. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 12 RNFL parameters were calculated according to the SLP internal normative database. The Se and Sp of the visual field (VF) global indices and the glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) were also calculated according to the instrument's normative database. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were built for each SLP parameter and VF index. Fisher's linear discriminant formulas (LDFs) were developed for VF indices (VF LDF), SLP measurements (SLP LDF), and both examinations (combined LDF).?RESULTS—According to the SLP internal database, the parameters with better Se and Sp were: superior/nasal ratio (Se = 58.5%; Sp = 86.8%), and GDx the number (Se = 43.3%; Sp = 96.7%). The construction of an ROC curve for the number resulted in Se = 84% and Sp = 79%. The creation of LDFs improved both the sensitivities and specificities when compared with isolated parameters SLP LDF (Se = 90.4%; Sp = 82.4%), VF LDF (Se = 89.4%; Sp = 89.0%), and combined LDF (Se = 93.0%; Sp = 90.1%). The sensitivity to diagnose early and moderate glaucomatous damage observed with the GHT was lower than that obtained with the number (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Creation of LDFs enhanced the Se and Sp for both VF and SLP. Integration of SLP and VF in a combined LDF reached the highest Se/Sp relation, suggesting that these examinations may be additive concerning the diagnosis of glaucoma. The SLP parameter the number may be more sensitive than the GHT in diagnosing early and moderate glaucomatous damage.?? PMID:11316722

Lauande-Pimentel, R.; Carvalho, R.; Oliveira, H.; Goncalves, D.; Silva, L.; Costa, V.

2001-01-01

89

On school violence in Korean middle school, prevention and reaction measures.  

PubMed

This study is aiming to explore the practical and realistic measure in more variable way, which enables us to manage the problems about school violence we are currently facing as well as to overcome limitations in the current situation where we react only with punishments, mainly in the form of the law enforcement, supported by the police. This study was conducted on male and female students (n= 424) and teachers (n= 136) attending at the seven middle schools located in Seoul. The frequency analysis, one way ANOVA F-test, t -test, the multiple regression analysis were applied. Students recognize' harmful environmental cleanup' as an important variable or factor to reduce school violence. Also, both teachers and students are aware that 'regular survey on school violence' could reduce school violence. In conclusion, it is considered that as an effective and viable prevention measure against school violence, more attention and affection efforts need to be activated and addressed, on the part of home, school, and government, which will enable our young generations of students to be brought up, and take up the future of our country. PMID:25830143

Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Young

2015-02-01

90

On school violence in Korean middle school, prevention and reaction measures  

PubMed Central

This study is aiming to explore the practical and realistic measure in more variable way, which enables us to manage the problems about school violence we are currently facing as well as to overcome limitations in the current situation where we react only with punishments, mainly in the form of the law enforcement, supported by the police. This study was conducted on male and female students (n= 424) and teachers (n= 136) attending at the seven middle schools located in Seoul. The frequency analysis, one way ANOVA F-test, t -test, the multiple regression analysis were applied. Students recognize’ harmful environmental cleanup’ as an important variable or factor to reduce school violence. Also, both teachers and students are aware that ‘regular survey on school violence’ could reduce school violence. In conclusion, it is considered that as an effective and viable prevention measure against school violence, more attention and affection efforts need to be activated and addressed, on the part of home, school, and government, which will enable our young generations of students to be brought up, and take up the future of our country.

Kwon, Se-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Young

2015-01-01

91

Processing Differences between Descriptions and Experience: A Comparative Analysis Using Eye-Tracking and Physiological Measures  

PubMed Central

Do decisions from description and from experience trigger different cognitive processes? We investigated this general question using cognitive modeling, eye-tracking, and physiological arousal measures. Three novel findings indeed suggest qualitatively different processes between the two types of decisions. First, comparative modeling indicates that evidence-accumulation models assuming averaging of all fixation-sampled outcomes predict choices best in decisions from experience, whereas Cumulative Prospect Theory predicts choices best in decisions from descriptions. Second, arousal decreased with increasing difference in expected value between gambles in description-based choices but not in experience. Third, the relation between attention and subjective weights given to outcomes was stronger for experience-based than for description-based tasks. Overall, our results indicate that processes in experience-based risky choice can be captured by sampling-and-averaging evidence-accumulation model. This model cannot be generalized to description-based decisions, in which more complex mechanisms are involved. PMID:22707943

Glöckner, Andreas; Fiedler, Susann; Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Hilbig, Benjamin E.

2012-01-01

92

Lateral eye movement and handedness as measures of functional brain asymmetry in learning disability.  

PubMed

Evidence is presented which suggests that learning disability is related to lateral asymmetry. Significant differences were found in lateral eye movement and handedness between a learning disabled group and a control group of normal learners. Left lateral eye movement and right handedness was the predominant pattern exhibited in learning disability. These results support Day's notion that left lateral eye movement is associated with educational difficulties. They also provide evidence concerning Orton's hypothesis that mixed cerebral dominance characterizes the learning disabled. PMID:7471763

Stein, G M; Gibbons, R D; Meldman, M J

1980-08-01

93

Does Rebound Tonometry Probe Misalignment Modify Intraocular Pressure Measurements in Human Eyes?  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To examine the influence of positional misalignments on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with a rebound tonometer. Methods. Using the iCare rebound tonometer, IOP readings were taken from the right eye of 36 healthy subjects at the central corneal apex (CC) and compared to IOP measures using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT). Using a bespoke rig, iCare IOP readings were also taken 2?mm laterally from CC, both nasally and temporally, along with angular deviations of 5 and 10 degrees, both nasally and temporally to the visual axis. Results. Mean IOP?±?SD, as measured by GAT, was 14.7 ± 2.5?mmHg versus iCare tonometer readings of 17.4 ± 3.6?mmHg at CC, representing an iCare IOP overestimation of 2.7 ± 2.8?mmHg (P < 0.001), which increased at higher average IOPs. IOP at CC using the iCare tonometer was not significantly different to values at lateral displacements. IOP was marginally underestimated with angular deviation of the probe but only reaching significance at 10 degrees nasally. Conclusions. As shown previously, the iCare tonometer overestimates IOP compared to GAT. However, IOP measurement in normal, healthy subjects using the iCare rebound tonometer appears insensitive to misalignments. An IOP underestimation of <1?mmHg with the probe deviated 10 degrees nasally reached statistical but not clinical significance levels. PMID:24073330

Beasley, Ian G.; Laughton, Deborah S.; Coldrick, Benjamin J.; Drew, Thomas E.; Sallah, Marium; Davies, Leon N.

2013-01-01

94

Comparison of two scanning instruments to measure peripheral refraction in the human eye.  

PubMed

To better understand how peripheral refraction affects development of myopia in humans, specialized instruments are fundamental for precise and rapid measurements of refraction over the visual field. We compare here two prototype instruments that measure in a few seconds the peripheral refraction in the eye with high angular resolution over a range of about ±45 deg. One instrument is based on the continuous recording of Hartmann-Shack (HS) images (HS scanner) and the other is based on the photorefraction (PR) principle (PR scanner). On average, good correlations were found between the refraction results provided by the two devices, although it varied across subjects. A detailed statistical analysis of the differences between both instruments was performed based on measurements in 35 young subjects. Both instruments have advantages and disadvantages. The HS scanner also provides the high-order aberration data, while the PR scanner is more compact and has a lower cost. Both instruments are current prototypes, and further optimization is possible to make them even more suitable tools for future visual optics and myopia research and also for different ophthalmic applications. PMID:22472755

Jaeken, Bart; Tabernero, Juan; Schaeffel, Frank; Artal, Pablo

2012-03-01

95

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

96

Healthy Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

97

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to ...

98

Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with cirrus HD-OCT in glaucomatous eyes  

PubMed Central

AIM To assess the reproducibility of Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) for analysis of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in glaucomatous eyes METHODS Forty-five eyes (one eye from each glaucomatous patient) were imaged with Cirrus HD-OCT. Each eye was imaged three times by two separate operators. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and test-retest variability were evaluated for both intraobserver and interobsever measurements RESULTS In intraobserver measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.983. CV and test-retest variability were 2.3% and 4.4 µm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.956, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.6% to 7.7%. In interobsever measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.979. CV and test-retest variability were 2.4% and 4.5 µm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.957, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.8% to 8.6%. CONCLUSION The reproducibility of Cirrus OCT for RNFL thickness is sufficiently good to be useful clinically as a measure of glaucoma progression. PMID:25709919

Soltani-Moghadam, Reza; Alizadeh, Yousef; Kazemnezhad Leili, Ehsan; Absari Haghighi, Mohamadreza

2015-01-01

99

Blood velocity measurement in the posterior segment of the rabbit eye using combined spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It is challenging for the current Doppler imaging to detect blood flow in small retinal vessels. Power Doppler, with its high\\u000a sensitivity to detect minimal blood flow, can be used with spectral Doppler to measure blood velocity in small vessels of\\u000a the eye and orbit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixteen eyes of twelve normal pigmented rabbits were studied, using a dedicated small animal, high-resolution

Walid Abdallah; Amani Fawzi; Hitenkumar Patel; Grant Dagliyan; Naoki Matsuoka; Edward Grant; Mark Humayun

2010-01-01

100

Quantitative Measurement of Eyestrain on 3D Stereoscopic Display Considering the Eye Foveation Model and Edge Information  

PubMed Central

We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user's gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD), stereoscopic disparity (SD), frame cancellation effect (FCE), and edge component (EC) of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors. PMID:24834910

Heo, Hwan; Lee, Won Oh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

2014-01-01

101

Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students  

PubMed Central

This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r’s = .27 – .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = ?.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students. PMID:20694190

Lee, Richard M.; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

2010-01-01

102

Large coherence length swept source for axial length measurement of the eye.  

PubMed

We present and demonstrate a swept source with a large coherence length using a quasi-phase continuous tuning (QPCT) technique. QPCT is a method of minimizing the phase shift per round trip with respect to the tunable filter so that the resonance of lasing becomes high, resulting in high finesse of lasing during a rapid sweep. The demonstrated swept source consists of a fiber ring extended cavity laser with a diffraction grating and a polygon scanner-based tunable filter configuration. The projected beam on the diffraction grating is expanded with a multiple of beam expanders to achieve high finesse of the filter. The source demonstrated an 18 nm swept range at 1060 nm wavelength, 28 mm coherence length, and 6.2 mW peak power at a 2.5 kHz swept rate. OCT imaging results showed that a coherence length of 28 mm enables the measurement of the axial length of a pig's eye with 20 mm length in physical size. PMID:19340103

Chong, Changho; Suzuki, Takuya; Totsuka, Kohki; Morosawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Tooru

2009-04-01

103

Intraocular pressure measurements with Goldmann applanation tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry in eyes after IntraLASIK or LASEK  

PubMed Central

Background and methods Myopic photorefractive surgery induces a reduction in central corneal thickness, which may lead to underestimation of intraocular pressure. This retrospective clinical study compared intraocular pressure measurements obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT-Pascal) in eyes undergoing myopic intralaser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (IntraLASIK) or laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). Results Of a total of 51 eyes, 21 underwent LASEK and 30 underwent IntraLASIK. By GAT, mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 16.2 ± 1.99 mmHg and postoperatively was 10.84 ± 1.45 mmHg. By DCT, mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 15.9 ± 2.08 mmHg and postoperatively was 16.1 ± 2.3 mmHg. Both preoperative and postoperative differences between measurements made by GAT and DCT were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.04 and P < 0.01, respectively). GAT and DCT readings were unaffected by type of surgery (P = 0.74 and P = 0.46, respectively). Conclusion Postoperative GAT measurements were lower than those obtained by DCT. The difference between preoperative and postoperative DCT measurements was minimal, so DCT may be preferable for the measurement of intraocular pressure in eyes undergoing myopic IntraLASIK or LASEK. PMID:23226001

Shemesh, Gabi; Soiberman, Uri; Kurtz, Shimon

2012-01-01

104

Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study

1991-01-01

105

Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The findings of these three studies indicate that temperature of the eye, measured using DITI, can be used as an indicator of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle as an alternative to using vaginal or rectal temperature. PMID:25253816

George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

2014-11-01

106

High quality optical microangiography of ocular microcirculation and measurement of total retinal blood flow in mouse eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization and measurement of retinal blood flow (RBF) is important to the diagnosis and management of different eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is developed for generating 3D dynamic microcirculation image and later refined into ultra-high sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG) for true capillary vessels imaging. Here, we present the application of OMAG imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image mouse posterior eye. By applying UHS-OMAG scanning protocol and processing algorithm, we achieved true capillary level imaging of retina and choroid vasculature in mouse eye. The vascular pattern within different retinal layers and choroid was presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [1] without knowing Doppler angle was adopted for the measurement of total retinal blood flow. The axial blood flow velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area of the central retinal artery.

Zhi, Zhongwei; Yin, Xin; Dziennis, Suzan; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

2013-03-01

107

Double-pass measurements of the retinal-image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye's optical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a modified double-pass apparatus with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes to measure the optical transfer function in the human eye and have applied the technique to three different problems. First, we confirm that in the eye the double-pass spread function is the cross correlation of the input spread function with the output spread function (J. Opt.

Pablo Artal; Ignacio Iglesias; Norberto López-Gil; Daniel G. Green

1995-01-01

108

Morphometric measurement of Schlemm's canal in normal human eye using anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography to measure Schlemm's canal (SC) morphometric values in the living human eye. Fifty healthy volunteers with 100 normal eyes were measured in the nasal and temporal side. Comparison with the published SC morphometric values of histologic sections proves the reliability of our results. The statistical results show that there are no significant differences between nasal and temporal SC with respect to their diameter, perimeter, and area in our study (diameter: t=0.122, p=0.903; perimeter: t=-0.003, p=0.998; area: t=-1.169, p=0.244); further, no significant differences in SC morphometric values are found between oculus sinister and oculus dexter (diameter: t=0.943, p=0.35; perimeter: t=1.346, p=0.18; area: t=1.501, p=0.135).

Shi, Guohua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

2012-01-01

109

Eye Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

110

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

111

Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

112

Rapid, Accurate, and Non-Invasive Measurement of Zebrafish Axial Length and Other Eye Dimensions Using SD-OCT Allows Longitudinal Analysis of Myopia and Emmetropization  

PubMed Central

Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2?=?0.9548, R2?=?0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of ?0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of ?0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors. PMID:25334040

Collery, Ross F.; Veth, Kerry N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A.

2014-01-01

113

Korean Basic Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

114

Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.

2008-01-01

115

A validation of eye movements as a measure of elementary school children's developing number sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number line estimation task captures central aspects of children's developing number sense, that is, their intuitions for numbers and their interrelations. Previous research used children's answer patterns and verbal reports as evidence of how they solve this task. In the present study we investigated to what extent eye movements recorded during task solution reflect children's use of the number

Michael Schneider; Angela Heine; Verena Thaler; Joke Torbeyns; Bert De Smedt; Lieven Verschaffel; Arthur M. Jacobs; Elsbeth Stern

2008-01-01

116

The effects of nicotine on specific eye tracking measures in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of neuronal nicotinic receptors in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been suggested by postmortem findings as well as by linkage analysis implicating chromosome 15q14, the region where the ?-7 nicotinic receptor gene is located. In addition, drug probe studies show that acute nicotine administration reverses sensory gating and eye-tracking deficits associated with the genetic liability

Jay D Sherr; Carol Myers; Matthew T Avila; Amie Elliott; Teresa A Blaxton; Gunvant K Thaker

2002-01-01

117

Measurement of Eye Diagrams and Constellation Diagrams of Optical Sources Using Linear Optics and Waveguide Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the characterization of optical sources with high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, and phase sensitivity using linear optical sampling. Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams are reconstructed using the interference of the source under test with a train of sampling pulses. This concept is implemented using a waveguide optical hybrid, which splits and recombines the sources and adjusts the phase

C. Dorrer; Christopher Richard Doerr; I. Kang; Roland Ryf; J. Leuthold; P. J. Winzer

2005-01-01

118

Diurnal Choroidal Thickness Changes in Normal Eyes of Turkish People Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To analyse the diurnal variation of central choroidal thickness (CCT) in healthy emetropic patients during working hours. Methods. Fifty healthy young emmetrpic volunteers were included in this study. CCT was measured at 9?AM and 4?PM with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) with enhanced depth imaging. Diurnal variation of CCT, the correlation between rigth and left eyes and the demographic factors affecting this variation were assessed. Findings. The mean CCT at 9?AM and 4?PM was 308.7 ± 64.5??m and 308.7 ± 62??m, respectively, with a mean diurnal amplitude of ?0.03 ± 14.7??m, ranging between ?55??m and 47??m, the difference was statistically insignificant (P: 0.9). There were positive correlations between right and left eyes among CCT measurements at 9?AM, 4?PM and the mean amplitude of diurnal change (r: 0.65, P < 0.01; r: 0.60, P < 0.01; r: 0.45, P: 0.00, resp.). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the magnitude of diurnal change and age (r: ?0.27, P: 0.01). Conclusion. Although the mean CCT in the all group does not show significant variation during working hours, the pattern of diurnal variation may vary from person to person according to age, and there is a great harmony between the two eyes. PMID:23589769

Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayranc?; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Ozp?nar, Yavuz; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Demirok, Ahmet

2013-01-01

119

Gender Effect on Reading Comprehension with Korean EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of gender on English reading comprehension for Korean EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners. The gender effect was measured using a DIF (Differential Item Functioning) methodology. Specifically, gender DIF was investigated for a random sample of 14,000 Korean examinees (7,000 males and 7,000 females) who took…

Pae, Tae-Il

2004-01-01

120

Creativity and Confucianism Among American and Korean Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in creative styles and Confucian ideas between Koreans and Americans and to examine the relationship between creativity and Confucianism. A total number of 579 educators (227 American and 352 Korean) participated in this study. Eastern-Western Perspective Scale was used to measure participants’ level of Confucianism and the Torrance Tests of Creative

Kyung Hee Kim; Hang Eun Lee; Ki-Byung Chae; Lori Anderson; Christopher Laurence

2011-01-01

121

Peculiar Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I LABOUR under the peculiar inconvenience of having a right eye of normal power and a short-sighted left eye. The numerals on the face of a clock 5\\/8 of an inch high are visible to the right eye at 12 feet distant; but in order to discern them as clearly with my left eye I require to bring that organ

Jas. Shaw

1891-01-01

122

Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

1992-01-01

123

Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found. PMID:17009515

Gumpenberger, Michaela; Kolm, Gabriela

2006-01-01

124

Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload  

PubMed Central

While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 min segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz. PMID:25352774

Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Erp, Jan B. F.

2014-01-01

125

Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload.  

PubMed

While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 min segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz. PMID:25352774

Hogervorst, Maarten A; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Erp, Jan B F

2014-01-01

126

Atmospheric Laser Radar Measurements Using Two Novel, Eye-Safe Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel, eye-safe infrared optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) were developed, characterized and used in a lidar system to monitor the atmosphere. The theoretical phase matching relations of both OPOs were detailed to determine the theoretical wavelength tuning curves. A AgGaSe_2 OPO tunable in wavelength near 3.39 mum produced 2 mJ pulses at a 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency with near

Sarah Rhodes Harrell

1995-01-01

127

The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

2010-01-01

128

Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.  

PubMed

Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. Practitioner Summary: A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems. PMID:25529468

Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

2015-03-01

129

Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

2014-01-01

130

Learning-induced changes in attentional allocation during categorization: a sizable catalog of attention change as measured by eye movements.  

PubMed

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M; Barnes, Jordan I; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M; Walshe, R Calen; Blair, Mark R

2014-01-01

131

Korean History: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Kenneth Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, this comprehensive bibliography is offered as an update and supplement to the 1980 annotated bibliography Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide. Robinson's bibliography includes his earlier Korean War bibliography (see the November 5, 1999 Scout Report), as well as covering early modern Korean history, the nineteenth century, modern history of the North and South into the 1960s, economics, literature, the Korean diaspora, law, women, demography, education, and music, among others. An excellent resource for students and scholars alike, the bibliography is easily navigated via a table of contents or menu buttons on the left-hand side of the browser window.

132

An Active Intraoral Shape Measurement Scheme Using a Compact Compound-Eye Camera with Integrated Pattern Projectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an active intraoral shape measurement scheme to realize a compact intraoral diagnostic system for measuring the three-dimensional shapes of gums and teeth. To measure intraoral surfaces with little texture, compact pattern projectors based on diffractive optical elements are integrated in lens gaps of a compact compound-eye camera called a thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO). The three-dimensional shape is reproduced on the basis of triangulation using the amount of pattern distortion. A scaled-up prototype system is constructed to verify the measurement scheme using the TOMBO camera and a spatial light modulator. The prototype system demonstrates an rms distance accuracy of 0.46 mm. A temporal change of the shape is quantitatively evaluated with a reference surface based on teeth positions.

Kagawa, Keiichiro; Tanabe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Chizuko; Ogura, Yusuke; Nakao, Yoshizumi; Toyoda, Takashi; Masaki, Yasuo; Ueda, Masatoshi; Tanida, Jun

2009-09-01

133

Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning  

PubMed Central

Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

2014-01-01

134

Eye pain  

MedlinePLUS

... may be caused by the wrong eyeglass or contact lens prescription. Sometimes they are due to a problem ... that can cause eye pain are: Infections Inflammation Contact lens problems Dry eye Acute glaucoma Sinus problems Neuropathy ...

135

Eye Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye ... other environmental triggers, such as pet dander, dust, smoke, perfumes, or even foods. If the exposure is ...

136

LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Water & Contacts Don’ ...

137

Korean Geodetic VLBI Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by the end of 2011. In Korea, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has already promoted Korean VLBI Network (KVN) project dedicated to radio astronomy since 2001, and three 21-m diameter antennas have been constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju Island. Although their receivers have not yet been fully installed, the antenna is designed to be able to receive 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands simultaneously. In parallel with the KVN project, the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) has been planning to construct their own VLBI antenna dedicated to geodetic measurements since 2001 to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better determination of the ITRF there. A grand design for KVG project realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by the Ajou University under the collaborations with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (NICT), National Astronomical Observatory, Japan (NAO), and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (GSI). The design of KVG antenna follows the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter; VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The antenna is designed to be able to receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also with KVN stations that will be equipped with 22/43 GHz receivers in future. This is an outstanding feature of the KVG system distinguished from other geodetic VLBI stations. The antenna is also designed to be able to introduce a broadband feed and receivers in the future according to VLBI2010's suggestion. The KVG project has got a national budget for construction formally, and it has entered the three-year term of construction and development phase since October, 2008. A new geodetic VLBI station will be constructed in Sejong city (about 120km south from Seoul and about 20 km north-northwest from Daejeon) and construction of all system will be completed in 2011. Although the KVN promoted by the KASI is a VLBI network dedicated to radio astronomy, geodetic VLBI observations with the KVG antenna will be performed in collaboration with the NGII. The installation of geodetic-VLBI receiving bands, such as a broadband feed system, into the KVN system is also considered as a plan in the future. However the KVG operated by the NGII will be an IVS component as a central facility dedicated to geodetic VLBI in Korea.

Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Han, S.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Bae, M.; Kim, K.; Moon, J.; Park, J.

2009-04-01

138

Pterygotus eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many modern and fossil arthropods, eurypterids had compound eyes and other sensory devices. Many eurypterids display small, bean-shaped eyes which are oriented for side viewing. The large bulbous eyes of Pterygotus are located on the edge of the head and were probably useful for looking both laterally and vertically.

2001-03-01

139

Night Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, night-time activity, learners discover how to spot eye-shine (reflection of light from an animal's eyes) by using a flashlight to play a simulation game. Using the spotting technique they learn in the game, learners locate mysterious eyes, stalk the creatures, and observe the animal's behavior.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

140

Aided Eyes : Eye Activity Sensing for Daily Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our eyes collect a considerable amount of information when we use them to look at objects. In particular, eye movement allows us to gaze at an object and shows our level of interest in the object. In this research, we propose a method that involves real-time measurement of eye movement for human memory enhancement; the method employs gaze-indexed images captured

Yoshio Ishiguro; Adiyan Mujibiya; Takashi Miyaki; Jun Rekimoto

2010-01-01

141

A teaser made simple: a didactic measurement of the spectral answer of a human-eye-calibrated lux meter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple didactic experiment has been designed and realized, in order to illustrate to undergraduate students in scientific faculties some basic concepts lying behind the fundamentals of geometrical optics. The spectral response of a human-eye-calibrated lux meter was measured using a very trivial experimental arrangement. The white light of a halogen lamp was decomposed into its spectral components through a diffraction grating, so that collecting the radiation at different dispersion angles allowed one to measure the intensity as a function of wavelength. The experiment can be used to effectively illustrate the concepts of spectral distribution, the radiometry versus photometry conversion and photopic response, and the famous historical experience by Herschel on the ‘temperature of colours’.

Di Capua, R.; Offi, F.; Dell'Omo, M.; Fontana, F.

2012-11-01

142

Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments that may have modified their central integrators and thus require monitoring. Patients with gaze-evoked nystagmus can be flagged by comparing to the above established normative criteria.

Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

2006-01-01

143

Non-invasive measurement of transparency, arcus senilis, and scleral rim diameter of corneas during eye banking.  

PubMed

We developed a non-invasive device to quantify transparency (T), clear corneal diameter (CCD) excluding arcus senilis, and scleral rim diameter (SRD) of stored corneas. The T value (expressed in % on a relative scale), based on the modulation transfer function principle, referred to the ratio of local contrasts of a special LED backlit chart measured with and without cornea. CCD and SRD (in mm) were automatically calculated by morphologic operations. Firstly, we assessed measurement reproducibility. We then determined the agreement of T and CCD values with 3-level scores given independently by three experts on 179 scientific corneas. Thirdly, an eye bank was equipped with the device, and 358 consecutive organ-cultured (OC) corneas were tested for donor- and storage- related factors possibly influencing T and CCD. Reproducibility of T, CCD and SRD measurements was high, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.982, 0.886, and 0.999 respectively. Capacity to discriminate the three levels of transparency and arcus senilis was good, with T of 20.0 (10.0-33.6), 38.3 (24.3-75.4) and 57.9 (33.9-90.0) % respectively for T deemed poor, average, and good (P < 0.001), and CCD of 9.8 (7.3-10.6), 10.5 (8.2-11.5), and 11.1 (9.9-12.0) mm respectively for arcus senilis deemed prominent, moderate or absent (P < 0.001). T was correlated with neither donor age nor endothelial cell density nor storage time, but slightly worsened during OC for corneas assessed twice. In conclusion, the device, which can be easily integrated in the facilities of an eye bank, provides reliable objective measurement of T, CCD, and SRD. This could be a useful tool for standardizing quality assessment of stored corneas and consequently optimizing their selection for penetrating, endothelial or anterior lamellar keratoplasty. PMID:24306057

Acquart, Sophie; Campolmi, Nelly; He, Zhiguo; Pataia, Giacomo; Jullienne, Rémy; Garraud, Olivier; Nguyen, Frédéric; Péoc'h, Michel; Lépine, Thierry; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe

2014-09-01

144

Analysis and discussion on the control system of human eye aberration measurement unit based on information fusion technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research reveals that there are higher-order aberrations in visual optical systems, and the important factors are higher-order aberrations that affect the quality of vision to further improve. To correct the higher-order aberrations, the aberrations of vision system must be effectively measured and analyzed. It is important to use the wave-front aberration technology at the human ophthalmology disease diagnosis, especially in the field such as vision correction. Based on that has been achieved, based on the Hartmann-Shack sensor a wave-front aberration measuring optical system combining of the objective and subjective , the error of the wave-front aberration measurement data has been analyzed, the required parameters in the human eye aberration correction were given, the expression based on information fusion technology were gained. In this paper, the control system of wave-front aberration measurement unit has been in-depth analysis and research. The measurement data acquisition system has been designed ,in the system, the information of lighting optical path, the objective measurement optical path and subjective measurement optical path and other information are fusion. A realistic program for control system design and peripheral interface circuit design has been given.

Zhao, Jian-heng; Xu, An-cheng; Pan, Xue-tao

2010-10-01

145

Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.  

PubMed

Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r?0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r?-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

Piao, M Y; Baik, M

2015-03-01

146

Seasonal Variation in Carcass Characteristics of Korean Cattle Steers  

PubMed Central

Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of ?4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of ?6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r?0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r??0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

Piao, M. Y.; Baik, M.

2015-01-01

147

Eye-Safe Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

Byer, Robert L.

1989-01-01

148

Brief report: broad autism phenotype in adults is associated with performance on an eye-tracking measure of joint attention.  

PubMed

The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data demonstrated the feasibility of administrating this experimental paradigm to a diverse sample of healthy adult college students (N = 44). Results revealed that individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly related to a self-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype, suggesting that individual variation in the broad autism phenotype is related to individual differences in gaze allocation. PMID:23921972

Swanson, Meghan R; Siller, Michael

2014-03-01

149

Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention  

PubMed Central

The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data demonstrated the feasibility of administrating this experimental paradigm to a diverse sample of healthy adult college students (N = 44). Results revealed that individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly related to a self-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype, suggesting that individual variation in the broad autism phenotype is related to individual differences in gaze allocation. PMID:23921972

Siller, Michael

2015-01-01

150

Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

2012-01-01

151

Dilating Eye Drops  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ...

152

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

153

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Tweet Lazy eye correction or treatment should ... Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Lazy eye patch treatment If refractive amblyopia is a problem, ...

154

Using Eye Makeup  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Using Eye Makeup Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

155

Effects of eye-glasses, hair, headgear, and clothing on measured head-related transfer functions Part Ib  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements show high HRTF repeatability, consequences of different measurement methods, and conditions covering the whole three-dimensional space [Riederer, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (Abstracts) 46, 1036 (1998), preprint 4846]. This study concentrates on specific effects on HRTFs carefully re-measured on the same Cortex dummy head applying Sennheiser KE4-211-2 microphones at its silicone putty blocked ear-canal entrances, employing 252 sound incidents including seven elevations. The effects of five different wigs (synthetic, natural, thick, thin, long and short hair) with varied hairstyles, four hats (cap, bicycle helmet, mens and womens trilby), clothes (alpaca pullover, bicycling drymax-jacket) and spectacles were investigated under 28 combinations. The influences are highly dependent on direction, frequency, and case. Clothes and eye-glasses affect minimally HRTF; hair has a stronger effect, depending on the actual hairdo (typically above 7 kHz). Hats alter intensively HRTFs (typically above 5 kHz), depending on the model. The measurements give deeper insight to the development of idiosyncratic features in binaural localization cues. The second part of the study addresses their perceptual effects [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation; thanks to Finnish Broadcasting Company, Mr. Hellstrom; Mrs. Chen.

Riederer, Klaus A. J.

2003-10-01

156

Comparison of different intraocular pressure measurement techniques in normal eyes, post surface and post lamellar refractive surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or epithelial laser in situ keratomileusis (Epi)-LASIK using Goldmann applanation tonometry, air puff tonometry, ocular response analyzer corneal compensated IOP (ORA IOPcc) and Pentacam corrected IOP. Methods A prospective comparative clinical study was conducted between February and September 2011 on 30 eyes divided into four groups, i.e. 20 corneas of 10 patients before LASIK (group A), 20 corneas of the same patients 2 months postoperatively (group B), 10 corneas of five patients before Epi-LASIK (group C), and 10 corneas of the same patients 2 months postoperatively (group D). Patient age ranged from 20 to 50 years. IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation and air puff tonometry, ORA corneal compensation, and Pentacam correction (which also measured central corneal thickness). Results Significant positive linear correlations were found between IOP values measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and other techniques, and with preoperative pachymetry in group A. The correlation between preoperative Pentacam-corrected and preoperative ORA corneal-compensated IOP was strongest for Goldmann applanation tonometry (r = 0.97 and r = 0.858 respectively, P < 0.001). Compared with preoperative values, postoperative IOP measured by the four methods were significantly lower. The difference was statistically significant when IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation and air puff tonometry compared with the ORA and Pentacam methods (P < 0.001 for LASIK patients and P = 0.017 for Epi-LASIK patients). Nonsignificant correlations were found between the degree of lowering of postoperative IOP and postoperative pachymetry in groups B and D. Conclusion Refractive surgery causes significant lowering of IOP as measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry, air puff tonometry, ORA compensation, and Pentacam correction. LASIK has a greater effect than Epi-LASIK on IOP measurement error following refractive surgery. PMID:23326186

Shousha, Shireen MA; Abo Steit, Mahmoud AH; Hosny, Mohamed HM; Ewais, Wael A; Shalaby, Ahmad MM

2013-01-01

157

Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL) in 2010: instrument status and two-component wind measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper and corresponding seminar given on 20 September 2010 at the 16th International School for Quantum Electronics in Nesebar, Bulgaria, will describe the key hardware aspects of the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and recent advances in extracting two-component wind vector fields from the images it produces. The REAL is an eye-safe, ground-based, scanning, elastic aerosol backscatter lidar operating at 1.54 microns wavelength. Operation at this wavelength offers several advantages compared to other laser wavelengths including: (1) maximum eye-safety, (2) invisible beam, (3) superior performance photodetectors compared with those used at longer wavelengths, (4) low atmospheric molecular scattering when compared with operation at shorter wavelengths, (5) good aerosol backscattering, (6) atmospheric transparency, and (7) availability of optical and photonic components used in the modern telecommunations industry. A key issue for creating a high-performance direct-detection lidar at 1.5 microns is the use of InGaAs avalanche photodetectors that have active areas of at most 200 microns in diameter. The small active area imposes a maximum limitation on the field-of-view of the receiver (about 0.54 mrad full-angle for REAL). As a result, a key requirement is a transmitter that can produce a pulsed (>10 Hz) beam with low divergence (<0.25 mrad full-angle), high pulse-energy (>150 mJ), and short pulse-duration (<10 ns). The REAL achieves this by use of a commercially-available flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a custom high-pressure methane gas cell for wavelength shifting via stimulated Raman scattering. The atmospheric aerosol features in the images that REAL produces can be tracked to infer horizontal wind vectors. The method of tracking macroscopic aerosol features has an advantage over Doppler lidars in that two components of motion can be sensed. (Doppler lidars can sense only the radial component of flow.) Two-component velocity estimation is done by computing two-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and noting the displacement of the peak of the CCF with respect to the origin. Motion vectors derived from this method are compared with coincident sonic anemometer measurements at 1.6 km range. Preliminary results indicate the method performs best when the atmosphere is stable with light winds.

Mayor, Shane D.

2010-10-01

158

Features of Korean History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of Korea from ancient times to the present, discussing the Koryo and Choson Kingdoms, the development of the Republic of Korea, and efforts to unite the country. Examines Korean cultural creativity, the development of new schools of thought, and reforms under Chong Yag-yong, a prominent eighteenth- and nineteenth-century…

Lee, John-hee

1988-01-01

159

Korean Army Hat  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Here in South Korea, it doesn't matter how famous you are, if you're in the army--and Korean men are required to do about 2 years of military service--you wear your hat. This point was driven home recently when paparazzi...

Hacker, Randi

2013-08-14

160

Clash in South Korean heritage? A case study of work values among South Koreans and Korean-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes a case-study analysis of work values among four types of South Koreans: a traditional South Korean, three young-adult South Koreans, a white South Korean-American, and a black South Korean-American, all of whom worked at a South Korean-owned small business. Data for this qualitative study were drawn from an exploratory survey, 50 hours of participant observation, a focus

Eun-Jeong Han; Jeanne S. McPherson

2009-01-01

161

Reliability of manual measurements of corneal thickness obtained from healthy canine eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to manually measure corneal thickness in canine eyes using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device and to assess intra- and inter-observer reliability of this technique. Twenty healthy dogs with a mean age of 4.7 y were examined. A 6-mm corneal pachymetry protocol was carried out by 1 operator using 1 SD-OCT device in both eyes of each animal. Measurements were obtained manually and in duplicate by 2 independent investigators (> 24 h apart), using the built-in caliper function. Measurements included epithelial thickness (ET), non-epithelial thickness (NET), and central corneal thickness (CCT). The overall mean ET, NET, and CCT for all eyes examined were 72.3 ± 4.6 ?m, 538.9 ± 42.5 ?m, and 611.2 ± 40.3 ?m, respectively. There was no significant difference in ET, NET, or CCT based on the eye examined [oculus dexter (OD) versus oculus sinister (OS)], age, or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in replicate measurements of ET, NET, or CCT done by the same operator, although a small but significant difference was noted between operators for ET measurements only. The mean difference in ET between operators was 0.6 ?m (P = 0.03). The coefficient of variation ranged from 0.5% to 9.27% and intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.35 to 0.97. Based on these results, manual measurements of corneal thickness in canine eyes using a portable SD-OCT device provided ET, NET, and CCT measurements with clinically acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability. PMID:24982554

Alario, Anthony F; Pirie, Christopher G

2014-07-01

162

Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.

2013-03-01

163

A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

2008-01-01

164

An exploration of through-the-eye intraocular pressure measurement device  

E-print Network

Glaucoma, caused by an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the leading causes of blindness. As constant monitoring of IOP is essential in the treatment of glaucoma, the IOP measurement techniques described in ...

Chiu, Flora T. (Flora Tze Kwan)

2005-01-01

165

Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children. PMID:21643484

Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan

2011-01-01

166

There's More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: Measuring Tangible and Intangible Capital in Two Marginal Communities in Rural Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A missing link in economics has been what Veblen in 1908 termed intangible capital. This includes common norms, trust and high levels of cooperative performance. Intangibles are invisible to the eye and not easily measured in quantitative terms. They nevertheless involve visible, socioeconomic outcomes and should therefore rightly be seen as…

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sorensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

2007-01-01

167

Associations of Hypertension Status with Physical Fitness Variables in Korean Women  

PubMed Central

Background In Korea, hypertension has become more prevalent with the Westernization of Korean diets and lack of exercise. This study aimed at investigating the associations between physical fitness variables and hypertension status in Korean women. Methods: The subjects were 9,216 women aged >20 years who visited a public health promotion center for physical fitness tests. Cardiovascular respiratory fitness was evaluated using VO2max, resting heart rate (RHR), double product (DP), and vital capacity and coordination-related physical fitness was measured using grip strength, number of sit-ups completed, sit-and-reach score, vertical jump height, number of side steps performed, and 1-leg standing with eyes open. Results: The prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 30.3% and 12.9% in this study, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, drinking frequency, smoking intensity, and exercise intensity, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were calculated, and no statistically significant association was found between hypertension and physical fitness as measured by grip strength (P = 0.056), number of sit-ups completed (P = 0.140), and vertical jump height (P = 0.121). However, significant associations were found between hypertension and VO2max (P < 0.001), RHR (P < 0.001), DP (P < 0.001), vital capacity (P < 0.001), sit-and-reach score (P = 0.012), the number of side steps performed (P = 0.001), and 1-leg standing with eyes open (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We found that all the cardiovascular respiratory fitness variables and half of the motor- and coordination-related physical fitness variables were closely related with hypertension status. PMID:24427746

YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

2013-01-01

168

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) GTT (???(???) ??) - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Diabetes and Pregnancy Diabetes during Pregnancy ?? ? ??? - ...

169

Coping with the green?eyed monster: Conceptualizing and measuring communicative responses to romantic jealousy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communicative responses to jealousy perform critical functions in interpersonal relationships: They can reduce uncertainty, help maintain or repair relationships, and aid the jealous person in saving face and restoring self?esteem. The three studies reported herein concentrate on conceptualizing and measuring communicative responses to jealousy that are relevant to these functions. Study 1 is a descriptive, qualitative analysis of respondents' communicative

Laura K. Guerrero; Peter A. Andersen; Peter F. Jorgensen; Brian H. Spitzberg; Sylvie V. Eloy

1995-01-01

170

Local variation in absolute water content of human and rabbit eye lenses measured by Raman microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectra were obtained from fresh, fixed and sliced rabbit lenses and from human lens slices. For all lenses and lens slices the ratio R, defined as the Raman intensity at 3390 cm?1 divided by the Raman intensity at 2935 cm?1, was measured at different locations along the visual and equatorial axis. The ratios R were transformed to absolute water

Alex Huizinga; Annet C. C. Bot; Mul de Frits F. M; Gijs F. J. M. Vrensen; Jan Greve

1989-01-01

171

Measurements and mathematical models in the assessment of optical radiation hazards to the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of industrial exposure to infrared radiation and epidemiology of 'infrared cataract' are reviewed, and a programme of optical radiation measurements at UK industrial sites is briefly described. Comparing the results of this study with the threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), it appears that retinal burns and 'blue light' damage are unlikely

P. R. Wainwright; M. J. Whillock

1990-01-01

172

Eye dilation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

Greyson Orlando (None; )

2006-12-11

173

Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook  

PubMed Central

A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

2014-01-01

174

Discrepancy between subjectively reported symptoms and objectively measured clinical findings in dry eye: a population based analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the discrepancy between patient-reported symptoms and measured clinical findings and influencing factors in dry eye (DE). Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed in July–August 2007 in northeast China. The study was performed on populations originating from two rural districts that are respectively located approximately 377 and 177?km from our hospital. Participants 2600 eligible residents from 1300 households were identified; valid responses were obtained from 2262 residents (mean age 48 (range 12–88) years; 926 men and 1336 women; response rate 87%). Primary outcome measures Patient-reported symptoms of DE, tear film break up time (BUT) and Schirmer scores (Schirmer II). Results Subjects with normal BUT and Schirmer scores without any DE symptoms were defined as the control group. Those with abnormal BUT and Schirmer scores and symptoms of DE were defined as the DE group. Subjects with disparities between the occurrence of DE symptoms and measured clinical findings were regarded as the discrepancy. Out of 2262 subjects, the discrepant group contained 960 subjects (42.44%) with significant difference (?2=4.027, p=0.045<0.05). Factors that influenced the subjective reporting of DE symptoms included gender, smoking status, environment and age. Schirmer II test and tear film BUT values were remarkably different among control, DE and discrepant groups. Conclusions Development of DE can be related to many factors. It is of great importance to put forward the preclinical phase concept (patients who are symptomatic for DE and yet show no aqueous deficiency or evaporative signs) and to screen outpatients with DE-inducing features. Future interventions should focus on patients demonstrating a discrepancy between self-reported symptomology and measured clinical findings. PMID:25168038

Hua, Rui; Yao, Kai; Hu, Yuedong; Chen, Lei

2014-01-01

175

Measuring slant visual range on airports using an eye-safe lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard meteorological instrumentation of an airport includes visibility meters enabling the tower personnel to report the ground visibility conditions to an approaching pilot. In case of ground fog the slant visibility conditions for that pilot might be much better. This is the reason for introducing a ground based lidar system that is able to determine the slant visual range. Results of a measuring campaign at Hamburg Airport show a good correlation between ground and slant visibility for a homogeneous atmosphere and a significant distinction between the two values for ground fog situations.

Muenkel, Christoph

1997-05-01

176

Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop marks were clearly visible following a dry season in spring 2011. These patterns are in coincidence with higher conductivity patterns caused by a higher amount of silt and clay. Good correlations were found for LAI measurements taken during a growing season with underlying sediments especially in the early stages of plant development. Finally, ECa measurements of two heterogeneous fields were used for a 3D layer inversion which will be further implemented into landscape models. This study shows that multiple EMI measurements can be successfully used to recover buried river systems, highlight possible sample locations and support farmers to manage their fields more precisely.

Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2013-04-01

177

Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate distribution, which then can be used as input for a refined clinical treatment planning system. The improved dose rate measurements will facilitate a clinical study, which could correlate the therapeutic outcome of a brachytherapy treatment with an applicator and its individual dose rate distribution.

Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard [Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Klinische Strahlenphysik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, D 45122 Essen (Germany); Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

2009-10-15

178

Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... following symptoms: sudden appearance of spots and strings floating in your field of vision; flashes of light ... experiencing eye pain, and do you see dark, floating spots? You may have an inflammation inside the ...

179

Dry eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... dry eyes include: Aging Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... Don't smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

180

Eye emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... eye turns black and blue, gradually becoming purple, green, and yellow over several days. The abnormal color ... Brunette DD. Ophthalmology. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts ...

181

Eyes, Bulging  

MedlinePLUS

... eyes for redness, sores, and irritation using a slit lamp (an instrument that enables a doctor to ... under high magnification—Fig. 2: What Is a Slit Lamp? ). They check whether the eyelids move as ...

182

Eye Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... and cutting can expose you to visible, infrared (IR), and sometimes UV light radiation. Arc welding exposes ... are designed to protect the eyes from visible, IR and UV rays. Choose the darkest shade that ...

183

Eye Injuries at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Home Tweet You might think that ... the American National Standards Institute eye protection standard.) Eye Injury Risks in the House Using hazardous products ...

184

Measured statistics of laser beam scintillation in strong refractive turbulence relevant to eye safety  

SciTech Connect

The time series of irradiance from a diverged He-Ne laser were measured using receiver aperture sizes that simulate the day-adapted and night-adapted human pupil. The data are within the saturation-of-scintillation regime wherein the irradiance variance decreases with further increases of propagation distance and refractive turbulence strength. Irradiance probability distributions, as well as the joint statistics of irradiance and duration of large irradiance values, are presented. The ocular hazard contributed by scintillation is found to decrease with increases of range and/or refractive turbulence strength; this effect is independent of the decrease of mean irradiance associated with such increases of range and refractive turbulence strength.

Hill, R.J.; Churnside, J.H.; Sliney, D.H.

1987-12-01

185

Learning Korean language in China: motivations and strategies of non-Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career and strategies mainly in establishing Korean sociocultural context for Korean language

Fang Gao

2010-01-01

186

Parental Attachment Among Korean–American Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationship between parental care and control perceived by Korean–American adolescents, and\\u000a further investigated the relationships between parental attachment styles and mental health measures including self-esteem,\\u000a depression, and social support. The relationship between parental care and parental control resulted in a significantly negative\\u000a correlation. Parental care showed significantly positive correlations with self-esteem and social support, and

2009-01-01

187

Symmetry Between the Right and Left Eyes of the Normal Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measured with Optical Coherence Tomography (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the limits of the normal amount of interocular symmetry in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained with third-generation time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT3). Methods Both eyes of normal volunteers were scanned using the peripapillary standard and fast RNFL algorithms of OCT3. Results A total of 108 volunteers were included in the analysis. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age of the volunteers was 46.0 ± 15.0 years (range 20–82). Forty-two participants (39%) were male and 66 (61%) were female. Mean RNFL thickness correlated extremely well, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.89 for both algorithms (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.93). The mean RNFL thickness of the right eye measured 1.3 ?m thicker than the left on the standard scan (SD 4.7, 95% CI 0.4–2.2, P = .004) and 1.2 ?m on the fast scan (SD 5.2, 95% CI 0.1–2.2, P = .026). The 95% tolerance limits on the difference between the mean RNFL thicknesses of right minus left eye was ?10.8 and +8.9 ?m with the standard scan algorithm and ?10.6 and +11.7 ?m with the fast scan algorithm. Conclusions Mean RNFL thickness between the 2 eyes of normal individuals should not differ by more than approximately 9 to 12 ?m, depending on which scanning algorithm of OCT3 is used and which eye measures thicker. Differences beyond this level suggest statistically abnormal asymmetry, which may represent early glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:19277241

Budenz, Donald L.

2008-01-01

188

A compact shape-measurement module based on a thin compound-eye camera with multiwavelength diffractive pattern projection for intraoral diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a compact three-dimensional shape-measurement system for intraoral diagnosis, in which multiwavelength pattern projectors based on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are integrated in the lens gaps of a compound-eye camera. We have built a prototype module with blue and green pattern projectors in both sides of the compound-eye camera to increase in-plane spatial resolution. With the two projectors, the stripe pitch was reduced to 0.73 mm in average from about 1.4 mm for one wavelength. Root-mean-square (rms) error of the measured depth map of a plane board was 0.27 mm at the distance of 40 mm. The rms errors for the measured results of the gums and teeth of a plaster figure and an examinee were 0.37 and 0.40 mm, respectively.

Kagawa, K.; Tanabe, H.; Ogata, C.; Horisaki, R.; Ogura, Y.; Nakao, Y.; Toyoda, T.; Masaki, Y.; Ueda, M.; Tanida, J.

2009-08-01

189

Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

190

Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

191

The Korean War: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

Robinson, Ken.

192

The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean. PMID:22993518

Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup

2012-01-01

193

Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring…

Kim, Hyunjin

2015-01-01

194

The Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ): A Validation Study in a Korean Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement scores of the learning organization culture, the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ), in a Korean context. A total of 1,529 cases from 11 firms in two major Korean conglomerates were analyzed. Rigorous translation procedures, including both…

Song, Ji Hoon; Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Chermack, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

195

Adaptation of vertical eye alignment in relation to head tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binocular visual feedback is used to continually calibrate binocular eye alignment so that the retinal images of the two eyes remain in correspondence. Past experiments have shown that vertical eye alignment (measured as vertical phoria) can be altered by training to disparities that vary as a function of orbital eye position. The present experiments demonstrate that vertical eye alignment can

James S. Maxwell; Clifton M. Schor

1996-01-01

196

Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within

Ashley A. Weaver; Kathryn L. Loftis; Stefan M. Duma; Joel D. Stitzel

2011-01-01

197

Study on eye gaze estimation.  

PubMed

There are two components to the human visual line-of-sight: pose of human head and the orientation of the eye within their sockets. We have investigated these two aspects but will concentrate on eye gaze estimation. We present a novel approach called the "one-circle" algorithm for measuring the eye gaze using a monocular image that zooms in on only one eye of a person. Observing that the iris contour is a circle, we estimate the normal direction of this iris circle, considered as the eye gaze, from its elliptical image. From basic projective geometry, an ellipse can be back-projected into space onto two circles of different orientations. However, by using a geometric constraint, namely, that the distance between the eyeball's center and the two eye corners should be equal to each other, the correct solution can be disambiguated. This allows us to obtain a higher resolution image of the iris with a zoom-in camera, thereby achieving higher accuracies in the estimation. A general approach that combines head pose determination with eye gaze estimation is also proposed. The searching of the eye gaze is guided by the head pose information. The robustness of our gaze determination approach was verified statistically by the extensive experiments on synthetic and real image data. The two key contributions are that we show the possibility of finding the unique eye gaze direction from a single image of one eye and that one can obtain better accuracy as a consequence of this. PMID:18238131

Wang, Jian-Gang; Sung, E

2002-01-01

198

Animals Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

199

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Eleven keratoconic (KC) patients (13 eyes) and one normal eye  

E-print Network

(13 eyes) and one normal eye were recruited in this study. · Conventional scleral lenses were fitted to individual eyes and aberration measurements were performed on each eye with the scleral lens on using a Shack, Perry Rosenthal2 1Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY; 2Boston Foundation

Yoon, Geunyoung

200

Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

2014-01-01

201

Eye and orbit ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

202

Googly Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Boss, Susan

2009-01-01

203

The injured eye.  

PubMed

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3-4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-27

204

The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-01

205

Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number…

Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

2012-01-01

206

Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults Is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data…

Swanson, Meghan R.; Siller, Michael

2014-01-01

207

Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

2003-08-01

208

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

209

Preventing Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

210

National Eye Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... eyes work, and more. Check out our resources Eye Health Infographics Use these graphics to share information ... science. Audacious Goals Translational Research eyeGENE® International Research Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

211

Eye Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

212

Crossed eyes (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... to as crossed eyes (strabismus). Other more specific medical terms refer to eyes turned either outward or inward, or that are abnormally rotated. Any appearance of crossed eyes in ... evaluated, as should recent onset of crossed eyes in an adult.

213

Information technology, efficiency and productivity: evidence from Korean local governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the performance of Korean local government by measuring their technical efficiency (TE) and total factor productivity (TFP) growth and, more importantly, examining the impact of information technology (IT) on this performance. The study is different from received analysis in that a unique measure of the state of IT–the Informatization Index–is used to investigate the impact of IT

Nakil Sung

2007-01-01

214

Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in Korean  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo

2014-01-01

215

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in korean.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Sang Pyung

2014-06-01

216

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

217

Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye

Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.

218

Eye contricks  

PubMed Central

Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

Wade, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

219

Eye Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.

220

Korean and American Music Reduces Pain in Korean Women After Gynecologic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women

Marion Good; Sukhee Ahn

2008-01-01

221

Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

Kim, Eunhyun

2014-01-01

222

Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2013-01-01

223

Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations. PMID:25276479

Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2014-01-01

224

Phonological awareness of English by Chinese and Korean bilinguals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined non-native speakers phonological awareness of spoken English. Chinese speaking adults, Korean speaking adults, and English speaking adults were tested. The L2 speakers had been in the US for less than 6 months. Chinese and Korean allow no consonant clusters and have limited numbers of consonants allowable in syllable final position, whereas English allows a variety of clusters and various consonants in syllable final position. Subjects participated in eight phonological awareness tasks (4 replacement tasks and 4 deletion tasks) based on English phonology. In addition, digit span was measured. Preliminary analysis indicates that Chinese and Korean speaker errors appear to reflect L1 influences (such as orthography, phonotactic constraints, and phonology). All three groups of speakers showed more difficulty with manipulation of rime than onset, especially with postvocalic nasals. Results will be discussed in terms of syllable structure, L1 influence, and association with short term memory.

Chung, Hyunjoo; Schmidt, Anna; Cheng, Tse-Hsuan

2002-05-01

225

Mental Health and PTSD in Female North Korean Refugees.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify mental health status, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychophysiological change in female North Korean refugees. Data were collected using questionnaires and symptom checklists that measured PTSD and the psychosomatic state of the subjects. As many as 97 subjects, who had settled in and around Seoul, South Korea, were selected by snowball sampling. Mental health and PTSD levels of the participants were above a moderate level. We conclude that health care professionals need to provide female North Korean defectors with services to improve mental health and make the sociocultural transition successfully. PMID:24020655

Shin, Gisoo; Lee, Suk Jeong

2015-04-01

226

Korean Adults' Attitudes towards Varieties of English   

E-print Network

This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research questions: 1) do Korean adults...

Kim, Young Soo

2007-11-28

227

Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

228

A Korean Feminist Perspective on God Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the ways in which the patriarchal God image when combined with Confucianism in Korean culture can negatively affect Korean Christian women in their concept of identity and self-worth. In doing so, a few salient constructs of Confucianism that are closely related to the role of Korean women are examined. Engaging in and dialoging with the works of

Simone Sunghae Kim

2006-01-01

229

Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

2013-01-01

230

Processing of the Korean Eojoel Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean writing is a syllabary where spaces occur between phrases rather than between words. This characteristic of Korean allows different types of information in Korean sentences to be dissociated in ways that are not possible in the languages that have been the focus of most psycholinguistic research, thereby providing new opportunities to…

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun; Gordon, Peter C.

2009-01-01

231

The current state of Korean paleoanthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hominid fossil and Paleolithic archaeology records from the Korean Peninsula are extensive, but relatively little is known about the Korean human evolutionary record outside this region. The Korean paleoanthropological record is reviewed here in light of major research issues, including the hominid fossil record, relative and chronometric dating, lithic analysis, hominid subsistence, and the presence of bone tools, art

Christopher J. Norton

2000-01-01

232

Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean

Bonacich, Edna; And Others

233

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by  

E-print Network

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

Ribak, Erez

234

Psychometric Validation of a Short Acculturation Scale for Korean Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Background Acculturation has been identified as a determinant of health behavior and outcome among ethnic minorities. The high prevalence of lifestyle related chronic diseases and risk factors among Korean immigrants calls for a valid short acculturation scale to use in clinical practice and health research settings. Objectives To validate the psychometric properties of a Short Acculturation Scale originally developed for Hispanics (SASH) after translating the scale to Korean (SAS-K) to determine its suitability for use with Korean immigrants. Method A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 143 Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes aged 30–80 years from a Korean community in Southern California. Confirmatory factor analysis, criterion validity, and internal reliability were utilized to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SAS-K. Results Using a second-order confirmatory factor analysis, a three-factor structure [?2 (51) = 121.49, p < .001, CFI = .950, SRMR = .055, RMSEA = .099] was confirmed. The SAS-K was associated positively with length of residence, age of arrival, and English proficiency. Reliability for the total SAS-K was .93. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for each subscale of the SAS-K ranged from .80 (social relations) to .95 (media). Discussion The 12-item, easy-to-use SAS-K demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity and thus is an appropriate instrument for measuring acculturation in Korean immigrants. The short nature and ease of administration of the SAS-K makes it an ideal choice for healthcare providers and researchers to assess acculturation levels quickly and easily, and to further the development and use of more culture-appropriate interventions. PMID:21677595

Choi, Sarah E.; Reed, Preston L.

2011-01-01

235

Bionic Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both Web sites come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research. The first article describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone." Earlier this year, researchers at the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center in Houston experimented with "photosensitive ceramic films that respond to light much as rods and cones do," the subject of the second Web site. Researchers hope these films will eventually be used to restore lost vision in human eyes. Each article is available as an audio file, and includes helpful diagrams and Web links for related articles and information.

Phillips, Tony.

2002-01-01

236

Down Syndrome: Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... eye problems. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

237

What Is Dry Eye?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Search GetEyeSmart.org Diseases & Conditions A to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Allergies Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) ... Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 ...

238

Why Do Eyes Water?  

MedlinePLUS

... How the Body Works Main Page Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > Why Do ... coming out of your nose. Continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

239

Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 ?m tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 ?l/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient ?a and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

2008-02-01

240

Depression Among Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian American Family Caregivers  

PubMed Central

This study compared depressive symptoms among Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian American female family caregivers of older persons with dementia. The sample included Korean caregivers living in Seoul, Korea (KK); Korean American (KA) caregivers living in the Chicago and Los Angeles areas; and Caucasian American (CA) caregivers from the Chicago metropolitan area. KK caregivers were more likely to be daughters-in-law, KA caregivers were more likely to be daughters, and CA caregivers were more likely to be wives or daughters. Overall, wives were more depressed than daughters and daughters-in-law. KK caregivers were the most depressed of the three cultural groups. When caregiver relationship and cultural group were examined simultaneously, KK and KA wives were most depressed, and KA daughters-in-law were least depressed. Differences in culture and social role appeared to affect depressive symptoms among these caregivers. The findings suggest a need to further examine the associations between caregivers’ relationships with their care recipients and their own emotional status. PMID:14768412

LEE, EUNICE E.; FARRAN, CAROL J.

2011-01-01

241

Depression among Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian American family caregivers.  

PubMed

This study compared depressive symptoms among Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian American female family caregivers of older persons with dementia. The sample included Korean caregivers living in Seoul, Korea (KK); Korean American (KA) caregivers living in the Chicago and Los Angeles areas; and Caucasian American (CA) caregivers from the Chicago metropolitan area. KK caregivers were more likely to be daughters-in-law, KA caregivers were more likely to be daughters, and CA caregivers were more likely to be wives or daughters. Overall, wives were more depressed than daughters and daughters-in-law. KK caregivers were the most depressed of the three cultural groups. When caregiver relationship and cultural group were examined simultaneously, KK and KA wives were most depressed, and KA daughters-in-law were least depressed. Differences in culture and social role appeared to affect depressive symptoms among these caregivers. The findings suggest a need to further examine the associations between caregivers' relationships with their care recipients and their own emotional status. PMID:14768412

Lee, Eunice E; Farran, Carol J

2004-01-01

242

A real-life illusion of assimilation in the human face: eye size illusion caused by eyebrows and eye shadow  

PubMed Central

Does an assimilative illusion like the Delboeuf illusion occur in the human face? We investigated factors that might influence the perceived size of the eyes in a realistic face. Experiment 1 manipulated the position of the eyebrows (high or low), the presence/absence of eye shadow, and the viewing distance (0.6 m or 5 m), then measured the perceived eye size using a psychophysical method. The results showed that low eyebrows (i.e., closer to the eyes) make the eyes appear larger, suggesting that the assimilation of eyes into the eyebrows is stronger when the eye-eyebrow distance is shorter. The results also demonstrated that the application of eye shadow also makes the eyes look larger. Moreover, the effect of eye shadow is more pronounced when viewed from a distance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the eye size illusion demonstrated in Experiment 1, Experiment 2 measured the magnitude of the Delboeuf illusion at a viewing distance of 0.6 m or 5 m, with or without gray gradation simulating the eye shadow that was used in Experiment 1. The experiment demonstrated that the Delboeuf illusion is modulated by viewing distance and gradation in the same way as the eye size illusion. These results suggest that the eye size illusion induced by the eyebrows and the Delboeuf illusion involve the same mechanism, and that eye shadow causes the assimilation of the eyes into itself and enhances assimilation between the eyes and the eyebrows. PMID:25852522

Morikawa, Kazunori; Matsushita, Soyogu; Tomita, Akitoshi; Yamanami, Haruna

2015-01-01

243

Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels  

PubMed Central

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young

2013-01-01

244

Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.  

PubMed

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

2013-02-01

245

Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

Fang, Gao

2009-01-01

246

Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

247

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

248

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

249

Black raspberry: Korean vs. American  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

250

Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.  

PubMed

With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

2008-01-01

251

A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE "UNIFIED SYSTEM" AND…

MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

252

Korean Basic Course: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

253

Eye movement detector calibration device.  

PubMed

Presented is a device developed for specifically calibrating and validating the operation of Eye Movement Detectors or Monitors. The Calibrator centers on two one inch diameter HPDE spheres representing the eyes. A Laser Module is embedded in the rear of each sphere emitting a beam against a target divided in equal measurement intervals mounted as part of the device. The device moves the "eyes" about its center axes enabling the user to validate any vertical, horizontal, or X-Y combination eye position in a plus or minus fifteen degree range. Although hand controlled, the Calibrator can be motorized with stepper motors or other desired drivers. Anatomically correct sized pupils are imbedded in the front of each "eye," thereby acting as the target for whichever system is under test by the very portable Calibrator. Currently, a simple battery controlled circuit controls the laser modules and other electric requirements with accommodation for additional circuit components if required in the future. Specifically designed for validating the operation of an IR Reflective Differencing Saccadic Eye Movement Measurement System, the Calibrator can also be used with little or no alteration for validation of camera systems and other types of devices. PMID:15133997

Pruchsner, William R; Zenker, Michael; Enderle, John D

2004-01-01

254

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Adipose Tissues of Korean Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on residue levels and accumulation profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human adipose tissues of Korean\\u000a populations are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation features of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in adipose tissues of Korean women age 40–68 years.\\u000a The highest concentrations were found for PCBs and DDTs, which

Hyo-Bang MoonDuk-Hee; Duk-Hee Lee; Yoon Soon Lee; Minkyu Choi; Hee-Gu Choi; Kurunthachalam Kannan

255

Eye muscle repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

256

A Korean Legend: Hungbu and Nolbu; and Korean Songs We Can Sing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Korean legend and a number of Korean songs are presented in this illustrated booklet. English translations and a pronunciation guide are provided. Musical notations are included for the songs presented. (EB)

Chang, Roberta; And Others

257

Eating for Your Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

2011-01-01

258

Differentiation and healthy family functioning of Koreans in South Korea, South Koreans in the United States, and White Americans.  

PubMed

Inconsistent results have been found in prior research on the Bowen Family Systems Theory concept of differentiation of self and its application to individuals, couples, and families of different cultural backgrounds. In this regard, this study examined the impact of differentiation of self on healthy family functioning, family communication, and family satisfaction with 277 participants including South Koreans living in South Korea, South Korean-born citizens living in the United States, and White Americans living in the United States. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis identified the measurement invariance of a differentiation scale (DSI-R) used for the three study groups. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found significant differences between White Americans and South Koreans with regard to the level of differentiation. Results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses found a significant association between differentiation of self and healthy family functioning across the three groups with the American group having significantly higher differentiation than the two South Korean groups." Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24750125

Kim, Hyejin; Prouty, Anne M; Smith, Douglas B; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wetchler, Joseph L; Oh, Jea-Eun

2015-01-01

259

Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

Kang, Hyun-Sook

2013-01-01

260

Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

Gao, Fang

2010-01-01

261

The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

262

Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

2013-01-01

263

Military confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: possible first steps toward cooperation  

SciTech Connect

The Korean Peninsula is one of the world`s most tense military confrontational sites. Nearly 2 million North Korean, South Korean, and U.S. troops face each other along the 255-km long military demarcation line. Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment where a peace regime might be negotiated. In spite of the present high level of mutual distrust, steps can still be taken to prepare for future development and implementation of CBMs. This paper defines some simple and specific first steps toward CBMs that might be useful on the Korean Peninsula.

Vannoni, M.

1997-05-01

264

The evil eye: a cautious look.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence. PMID:21267658

Berger, Allan S

2013-09-01

265

Do cultural factors predict mammography behavior among Korean immigrants?  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a study of the correlates of mammogram use among Korean American women. Background Despite the increasing incidence of and mortality from breast cancer, Asian women in the United States of America report consistently low rates of mammography screening. A number of health beliefs and sociodemographic characteristics have been associated with mammogram participation among these women; however, studies systematically investigating cultural factors in relation to mammogram experience have been scarce. Methods We measured screening-related health beliefs, modesty and use of Eastern medicine in 100 Korean American women in 2006. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine the unique contribution of the study variables, after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Findings Only 51% reported past mammogram use. Korean American women who had previously had mammograms were statistically significantly older and had higher perceived benefit scores than those who had not. Perceived benefits (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval=2.12, 18.76) and breast cancer susceptibility (odds ratio=3.18, 95% confidence interval=1.06, 9.59) were statistically significant correlates of mammography experience, whereas cultural factors did not correlate. Post hoc analysis showed that for women with some or good English skills, cultural factors statistically significantly correlated with health beliefs and breast cancer knowledge (p < 0.05). Conclusion Nurses should consider the inclusion in culturally-tailored interventions of more targeted outreach and healthcare system navigation assistance for promoting mammography screening in Korean American women. Further research is needed to unravel the interplay between acculturation, cultural factors, and health beliefs related to cancer screening behaviors of Korean American women. PMID:19941544

Lee, Hanju; Kim, Jiyun; Han, Hae-Ra

2009-01-01

266

Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts ... an eye injury does occur, have an ophthalmologist or other medical doctor examine the eye as soon as possible, ...

267

Opaque Contact Lens For Tracking Motion Of Eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Opaque contact lens facilitates measurements of movements of eye; particularly, torsional movements. Lens, marked with pair of indices at diameter of 0.5 mm, provides stable, high-contrast reference for measurements of angular position and velocity of eye by use of video-image-analysis techniques. Intended for use in experiments on response of eye to vestibular balance mechanism.

Zografos, James L., II; Gibson, Charles R.

1993-01-01

268

Sex-specific relationships between adiposity and anthropometric measures and carotid intima-media thickness in Koreans: The Healthy Twin Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Increased adiposity, shorter stature, shorter leg length and carotid intima-media thickening are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study aimed to evaluate the sex-specific phenotypic and genetic associations between adiposity and anthropometric measures and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).Subjects\\/Methods:We measured IMT at common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), carotid bifurcation and internal carotid artery (ICA-IMT) using B-mode ultrasound, and adiposity and anthropometric measures,

Y-M Song; K Lee; J Sung; Y S Kim; J Y Lee

2012-01-01

269

Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease  

PubMed Central

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

2014-01-01

270

Korean Self-Report Version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective Although several self-report versions of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) have been developed and used widely, few psychometric studies have established the construct validity of this measure. Therefore, we developed Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS and evaluated its factor structure, reliability, and validity. Methods A non-clinical student sample (n=206) and a clinical OCD sample (n=199) completed the Korean self-report version and other measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and anxiety. Results Consistent with the originally proposed structure, confirmatory factor analyses supported a factor structure comprised of Obsessions and Compulsions factors in the Korean self-report version. Two subscale scores and the total score of the Korean self-report version showed good internal consistency and convergent validity, but relatively poor discriminant validity. Applying a cutoff score of 16, 84% of OCD patients and 93% of the non-clinical sample were classified correctly. Conclusion Korean self-report version of the Y-BOCS is a psychometrically sound and valid measure for assessing OCD symptoms as compared with the clinician-administered version. The originally proposed division of OCD severity into obsessions and compulsions appears accurate in the Korean self-report version. The cutoff score for the Korean self-report version needs adjustment based on further researches. PMID:23482407

Seol, Soon-Ho; Kwon, Jun Soo

2013-01-01

271

Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

272

A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future. PMID:25652712

Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

2015-01-01

273

Translation and validation of champion's health belief model scale with Korean women.  

PubMed

The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) is a reliable and valid instrument developed for American women to measure beliefs about breast cancer and breast self-examination. The purpose of this study is to translate the CHBMS into Korean and to validate the scale among Korean women. The CHBMS was translated using a back-translation technique. A convenience sample of 264 women was recruited from a continuing education center, a community health center, and a university in 3 South Korean cities. The participants were asked to complete the translated Korean version of the CHBMS questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using a principal component analysis with varimax rotation for construct validity. Loading criterion was set at.45. Cronbach's alpha was computed for the reliability of the scale. From the analysis, two items from the Benefits domain and four items from the Motivation domain were deleted from the original scale. Thus, the final Korean version of the CHBMS (CHBMS-K) consisted of 36 items that were clustered to 6 subscales: susceptibility (5 items), seriousness (7 items), benefits (4 items), barriers (6 items), confidence (11 items), and motivation (3 items). Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for the 6 subscales ranged from.92 to.72. The CHBMS-K was found to be reliable and valid in scale for use with Korean women. It can be used in planning and testing interventions to improve breast self-examination beliefs and practice. PMID:12394566

Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Sun; Song, Mi Sook

2002-10-01

274

A Novel Method for Measuring Anterior Segment Area of the Eye on Ultrasound Biomicroscopic Images Using Photoshop  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA), posterior chamber area (PCA), iris cross-section area (ICA) and angle recess area (ARA) were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (p<0.001). Conclusion Measurements of ocular anterior segment areas on UBM images by Photoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring. PMID:25803857

Wu, Ziqiang; Lin, Jialiu; Huang, Jingjing

2015-01-01

275

Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments. Materials and Methods: Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression equations were constructed. Results: It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety. Conclusions: The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults. PMID:24860222

Lim, Young-Jin

2014-01-01

276

Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth

2012-01-01

277

The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

2005-01-01

278

Korean Education and Foreign Assistance Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the problems facing Korean education arise from very complicated factors, it was felt that the objective views of foreign observers would undoubtedly be of great help in efforts to solve them. In this connection, the Central Education Research Institute held a Seminar on Korean Education with the participation of foreign agencies in Korea…

Korean Central Education Research Inst., Seoul.

279

Korean and US families, schools, and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Korean students outperform the US and other industrialized countries in science and math during the school years. A multiple-factor psychological model provides a comparative framework to discuss the home and school factors that appear to explain achievement differences based on the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). Regression analyses were performed on 5846 Korean students and 10,975 US

Susan J. Paik

2004-01-01

280

Useful Phrases in English: Korean. Language SOS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This English-Korean phrase book is designed for the English speaking person learning Korean. The useful phrases and vocabulary words are divided into eleven sections: basic needs and safety; greetings and amenities; getting acquainted; directions and classroom articles; calendar, numbers, and time; subjects; shapes, sizes, and colors; body parts…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

281

North Korean terrorism: Trends, characteristics, and deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past three decades, South Korea has been subjected to various forms of political violence by North Korea, from a conventional war to nonconventional warfare including guerrilla tactics and terrorism. An analysis of the trends of North Korean terrorism points to the direction of increasing lethality and internationalization.A hypothetical profile of a North Korean terrorist drawn from the knowledge

Jae Taik Kim

1988-01-01

282

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... or systemic steroids may further reduce the inflammation. Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

283

Eye Disease Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Eye Disease Simulations Listen Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

284

Diabetic Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

285

Eye Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. Continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

286

Eye Drop Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... in your eye. Having Trouble Holding Onto The Bottle? If the eye drop bottle feels too small to hold (in cases where ... used and the drop comes directly from the bottle), try wrapping something (like a paper towel) around ...

287

Pathways to Care for Alzheimer's Disease Among Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how Korean Americans make decisions whether to seek help when experiencing symptoms that might signal dementia. In Study 1, patient registry data for 60 Korean and 212 non-Korean Alzheimer's disease patients revealed that both groups waited 3–4 years before seeking help and sought help when memory decline was accompanied by other problems. Among Korean Americans, those

Kecia F. Watari; Margaret Gatz

2004-01-01

288

Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

Ko, In Yeong

2011-01-01

289

Effective Population Size of Korean Populations  

PubMed Central

Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

2014-01-01

290

Effective population size of korean populations.  

PubMed

Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

Park, Leeyoung

2014-12-01

291

Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention  

PubMed Central

We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically developing school-aged children between 3 and 9 years of age (M = 6:3, SD = 1:8). Results demonstrated that gaze allocation differed significantly between the experimental and control condition. Further, individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly predicted by a parent-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype. This study contributes to a research program that aims to develop and validate an endophenotype measure of ASD. PMID:22847297

Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

2015-01-01

292

Ocular dominancy in conjugate eye movements at reading distance.  

PubMed

We recorded conjugate eye movements to elucidate whether ocular dominancy was present at reading distance in 21 normal volunteers with the right-handedness by using a video-oculographic (VOG) measurement. This included the velocity of smooth pursuits, and the latency and velocity of saccades. We defined the dominant eye for each subject by means of the near-far alignment test and 20 subjects showed the right dominant eyes. Although the ocular dominancy was not found in the velocity of smooth pursuit and vertical saccades, the velocity of horizontal saccades in the dominant eyes was faster than that in the non-dominant eyes. These results suggest that the dominant eye is functionally activated prior to non-dominant eye in horizontal saccades at reading distance, which thus indicates the functional dominancy of the dominant eye in conjugate eye movements. PMID:15878211

Oishi, Ayame; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Arakawa, Kenji; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Kira, Jun-ichi

2005-07-01

293

Age-related changes in local water and protein content of human eye lenses measured by Raman microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Raman microspectroscopic method was used to determine the local water and protein content in human lenses. In 18 lenses of varying age position-defined water\\/protein content measurements were carried out along the visual and the equatorial axis.\\u000a\\u000aA main characteristic of the human lens is its constant and relatively low protein content. In addition this constant nuclear value is reached

Itte Siebinga; Gijs F. J. M. Vrensen; Mul de F. F. M; Jan Greve

1991-01-01

294

Eye Movements during Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

295

Dwarf Eye Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

296

Finding an Eye Care Professional  

MedlinePLUS

Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...

297

Genetic Testing and Eye Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts In Focus: Genetic Testing and Eye Disease Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Thanks to news coverage, many people know that ...

298

HUMAN EYE OPTICS: Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm.

Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu

2009-02-01

299

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 16491653 Fission Physics and Cross Section Measurements with a Lead Slowing down  

E-print Network

and Cross Section Measurements with a Lead Slowing down Spectrometer Y. Danon, R. Block (emeritus), J) A Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) provides a high neutron flux environment that en- ables to be adjusted. PACS numbers: 25.40.-h, 25.85.Ec Keywords: ND2010, Nuclear data, Lead slowing down spectrometer

Danon, Yaron

300

Social identity, attribution, and emotion: comparisons of Americans, Korean Americans, and Koreans.  

PubMed

The social identity of another person, in addition to the social identity of self, can be an important factor affecting the types of attribution judgments and emotions that individuals indicate for the other person. In April 2007, the perpetrator of the shooting incident on the Virginia Tech University campus was identified as a person who emigrated to the USA from Korea at a young age. The current study compared non-Korean Americans, Korean Americans, Koreans in the USA, and Koreans in Korea in terms of their attributions and emotions concerning the perpetrator and the shooting incident. Participants were asked to indicate (1) the extent to which they attributed the cause of the incident to either American society or the perpetrator, (2) their emotions (e.g., upset), and (3) the extent to which they categorized the perpetrator as an American, a Korean American, or a Korean. The results indicated that non-Korean Americans were most likely to attribute the cause of the incident to the perpetrator as opposed to American society. Non-Korean Americans, Korean Americans, and Koreans in the United States had more negative emotions (e.g., unhappy, sad, and upset) about the incident than Koreans in Korea did. The results also indicated that individuals differed in their attributions and emotions depending on how they categorized the perpetrator. For example, categorizing the perpetrator as being a Korean was positively related to Americans' tendency to hold the perpetrator responsible, while categorizing the perpetrator as being an American was negatively related to the tendency to hold the perpetrator responsible among Koreans in Korea. The findings may imply that social identity theory, intergroup emotion theory, and cultural orientations (e.g., individualism and collectivism) can provide insights into people's reactions to a tragic incident. PMID:22827576

Park, Hee Sun; Yun, Doshik; Choi, Hye Jeong; Lee, Hye Eun; Lee, Dong Wook; Ahn, Jiyoung

2013-01-01

301

Altered aquaporin expression in glaucoma eyes.  

PubMed

Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma; and three eyes had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Six eyes with normal intraocular pressure and without glaucoma were used as control. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9. For each specimen, optical densities of immunoprecipitates were measured using Photoshop and the staining intensities were calculated. Immunostaining showed labelling of AQP7 and AQP9 in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and the staining intensities were significantly decreased in glaucoma eyes (p = 0.003; p = 0.018). AQP7 expression in the Müller cell endfeet was increased (p = 0.046), and AQP9 labelling of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) showed decreased intensity (p = 0.037). No difference in AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9 expression was found in the optic nerve fibres. This study is the first investigating AQPs in human glaucoma eyes. We found a reduced expression of AQP9 in the retinal ganglion cells of glaucoma eyes. Glaucoma also induced increased AQP7 expression in the Müller cell endfeet. In the ciliary body of glaucoma eyes, the expression of AQP7 and AQP9 was reduced. Therefore, the expression of AQPs seems to play a role in glaucoma. PMID:24479869

Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; la Cour, Morten; Nielsen, Søren; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

2014-09-01

302

Korean Facial Emotion Recognition Tasks for Schizophrenia Research  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite the fact that facial emotion recognition (FER) tasks using Western faces should be applied with caution to non-Western participants or patients, there are few psychometrically sound and validated FER tasks featuring Easterners' facial expressions for emotions. Thus, we aimed to develop and establish the psychometric properties of the Korean Facial Emotion Identification Task (K-FEIT) and the Korean Facial Emotion Discrimination Task (K-FEDT) for individuals with schizophrenia. Methods The K-FEIT and K-FEDT were administered to 42 Korean individuals with schizophrenia to evaluate their psychometric properties. To test the convergent and divergent validities, the Social Behavior Sequencing Task (SBST) and hinting task were administered as social-cognitive measures, and the Trail Making Test (TMT)-A and -B were administered as neurocognitive measures. Results Average accuracy on the K-FEIT and K-FEDT were 63% and 74%, respectively, and internal consistencies of the K-FEIT and K-FEDT were 0.82 and 0.95, respectively. The K-FEIT and K-FEDT were significantly correlated with SBST and Hinting Task, but not with TMT-A and B. Conclusion Following replication studies in a larger sample, the K-FEIT and K-FEDT are expected to facilitate future studies targeting facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia in Korea. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Bahk, Yong-Chun; Jang, Seon-Keong; Lee, Jee Ye

2015-01-01

303

A coronary heart disease prediction model: the Korean Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of this study were to develop a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk model among the Korean Heart Study (KHS) population and compare it with the Framingham CHD risk score. Design A prospective cohort study within a national insurance system. Setting 18 health promotion centres nationwide between 1996 and 2001 in Korea. Participants 268?315 Koreans between the ages of 30 and 74?years without CHD at baseline. Outcome measure Non-fatal or fatal CHD events between 1997 and 2011. During an 11.6-year median follow-up, 2596 CHD events (1903 non-fatal and 693 fatal) occurred in the cohort. The optimal CHD model was created by adding high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides to the basic CHD model, evaluating using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and continuous net reclassification index (NRI). Results The optimal CHD models for men and women included HDL-cholesterol (NRI=0.284) and triglycerides (NRI=0.207) from the basic CHD model, respectively. The discrimination using the CHD model in the Korean cohort was high: the areas under ROC were 0.764 (95% CI 0.752 to 0.774) for men and 0.815 (95% CI 0.795 to 0.835) for women. The Framingham risk function predicted 3–6 times as many CHD events than observed. Recalibration of the Framingham function using the mean values of risk factors and mean CHD incidence rates of the KHS cohort substantially improved the performance of the Framingham functions in the KHS cohort. Conclusions The present study provides the first evidence that the Framingham risk function overestimates the risk of CHD in the Korean population where CHD incidence is low. The Korean CHD risk model is well-calculated alternations which can be used to predict an individual's risk of CHD and provides a useful guide to identify the groups at high risk for CHD among Koreans. PMID:24848088

Jee, Sun Ha; Jang, Yangsoo; Oh, Dong Joo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Seong-Wook; Seung, Ki-Bae; Mok, Yejin; Jung, Keum Ji; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Young Duk; Baek, Soo Jin; Lee, Duk Chul; Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Moon Jong; Sung, Jidong; Cho, BeLong; Kim, Eung Soo; Yu, Byung-Yeon; Lee, Tae-Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Yong-Jin; Oh, Jang-Kyun; Kim, Sung Hi; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang Baek; Park, Sat Byul; Lee, Soon Young; Yoo, Cheol-In; Kim, Moon Chan; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Park, Joo-sung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Gyu Jang; Woodward, Mark

2014-01-01

304

Eye-tracking measures reveal how changes in the design of aided AAC displays influence the efficiency of locating symbols by school-age children without disabilities.  

PubMed

PURPOSE Many individuals with communication impairments use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems involving letters, words, or line drawings that rely on the visual modality. It seems reasonable to suggest that display design should incorporate information about how users attend to and process visual information. The organization of AAC symbols can influence the speed and accuracy with which children select a target symbol on a display. This research examined why some displays facilitate responding. METHOD Eye-tracking technology recorded point-of-gaze while children without disabilities engaged in a visual search task with 2 AAC displays. In 1 display, symbols sharing an internal color were clustered together. In the other display, like-colored symbols were distributed. Dependent measures were (a) latency to fixate on the target compared with distracters and (b) the number of fixations to target and distracters. RESULTS Participants were significantly slower to fixate on the target when like-colored symbols were distributed; there was a significant increase in the number of fixations to distracters that did not share color with the target. CONCLUSIONS Efficient search was related to minimizing fixations to nonrelevant distracters. Vulnerability to distraction can be a significant problem in individuals with disabilities who use AAC. Minimizing the intrusion of such distraction may, therefore, be of importance in AAC display design. PMID:24129007

Wilkinson, Krista M; O'Neill, Tara; McIlvane, William J

2014-04-01

305

Astronaut Preflight Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Vascular Compliance are Highly Correlated with Post-Flight Eye Outcome Measures in the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome Following Long Duration Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of the first VIIP case occurred in 2005, and adequate eye outcome measures were available for 31 (67.4%) of the 46 long duration US crewmembers who had flown on the ISS since its first crewed mission in 2000. Therefore, this analysis is limited to a subgroup (22 males and 9 females). A "cardiovascular profile" for each astronaut was compiled by examining twelve individual parameters; eleven of these were preflight variables: systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, use of anti-lipid medication, fasting serum glucose, and maximal oxygen uptake in ml/kg. Each of these variables was averaged across three preflight annual physical exams. Astronaut age prior to the long duration mission, and inflight salt intake was also included in the analysis. The group of cardiovascular variables for each crew member was compared with seven VIIP eye outcome variables collected during the immediate post-flight period: anterior-posterior axial length of the globe measured by ultrasound and optical biometry; optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve diameter, and optic nerve to sheath ratio- each measured by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraocular pressure (IOP), change in manifest refraction, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and RNFL of the inferior and superior retinal quadrants. Since most of the VIIP eye outcome measures were added sequentially beginning in 2005, as knowledge of the syndrome improved, data were unavailable for 22.0% of the outcome measurements. To address the missing data, we employed multivariate multiple imputation techniques with predictive mean matching methods to accumulate 200 separate imputed datasets for analysis. We were able to impute data for the 22.0% of missing VIIP eye outcomes. We then applied Rubin's rules for collapsing the statistical results across our 200 multiply imputed data sets to assess the canonical correlation between the eye outcomes and the twelve astronaut cardiovascular variables available for all 31 subjects. Results: A highly significant canonical correlation was observed among the canonical solutions (p<.00001), with an average best canonical correlation of.97. The results suggest a strong association between astronauts' measures of cardiovascular health and the seven eye outcomes of the VIIP syndrome used in this analysis. Furthermore, the "joint test" revealed a significant difference in cardiovascular profile between male and female astronauts (Prob > F = 0.00001). Overall, female astronauts demonstrated a significantly healthier cardiovascular status. Individually, the female astronauts had significantly healthier profiles on seven of twelve cardiovascular variables than the men (p values ranging from <0.0001 to <0.05). Male astronauts did not demonstrate significantly healthier values on any of the twelve cardiovascular variables measured

Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Snyder, R.

2015-01-01

306

mb(Pn) Scaling for the Korean Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several local magnitude scalings have been developed for the Korean Peninsula. However, there have been no regional body-wave magnitude scalings for the region around the Korean Peninsula. This causes difficulty in correct estimation of magnitudes of regional earthquakes around continental margins. Regional seismic wavetrains are composed of various crustal and mantle-lid phases. The mantle-lid P phase (Pn) and crustally-guided shear phase (Lg) are most widely used for regional body-wave magnitude scalings. A mb(Lg) scaling has been recently developed. We develop a Pn body-wave magnitude scaling. We collected 2332 seismograms from 57 events that occurred around the Korean Peninsula with epicentral distances of 150-700 km during 2000-2007. The mb(Pn) is scaling is based on the World Wide Standard Seismogram short-period records. The maximum peak-to-peak Pn amplitudes are measured in waveforms between empirical Pn and Pg traveltimes. The mb(Pn) magnitude scaling is calibrated using a linear regression based on least-square fitting. We verify the Pn body-wave magnitude scaling by comparing our mb(Pn) values with other types of magnitudes. We find that Pn amplitudes are highly dependent on the crustal structures beneath the receivers.

Lee, K.; Hong, T.

2010-12-01

307

Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea. PMID:25276012

Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R.

2014-01-01

308

Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Results Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). Conclusion This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women. PMID:24501665

Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul

2014-01-01

309

Relationship between Obesity and Depression in the Korean Working Population  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate potential relationship between obesity and depression in Korean working population. A total of 8,121 workers, aged 21-75 yr, participated in this nationwide cross-section research. The participants asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors, height, and weight. To measure degree of depression, the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) was used. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the degree of association between obesity and depression. Compared to normal-weight women, overweight women had a lower adjusted odds ratio (OR) for depression (OR=0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.97). Underweight (1.42, 0.83 to 2.44) and obese women (BMI ?30) had higher ORs for depression (1.47, 0.64 to 3.36), but these were insignificant. Compared to normal-weight men, obese men had higher crude ORs (1.94, 1.03 to 3.62) and adjusted ORs (1.77, 0.89 to 3.53) for depression, while underweight and overweight men showed no significant differences. These findings suggest that being overweight may protect Korean female worker against depression. PMID:21060743

Kim, Ji-Yong; Chang, Hye-Mi; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Soo-Young

2010-01-01

310

Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

2012-01-01

311

Contingency theory of group communication effectiveness in Korean organizations: influence of fit between organizational structural variables and group relational climate on communication effectiveness  

E-print Network

of closeness and group conformity among members. The response variables, communication practices of Korean workgroups, was measured in terms of the frequency of formal and informal meetings held by the workgroups. Two types of performance were measured...

Cho, WoonYoung

2006-10-30

312

Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

SciTech Connect

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-02-28

313

Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in…

Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung

2012-01-01

314

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye  

E-print Network

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eye. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

Cannata, Giorgio

315

THE AGING EYE EYE INSTITUTE OF NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE  

E-print Network

and glaucoma. Ocular Stem Cell Research Program Through the Center for the Aging Eye, we plan to advanceCENTER FOR THE AGING EYE EYE INSTITUTE OF NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE The Center for the Aging Eye within the Eye Institute will unite and advance a group of translational researchers who are dedicated

Engman, David M.

316

Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ... Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations ...

317

Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

318

Korean institutional investors and real estate investments  

E-print Network

Korean institutional investors comprise one of the major investor groups in the financial market. Given their characteristics and constraints, asset allocation of such institutional investors is dominated by 'traditional ...

Nam, Sangwook, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

319

The immigration experience among elderly Korean immigrants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants. PMID:17517031

Lee, Y-M

2007-06-01

320

Transformation of Child Socialization in Korean Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines agents of socialization, socialization skills, the influence of Confucian principles, gender socialization, and the differentiation of parental roles in traditional Korean families; and the value of children, the purpose of education, and family orientation in the modern family. (BC)

Yi, Soon Hyung

1993-01-01

321

[The history of modern Korean pharmaceutical education].  

PubMed

During the Korean colonial days from 1910 to 1945, many Japanese pharmacists, druggists, apothecaries and pharmaceutical scientists worked in Korea. Although these fields belong to Japanese pharmaceutical history, there are very few papers about modern Korean pharmaceutical education written in Japanese. There is, however, a huge amount of general books written in Japanese which were published during Korean colonial days. These books are reprinted versions of originals, reprinted in Japan or Korea. It is possible to read these books at the Seoul National University Central Library, Medical Library, the History of Hospital Institute Library, the Central National Library in Seoul, the library in the Pusan Modern History Museum or the Pusan Municipal Library. While reading these books over four weeks in September 2008 in Seoul, information about modern Korean pharmaceutical education was obtained for this paper. PMID:20527293

Ishida, Sumio

2009-01-01

322

Price sensitivity and innovativeness for fashion among Korean consumers.  

PubMed

Price sensitivity is how consumers react to price levels and to price changes. Consumer innovativeness is a tendency to welcome and to adopt new products. Researchers (e.g., R. E. Goldsmith & S. J. Newell, 1997) consider innovative consumers relatively more price insensitive than other consumers, so there should be a negative correlation between measures of these constructs. The results of the present study supported the psychometric soundness of a self-report measure of price sensitivity among 860 Korean consumers and replicated earlier findings of the negative correlation between the 2 constructs. PMID:16201674

Goldsmith, Ronald E; Kim, Daekwan; Flynn, Leisa R; Kim, Wan-Min

2005-10-01

323

Horizontal Eye Position in Thyroid Eye Disease: A Retrospective Comparison with Normal Individuals and Changes after Orbital Decompression Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare horizontal eye positions between proptotic thyroid eye disease patients and normal individuals, and to examine positional changes after orbital decompression surgery in thyroid eye disease patients. Methods The present case-controlled and retrospective comparative study included 78 proptotic thyroid eye disease patients who underwent bilateral orbital decompression surgery [lateral orbital wall decompression (Group L), 47 patients; medial orbital wall decompression (Group M), 9 patients; and balanced orbital decompression (Group B), 22 patients] and 143 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. The interpupillary distance was measured to determine horizontal eye positions before and 3 months after surgery in thyroid eye disease patients and was also examined in control eyes. Horizontal eye shifts were calculated by subtracting postoperative from preoperative interpupillary distances. Results Preoperative interpupillary distances in thyroid eye disease patients were significantly larger than in controls. The interpupillary distances were significantly decreased postoperatively in Groups M and B, but were significantly increased in Group L. The order of the magnitude of the horizontal shifts was Groups M>B>L. Conclusions Proptotic thyroid eye disease patients preoperatively showed laterally displaced eyes in comparison with controls. However, the eyes shifted medially after the medial orbital wall decompression and the balanced orbital decompression, although the former showed more shift. Medial orbital wall or balanced orbital decompression can be used to correct both lateral and anterior displacement of the eyes. PMID:25469505

Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

2014-01-01

324

Cytotoxicity of heat-treated Korean mistletoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic effects of preparations of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album L. var. coloratum Ohwi) on non-tumorigenic A31 cells and tumorigenic MSV cells were investigated. While the aqueous extract from Korean mistletoe (<8 ?g\\/ml) showed strong cytotoxicity on both cell lines, the heat-treated extract was much less cytotoxic with ID50 values of above 300 ?g\\/ml. The heat-treated extract showed a growth-enhancing

Jong Heum Park; Chang Kee Hyun; Heuyn Kil Shin

1998-01-01

325

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye  

E-print Network

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye Abstract The eye is a complex optical system that, like other still being in its infancy. Introduction The eye consists of many parts. · Sclera: The majority of the eye, it forms the white shell and the basic shape of the eyeball. · Cornea: The frontal 1/6 of the eye

La Rosa, Andres H.

326

Crisis Guide: The Korean Peninsula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations has created a number of interactive guides that address everything from Africa's conflict zones to the region along Pakistan's Afghan border. This particular interactive feature deals with the ongoing political situation on the Korean Peninsula. After a brief audio and visual introduction, visitors can take in eight chapters that cover the region's historical background, military history, and nuclear facilities. Along with graphics such as charts and tables, some of the chapters include interactive timelines and maps. One chapter that should not be missed is the one dedicated to exploring the subject of "Military Balance". In this chapter, users can learn about the military assets in the region held by the United States, Japan, China, Russia, and South and North Korea. It's quite an overview, and this site could also be used in an introductory political science or international relations course.

327

Preparation and Characterization of an Extract of German Cockroach From a Korean Source  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cockroach (CR) is an important cause of respiratory allergic disorders. We prepared a German CR extract in a standardized way and analyzed its allergenic properties. Methods The extract was prepared from German CR (Blattella germanica) obtained from a Korean colony, and its allergenic activity was compared with that of the commercial Hollister-Stier (HS) extract. The concentrations of Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were measured, and an in vitro specific IgE binding inhibition assay was performed to assess IgE reactivity. Proteolytic activity was examined by gelatin zymography. Results Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were detected at 405 U/mg and 273 ng/mg, respectively, in the Korean extract, and at 187 U/mg and 56 ng/mg, respectively, in the HS extract. The Korean extract showed 94.2% inhibition of IgE reactivity, as compared with the HS extract. A similar pattern of IgE-reactive bands was detected for the two extracts, indicating that their allergenic components are similar. The proteolytic activities of the Korean and HS extracts were found to be similar in gelatin zymography. The endotoxin levels in the Korean and HS extracts were 3,440 EU/mL and 6,580 EU/mL, respectively. Conclusions The German CR extract was prepared in a standardized way. The extract produced in this study will be useful for the development of allergy diagnostics and immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:23449858

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Shil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Hong, Chein-Soo

2013-01-01

328

Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

Kang, Kyoung-Ho

2009-01-01

329

Korean Teachers’ Beliefs and Teaching Practices in Korean Early Childhood Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs and practices of early childhood teachers in Korea. 54 child care teachers, 58 private kindergarten teachers and 45 public kindergarten teachers participated in this study. The Teacher Questionnaire was adapted for the Korean situation using both Korean and American early childhood education experts to determine cultural appropriateness of items (i.e.,

Joan E. Herwig

1997-01-01

330

Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

2014-01-01

331

Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

Jeong-kyu, Lee

332

Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals of selected regions in the eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier. Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 600 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

333

Pre- and Post-Head Processing for Single- and Double-Scrambled Sentences of a Head-Final Language as Measured by the Eye Tracking Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the eye-tracking method, the present study depicted pre- and post-head processing for simple scrambled sentences of head-final languages. Three versions of simple Japanese active sentences with ditransitive verbs were used: namely, (1) SO[subscript 1]O[subscript 2]V canonical, (2) SO[subscript 2]O[subscript 1]V single-scrambled, and (3)…

Tamaoka, Katsuo; Asano, Michiko; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

334

Protect Those Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build prototypes for protective eyewear. They choose different activities or sports that require protective eyewear and design a device for that particular use. Students learn about the many ways in which the eyes can be damaged and how engineers incorporate different features and materials into eyewear designs to best protect the eyes.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

335

An Eye for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

Ostwald, Thomas

1995-01-01

336

Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M

1975-01-01

337

Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens  

E-print Network

agreement with the measured values of the ocular aberrations. To make theoretical eye models more consistentWide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens Alexander V. Goncharov* and Chris Dainty-field schematic eye model, which provides a more realistic description of the optical system of the eye

Dainty, Chris

338

Comparing Perceived Burden for Korean and American Informal Caregivers of Stroke Survivors  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the burden of caring for stroke patients cross-culturally. This article compares the perceived burden for caregivers of stroke survivors in Korea and the United States. A brief interview was conducted to determine specific problem areas for caregivers. Caregiver burden (The Sense of Competence Questionnaire) and social support (The ENRICHD Social Support Inventory) were also measured. Overall sense of burden from caregiving was higher in the Korean cohort than in the Seattle cohort. The primary predictors of overall burden were caregiver and patient depression, and insufficient social support. The lower perceived social support among the Korean caregivers may reflect changes in Korean culture with lack of social support outside the family. American caregivers were more often troubled by lack of time for themselves. These findings may inform rehabilitation nurses in planning supportive interventions for stroke survivors and their caregivers that attend to cultural values. PMID:19583055

Choi-Kwon, Smi; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Veith, Richard; Teri, Linda; Buzaitis, Ann; Cain, Kevin C.; Becker, Kyra J.; Tirschwell, David; Fruin, Michael; Choi, Jimi; Kim, Jong S

2010-01-01

339

An information flow among industry sectors in the Korean stock market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the information flow among 22 industry sectors in the Korean stock market by using the symbolic transfer entropy (STE) method. We consider the daily index of 22 industry sectors in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) from January 3, 2000 to March 30, 2012. We measure the degree of asymmetry in the information flow and the amount of information flow among the industry sectors before, during, and after the subprime crisis in order to analyze how to relate them to the market crisis. We find that the amount of information flow and the number of connectedness during the financial crisis in the Korean stock market are higher than those before and after the market crisis. In addition, we find the role of the insurance sector, which is related to risk management, increases as information source after the crisis.

Oh, Gabjin; Oh, Tamina; Kim, Hoyong; Kwon, Okyu

2014-12-01

340

Korean Studies Collection at the University of Kansas  

E-print Network

This presentation of Korean studies collection at the University of Kansas was given by University of Kansas Chinese and Korean Studies Librarian Vickie Doll at the 2014 Overseas Koreanology Librarian Workshop in Seoul, ...

Doll, Vickie

2014-10-20

341

Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

Medicare benefits and your eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk for vision impairment ... on the arrows below for detailed information about Medicare benefits and your eyes. Request a Free Copy ...

342

Financial Aid for Eye Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Programs Training and Jobs Financial Aid for Eye Care Listen Financial Aid for Eye Care PDF* Many state and national resources regularly provide ... research, does not help individuals pay for eye care. However, if you are in need of financial ...

343

Infographic on the Aging Eye  

MedlinePLUS

Aging and Your Eyes What vision changes are normal with age? • • • • Needing glasses to see up close. Having trouble adjusting to glare. Having ... retina. Glaucoma Damage to the optic nerve. Dry eye Eyes do not make enough tears. Low vision ...

344

Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

2011-01-01

345

Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood  

E-print Network

Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood Na-Ri Shin, Min-Soo Kim, Mi, designated NAL101T , was isolated from gajami-sikhae, a traditional Korean fermented seafood made of flatfish ). Sikhae, a kind of traditional Korean food, also known as jeotgal, consists of fermented fish without

Bae, Jin-Woo

346

Korean Americans in U.S. Race Relations: Some Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the position of Korean Americans in U.S. history and in current race relations, focusing on the difficult task of building strategic alliances rooted in understanding of the relationships between the well-being of Korean Americans and that of collective American society. Korean Americans have a pivotal role to play in creating a…

Kim, Elaine H.

1997-01-01

347

Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

2012-01-01

348

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

349

Korean Americans in the United States: Problems and Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems faced by Koreans in the United States are identified and analyzed in this paper, and some pragmatic remedies are offered. First, the acculturation process is slow--the mean of the Koreans' sojourn in the United States is only 6.5 years, whereas complete acculturation takes several generations. Second, although most Korean emigres learned…

Kim, Eugene C.

350

Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1998-01-01

351

Predictors of DMSA chelatable lead, tibial lead, and blood lead in 802 Korean lead workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo examine the interrelations among chelatable lead (by dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA), tibial lead, and blood lead concentrations in 802 Korean workers with occupational exposure to lead and 135 employed controls with only environmental exposure to lead.METHODSThis was a cross sectional study wherein tibial lead, DMSA chelatable lead, and blood lead were measured. Linear regression was used to identify predictors of

A C Todd; B-K Lee; G-S Lee; K-D Ahn; E L Moshier; B S Schwartz

2001-01-01

352

Eye injury in sport.  

PubMed

Eye injury sustained during sport is increasing in incidence worldwide, reflecting the rise in popularity of sport as recreation. It can account for up to 25% of severe eye injuries. This paper considers the historical context and demography of sports injuries, and the physical mechanisms and results of various types of ocular trauma in relation to sport. It reviews the specific problems associated with the sports considered to be most important in the epidemiology of eye injuries today. Certain sports, such as boxing, have an intrinsic risk of injury so high that some consider the sport should be banned. The risk of injury in many sports can be mitigated by changes in rules, such as the prevention of high sticking in ice hockey. Other sports with high risk of trauma could be made far safer with the widespread introduction of eye protection, and this applies especially to squash and badminton. The various types of eye protection are discussed. There is an urgent need to increase awareness of the risk of eye injury, to teach safe techniques, and to encourage the use of appropriate ocular protective wear in those at high risk of injury, especially the one-eyed. PMID:2660211

Jones, N P

1989-03-01

353

[Treatment of eye allergies].  

PubMed

Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

2012-01-01

354

A Role of Eye Vergence in Covert Attention  

PubMed Central

Covert spatial attention produces biases in perceptual and neural responses in the absence of overt orienting movements. The neural mechanism that gives rise to these effects is poorly understood. Here we report the relation between fixational eye movements, namely eye vergence, and covert attention. Visual stimuli modulate the angle of eye vergence as a function of their ability to capture attention. This illustrates the relation between eye vergence and bottom-up attention. In visual and auditory cue/no-cue paradigms, the angle of vergence is greater in the cue condition than in the no-cue condition. This shows a top-down attention component. In conclusion, observations reveal a close link between covert attention and modulation in eye vergence during eye fixation. Our study suggests a basis for the use of eye vergence as a tool for measuring attention and may provide new insights into attention and perceptual disorders. PMID:23382827

Solé Puig, Maria; Pérez Zapata, Laura; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Supèr, Hans

2013-01-01

355

Eye Tracking Young Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics1, promote early identification2, and inform treatment3. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms4-7. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance8 and abnormal brain functioning9, particularly during the processing of social information1,10-11. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities2,12-13. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties. PMID:22491039

Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.

2012-01-01

356

The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

2012-01-01

357

Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.  

PubMed

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

2008-09-01

358

EMDR Effects on Pursuit Eye Movements  

E-print Network

This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale) decreased to a near zero value. Smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded by an Eyelink II video system before and after EMDR. For the five complete sessions, pursuit eye movement improved after their EMDR session. Notably, the number of saccade intrusions—catch-up saccades (CUS)—decreased and, reciprocally, there was an increase in the smooth components of the pursuit. Such an increase in the smoothness of the pursuit presumably reflects an improvement in the use of visual attention needed to follow the target accurately. Perhaps EMDR reduces distress thereby activating a cholinergic effect known to improve ocular pursuit.

Zoi Kapoula; Qing Yang; Audrey Bonnet; Pauline Bourtoire; Jean S

2009-01-01

359

Assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass by bioimpedance in older community-dwelling Korean adults.  

PubMed

It is crucial to investigate age-related body composition changes in geriatric medicine. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is easy to perform, non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, and portable. However, the accuracy of measurement by BIA is questionable. To develop and cross-validate the predictive equation for estimated appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using BIA in older community-dwelling Korean adults, we include two cohorts: study participants aged 65-80 years in the Ansung cohort for the Korean Health and Genome Study (men, n=285; women, n=435) used as equation-generating group, and Korean Longitudinal Study of Health Aging (KLoSHA) as cross-validation group (men, n=202; women, n=208). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA were performed in both cohorts. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we drew a predictive equation for DXA-measured ASM by BIA resistance. From DXA and BIA measurements in the Ansung cohort, we generated the estimated equation ASM (kg)=[(Ht(2)/R×0.104)+(age×-0.050)+(gender×2.954)+(weight×0.055)]+5.663 where Ht is height in centimeters; R is BIA resistance in 250?; for gender, men=1 and women=0; and age is in years. We validated this equation in the KLoSHA. The r(2) of the estimated ASM was 0.890. This BIA equation provides valid estimates of ASM in older Korean adults. PMID:24309033

Kim, Jung Hee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Kim, Ki Woong; Lim, Jae Young; Cho, Nam H; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

2014-01-01

360

Anatomy of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye Nearsightedness Illustration of a Normal ... the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov ...

361

Anatomy of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye. It is disc shaped with a hole in the middle (the pupil). Muscles in the ... of photoreceptors are rods and cones. Rods perceive black and white and serve night vision primarily. Cones ...

362

Dry eye syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... t smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

363

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... and severity of eye injuries. Only 3-mm polycarbonate lenses should be used in protective sports eyewear. ... lenses are available in plain and prescription forms. Polycarbonate lenses are impact resistant. They also are the ...

364

Eye Injuries at Work  

MedlinePLUS

... happen in the fields of manufacturing, construction and mining, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. ... Resources EyeWiki contact us sitemap Reproducing text or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US ...

365

Eye to I  

E-print Network

This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

Brunstein, Ada

2007-01-01

366

Contact Probe Based Stiffness Sensing of Human Eye by Considering Contact Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contact tonometer is commonly used for measuring the internal eye pressure to diagnose glaucoma. However, the conventional eye pressure measurement is valid only under the assumption that all subjects have the same structural eye stiffness. This paper challenges to measure the contact area between the probe and the cornea in addition to the corneal deformation for considering the individual

Yuichi Kurita; Yoshichika Iida; Roland Kempf; Makoto Kaneko; Hidetoshi Tsukamoto; Eiichiro Sugimoto; Seiki Katakura; Hiromu K. Mishima

2007-01-01

367

Strabismus Measurements  

MedlinePLUS

... when the other eye is covered. What are prisms? Prisms are clear, triangular shaped objects that bend ... measurements describe theamount of eye misalignment. What is prism and cover testing? Prism and cover testing is ...

368

Reading Like a Historian: Korean War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students analyze secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Who started the Korean War? The teacher begins by first explaining that textbooks can be biased sources and then uses a brief PowerPoint to show the geography of Korea and why/when war began there. Students then form pairs and read 2 accounts of the war: one from a South Korean textbook and another from a North Korean book. For both, students not only summarize and answer questions, but they must identify which source is which (North or South Korea?) and use textual details to prove it. In a class discussion, students share their answers. If time remains, the class may corroborate these sources with their own class textbook.

Stanford History Education Group

2012-11-04

369

Wilson Center Digital Archive: Korean War Armistice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Korean Armistice Agreement was signed on July 27, 1953, effectively ending hostilities and bringing an end to the Korean War. The Wilson Center has curated this fine collection of documents related to the armistice negotiations from the period of 1951 to 1953. These various papers, reports, and telegrams written originally in Russian, Polish, and Chinese shed light on North Korean, Soviet, and Chinese strategic thinking on the conflict and coinciding armistice. The 62 documents are arranged in chronological order and visitors can scroll through individual items or read transcripts along the way. Items of note include cables from Joseph Stalin to Mao Zedong, along with formal telegrams and reports from the National Security Council.

370

Eye Development and Retinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Three embryonic tissue sources—the neural ectoderm, the surface ectoderm, and the periocular mesenchyme—contribute to the formation of the mammalian eye. For this reason, the developing eye has presented an invaluable system for studying the interactions among cells and, more recently, genes, in specifying cell fate. This article describes how the eye primordium is specified in the anterior neural plate by four eye field transcription factors and how the optic vesicle becomes regionalized into three distinct tissue types. Specific attention is given to how cross talk between the optic vesicle and surface ectoderm contributes to lens and optic cup formation. This article also describes how signaling networks and cell movements set up axes in the optic cup and establish the multiple cell fates important for vision. How multipotent retinal progenitor cells give rise to the six neuronal and one glial cell type in the mature retina is also explained. Finally, the history and progress of cellular therapeutics for the treatment of degenerative eye disease is outlined. Throughout this article, special attention is given to how disruption of gene function causes ocular malformation in humans. Indeed, the accessibility of the eye has contributed much to our understanding of the basic processes involved in mammalian development. PMID:23071378

Heavner, Whitney; Pevny, Larysa

2012-01-01

371

Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

2003-01-01

372

Eye feature extraction for fetal alcohol syndrome screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional screening for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in children involves time-consuming and intrusive facial measurements. We are developing an alternative method that will allow automatic measurement of the relevant points from a pair of stereo photographs. This paper describes a method for automatic eye extraction from such photographs, using genetic algorithms to match eye templates to face images.

T. S. Douglas; F. Martinez; E. M. Meintjes; C. L. Vaughan; D. Viljoen

2001-01-01

373

Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the use of eye tracking measures (saccades, smooth-pursuit eye movements, fixations during scene and face perception, and pupillary dilation) to study typical and clinical populations of children and adolescents and evaluates the use of these measures. The studies are evaluated with a focus on points that may be of general…

Karatekin, Canan

2007-01-01

374

Koreans in Japan: A minority's Changing Relationship with Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Koreans form the largest ethnic minority group in Japan. The present study explores the situation of Korean pupils in Japanese schools by analyzing recent changes in four areas:(1) governmental and school-level policies, (2) school-level programs targeted at Korean children, (3) Korean pupils' academic achievements and (4) their micro-level encounter with schooling. It shows that Japanese schools are now more willing to accommodate special needs of Koreans in mainstream schooling and that Korean students experience schooling more positively than was the case in their parents' generation. The study argues that their relationship with Japanese schools has undergone a significant transformation at least partially because of such changes, even as the shifting nature of the relationship has a long-term influence on Koreans' beliefs about schools. Central government policies are seen as having adjusted in reply to existing school practices, themselves representing a response to classroom reality and local civil movements.

Okano, Kaori H.

2004-03-01

375

Proposal for the promotion of korean neurosurgery.  

PubMed

The author conducted a survey on the current status of neurosurgery around the world in preparation for Presidential Address at the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN). The addresses and findings from the survey were presented at ISPN in 2006 and Child's Nervous System in 2007. After reviewing the current status of neurosurgery of various countries, the author would like to share this information with members of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, as well as offer a proposal to promote Korean neurosurgery around the world. PMID:19096536

Choi, Joong-Uhn

2008-01-01

376

Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.  

PubMed

There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies. PMID:9409069

Kim, Y; Grant, D

1997-01-01

377

Schizophrenic delusions among Koreans, Korean-Chinese and Chinese: a transcultural study.  

PubMed

In this transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions among Koreans, Korean-Chinese and Chinese, many delusions were shown to be different among the three groups in their frequency and content and the differences could be explained by sociocultural and political factors. Delusional themes sensitive to influence by sociocultural or political situations and changes seem to be 'family', 'love affairs', 'religious matters', 'economic matters', 'specific physical damage' and 'political themes.' Delusions about 'family', 'love affair', 'being raped', 'religious matters' and 'economic and business matters' were most frequent in Koreans. Delusions of 'blood-relatedness', 'longevity' and 'political themes' were most frequent in Korean-Chinese. Delusions of 'bloodsucking and brain or viscera extracted' and 'poison or being pricked by poisoned needle' were most prominent in Chinese. PMID:8225815

Kim, K I; Li, D; Jiang, Z; Cui, X; Lin, L; Kang, J J; Park, K K; Chung, E K; Kim, C K

1993-01-01

378

Changes of the eye optics after iris constriction?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the possible change in the optics of the human eye after iris constriction. Methods Ocular aberrations were measured under natural viewing conditions in 26 eyes. The measured eyes fixated on a dim target while the contralateral eye was either occluded (so the measured eye had a large pupil) or highly illuminated (so the measured eye had a small pupil). The measured eyes fixated to a dim target placed 0.5 D beyond the subject’s far point. Zernike values obtained in both situations were compared within the same pupil diameter corresponding to the one obtained under the high illumination condition. Results Significant variation in some aberration coefficients were found between the two illumination conditions. Specially, spherical aberration (SA) increased significantly after pupil miosis (P = .0017). The mean increase of SA measured was 0.018 microns, for a 3-mm pupil. Mean values of other ocular aberrations also vary significantly after pupil miosis (changes were larger than the standard deviation of the repeated measurements). A mean paraxial hyperopic shift of one third of diopter was found after iris constriction. Conclusion Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.

Montés-Micó, Robert; Hernández, Patricio; Fernández-Sánchez, Vicente; Bonaque, Sergio; Lara, Francisco; López-Gil, Norberto

2011-01-01

379

Effect of Human Placental Extract on Health Status in Elderly Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Human placental extract (HPE) has begun to be used in Korea in various ways to improve health, even though evidence-based data is insufficient. This study investigated the effects of HPE on health status in elderly Koreans. Design. Randomized, single-blind, and case-control study design. Setting and Participants. Thirty-nine community-dwelling healthy Koreans ?65 years of age. Intervention. The participants were randomly categorized into a placebo group (n = 17) and HPE group (n = 22). The HPE group received abdominal subcutaneous injections of HPE for 8 weeks. The placebo group was injected with normal saline. Measurements. The degree of health status was surveyed by the Korean health status measure for the elderly (KoHSME V1.0) at baseline and the end of the study. Results. In the HPE group, the scores of physical function, sexual life, and general heath perception at the end of the study period were significantly improved from baseline (P = .007, .020, and .005, resp.), while the health status of the placebo group remained unchanged during the study period. There was a significant difference over the study period between the two groups in the mean change of the physical function score (P = .036). Conclusion. A HPE injection regimen can improve the health status in elderly Koreans. PMID:22454680

Kong, Mihee; Park, Sat Byul

2012-01-01

380

Eye-Head Coordination for Visual Cognitive Processing  

PubMed Central

We investigated coordinated movements between the eyes and head (“eye-head coordination”) in relation to vision for action. Several studies have measured eye and head movements during a single gaze shift, focusing on the mechanisms of motor control during eye-head coordination. However, in everyday life, gaze shifts occur sequentially and are accompanied by movements of the head and body. Under such conditions, visual cognitive processing influences eye movements and might also influence eye-head coordination because sequential gaze shifts include cycles of visual processing (fixation) and data acquisition (gaze shifts). In the present study, we examined how the eyes and head move in coordination during visual search in a large visual field. Subjects moved their eyes, head, and body without restriction inside a 360° visual display system. We found patterns of eye-head coordination that differed those observed in single gaze-shift studies. First, we frequently observed multiple saccades during one continuous head movement, and the contribution of head movement to gaze shifts increased as the number of saccades increased. This relationship between head movements and sequential gaze shifts suggests eye-head coordination over several saccade-fixation sequences; this could be related to cognitive processing because saccade-fixation cycles are the result of visual cognitive processing. Second, distribution bias of eye position during gaze fixation was highly correlated with head orientation. The distribution peak of eye position was biased in the same direction as head orientation. This influence of head orientation suggests that eye-head coordination is involved in gaze fixation, when the visual system processes retinal information. This further supports the role of eye-head coordination in visual cognitive processing. PMID:25799510

Fang, Yu; Nakashima, Ryoichi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

2015-01-01

381

The frontal eyes of crustaceans.  

PubMed

Frontal eyes of crustaceans (previously called nauplius eye and frontal organs) are usually simple eyes that send their axons to a medial brain centre in the anterior margin of the protocerebrum. Investigations of a large number of recent species within all major groups of the Crustacea have disclosed four kinds of frontal eyes correlated with taxonomic groups and named after them as the malacostracan, ostracod-maxillopodan, anostracan, and phyllopodan frontal eyes. The different kinds of eyes have been established using the homology concept coined by Owen [Owen, R., 1843. Lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, London] and the criteria for homology recommended by Remane [Remane, A., 1956. Die Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik. 2nd ed. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Geest und Portig, Leipzig]. Common descent is not used as a homology criterion. Frontal eyes bear no resemblance to compound eyes and in the absence of compound eyes, as in the ostracod-maxillopodan group, frontal eyes develop into complicated mirror, lens-mirror, and scanning eyes. Developmental studies demonstrate widely different ways to produce frontal eyes in phyllopods and malacostracans. As a result of the studies of recent frontal eyes in crustaceans, it is concluded by extrapolation that in crustacean ancestors four non-homologous frontal eye types evolved that have remained functional in spite of concurrent compound eyes. PMID:18089076

Elofsson, Rolf

2006-12-01

382

Immigration Patterns, Social Support, and Adaptation Among Korean Immigrant Women and Korean American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S.-born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach

Yongseok Kim; Darlene Grant

1997-01-01

383

Eye movements during emotion recognition in faces.  

PubMed

When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear, sadness, shame, and disgust) and neutral facial expressions. Participant eye movements primarily fell in five distinct regions (eyes, upper nose, lower nose, upper lip, nasion). Distinct fixation patterns emerged for each emotion, such as a focus on the lips for joyful faces and a focus on the eyes for sad faces. These patterns were strongest for emotional faces but were still present when viewers sought evidence of emotion within neutral faces, indicating a goal-driven influence on eye-gaze patterns. Experiment 2 verified that these fixation patterns tended to reflect attention to the most diagnostic regions of the face for each emotion. Eye movements appear to follow both stimulus-driven and goal-driven perceptual strategies when decoding emotional information from a face. PMID:25406159

Schurgin, M W; Nelson, J; Iida, S; Ohira, H; Chiao, J Y; Franconeri, S L

2014-01-01

384

Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing  

PubMed Central

The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers’ temporal viewing strategies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point-of-interest, and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli. PMID:22262911

Wang, Helena X.; Freeman, Jeremy; Merriam, Elisha P.; Hasson, Uri; Heeger, David J.

2011-01-01

385

Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. Results In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. Conclusions The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research. PMID:25393277

Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

2014-01-01

386

Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

Murfin, Brian

2009-01-01

387

Korean Supervisors' Experiences in Clinical Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demand for mental health services in Korea is increasing, and a corresponding rise in the number of trainees in counseling psychology results in a need for effective supervision. Using a grounded theory approach, this study explored Korean supervisors' experiences in supervision to better understand the current status of supervision practice…

Bang, Keeyeon; Park, Jeeseon

2009-01-01

388

‘Eternal Other’ Japan: South Koreans' Postcolonial Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores South Korean women's postcolonial and ethnic identities. In particular, it investigates their postcolonial consciousness by examining their perspectives of, and relations to, Japan. The discussion expands to include the women's ethnic identity with respect to North Korea in order to interrogate the intersection of their postcolonial and ethnic identities. The research data have been collected from two

Miyoung Oh

2009-01-01

389

Object Drop in Japanese and Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Languages can differ in fundamental ways with respect to the syntax of sentences with a "missing" direct object. Whereas Japanese and Korean permit null direct objects that are licensed under general discourse conditions (the recoverability of the referent from context) without regard for choice of verb, object ellipsis in English obeys lexical…

O'Grady, William; Yamashita, Yoshie; Cho, Sookeun

2008-01-01

390

Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

Silva, David J., Ed.

391

American Colleges See Potential in Korean Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For colleges in the United States seeking a foothold in South Korea's formerly insular higher-education sector, the lure seems to be part location, part alumni lobbying, and part desire to be part of the country's rapid transformation. The South Korean government's newfound openness to overseas universities is helping persuade American college…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

392

The current state of korean paleoanthropology.  

PubMed

The hominid fossil and Paleolithic archaeology records from the Korean Peninsula are extensive, but relatively little is known about the Korean human evolutionary record outside this region. The Korean paleoanthropological record is reviewed here in light of major research issues, including the hominid fossil record, relative and chronometric dating, lithic analysis, hominid subsistence, and the presence of bone tools, art and symbolism. Some of the major conclusions drawn from this review include: (1) hominid fossils have been found in nine separate sites on the Korean Peninsula; (2) possible Homo erectus fossils are present in North Korea; (3) Ryonggok Cave, in North Korea, has exposed the remains of at least five archaic Homo sapiens individuals; (4) a possible burial of an anatomically modern Homo sapiens child, discovered in Hungsu Cave in South Korea, has been tentatively dated to roughly 40,000 years ago; (5) handaxes and cleavers have been found at a number of sites near Chongokni and they appear to date to at least 100,000 years ago; and (6) taphonomic studies are necessary for addressing issues related to determining the nature of hominid-carnivore interaction over similar resources (e.g. carcasses and shelter); and the presence/absence of Early Paleolithic bone tools, art, and symbolism in Korea. PMID:10835263

Norton, C J

2000-06-01

393

Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

Koh, Hesung Chun

2006-01-01

394

Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts ... an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that too much exposure ...

395

A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

396

Tropical Cyclone Eye Dynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new perspective of the dynamics of a tropical cyclone eye is given in which eye subsidence and the adiabatic warming accompanying it are accounted for directly from the equations of motion. Subsidence is driven by an adverse, axial gradient of perturbation pressure which is associated principally with the decay and/or radial spread of the tangential wind field with height at those levels of the cyclone where the tangential winds are approximately in gradient wind balance. However, this pressure gradient is almost exactly opposed by the buoyancy force field due to adiabatic warming. This corroborates with observational data.The relationship between the present view of eye dynamics and those of Malkus and Kuo and a recent study by Willoughby is discussed in detail.

Smith, R. K.

1980-06-01

397

Prescription of eye drops  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess whether patients have their ocular drops correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. A retrospective review of notes of patients who were admitted to hospital for general medical or surgical care, while on regular eye drops at the time of admission was performed. Twenty two patients were on regular ocular medication when admitted. Only seven out of 22 patients had their eye drops correctly prescribed. Furthermore, six patients had been prescribed topical ?-blockers, yet suffered from medical conditions that may have been aggravated by these drops. These findings demonstrate that the majority of patients on drops do not have their medication correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. Also topical ?-blockers continue to be inappropriately prescribed.???Keywords: eye drops; non-ophthalmic admissions PMID:11571373

O'Sullivan, E; Malhotra, R; Migdal, C

2001-01-01

398

Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?  

PubMed

The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

2014-08-13

399

Validation of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26) in Korean population.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26). Translation/retranslation of the English version of QUALEFFO was conducted, and all steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were performed. The Korean version of the visual analog scale measure of pain, QUALEFFO-26 and the previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) were mailed to 162 consecutive patients with osteoporosis. Factor analysis and reliability assessment by kappa statistics of agreement for each item, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's ? were conducted. Construct validity was also evaluated by comparing the responses of QUALEFFO-26 with the responses of SF-36 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Factor analysis extracted 3 factors. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement greater than 0.6. The QUALEFFO-26 showed good test/retest reliability (QUALEFFO-26: 0.8271). Internal consistency of Cronbach's ? was found to be very good (QUALEFFO-26: 0.873). The Korean version of QUALEFFO-26 showed good significant correlation with SF-36 total score and with single SF-36 domains scores. The adapted Korean version of the QUALEFFO-26 was successfully translated and showed acceptable measurement properties and, as such, is considered suitable for outcome assessments in the Korean-speaking patients with osteoporosis. PMID:24414743

Lee, Jung Sub; Shin, Jong Ki; Son, Seung Min; An, Sung Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

2014-07-01

400

Job Information Deprivation in the United States: A Case Study of Korean Immigrants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the methods of job information acquisition used by recent Korean immigrants. Indicates the Koreans most frequently use personal contact with other Koreans. Reviews findings from the perspective of labor market segmentation. (Author/MK)

Kim, Kwang Chung; And Others

1981-01-01

401

Community-Based Home Healthcare Project for Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the effects of community-based home healthcare projects that influence service performances with regard to Korean national long-term care insurance services in older adults. Methods The project's applicants were 18 operational agencies in national long-term care institutions in Korea, and participants were care recipients (n = 2263) registered in long-term care institutions. We applied our healthcare system to the recruited participants for a 3-month period from October 2012 to December 2012. We measured the community-based home healthcare services such as long-term care, health and medical service, and welfare and leisure service prior to and after applying the community-based home healthcare system. Results After the implementation of community-based home healthcare project, all community-based home healthcare services showed an increase than prior to the project implementation. The nutrition management service was the most increased and its increase rate was 628.6%. A comparison between the long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries showed that health and medical services’ increase rate of nonbeneficiaries was significantly higher than beneficiaries (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our community-based home healthcare project might improve the service implementation for older adults and there was a difference in the increase rate of health and medical services between Korean national long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. PMID:24298438

Lee, TaeBum

2013-01-01

402

Relative contributions to filter-induced Q penalty from eye closure and OSNR degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements are made of the relative contributions to optical filter-induced Q penalties from distortion (eye closure) and OSNR degradation. An expression relating Q penalty to simulated eye closure is derived and verified experimentally.

J. D. Downie; F. Annunziata; J. Hurley; J. Amin

2004-01-01

403

ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL SPECIES TO THE EYE IRRITATION POTENTIAL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG  

EPA Science Inventory

Eye irritation measurements are available from smog chamber solar irradiations of selected hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxide mixtures. These results have been used to compute eye irritation intensity parameters for formaldehyde, acrolein, peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate...

404

The application of cooperative monitoring techniques to a conceptual limited deployment zone in the Korean peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The Korean peninsula is the site of a tense military confrontation. Relations between North and South Korea improved during the early 1990`s but the process is now frozen. Confidence building measures, particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries would decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for direct negotiations. The Korean Institute for Defense Analysis (KIDA) analyzed current security conditions and options. Their scenario includes a conceptual agreement to establish Limited Force Deployment Zones (LDZ) along the current demilitarized zone (DMZ) to increase mutual security. The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with KIDA, developed a strategy, with examples, for cooperatively monitoring the agreement. A cooperative monitoring regime requires consideration of the agreement`s terms, the geographic, logistic, military, and political factors of the Korean environment, and the capability of technology to monitor the terms. This paper assesses the applicability of cooperative monitoring to Korea, describes the monitoring strategy for the Korean enhanced DMZ scenario, and describes the applicable technologies and procedures.

Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

1996-10-01

405

Photorefraction of the Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

2015-02-01

406

Diabetes - Eye Complications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains how diabetes affects eyesight, specifically the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. It also reviews eye anatomy, other eye problems, and their treatment. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

407

Wayfinding and eye movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During rectilinear locomotion, the focus of expansion identifies the observer's heading. Eye rotation or curvilinear locomotion annihilates this singularity. Computer simulations of eye rotation during circular translation present possible solutions to heading judgement. Specifically, when gaze direction coincides with circular heading, every velocity vector in the image plane becomes linearized. These velocity vectors are tangent vectors of the corresponding flow lines of optical flow. Moreover, the vectors corresponding to the observer's path are all aligned perpendicularly in the image plane, which in turn can be used to determine the observer's path of locomotion.

Kim, Nam-Gyoon

1997-06-01

408

Graves' ophthalmopathy evaluated by infrared eye-movement recordings  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen patients with varying degrees of Graves' ophthalmopathy were examined using high-resolution infrared oculography to determine peak velocities for horizontal eye movements between 3 degrees and 30 degrees. As severity of the orbital disease increased, peak velocities became substantially lower. Vertical-muscle surgery failed to have any effect on peak velocity of horizontal eye movements. In contrast, orbital decompression caused notable improvement in peak velocity of eye movements. Eye-movement recordings, which provide a measure of extraocular muscle function rather than structure, may provide a safe, sensitive, and accurate method for classifying and following up patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

Feldon, S.E.; Unsoeld, R.

1982-02-01

409

Efficacy of the Mineral Oil and Hyaluronic Acid Mixture Eye Drops in Murine Dry Eye  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effects of mineral oil (MO) and hyaluronic acid (HA) mixture eye drops on the tear film and ocular surface in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods Eye drops consisting of 0.1% HA alone or mixed with 0.1%, 0.5%, or 5.0% MO were applied to desiccating stress-induced murine dry eyes. Tear volume, corneal irregularity score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured at 5 and 10 days after treatment. Ten days after treatment, goblet cells in the conjunctiva were counted after Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Results There was no significant difference in the tear volume between desiccating stress-induced groups. The corneal irregularity score was lower in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE and HA groups. The 0.5% and 5.0% MO groups showed a significant improvement in TBUT compared with the EDE group. Mice treated with 0.1% and 0.5% MO mixture eye drops showed a significant improvement in fluorescein staining scores compared with the EDE group and the HA group. The conjunctival goblet cell count was higher in the 0.5% MO group compared with the EDE group and HA group. Conclusions The MO and HA mixture eye drops had a beneficial effect on the tear films and ocular surface of murine dry eye. The application of 0.5% MO and 0.1% HA mixture eye drops could improve corneal irregularity, the corneal fluorescein staining score, and conjunctival goblet cell count compared with 0.1% HA eye drops in the treatment of EDE.

Choi, Jung Han; Kim, Jung Han; Li, Zhengri; Oh, Han Jin; Ahn, Kyu Youn

2015-01-01

410

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know  

E-print Network

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know Holly B. Hindman, MDHolly B of Ophthalmology Flaum Eye InstituteFlaum Eye Institute University of RochesterUniversity of Rochester #12;THE FLAUM EYE INSTITUTE #12;Keeping Your Eyes Healthy · Know about how your eyes work · Most Eye Diseases

Goldman, Steven A.

411

The Draize Eye Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by

Kirk R Wilhelmus

2001-01-01

412

Through Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

Narva, Sara

2009-01-01

413

The Eyes Have It  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

1999-01-01

414

Pursuit Eye Movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

415

Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael

2010-01-01

416

Simple Solutions for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

417

What is Diabetic Eye Disease?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... least half will show signs of a diabetic eye disease and the most common of these by far ... vision. Announcer: Diabetic retinopathy is not the only eye disease that may affect people with diabetes. Others include ...

418

Psychometric testing of the Depressive Cognition Scale in Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study translated the Depressive Cognition Scale (DCS) from English into Korean and tested the reliability and validity of the scale. Data were from a convenient sample of 795 community-dwelling Korean adults with a self-administered questionnaire. With regard to the reliability estimate, the internal consistency of the Korean version of the DCS (K-DCS) was acceptable, where the Chronbach's alpha is

Eun Ja Yeun; Young Mi Kwon; Jung A Kim

419

Causal Attributions of Dementia Among Korean American Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand conceptualizations of dementia, this study explored causal attributions of dementia among 209 Korean Americans, using a self-administered questionnaire in Korean. Findings show that Korean Americans endorsed various causal attributions. Factor analysis yielded 3 dimensions of their attributions including psychological, physical\\/environmental, and cognitive\\/social. Bivariate analyses showed that younger age and higher education were related to more physical\\/environmental attributions,

Sang E. Lee; Sadhna Diwan; Gwen Yeo

2010-01-01

420

SKOPE: A connectionist\\/symbolic architecture of spoken Korean processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoken language processing requires speech and natural language integration.\\u000aMoreover, spoken Korean calls for unique processing methodology due to its\\u000alinguistic characteristics. This paper presents SKOPE, a connectionist\\/symbolic\\u000aspoken Korean processing engine, which emphasizes that: 1) connectionist and\\u000asymbolic techniques must be selectively applied according to their relative\\u000astrength and weakness, and 2) the linguistic characteristics of Korean must be

Gary Geunbae Lee; Jong-Hyeok Lee

1995-01-01

421

2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469078

Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

2014-01-01

422

2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469139

Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

2014-01-01

423

Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Water & Contacts Don’ ...

424

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

425

What's on TV? Detecting age-related neurodegenerative eye disease using eye movement scanpaths  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We test the hypothesis that age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be detected by examining patterns of eye movement recorded whilst a person naturally watches a movie. Methods: Thirty-two elderly people with healthy vision (median age: 70, interquartile range [IQR] 64–75 years) and 44 patients with a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma (median age: 69, IQR 63–77 years) had standard vision examinations including automated perimetry. Disease severity was measured using a standard clinical measure (visual field mean deviation; MD). All study participants viewed three unmodified TV and film clips on a computer set up incorporating the Eyelink 1000 eyetracker (SR Research, Ontario, Canada). Eye movement scanpaths were plotted using novel methods that first filtered the data and then generated saccade density maps. Maps were then subjected to a feature extraction analysis using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Features from the KPCA were then classified using a standard machine based classifier trained and tested by a 10-fold cross validation which was repeated 100 times to estimate the confidence interval (CI) of classification sensitivity and specificity. Results: Patients had a range of disease severity from early to advanced (median [IQR] right eye and left eye MD was ?7 [?13 to ?5] dB and ?9 [?15 to ?4] dB, respectively). Average sensitivity for correctly identifying a glaucoma patient at a fixed specificity of 90% was 79% (95% CI: 58–86%). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82–0.87). Conclusions: Huge data from scanpaths of eye movements recorded whilst people freely watch TV type films can be processed into maps that contain a signature of vision loss. In this proof of principle study we have demonstrated that a group of patients with age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be reasonably well separated from a group of healthy peers by considering these eye movement signatures alone. PMID:25429267

Crabb, David P.; Smith, Nicholas D.; Zhu, Haogang

2014-01-01

426

A survey of overweight, body shape perception and eating attitude of Korean female university students  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] We obtained basic data on a proper weight loss training program by considering the relationship between body mass index (BMI), the perception of appearance, and eating attitudes of Korean female university students. [Methods] The survey and anthropometry for the perception of appearance and eating attitudes were conducted targeting 657 female university students located in Seoul, Busan, Ulsan, Daejeon, Chungcheongnam-do, and Gangwon-do South Korea who were not specializing in physical education. [Results] The underweight group accounted for 21.16% of the population, the normal weight group comprised 69.71%, the overweight group was 6.09%, and the obese group accounted for 3.04%. The satisfaction rate of appearance was 56.16%, the dissatisfaction rate was 43.84%, and normal-weight students who were dissatisfied with their own appearance comprised 48.5%. The More obese students were more dissatisfied with their appearance. As a result of investigating eating attitudes, 37.75% of all subjects had a risk for an eating disorder, and 38.6% were normal weight but showed a risk for an eating disorder. More obese (BMI) subjects were at higher risk for an eating disorder. [Conclusion] The BMIs of the Korean female university students were lower than those of European and American Caucasian women students, but the dissatisfaction of Korean female university students with their appearances was greater than that of European and American students, indicating that more Korean female university students were suffering from an eating disorder. It is predicted that the incidence of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia, will rise in Korean women if there is no accurate understanding and measure to identify the high risk group for an eating disorder. PMID:25566465

Woo, Jinhee

2014-01-01

427

Provenance study of the Yellow Sea sediment: geochemical evidence from Chinese and Korean rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yellow Sea is a world-famous epicontinental sea, semi-enclosed by landmass of China and Korea. It has held great fascination for marine geologists by offering itself as a world-class laboratory in which to study the interplay among sea-level change, terrigeneous sediment input, and hydrology for the typical epicontinental sea. Although the Yellow Sea sediment has been extensively characterized for the understanding of dispersal patterns and limits of terrestrial sediments from two gigantic rivers from China, Changjiang and Huanghe, and from several small Korean rivers (Han, Keum and Yeongsan), the intractable source problem remains unsolved so far because of poor knowledge on compositions of the Chinese and Korean river sediments and instability of source indicators for discrimination. Compositions of major, trace and rare earth elements in bulk and acid-leached sediments of Chinese and Korean rivers were measured by ICP-MS and compared, in order to characterize different source sediments. Source rock composition and chemical weathering intensity are two most important factors constraining distinct elemental compositions of river sediments, whereas grain size effect and human impact are minor. On the basis of element mobility and difference in compositions, chemical parameters, including Ti content, (La/Yb)N, GdN, ratios of Ti/Nb and Cr/Th, are suggested as source indicators to discriminate Changjiang and Huanghe sediments from Korean river matters. These source indicators, therefore, create the opportunity to decipher the provenance of the Yellow Sea sediment. Surface sediment samples from the Yellow Sea were determined for elemental compositions, and the provenance was identified by a discrimination model on the basis of the above geochemical indicators. The Huanghe river matter governs major part of the Yellow Sea, while the Changjiang and Korean river sediments contribute considerably to the southern and eastern parts of the Yellow Sea, respectively. The present study will shape our further understanding of the depositional system and paleoenvironmental changes during the later Quaternary in the Yellow Sea.

Yang, S. Y.; Li, C. X.; Lee, C. B.; Jung, H. S.

2003-04-01

428

Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2012-01-01

429

Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

Brickell, Henry M.

2011-01-01

430

LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE  

EPA Science Inventory

In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

431

Biomedical Devices for the Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the structure and function of the human eye, learning some amazing features about our eyes, which provide us with sight and an understanding of our surroundings. Students also learn about some common eye problems and the biomedical devices and medical procedures that resolve or help to lessen the effects of these vision deficiencies, including vision correction surgery.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

432

Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

2001-01-01

433

Evolving eyes RUSSELL D. FERNALD*  

E-print Network

how light can be collected resulting in only eight known optical systems in animal eyes. Surprisingly, development, eye evolution, eye variety Int. J. Dev. Biol. 48: 701-705 (2004) doi: 10.1387/ijdb.041888rf 0214 of adaptations produced by selective pressures for vision in different visual habitats. However

Fernald, Russell

434

Eye Health in Sports and Recreation  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Health in Sports and Recreation Tweet Tens of thousands of sports ... Eye Injuries in American Sports History High-Risk Sports For all age groups, sports-related eye injuries ...

435

What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... having eye cancer What happens after treatment for eye cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

436

Emmetropic eyes: objective performance and clinical reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the wavefront sensors to measuring the monochromatic aberrations of the normal human eyes has given a new insight in the objective understanding of its performance. The resultant wavefront aberration function can be applied to evaluate the image quality on the retina, which includes the analysis of the higher-order aberrations. Among others, and due to their well-known mathematical properties for circular apertures, the wavefront aberration function is most commonly represented in terms of the Zernike polynomials. The main idea is to have a clinical reference of the objective performance of a set of normal human eyes. However, the high-order aberrations in normal human eyes are different for each perso? that can be interpreted as that there are many possible solutions for the objective performance of emmetropic eyes. When dealing with the Zernike coefficients and excluding the spherical aberration, higher-order aberrations have a tendency to have a zero mean value. Different proposals have been suggested in the literature to deal with this feature. Moreover, it has been also shown that there is an ethnic dependency in the magnitude of the aberrations. We present in this work the objective performance of a set of uncorrected Mexican eyes, and compare them with other ethnic results published in the literature.

Tepichín-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Cruz Felix, Angel S.; López-Olazagasti, Estela; Balderas-Mata, Sandra

2013-11-01

437

Cortexin diffusion in human eye sclera  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the diffusion of cytamines, a typical representative of which is cortexin, is important for evaluating the drug dose, necessary to provide sufficient concentration of the preparation in the inner tissues of the eye. In the present paper, the cortexin diffusion rate in the eye sclera is measured using the methods of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance spectroscopy. The technique for determining the diffusion coefficient is based on the registration of temporal dependence of the eye sclera scattering parameters caused by partial replacement of interstitial fluid with the aqueous cortexin solution, which reduces the level of the OCT signal and decreases the reflectance of the sclera. The values of the cortexin diffusion coefficient obtained using two independent optical methods are in good agreement. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, Valerii V; Ghosn, M G; Larin, Kirill V; Kamenskikh, T G

2011-05-31

438

Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California  

PubMed Central

This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms. PMID:20886700

Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong

2010-01-01

439

Korean, NEO station in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint Near Earth Object (NEO) project team of Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) and Yonsei University Observatory (YUO) has recently installed a 0.5-meter robotic telescope at the Sutherland Observatory in South Africa. This telescope with 2-degree FOV is operated in fully automated mode making daily reports on discoveries NEOs and other significant luminosity variability via internet. The KAO-YUO joint team plans to install similar facility in Australia and Chile soon making a network of survey telescopes for southern hemisphere. In spite of its small aperture size this network will be an important tool in identifying southern NEOs especially those in the form of comets. This paper summarizes the observatory system data handling and our parallel efforts to characterize NEOs with follow-up light curve investigation. The joint project is funded by the National Research Laboratory Program of Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (KAO) and by the Korean Research Foundation.

Han, Wonyong; Byun, Yong-Ik; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kang, Yong-Woo; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Sunyoup; Bae, Young-Ho; Yu, Sung Yeol

2005-01-01

440

Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). III. Adult compound eyes.  

PubMed

The distribution of ommatidial diameters and interommatidial angles, as determined by measuring the angles between the optic axes of adjacent ommatidia, are mapped across the surface of the compound eyes of a variety of species selected for different adult behaviors, developmental histories, and taxonomic positions. The size of the visual fields, prey capture foveas, foveas composed of large dorsal ommatidia, and other specializations in the numbers of ommatidia that view various directions in the visual field are discussed in relation to adult behavior. Advanced species have less resemblance between their larval and adult eyes than primitive species. In contrast to their larvae, adults increase the monocular resolution of each eye at the expense of binocular vision. Most species have foveas which view in approximately the anterior direction, instead of in a region of binocular overlap, and many species have foveal bands which view along the horizon. Some advanced perching species, which approach their prey and other odonates from below, have an additional vertical foveal band that views along a vertical plane from the anterior direction to a more dorsal direction. The most unusual foveal band is seen in active flying species. The large dorsal ommatidia of the migratory Anax junius, which cover approximately one third of the eye surface, view a narrow region of the visual field that extends along a plane from the most lateral direction of one eye to a dorsal direction, and continues without interruption to the most lateral direction of the other eye. PMID:624923

Sherk, T E

1978-01-01

441

Obesity and depressive symptoms in elderly Koreans: evidence for the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis from the Ansan Geriatric (AGE) Study.  

PubMed

The current study is to examine the association between obesity and depressive symptoms and to test the validity of "Jolly Fat" hypothesis in elderly Koreans. A total of 1229 elderly (60-85 years old) Koreans selected from the Ansan Geriatric Study participated in this study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the measured weights and heights of subjects. Overweight and obese were defined as BMI > or =23 and > or =25, respectively. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 30-item Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (K-GDS), with a cutoff point of 18. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in elderly Korean women was higher than in men (20.9% vs. 9.2%, p<0.001). Among elderly women, higher mean values of obesity indexes, such as weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and body fat mass, were found in normal subjects than in those with depressive symptoms. No such differences were found in elderly men. Obese elderly women were less likely to suffer from depressive symptoms compared to those with apparently normal weight (odds ratio (OR)=0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.96). This inverse association was evident after adjustment for confounders, such as age, education, personal expenses, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, self-perceived health, presence of chronic disease, and cognitive function. Our data are consistent with the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis being valid only in women, but not in men, among elderly Koreans. A causal relationship between obesity and depressive symptoms should be evaluated in future studies in elderly Korean women. PMID:20042245

Kim, Eunkyung; Song, Ju Hee; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Ahn, Kyungsook; Kim, Jihye; Koh, Young Ho; Park, Moon Ho; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

2010-01-01

442

Eye movement abnormalities.  

PubMed

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2012-01-01

443

Pioneers of eye movement research  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

Wade, Nicholas J

2010-01-01

444

Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

2013-01-01

445

"We Shouldn't Be Forgotten": Korean Military Brides and Koreans in Kansas  

E-print Network

living in the United States came to this country. While the impact of this Korean migration to the United States has been examined and analyzed in urban areas on the East and West Coasts, such as Los Angeles and New York, the impact of “new... City, Leavenworth, and the Kansas City metropolitan area is a relatively recent phenomenon, and the majority of Korean immigrants have settled in the suburbs rather 2 than in urban centers. Moreover, in major Kansas cities, such as Overland Park...

Kim, Sang Jo

2012-08-31

446

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website highlights the history and use of satellites and remote-sensing technology to determine the state of the planet. A timeline covers the history of satellites from 1858 to 2000, including both accomplishments and failures. The Eye contains slide shows and images from satellites covering the topics of volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, floods, dams, ozone, deforestation, desertification, overpopulation, exploration of space, and human conflict. A section on classroom ideas provides activities for K-12 classrooms.

447

Tropical Cyclone Eye Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intense tropical cyclones, sea level pressures at the center are 50-100 hPa lower than outside the vortex, but only 10-30 hPa of the total pressure fall occurs inside the eye between the eyewall and the center. Warming by dry subsidence accounts for this fraction of the total hydrostatic pressure fall. Convection in the eyewall causes the warming by doing

H. E. Willoughby

1998-01-01

448

Through Einstein's Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through Einstein's Eyes is the online version of a multimedia project based around how things look at relativistic speeds. It is aimed at high school to early university level physics students. There are two sections. One is fun and spectacular, with a relativistic rollercoaster ride and a tour of the solar system. The other explores the physics of special relativity. CD and DVD versions of the material are available, and are helpful because of the large size of some of the video files.

Savage, Craig M.

449

EYE MOVEMENT AND REACTION TIME ARE BOTH IMPORTANT IN ASSESSMENT OF DIALOG BOX USABILITY  

E-print Network

. Traditional measures and eye movement patterns yielded different results: Reaction time analyses suggestedEYE MOVEMENT AND REACTION TIME ARE BOTH IMPORTANT IN ASSESSMENT OF DIALOG BOX USABILITY Bruce N and reaction time) were combined with eye movement patterns to study button placement and highlighting

450

Comparison of Three Eye Tracking Devices in Psychology of Programming Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye tracking can be used in measuring point of gaze data that provides information concerning subject's focus of attention. The focus of subject's attention can be used as supportive evidence in studying cognitive processes. Despite the potential usefulness of eye tracking in psychology of programming research, there exists only few instances where eye tracking has actually been used. This paper

Seppo Nevalainen; Jorma Sajaniemi

451

Tracing Eye Movement Protocols with Cognitive Process Models Dario D. Salvucci (dario+@cs.cmu.edu)  

E-print Network

1 Tracing Eye Movement Protocols with Cognitive Process Models Dario D. Salvucci (dario+@cmu.edu) Department of Psychology; Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract In using eye movements to develop cognitive models, researchers typically analyze eye movement protocols with aggregate measures

Salvucci, Dario D.

452

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye Movements Till S across eye movements. We first tested the hypothesis that motion signals are integrated by neurons whose receptive fields (RFs) do not move with the eye but stay fixed in the world. Specifically, we measured

Krekelberg, Bart

453

Fashion Advertisements and Young Women: Determining Visual Attention Using Eye Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to investigate how young women visually attended to a fashion advertisement by measuring their eye movements and to examine whether personal characteristics influenced individual differences in eye movements and self-reports of social comparison. The relationship between eye movement and participants’ reported comparison to the model was also investigated. Participants (n = 80) completed part

Hae Won Ju; Kim K. P. Johnson

2010-01-01

454

Characteristics of microseismicity in the southeastern area of the Korean Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of microseismicity occurred in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula are investigated. High-resolution data obtained from a dense temporary seismic network were analyzed with aid of data from the permanent seismograph networks which are administered by several organizations. A hundred of events with magnitude below 3.0 have been observed in the region during about one-year observation. Many of events are clustered in several localized regions and almost all of those events are observed at day time. This implies that those events might be related to the human activity at a limited location such as stone-mining site although we could not confirm our conjecture with eye investigations. The rest of events can be classified into natural earthquakes. Although they show a scattered pattern apparently, some of events are suspected to be related to the neotectonic geological features in the region based on distribution of both the hypocenter and origin time. Focal mechanisms of these events reflect an influence of the regional stress with no noticeable discrepancy from the rest of the Korean Peninsula. The longer observation using the dense temporary seismic network would be highly informative to confirm the relationship between the present seismicity and the neotectonic surface faults of the region. Thus the long-time seismic observations in a region is imperative to reduce uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment in the region.

Park, J.; Kang, T.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, W.; Jo, B.; Chung, T.

2012-12-01

455

Michelangelo's eye disease.  

PubMed

Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

2012-06-01

456

Visceral fat accumulation determines postprandial lipemic response, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese Korean men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral fat has been associated with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify anthropometrical measures most closely associated with some well-known CVD risk factors. Because most Asians at risk have normal body mass index (BMI) according to Western standards, we studied healthy nonobese Korean males (n ? 102; age: 36.5 ? 0.8 years,

Yangsoo Jang; Oh Yoen Kim; Ha Jung Ryu; Ji Young Kim; Sang Hoon Song; Jose M. Ordovas; Jong Ho Lee

2003-01-01

457

Validating the retail service quality scale for US and Korean customers of discount stores: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study was designed to determine whether the retail service quality scale could be validated in a discount retail setting in the USA and Korea. Two convenience samples of US and Korean college students provided the data for the study. A multisample analysis supported that the same three dimensions of service quality existed in both samples, but the measurement

Soyoung Kim; Byoungho Jin

2002-01-01

458

Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.  

PubMed

Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals. PMID:3211676

Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

1988-08-01

459

Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

460

A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

2012-01-01

461

An overview of Korean astronaut’s space experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an overview of the scientific space experiments in the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) that were conducted on the International Space Station (ISS), beginning with launch of the Soyuz TMA-12 spacecraft with the first Korean astronaut and two Russian astronauts on April 8, 2008 and returning to Earth on April 19, 2008. During the 10 days aboard the

J. H. Lee; Y. K. Kim; S. Y. Yi; K. S. Kim; S. W. Kang; G. H. Choi; E. S. Sim

2010-01-01

462

The Syntax of Inaudible Noun Phrases in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I examine the interpretation of NP-ellipsis (henceforth, NPE) in Korean. Some unexpected interpretive and grammatical contrasts arise in Korean between pro-forms such as "caki" "self" and "ku" "'3.S.M" (~"he") in object position and their null counterparts in NPE…

Kim, Ock-Hwan

2012-01-01

463

Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

2008-01-01

464

77 FR 45477 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012 By the President of the...can keep freedom alive upon the earth.'' Nearly six decades later...Korean War Veterans Armistice Day. I call upon all Americans to observe this day with appropriate ceremonies...

2012-08-01

465

Expression of Korean Identity through Music for Western Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this treatise is to examine compositions for Western instruments in which composers of yangak (Western-style music) express Korean identity and to determine how they integrate Korean traditional elements into their music and use them to cultivate their own musical language. Since Western music was introduced to Korea toward the end of the nineteenth century, musical culture in

Soo-Yon Choi

2006-01-01

466

Cultural Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the MBI-SS in Korean students. Specifically, we investigated whether the original three-factor structure of the MBI-SS was appropriate for use with Korean students. In addition, by running multi-group structural equation model analyses with factorial invariance tests simultaneously…

Shin, Hyojung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Lee, Sang Min

2011-01-01

467

Implementing Curriculum Integration: The Experiences of Korean Elementary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines 1) how Korean elementary teachers implement curriculum integration in their teaching practice and 2) what Korean elementary teachers experience in implementing curriculum integration. Several issues evolved from the analysis of three teachers' experiences: firstly, the teachers' lack of theoretical frameworks for curriculum…

Park, Minjeong

2008-01-01

468

Studies on Korean in Community Schools. Technical Report #22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this volume, all written in Korean, focus on language teaching and learning in Korean community schools. Drawing on innovative experimental work and research in linguistics, education, and psychology, the contributors address issues of importance to teachers, administrators, and parents. Topics covered include: childhood…

Lee, Dong Jae, Ed.; Cho, Sookeun, Ed.; Lee, Miseon, Ed.; Song, Min Sun, Ed.; O'Grady, William, Ed.