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1

Linguistic Complexity and Information Structure in Korean: Evidence from Eye-Tracking during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded…

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

2007-01-01

2

Literacy Measure B - Eye  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Literacy Measure B - Eye. EYE. Frequency. Percent. Valid Percent. Cumulative Percent. Valid, Correct, 901, 99.7, 99.7, 99.7. Incorrect, 3, .3, .3, 100.0 ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources

3

Comparison of Higher-order Aberrations between Eyes with Natural Supervision and Highly Myopic Eyes in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the characteristics and investigate the differences of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) between the eyes with a natural, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 20/12 and eyes with highly myopic eyes in Korean adults. Methods Thirty-one eyes of 20 subjects with UCVA of 20/12 (Group 1) and 54 eyes of 36 myopic patients with greater than -6 diopters (Group 2) were analyzed for type and magnitude of HOAs across a 6.0 mm pupil. HOAs were measured by Wavescan (VISX, Santa Clara, CA, USA) in natural scotopic conditions and were presented as root-mean-square (RMS:µm) in Belle aberration maps. Results The mean spherical equivalent (SE) of manifest refraction was -0.15±0.25 D (range: +0.37 to -0.50 D) in Group 1 and -7.25±0.78 D (range: -6.00 to -9.25 D) in Group 2. The total root-mean-square (RMS) values of HOAs for Group 1 and Group 2 were 0.28±0.09 µm and 0.27±0.087 µm, respectively (P>0.05). The mean values of coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration were 0.14±0.091 µm, 0.14±0.089 µm, 0.091±0.059 µm in Group 1 and 0.16±0.077 µm, 0.14±0.073 µm, 0.082±0.059 µm in Group 2, respectively. Conclusions This study helped establish ocular aberration standards for those with natural supervision and those with highly myopic eyes among Koreans. Individuals with natural supervision had significant amounts of HOAs, and there was no significant difference in the amount of HOAs between the two groups. The index of higher-order aberrations may not be a perfect predictor of the amount of refractive error.

Kim, Min; Lee, Young Gi; Seo, Kyung Ryul; Kim, Eung Kweon

2007-01-01

4

Exploring Cultural Variation in Eye Movements on a Web Page between Americans and Koreans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored differences in eye movement on a Web page between members of two different cultures to provide insight and guidelines for implementation of global Web site development. More specifically, the research examines whether differences of eye movement exist between the two cultures (American vs. Korean) when viewing a Web page, and…

Yang, Changwoo

2009-01-01

5

Japan Eyes the North Korean Nuclear Crisis (2006–09)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has been the primary security concern for Japan since the mid-1990s. By examining the content of debates revealed in the political, security and intellectual communities in Japan between 2006 and 2009, this article analyses Japan's views on the North Korean nuclear crises. It argues that Japan is still engaged in a vigorous domestic

Mong Cheung

2011-01-01

6

Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

2009-11-01

7

Pattern of retinal nerve fiber layer damage in Korean eyes with normal-tension glaucoma and hemifield visual field defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To evaluate quantitatively the pattern of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) damage in eyes with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) with hemifield dominant visual field defects using scanning laser polarimetry. Methods. Prospectively, 40 consecutive eyes from 40 patients with NTG and hemifield defect based on the findings of examination using the Humphrey Field Analyzer underwent RNFL thickness measurements. Twenty normal eyes

Michael S. Kook; Sang-un Lee; Kyung-rim Sung; Hungwon Tchah; Soon-tae Kim; Kyung-rhee Kim; Weechang Kang

2002-01-01

8

Noninvasive measurement of eye retraction during blinking.  

PubMed

We present a noninvasive technique for high-speed measuring of eye retraction and eyelid position during blinking. The anterior chamber of the eye is illuminated by the slit lamp of a biomicroscope and eye dynamics during a blinking sequence are captured with a high-speed camera working at 500 frames per second. Digital image processing allows quantitative analysis of cornea and eyelid positions during the closing and opening phases of the blinking process. Our method allows simultaneous measuring of corneal retraction, duration of down and up phases, total blinking duration, and average and peak speeds of the eyelids in both phases, thus providing a complete analysis of the blink's transversal motions. PMID:20517450

Mas, David; Domenech, Begońa; Espinosa, Julián; Pérez, Jorge; Hernández, Consuelo; Illueca, Carlos

2010-06-01

9

Detecting false intent using eye blink measures  

PubMed Central

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal.

Marchak, Frank M.

2013-01-01

10

Digitally calibrated eye movement measurement system.  

PubMed

A less expensive instrumentation alternative to record horizontal eye movements is presented in the form of a feasibility study. Currently, there are several techniques used to accurately measure eye position for research purposes. To implement these techniques, significant financial resources are required. The proposed technique costs less than $3000.00 and is based upon the limbus position technique. A linear charged coupled device (CCD) image array sensor and a biconvex lens are used to determine the position of the pupil. The self scanned CCD array is controlled by four analog clock signals generated from digital logic. The CCD video output signal is converted to a TTL compatible signal. The TTL signal is used to create a digital number based upon the limbus image formation upon the CCD pixels. This digital number is processed using standard signal acquisition techniques and is recorded on the hard drive disk of an IBM PC/AT compatible system. The C programming language is used to acquire the data and control calibration of the system. FORTRAN software is used to implement digital signal processing algorithms and estimate eye position. PMID:2065149

Baczkowski, L S; Enderle, J D; Engelken, E J

1991-01-01

11

Eye dominance and ct measures of occipital length and width  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT measurements of right and left occipital length and width were correlated with eye dominance for 14 men and 27 women. Female subjects demonstrated little relationship between eye dominance and occipital measurements. For male subjects, however, right eye dominance was significantly correlated with increased lengths and widths for both right and left hemispheres on CT slices W, SM, and SM

Suzanne Craft; Ronald A. Yeo

1990-01-01

12

A data envelopment analysis-based balanced scorecard for measuring the comparative efficiency of Korean luxury hotels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to develop a balanced scorecard for measuring the comparative efficiency of Korean luxury hotels and then set the benchmark of performance standards for Korean luxury hotels in the increasingly competitive hotel industry. It also aims to identify the root causes of inefficiencies and then propose ways to improve the competitiveness of Korean luxury hotels. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Hokey Min; Hyesung Min; Seong-Jong Joo

2008-01-01

13

Measuring Depression in Korean Immigrants: Assessing Validity of the Translated Korean Version of CES-D Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported about the validity of a translated Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), a self-report or interview measure of depressive sympto matology used widely in Asian and other ethnic populations. Compared to Euro-Americans, Asians are more reluctant to endorse CES-D items that tap subjective experiences of positive affect, a response bias resulting in observations

Samuel Noh; Violet Kaspar; Xinyin Chen

1998-01-01

14

Detecting false intent using eye blink measures.  

PubMed

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined-across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity-whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a "contact" that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

Marchak, Frank M

2013-10-11

15

Analysis of the facial measurements of Korean Air Force pilots for oxygen mask design.  

PubMed

This study measured the facial dimensions of Korean Air Force (KAF) pilots, to design a pilot oxygen mask, and compared them with those of Korean civilians and US Air Force (USAF) personnel. Twenty-two facial dimensions were measured for 278 KAF male pilots (KMP) and 58 KAF female pilots and cadets (KFP) using an anthropometer and a three-dimensional scanner. The KMP face measurements were found to be significantly larger (mean difference, [Formula: see text] = 0.7-26.5 mm) and less varied (ratio of SDs = 0.29-0.82) than those of Korean male civilians. The average face length, lip width and nasal root breadth of the KMP were significantly longer ([Formula: see text] = 4.7 mm), narrower ([Formula: see text] = - 2.4 mm), and wider ([Formula: see text] = 5.2 mm), respectively, than those of USAF male personnel. Lastly, the KMP face measurements were significantly larger ([Formula: see text] = 1.8-26.1 mm) than those of the KFP. Practitioner Summary: The face measurements of KAF pilots were collected and compared with those of Korean civilians and USAF personnel. The distinct facial features of the populations identified in this study are applicable to custom design of an oxygen mask for prevention of excessive pressure and oxygen leakage. PMID:23845083

Lee, Wonsup; Jeong, Jeongrim; Park, Jangwoon; Jeon, Eunjin; Kim, Heeeun; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; You, Heecheon

2013-07-12

16

Axial length measurement techniques in pediatric eyes with cataract.  

PubMed

Globe axial length (AL) in children is commonly measured using either contact or immersion technique. Office measurement of AL can be difficult in young children and infants and must often be done under anesthesia in an eye that is unable to cooperate with precise fixation and centration. Contact A-scan measurements yield shorter AL, on average, than immersion A-scan measurements in pediatric eyes. This difference is mainly the result of the anterior chamber depth rather than the lens thickness value. During intraocular lens power calculation, if globe axial length is measured by the contact technique, it will result in the use of an average 1-D stronger IOL power than is actually required. This can lead to induced myopia in the postoperative refraction. In our studied patients, there was a significant difference in prediction error between contact A-scan biometry and immersion A-scan biometry. The immersion A-scan technique is recommended for pediatric IOL power calculation. We also provide a review of biometry in pediatric eyes. The overall mean AL of pediatric cataractous eyes is significantly different than the mean AL of non cataractous eyes. More importantly, the standard deviation is higher in eyes with cataract than in those without. Three phases of eye growth in children have been documented: A rapid, postnatal phase from birth to 6 months of age, followed by a slower, infantile phase from 6 to 18 months of age, and finally a slow, juvenile phase from 18 months forward. In our study, girls had shorter ALs than boys and African-American subjects had longer ALs than Caucasians. Eyes with unilateral cataract had shorter ALs than eyes with bilateral cataract during the earlier years, but had longer ALs during later childhood. PMID:23960963

Wilson, M Edward; Trivedi, Rupal H

2012-01-01

17

Cultural competence of measurement scales of menopausal symptoms: use in research among Korean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though there are advancements in research related to culturally competent care, there is an increasing realization that coherent theories and a research base to guide health care that is culturally competent is yet to be fully developed. In this paper, cultural competence of the scales measuring menopausal symptoms are critically analyzed in light of their limitations for Korean women

Eun-Ok Im; Afaf Ibrahim Meleis; Kathryn A. Lee

1999-01-01

18

Influences of reference plane and direction of measurement on eye aberration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explored effects of measurement conditions on wave aberration estimates for uncorrected, axially myopic model eyes. Wave aberrations were initially referenced to either the anterior corneal pole or the natural entrance pupil of symmetrical eye models, with rays traced into the eye from infinity (into the eye) to simulate normal vision, into the eye from infinity and then back out of the eye from the retinal intercepts (into/out of the eye), or out of the eye from the retinal fovea (out of the eye). The into-the-eye and out-of-the-eye ray traces gave increases in spherical aberration as myopia increased, but the into/out-of-the-eye ray trace showed little variation in spherical aberration. Reference plane choice also affected spherical aberration. Corresponding residual aberrations were calculated after the models had been optically corrected, either by placing the object or image plane at the paraxial far point or by modifying corneas to simulate laser ablation corrections. Correcting aberrations by ablation was more complete if the original aberrations were referenced to the cornea rather than to the entrance pupil. For eyes corrected by spectacle lenses, failure to allow for effects of pupil magnification on apparent entrance pupil diameter produced larger changes in measured aberrations. The general findings regarding choice of reference plane and direction of measurement were found to be equally applicable to eyes that lacked rotational symmetry.

Atchison, David A.; Charman, W. Neil

2005-12-01

19

A New Interocular Suppression Technique for Measuring Sensory Eye Dominance  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Recently devised tests have implemented forms of interocular suppression (e.g., binocular rivalry) to assess eye dominance. In an effort to combine the strengths of these tests, the authors introduce a new technique for quantifying the magnitude of interocular suppression by using an easily administered psychophysical test. Methods. Eighty-eight observers participated in the interocular suppression test, which involved dichoptic presentation of dynamic noise to one eye and a target stimulus to the other. Observers made a form-discrimination judgment once the target emerged from suppression. The authors reasoned that the dominant eye is less susceptible to interocular suppression and as a result, perception and thus, form discrimination would be faster when the target is presented to the dominant eye as opposed to the nondominant eye. Observers' sighting dominance, acuity, contrast sensitivity, and test–retest reliability were also assessed. Results. There were significant interocular differences in mean reaction times within and across observers. Of the observers, 68% and 32% observers were categorized as right eye dominant and left eye dominant, respectively, according to the test. Moreover, 38% of observers showed strong eye dominance. Observers' discrimination accuracy (98%) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.52–0.67) were high. Consistent with results in previous studies, statistical correlations were weak between the sighting dominance test, acuity scores, contrast sensitivity measures, and the interocular suppression test. Conclusions. This interocular suppression technique offers an efficient, reliable, quantitative method of evaluating eye dominance and may be useful in making decisions about differential refractive correction of the two eyes.

Blake, Randolph; McDonald, James E.

2010-01-01

20

Cyclotorsional eye motion occurring between wavefront measurement and refractive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To quantify the cyclorotation occurring between wavefront measurement and laser refractive surgery.Setting: LaserVue Eye Center Ophthalmic Clinic, Santa Rosa, California, USA.Methods: The pupil camera of the Visx WaveScan® wavefront device was used to obtain images of 51 eyes (26 patients) from 5 to 20 minutes before refractive laser surgery. Additionally, an infrared camera was mounted on the Visx Star

Dimitri A Chernyak

2004-01-01

21

Measuring immigration stress of first-generation female Korean immigrants in California: Psychometric evaluation of Demand of Immigration Scale  

PubMed Central

Objectives Immigration involves challenges and distress, which affect health and well-being of immigrants. Koreans are a recent, fast growing, but understudied group of immigrants in the US, and no study has established or evaluated any immigration stress measure among this population. This study explores the psychometric properties of Korean-translated Demands of Immigration (DI) Scale among first-generation female Korean immigrants in California. Analyses included evaluation of factor structure, reliability, validity, and descriptive statistics of subscales. Design A surname driven sampling strategy was applied to randomly select a representative sample of adult female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. Study sample included 555 first-generation female Korean immigrants who were interviewed in Korean language. The 22-item DI scale was used to assess immigration stress in the study sample. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested six correlated factors existed in the DI scale: language barriers, sense of loss, not feeling at home, perceived discrimination, novelty, and occupation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis validated the factor structure. Language barriers accounted for the most variance of the DI Scale (29.11%). The DI scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Conclusion Evidence has been offered that the Korean-translated DI scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool to examine immigration stress among Korean immigrants. The Korean-translated DI scale has replicated factor structure obtained in other ethnicities, but addition of cultural-specific items is suggested for Korean immigrants. High levels of language and occupation related stress warrant attention from researchers, social workers and policy makers. Findings from this study will inform future interventions to alleviate stress due to demands of immigration.

Ding, Ding; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Norman, Gregory J.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Chhay, Douglas; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2010-01-01

22

Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... increased pressure inside the eye. Untreated glaucoma can cause blindness. Pre-senile cataracts Clouding of the eye lens before age 60. Cataracts are common in older people who do not have Marfan ... do not usually cause vision problems, but they can help doctors decide ...

23

[Laser optic measurements of the axial length of the eye].  

PubMed

A new method has been developed for determining the axial length of the human eye. This method is based on laser interferometry with partially coherent light emitted by a multimode semiconductor laser diode. The measurement procedure is as follows. The subject looks into the laser beam (wavelength approximately equal to 780 nm, power approximately equal to 100 microW), which appears as a red spot. Hence the laser beam acts as a fixation target and measuring beam. This beam passes a Fabry-Perot interferometer in front of the eye. Reflected beams are generated at the cornea and retina. Since the coherence length of the laser used (approximately equal to 25 microns) is less than the difference in path length of the two reflected beams, they will usually not interfere with each other. However, if the distance between the interferometer plates is equal to the optical length of the eye, an interference pattern can be observed. (This is due to a second illuminating beam, which is generated by the interferometer and delayed by two times the interferometer plate distance.) During measurement, the plates are displaced relative to each other until the interference pattern is observed. At this point the plate distance, which can readily be measured, is equal to the optical eye length. This method has several advantages in comparison with the usual ultrasonic technique: it is a non-contact method; no anesthesia is needed; the optical eye length is determined directly; no assumptions need be made about sound velocities in the different eye media. High longitudinal and transversal resolution is achieved (10 microns or better possible). The first measurements obtained with the optical method were compared with the results yielded by the ultrasound technique.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2737574

Hitzenberger, C; Mengedoht, K; Fercher, A F

1989-01-01

24

An effective R&D performance measurement system: survey of Korean R&D researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without effective performance evaluation, R&D organizations will find it hard to motivate their R&D scientists and engineers: ‘How should R&D managers design the performance measurement system most suitable to their own organization?’ is a critical question. Based on a large-scale survey covering over 1200 R&D scientists and engineers in Korean R&D organizations, we put forth the following lessons. Although most

Bowon Kim; Heungshik Oh

2002-01-01

25

Axial eye-length measurement by wavelength-shift interferometry.  

PubMed

A simplified noncontact measuring technique for axial eye length was developed. According to this method, the wavelength shift of a single-mode laser-diode beam that is irradiated onto the eyeball causes a phase shift in the interference fringes of reflections from the retina and the cornea. Then the optical distance between the cornea and the retina is obtained from the phase-shift measurement. High-speed axial eye-length measurements can be performed by using a laser diode on a pulse-modulation drive and signals from the reference light path as an analog-to-digital-conversion trigger. Compared with the technique that uses partially coherent light, this technique is inferior in terms of measurement accuracy but superior in its wide, measurable range of 16-32 mm. The results of measurements of 21 adults showed that 2 standard deviations of measurement was 2 sigma = +/- 0.11 mm. PMID:8350154

Sekine, A; Minegishi, I; Koizumi, H

1993-07-01

26

Psychometric assessment of the Emotional Reactions Instrument-Korean (ERI-K) to measure Korean children's emotional reaction to hospitalization.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test psychometric properties of the Emotional Reactions Instrument-Korean (ERI-K). A convenience sample of 170 hospitalized Korean children was recruited. Each child was asked to describe how she or he felt during hospitalization, through the ERI-K and the Facial Affective Scale. Surprisingly, children reported lower levels of negative emotions and physical discomfort and a moderate level of positive emotion (Happy, Good). Internal consistency reliability of .88 for the 14-item scale provides strong support for reliability. Construct validity was supported by item-to-total correlations ranging between .42 and .65. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors that explained 54% of the variance. Further testing of the ERI-K is recommended to provide additional evidence of psychometric adequacy across Korean populations. PMID:21191034

Kim, Jin-Sun; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Foster, Roxie L; Cheng, Sufen

2011-01-01

27

Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field  

SciTech Connect

The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Larichev, A V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, P V [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-12-31

28

Efficient Measurement of Eye Blinking under Various Illumination Conditions for Drowsiness Detection Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an efficient way of measuring the level of eye blinking under various illumination conditions (such as day and night) for drowsiness detection systems which use a single camera. Determining the level of drowsiness by using eye blinking, it is an important way of detection eye positions and measuring eyelid movements. For robust eye detection under

Jung-ho Ahn; Hyeran Byun

2006-01-01

29

Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM-K).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a Korean version of Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). A Korean version of the IPSM (IPSM-K) was produced through forward translation, reconciliation, and back translation. A total of 338 healthy, non-clinical participants were selected through screening and clinical interview, and they each were given a set of questionnaires including IPSM-K. All subscales, as well as a full-scale IPSM-K showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.73-0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was significant, with coefficient r ranging between .80 and .94. In terms of convergent validity, IPSM-K showed the significant positive correlation with sociotropy and autonomy subscale of Personal Style Inventory-II, as well as with neuroticism subscale of Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Personality Inventory. IPSM-K had no correlation with Social Desirability Scale, thus demonstrated divergent validity with social desirability. A factor analysis of the scale was conducted and five factors emerged (low self-confidence, interpersonal awareness, lack of assertiveness/separation anxiety, interpersonal vulnerability, and need for approval). This study demonstrated that IPSM-K could be useful in assessing interpersonal sensitivity in Korean population. PMID:23642631

Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Jung, Na Young; Rauch, Sheila A M; Chae, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai

2013-05-02

30

OPTICAL EYE MODEL: Human eye aberrations: 2. Development of a dynamic model of the human eye based on measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A human eye model based on a flexible semipassive bimorph mirror is proposed and experimentally realised. The model can be used for the real-time reproduction of human eye aberrations and their fluctuations. The accuracy of the reproduction of individual Zernike polynomials and of total eye aberrations of inspected patients is discussed.

Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu; Kudryashov, A. V.

2008-11-01

31

Custom-oriented wavefront sensor for human eye properties measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of correct measurement of human eye aberrations is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). In this paper we show capabilities to measure aberrations by means of the aberrometer built in our lab together with Active Optics Ltd. We discuss the calibration of the aberrometer and show invalidity to use for the ophthalmic calibration purposes the analytical equation based on thin lens formula. We show that proper analytical equation suitable for calibration should have dependence on the square of the distance increment and we illustrate this both by experiment and by Zemax Ray tracing modeling. Also the error caused by inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the beam imaged onto the aberrometer's Shack-Hartmann sensor is discussed.

Galetskiy, Sergey; Letfullin, Renat; Dubinin, Alex; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis

2005-12-01

32

Face and eyes localization algorithm in thermal images for temperature measurement of the inner canthus of the eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel algorithm for the detection and localization of the face and eyes in thermal images is presented, particularly the temperature measurement of the human body by measuring the eye corner (inner canthus) temperature. The algorithm uses a combination of the template-matching, knowledge-based and morphological methods, particularly the modified Randomized Hough Transform (RHT) in the localization process, also growing segmentation to increase accuracy of the localization algorithm. In many solutions, the localization of the face and/or eyes is made by manual selection of the regions of the face and eyes and then the average temperature in the region is measured. The paper also discusses experimental studies and the results, which allowed the evaluation of the effectiveness of the developed algorithm. The standardization of measurement, necessary for proper temperature measurement with the use of infrared thermal imaging, are also presented.

Budzan, Sebastian; Wy?golik, Roman

2013-09-01

33

Things Korean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

Chang, Roberta

34

Measurement Invariance of the Counselor Burnout Inventory across Cultures: A Comparison of U.S. and Korean Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed scores from the Counselor Burnout Inventory for factorial validity, convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, and measurement invariance across U.S. and Korean counselors. Although evidence existed for factorial validity across both groups, mixed results emerged for the other forms of validity and…

Carrola, Paul A.; Yu, Kumlan; Sass, Daniel A.; Lee, Sang Min

2012-01-01

35

Measurement Invariance of the Counselor Burnout Inventory across Cultures: A Comparison of U.S. and Korean Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed scores from the Counselor Burnout Inventory for factorial validity, convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, and measurement invariance across U.S. and Korean counselors. Although evidence existed for factorial validity across both groups, mixed results emerged for the other forms of validity and…

Carrola, Paul A.; Yu, Kumlan; Sass, Daniel A.; Lee, Sang Min

2012-01-01

36

Measurements of AIM for Visible Wavelength Based on Individual Eye Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure and calculate the aerial image modulation (AIM) of human retina for visible wavelengths based on the individual eye model. By employing the optical design software ZEMAX, we obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF) of human eye in visible wavelengths. Using CSV-1000 and VAF-1000, the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and the visual acuity (VA) for the same eye are

Wei Wang; Zhao-Qi Wang; Yan Wang; Tong Zuo; Kan-Xing Zhao

2006-01-01

37

Neural correlates of eye blinking; improved by simultaneous fMRI and EOG measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural correlates of eye blink in healthy human subjects can be investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the focus of most previous studies has been on intentional eye blinking. The goal of the present study was to examine the neural correlates of spontaneous eye blinking with the help of EOG measurements during data acquisition of fMRI. After the removal

Hyo Woon Yoon; Jun-Young Chung; Myung-Sung Song

2005-01-01

38

Measuring health literacy among immigrants with a phonetic primary language: a case of Korean American women.  

PubMed

While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities. This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults-Short form (S-TOFHLA). Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA were administered to 98 Korean American women, together with REALM-English. Participants were first-generation immigrants who were educated in Korea. Both Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA resulted in a negatively-skewed distribution. REALM-English yielded well-distributed groups with significant correlations with Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P = 0.003 and 0.22, P = 0.03, respectively). Educational level was significantly correlated with REALM-English and Korean S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.39, P = 0.000 and 0.25, P = 0.014), but not with REALM-Korean. The translation of REALM and S-TOFHLA into the Korean language did not lead to a valid assessment of health literacy. A more systematic approach is needed to assess health literacy in immigrants with limited English skills, particularly those with a phonetic primary language. Meanwhile, REALM-English could be used as a crude health literacy test for individuals with some English skills. PMID:20585985

Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B

2011-04-01

39

Noninvasive polarimetric glucose measurement system for eye phantoms and in-vivo measurement requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level is a key technology for improved diagnosis and therapy for Diabetes patients. Optical measurement techniques like polarimetry measuring at the human eye offer promising properties for non-invasive and painless application. This article presents a polarimetric measurement system utilizing the polarizing properties of the Aqueous Humour (AH) for quantative glucose measurements. In particular the special requirements of in-vivo measurements for such a system are discussed.

Rawer, Rainer C.; Vollmer, Patrick; Malz, André; Stork, Wilhem; Müller-Glaser, Klaus D.

2003-10-01

40

Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman

2013-09-01

41

Heritabilities of facial measurements and their latent factors in korean families.  

PubMed

Genetic studies on facial morphology targeting healthy populations are fundamental in understanding the specific genetic influences involved; yet, most studies to date, if not all, have been focused on congenital diseases accompanied by facial anomalies. To study the specific genetic cues determining facial morphology, we estimated familial correlations and heritabilities of 14 facial measurements and 3 latent factors inferred from a factor analysis in a subset of the Korean population. The study included a total of 229 individuals from 38 families. We evaluated a total of 14 facial measurements using 2D digital photographs. We performed factor analysis to infer common latent variables. The heritabilities of 13 facial measurements were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and ranged from 0.25 to 0.61. Of these, the heritability of intercanthal width in the orbital region was found to be the highest (h (2) = 0.61, SE = 0.14). Three factors (lower face portion, orbital region, and vertical length) were obtained through factor analysis, where the heritability values ranged from 0.45 to 0.55. The heritability values for each factor were higher than the mean heritability value of individual original measurements. We have confirmed the genetic influence on facial anthropometric traits and suggest a potential way to categorize and analyze the facial portions into different groups. PMID:23843774

Kim, Hyun-Jin; Im, Sun-Wha; Jargal, Ganchimeg; Lee, Siwoo; Yi, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Jeong-Yeon; Sung, Joohon; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun

2013-06-30

42

The effects of SARS on the Korean hotel industry and measures to overcome the crisis: A case study of six Korean five-star hotels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objectives of this study were: (1) to discuss the impact of the SARS outbreak on the Korean hotel industry; (2) to explore how the crisis management contingency concept was implemented by the Korean hotel industry during this crisis; (3) to examine what the implications are for managers in the hotel industry. Results of this study indicate that the

Samuel Seongseop Kim; Hejin Chun; Heesung Lee

2005-01-01

43

What the Eyes Already "Know": Using Eye Movement Measurement to Tap into Children's Implicit Numerical Magnitude Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's "implicit" and "explicit" knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to investigate the…

Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Tamm, Sascha; Hawelka, Stefan; Schneider, Michael; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Stern, Elsbeth; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2010-01-01

44

What the Eyes Already "Know": Using Eye Movement Measurement to Tap into Children's Implicit Numerical Magnitude Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's "implicit" and "explicit" knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to investigate the…

Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Tamm, Sascha; Hawelka, Stefan; Schneider, Michael; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Stern, Elsbeth; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2010-01-01

45

Statistical models of appearance for eye tracking and eye-blink detection and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical active appearance model (AAM) is developed to track and detect eye blinking. The model has been designed to be robust to variations of head pose or gaze. In particular we analyze and determine the model parameters which encode the variations caused by blinking. This global model is further extended using a series of sub-models to enable independent modeling

Ioana Bacivarov; Mircea Ionita; Peter Corcoran

2008-01-01

46

Looking at the Japan-Residing Korean Identities through the Eyes of the “Outsiders Within”: Application and Extension of Co-cultural Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using co-cultural theory (Orbe, 1998b) as an interpretive framework, this study analyzed the publicly available narratives of Japan-Residing Koreans (e.g., autobiography) and explored how these marginalized people in Japan manage their ethnic identity. Our analysis revealed that Japan-Residing Koreans' identity management was complex and challenging due to the ambivalence of their positionality. The “neither\\/nor” nature of their identity makes the

Masaki Matsunaga; Chie Torigoe

2008-01-01

47

Social Understanding in Autism: Eye Gaze as a Measure of Core Insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight children with autism and 33 MLD children were given two tasks tapping social understanding and a control task tapping probability understanding. For each task there was a measure of eye gaze (where children looked when anticipating the return of a story character or an object) and a verbal measure (a direct question). We found that eye gaze was better

Ted Ruffman; Wendy Garnham; Paul Rideout

2001-01-01

48

Measurement of the Axial Length of Cataract Eyes by Laser Doppler Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. Laser Doppler interferometry worked very well except in the cases of the highest cataract grades (4% of the eyes of this study were not measurable because of a too-high lens density). Only 3.5% of the other eyes were not measurable because of fixation problems of the patients. The precision of laser Doppler interferometry is not influenced by the cataract

C. K. Hitzenberger; W. Drexler; C. Dolezal; F. Skorpik; M. Juchem; A. F. Fercher; H. D. Gnadf

49

Eye blink elicitation and measurement in the human infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye blinks elicited by a mechanically produced tap to the glabella (the flattened area between the eyebrows) are monitored\\u000a by a device that projects low-intensity infrared light, which is reflected from the eyelid and detected by a phototransistor.\\u000a Appropriate filtering and decoding circuitry insures reliable tracking of responses. Comparison of the optical eye blink monitor\\u000a with a minitorque potentiometer monitor

Roger R. Marsh; Howard S. Hoffman; Christopher L. Stitt

1979-01-01

50

Intra-operative measurement of surgical lengths of the rectum and the peritoneal reflection in Korean.  

PubMed

The lengths of the surgical rectum and peritoneal reflection were important factors in treatment modality of rectal tumor. To evaluate the surgical length of rectum, we measured the length of the peritoneal reflections, sacral promontory and termination of the taenia coli from the anal verge by rigid sigmoidoscope in 23 male and 23 females during operation. The mean lengths of the sacral promontory were 16.5+/- 2.2 cm and 16.1+/-2.2 cm in the males and females, respectively. As for the peritoneal reflection, the results were anterior (8.8+/-2.2 cm, 8.1+/-1.7 cm), lateral (10.8+/-2.7 cm, 11.4+/-1.9 cm) and posterior (13.8+/-2.5 cm, 14.0+/-1.9 cm), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female. And only height had a correlation with the length of sacral promontory both in male and female (p=0.015 and p=0.018, respectively). For all the estimated lengths, the length of the sacral promontory had a correlation with the lengths of the anterior (p<0.001 and p=0.001) and posterior (p<0.001 and p<0.001) peritoneal reflections in males and females, respectively. We suggest that the intra-operative lengths of the rectum and peritoneal reflection will be useful information for treatment modality of rectal tumor clinically in Korean. PMID:19119443

Yun, Hae Ran; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Won Suk; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong

2008-12-24

51

Intra-operative Measurement of Surgical Lengths of the Rectum and the Peritoneal Reflection in Korean  

PubMed Central

The lengths of the surgical rectum and peritoneal reflection were important factors in treatment modality of rectal tumor. To evaluate the surgical length of rectum, we measured the length of the peritoneal reflections, sacral promontory and termination of the taenia coli from the anal verge by rigid sigmoidoscope in 23 male and 23 females during operation. The mean lengths of the sacral promontory were 16.5± 2.2 cm and 16.1±2.2 cm in the males and females, respectively. As for the peritoneal reflection, the results were anterior (8.8±2.2 cm, 8.1±1.7 cm), lateral (10.8±2.7 cm, 11.4±1.9 cm) and posterior (13.8±2.5 cm, 14.0±1.9 cm), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female. And only height had a correlation with the length of sacral promontory both in male and female (p=0.015 and p=0.018, respectively). For all the estimated lengths, the length of the sacral promontory had a correlation with the lengths of the anterior (p<0.001 and p=0.001) and posterior (p<0.001 and p<0.001) peritoneal reflections in males and females, respectively. We suggest that the intra-operative lengths of the rectum and peritoneal reflection will be useful information for treatment modality of rectal tumor clinically in Korean.

Yun, Hae Ran; Lee, Won Suk; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong

2008-01-01

52

Double-pass measurement of human eye aberrations: limitations and practical realization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of correct eye aberrations measurement is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). The double-pass technique commonly used for measuring aberrations of a human eye involves some uncertainties. One of them is loosing the information about odd human eye aberrations. We report about investigations of the applicability limit of the double-pass measurements depending upon the aberrations status introduced by human eye and actual size of the entrance pupil. We evaluate the double-pass effects for various aberrations and different pupil diameters. It is shown that for small pupils the double-pass effects are negligible. The testing and alignment of aberrometer was performed using the schematic eye, developed in our lab. We also introduced a model of human eye based on bimorph flexible mirror. We perform calculations to demonstrate that our schematic eye is capable of reproducing spatial-temporal statistics of aberrations of living eye with normal vision or even myopic or hypermetropic or with high aberrations ones.

Letfullin, Renat R.; Belyakov, Alexey I.; Cherezova, Tatyana Y.; Kudryashov, Alexis V.

2004-11-01

53

A Noncontact Measurement of Saccadic Eye Movement with Two High-speed Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noncontact method for measuring saccadic eye movement with two high-speed cameras is proposed. The method is based on image processing for acquiring the center gravity of one pupil of the subject and also on stereo photogrammetry for estimating three-dimensional coordinate of the pupil. The proposed method was examined through experiments using a imitated eye ball and using a real

Akinori Ueno; Yuji Otani; Yoshinori Uchikawa

2006-01-01

54

Statistical approaches to assessing single and multiple outcome measures in dry eye therapy and diagnosis.  

PubMed

Dry eye is a multifactorial disease which would require a broad spectrum of test measures in the monitoring of its treatment and diagnosis. However, studies have typically reported improvements in individual measures with treatment. Alternative approaches involve multiple, combined outcomes being assessed by different statistical analyses. In order to assess the effect of various statistical approaches to the use of single and combined test measures in dry eye, this review reanalyzed measures from two previous studies (osmolarity, evaporation, tear turnover rate, and lipid film quality). These analyses assessed the measures as single variables within groups, pre- and post-intervention with a lubricant supplement, by creating combinations of these variables and by validating these combinations with the combined sample of data from all groups of dry eye subjects. The effectiveness of single measures and combinations in diagnosis of dry eye was also considered. PMID:24112230

Tomlinson, Alan; Hair, Mario; McFadyen, Angus

2013-07-09

55

MEASUREMENT OF FIREBRAND PRODUCTION AND HEAT RELEASE RATE (HRR) FROM BURNING KOREAN PINE TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of real scale fire experiments were performed to determine the mass and size distribution of firebrands generated from Korean Pine (pinus koraiensis) trees. The experiments were performed at the Building Research Institute (BRI) in Tsukuba, Japan. The tree height was fixed and tree moisture content was varied to examine the influence that this parameter has on the mass

Samuel L. Manzello; Alexander Maranghides; John R. Shields; William E. Mell; Yoshihiko Hayashi; Daisaku Nii

56

Objective measurement of the optical image quality in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication reviews some recent studies on the optical performance of the human eye. Although the retinal image cannot be recorded directly, different objective methods have been developed, which permit to determine optical quality parameters, such as the Point Spread Function (PSF), the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the geometrical ray aberrations or the wavefront distortions, in the living human eye. These methods have been applied in both basic and applied research. This includes the measurement of the optical performance of the eye across visual field, the optical quality of eyes with intraocular lens implants, the aberrations induced by LASIK refractive surgery, or the manufacture of customized phase plates to compensate the wavefront aberration in the eye.

Navarro, Rafael M.

2001-05-01

57

Protein size resolution in human eye lenses by dynamic light scattering after in vivo measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements were conducted with lowest intensity levels on human eye lenses (3.2 mW\\/cm2) within measurement times of 3–5 s. A characterisation of the human eye under in-vivo conditions along the optical axis is\\u000a given and a careful interpretation of the data is made, referring not only to in-vitro results of investigated solutions of\\u000a lens chemistry and

Karsten Dierks; Matthias Dieckmann; Dirk Niederstrasser; Robert Schwartz; Alfred Wegener

1998-01-01

58

Highly Precise Eye Length Measurements in Children Aged 3 Through 12 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using partial coherence interferometry, a non- contact method that detects interference patterns from various layers of the eye, to measure axial length in young children. Methods: The right eye of 64 subjects (mean age, 8.4 y; age range, 3.4-12.9 y; best-corrected visual acuity20\\/ 30) was measured. Subjects fixated monocularly on the

Graham E. Quinn; Ellie L. Francis; Karen S. Nipper; D. Ian Flitcroft; Gui-shuang Ying; Renee C. Rees; Gregor F. Schmid; Maureen G. Maguire; Richard A. Stone

59

Measuring Health Literacy Among Immigrants with a Phonetic Primary Language: A Case of Korean American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is\\u000a rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities.\\u000a This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test\\u000a of

Hae-Ra Han; Jiyun Kim; Miyong T. Kim; Kim B. Kim

2011-01-01

60

Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

2005-10-01

61

Holographic multivergence target for subjective measurement of the astigmatic error of the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subjective refraction the spherical and cylindrical errors of the human eye are measured. Recently, we reported a technique by which the spherical error can be measured in one step using a hologram [K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, Opt. Lett.28, 123 (2003)]. We have now developed a holographic target consisting of sunburst patterns to measure the astigmatic error of the human eye as well. Apart from being simple, quick, and low cost, holography offers the advantage of being an open field refraction system that is devoid of the problem of proximal accommodation. We describe the holographic target, its working principles, the measurement procedure, and the initial results obtained.

Avudainayagam, Kodikullam V.; Avudainayagam, Chitralekha S.

2007-07-01

62

The KIDSCREEN-52 Quality of Life Measure for Children and Adolescents (KIDSCREEN-52-HRQOL): Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version  

PubMed Central

The KIDSCREEN-52 quality-of-life (KIDSCREEN-52-HRQOL) is a relevant, worldwide tool used for assessing the health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to define measurement properties of the Korean version of the KIDSCREEN-52 HRQOL. The original questionnaire was translated following international translation guidelines. Analysis regarding psychometric properties showed that the Cronbach-alpha ranged from 0.77 to 0.95. The correlation coefficient between the PedQL and KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions were high for the assessments of similar constructs. Therefore, the Korean version of the KIDSCREEN-52 was found to be suitable for use in Korean adolescents.

Hong, Sungdo David; Yang, Jae Won; Jang, Won Seok; Byun, Heejung; Lee, Moon Soo; Kim, Hee Soo; Oh, Mi-Young

2007-01-01

63

Lateral Eye Movement as a Measure of Cognitive Ability and Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study attempts to resolve the conflict within lateral eye movement research by investigating the validity of the measure across a variety of tests of cognitive ability and preference, utilizing several procedures for scoring and classifying subjects on the measure. (Author/PN)|

Owens, William; Limber, John

1983-01-01

64

Eye-tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism.  

PubMed

Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking assessments of RJA has not been established. By comparing RJA in an eye-tracking paradigm to RJA during the ESCS, the current study evaluated the construct validity of an eye-tracking assessment of RJA for 18-month-old infant siblings of children with autism. Relations between measures of RJA and concurrent language skills and autistic symptomatology were assessed. Correlations between measures of ESCS RJA and eye-tracking RJA were statistically significant, but few relations between either ESCS or eye-tracking assessments of RJA and language or symptoms were observed. This study establishes the construct validity of eye-tracking assessments of RJA. PMID:23284270

2011-06-01

65

The Relationship of Creativity Measures to School Achievement and to Preferred Learning and Thinking Style in a Sample of Korean High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For 92 male and 101 female Korean 11th graders, creativity as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creativity, showed little relationship to school performance. Females tended to be more creative than males, but, irrespective of gender, students with right-brain associated thinking and learning style earned high creativity scores. (SLD)|

Kim, Junghee; Michael, William B.

1995-01-01

66

Technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss via oxygen saturation measurements in the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a noninvasive technique and instrumentation for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood in retinal arteries and veins. A white-light image of a subject's retina is presented to an operator. The operator targets a particular retinal artery or vein and initiates the measurement procedure. The measurements are made by scanning low-power lasers into the eye and across the retinal vessel. The light reflected and scattered back out of the eye is collected and measured. The oxygen saturation of blood within the vessel is spectroscopically determined by analyzing the vessel absorption profiles at two or more wavelengths. A complete saturation measurement can be made in less than one second, allowing real-time measurement during physiological changes. The sensitivity of this measurement technique to changes in retinal saturation has been demonstrated through a series of pilot studies in anesthetized swine. We present data indicating that retinal venous oxygen saturation decreases predictably during ongoing blood loss, indicating a potential application of an eye oximeter to nonivasively monitor blood loss. Current invasive techniques for monitoring bleeding, such as fiber optic pulmonary catheters, are not suited for use early in trauma situations. A portable eye oximeter may therefore provide a new technique for reducing mortality in the emergency department setting.

Smith, Matthew H.; Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Hillman, Lloyd W.; Hughes, Charles E.; Minninch, Thomas E.; Chipman, Russell A.

1997-05-01

67

Technical support for microwave experiments on the eye lens; interferometric measurement of eye lens motion under microwave pulse exposure. Annual report 1 March 1980-31 August 1981  

SciTech Connect

A research program at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is concerned with the mechanism by which microwave exposure produces cataracts in the eye lens. Science Applications, Inc. (SAI) is supporting WRAIR personnel in system design, equipment assembly, and operation of experiments to measure the physical effects in the eye lens as it is subjected to microwave pulses of varying peak power levels. This report describes an ongoing project using a laser interferometer and rat eye lens in vitro. The experiment is presently in the data collection phase, with no firm conclusions yet drawn.

Wyeth, N.C.

1981-10-01

68

Measuring the eyes of trilobites: a motorized goniometer for macropaleontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometry of the trilobite visual surface is important in studies of trilobite taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolution. Unfortunately, methods for measuring visual surface features have been slow and laborious. The authors have built an apparatus which allows rapid, reliable measurement of angular relationships on the trilobite cephalon. A specimen is mounted on a set of turntables rotated by steeper motors

R. Cowen; J. H. Cooper

1985-01-01

69

Energy spectra of ~170-360 keV electron microbursts measured by the Korean STSAT-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy spectra of electron microbursts in the energy range 170-360 keV have been measured in the outer radiation zone by the low-altitude (680 km), polar-orbiting Korean satellite STSAT-1. These electrons are the lower energy population of relativistic microbursts. Our observations show microburst energy spectra of precipitated electrons inside the loss cone (precipitated) have higher e-folding energies during disturbed times than quiet times. The loss cone at these energies is empty except when microbursts abruptly appear and fill the loss cone in less than 50 msec. This fast pitch angle diffusion requires diffusion coefficients larger than ~3.5 × 10-2 rad2/sec, while ~1.5 × 10-5 rad2/sec was proposed by a wave particle interaction theory. The source of microbursts remains unknown as our observations are not adequately explained by wave and particle resonant interaction models.

Lee, J.-J.; Parks, G. K.; Min, K. W.; Kim, H. J.; Park, J.; Hwang, J.; McCarthy, M. P.; Lee, E.; Ryu, K. S.; Lim, J. T.; Sim, E. S.; Lee, H. W.; Kang, K. I.; Park, H. Y.

2005-07-01

70

Neural correlates of eye blinking; improved by simultaneous fMRI and EOG measurement.  

PubMed

Neural correlates of eye blink in healthy human subjects can be investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the focus of most previous studies has been on intentional eye blinking. The goal of the present study was to examine the neural correlates of spontaneous eye blinking with the help of EOG measurements during data acquisition of fMRI. After the removal of the pulse artifact in the EOG signal, EOG waveform clearly indicates eye blinking, which was equivalent to those measured outside of the MRI scanner. On the basis of this detection, each blinking event can be used as a temporal cue for the event-related fMRI. In a comparison, we also investigated the neural correlates of blink inhibition. Based on the brain activation pattern, the activation of the bilateral parahippocampal, the visual cortex was commonly observed for both conditions. The additional activation of the precentral gyrus, corresponding to blink inhibition, and the right medial frontal gyrus, corresponding to spontaneous blinking were observed. Based on these results, we conclude that the medial frontal gyrus is responsible for spontaneous eye blinking, whereas precentral activation appears to be related to blink inhibition. PMID:15882784

Yoon, Hyo Woon; Chung, Jun-Young; Song, Myung-Sung; Park, HyunWook

2005-02-25

71

Calibration curve from AD 1250 to AD 1650 by measurements of tree-rings grown on the Korean peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1 MV AMS machine installed at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) in 2007 has been dedicated to study on paleoclimate change and the environmental issues. Because the possibility of regional age offset has been suggested by several previous studies, the consistency of the data set of IntCal04, which is used to calibrate radiocarbon ages in our laboratory, with data obtained from 14C in tree rings grown in the Korean peninsula has been examined in this study. Tree-ring samples were collected from the building materials of Korean historical wooden buildings. Remaining historical records regarding the construction times of the buildings were consulted. The ages of the tree-ring samples ranged from AD 1250 to AD 1650 and were measured by dendrochronological method. After the samples were cut into single-year rings, alpha cellulose was extracted from each ring. Then, their annual 14C concentrations were measured by AMS. Accurate radiocarbon ages during the 400 year period were evaluated from the concentrations. The ages of the tree rings were compared with the IntCal04 calibration curve. The average deviation of 14C concentration was calculated to be -2.14‰. By the Fourier transform of the single-year variation of the concentration, six major periodic components could be found. One of the components has a period of 10.9 years and it is thought to be related to a sunspot variation known as the Schwabe cycle, which has a period of 11 years.

Hong, Wan; Park, J. H.; Park, W. K.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Park, G.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.; Nam, T. G.

2013-01-01

72

Lyin' eyes: ocular-motor measures of reading reveal deception.  

PubMed

Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants' ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a "guilty" group that committed one of two mock crimes or an "innocent" group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants' incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and rereading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception-vigilance and strategy-and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

Cook, Anne E; Hacker, Douglas J; Webb, Andrea K; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean D; Woltz, Dan J; Kircher, John C

2012-04-30

73

Lyin' Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts.

Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

2013-01-01

74

Double-pass and interferometric measures of the optical quality of the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received January 3, 1994; revised manuscript received June 20, 1994; accepted July 29, 1994 We compare two methods for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the human eye: an interferometric method similar to that of Campbell and Green [J. Physiol. (London) 181,576 (1965)] and a double-pass procedure similar to that of Santamaria et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

David R. Williams; David H. Brainard; Matthew J. McMahon; Rafael Navarro

1994-01-01

75

Minimally invasive, direct, real time measurement of drug concentration in the anterior eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To evaluate a corneal contact lens which effectively turns the anterior chamber of the eye into a cuvette, enabling the concentration of a drug to be measured using absorption spectroscopy.Methods: A hand held contact lens incorporating optical fibres connected to a spectrograph enabled a beam of light to be directed in, across, and out of the anterior chamber. The

J Miller; W S Wilson; C G Wilson; D Uttamchandani

2005-01-01

76

Do eye movements measured across high and low fascination photographs differ? Addressing Kaplan's fascination hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention restoration theory states that exposure to restorative environments engages fascination or low-effort attention, promoting recovery of adaptive resources and providing the opportunity to rest and reflect. On the contrary, exposure to non-restorative environments engages directed effortful attention and negatively affects mood, performance and psychophysical well being. Eye movements are a way to measure attention when viewing a scene; therefore,

Rita Berto; Stefano Massaccesi; Margherita Pasini

2008-01-01

77

Application of eye movement measuring system OBER 2 to medicine and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OBER 2 is an infrared light eye movement measuring system and it works with IBM PC compatible computers. As one of the safest systems for measuring of eye movement it uses a very short period of infrared light flashing time (80 microsecond for each measure point). System has an advanced analog-digital controller, which includes background suppression and prediction mechanisms guaranteeing elimination of slow changes and fluctuations of external illumination frequency up to 100 Hz, with effectiveness better than 40 dB. Setting from PC the active measure axis, sampling rate (25 - 4000 Hz) and making start and stop the measure, make it possible to control the outside environment in real-time. By proper controlling of gain it is possible to get high time and position resolution of 0.5 minute of arc even for big amplitude of eye movement (plus or minus 20 degree of visual angle). The whole communication system can also be driven directly by eye movement in real time. The possibility of automatic selection of the most essential elements of eye movement, individual for each person and those that take place for each person in determined situations of life independently from personal features, is a key to practical application. Hence one of conducted research topic is a personal identification based on personal features. Another task is a research project of falling asleep detection, which can be applied to warn the drivers before falling asleep while driving. This measuring system with a proper expert system can also be used to detect a dyslexia and other disabilities of the optic system.

Ober, Jozef; Hajda, Janusz; Loska, Jacek; Jamicki, Michal

1997-08-01

78

Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases  

PubMed Central

The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

2009-01-01

79

Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure  

SciTech Connect

We used a fast psychophysical procedure to determine the wave-front aberrations of the human eye {ital in vivo}. We measured the angular deviation of light rays entering the eye at different pupillary locations by aligning an image of a point source entering the pupil at different locations to the image of a fixation cross entering the pupil at a fixed location. We fitted the data to a Zernike series to reconstruct the wave-front aberrations of the pupil. With this technique the repeatability of the measurement of the individual coefficients was 0.019 {mu}m. The standard deviation of the overall wave-height estimation across the pupil is less than 0.3 {mu}m. Since this technique does not require the administration of pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil, we were able to measure the changes in the aberrations of the eye during accommodation. We found that administration of even a mild dilating agent causes a change in the aberration structure of the eye. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

He, J.C.; Marcos, S.; Webb, R.H.; Burns, S.A. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

1998-09-01

80

Optical Fiber-Coupled Ocular Spectrometer for Measurement of Drug Concentration in the Anterior Eye—Applications in Pharmaceuticals Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes in detail a novel optoelectronic system designed to measure drug absorption in the anterior segment of the eye following topical application of drug formulations. This minimally invasive measurement technique offers both a method for determining drug concentration in human eyes, and demonstrates an alternative to current testing processes in model animals, which require paracentesis of the anterior

Joe Miller; William S. Wilson; Robert Blue; Clive G. Wilson; Deepak Uttamchandani

2010-01-01

81

Several Hundred keV electron precipitation measured by Korean satellite STSAT-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we show two kinds of electron precipitations observed by the Korean satellite STSAT-1. One is microburst that has very short duration of less than 1 second. Our observations show microburst energy spectra of precipitated electrons inside the loss cone (precipitated) have higher e-folding energies during disturbed times than quiet times. The loss cone at these energies is empty except when microbursts abruptly appear and fill the loss cone in less than 50 msec. This fast pitch angle diffusion requires diffusion coefficients be larger than ~3.5 ×10-2 rad2/sec, while ~1.5 ×10-5 rad2/sec was proposed by Albert (2002). The other precipitation has long duration of a few hours at the midnight trapping boundary. These events occur under quiet geomagnetic condition and display energy dispersion in the low latitude boundary. We have modeled this precipitation form invoking pitch angle scattering in the field reversal region where magnetic field significantly varies within a cyclotron radius and the first adiabatic invariant is not conserved. Our observations show these two kinds of precipitation could be the dominant loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt.

Lee, J. J.; Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Min, K. W.; Kim, H.; Park, J.; Hwang, J.

2005-12-01

82

An automatic identification and removal method for eye-blink artifacts in event-related magnetoencephalographic measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

While measuring event-related magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals using visual stimuli, eye blinks were inevitable and generated large magnetic artifacts. Since trials containing eye blinks were excluded from the analyses, the signal-to-noise ratio of the event-related signals was decreased. In this study, we propose a method to identify the eye blink magnetic artifacts and remove them automatically using independent component analysis preprocessed

Y. Okada; J. Jung; T. Kobayashi

2007-01-01

83

The association between measurement sites of visceral adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women  

PubMed Central

Quantities as well as distributions of adipose tissue (AT) are significantly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and can be altered with caloric restriction. This study investigated which cross-sectional slice location of AT is most strongly correlated with changes in CVD risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women. Thirty-three obese pre-menopausal Korean women (32.4 ± 8.5 yrs, BMI 27.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2) participated in a 12 weeks caloric restriction program. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were measured using computed tomography (CT) scans at the sites of L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5. Fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), leptin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were observed. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AT measurement sites and changes in CVD risk factors after calorie restriction. When calories were reduced by 350 kcal/day for 12 weeks, body weight (-2.7%), body fat mass (-8.2%), and waist circumference (-5.8%) all decreased (P < 0.05). In addition, following caloric restriction, serum levels of glucose (-4.6%), TC (-6.2%), LDL-C (-5.3%), leptin (-17.6%) and HOMA-IR (-18.2%) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as well. Changes in VAT at the level of L3-L4 were significantly greater than those at other abdominal sites, and these changes were correlated with changes in TC (P < 0.05), LDL-C (P < 0.001), SBP (P < 0.001) and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01). These results show that VAT at L3-L4 had a stronger correlation with CVD risk factors than with other AT measurement sites after caloric restriction.

Lee, Hye-Ok; Yim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Young-Seol

2013-01-01

84

Combination of optical coherence tomography and reflectometry technique for eye measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectral domain optical coherence tomography system is integrated with an optical reflectometer to provide dualfunctional eye measurement. The system is capable of performing anterior segment imaging and tear film thickness evaluation at the same time. The axial resolution of the anterior segment imaging is 6?m while for tear film thickness measurement the resolution is about 21 nm. We use the integrated device to examine a model eye with artificial tear film. Structures such as the cornea, the ciliary muscle, and the front boundary of the crystalline lens are clearly visible. Artificial tear film thickness is determined simultaneously with anterior segment imaging. The integrated device is also flexible for separated anterior segment imaging or tear thickness evaluation.

Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.

2013-03-01

85

Eye lens dosimetry in interventional cardiology: results of staff dose measurements and link to patient dose levels.  

PubMed

Workers involved in interventional cardiology procedures receive high eye lens dose if protection is not used. Currently, there is no suitable method for routine use for the measurement of eye dose. Since most angiography machines are equipped with suitable patient dosemeters, deriving factors linking staff eye doses to the patient doses can be helpful. In this study the patient kerma-area product, cumulative dose at an interventional reference point and eye dose in terms of Hp(3) of the cardiologists, nurses and radiographers for interventional cardiology procedures have been measured. Correlations between the patient dose and the staff eye dose were obtained. The mean eye dose was 121 µSv for the first operator, 33 µSv for the second operator/nurse and 12 µSv for radiographer. Normalised eye lens doses per unit kerma-area product were 0.94 µSv Gy?ą cm?˛ for the first operator, 0.33 µSv Gy?ą cm?˛ for the second operator/nurse and 0.16 µSv Gy?ą cm?˛ for radiographers. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a weak but significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the eye dose and the kerma-area product for all three staff categories. These values are based on a local practice and may provide useful reference for other studies for validation and for wider utilisation in assessing the eye dose using patient dose values. PMID:23152146

Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M; Aleksandric, S; Arandjic, D; Ostojic, M

2012-11-14

86

Reproducibility of measurements by laser scanning tomography in eyes before and after pilocarpine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the optic disc topography of ten eyes from ten normal, healthy volunteers before and 1 h after pilocarpine treatment, using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph. The mean age of the volunteers was 26.4 years, and the mean pupil diameter before and after pilocarpine treatment was 5.5 mm and 3.2 mm, respectively. We collected a series of five to ten

Goji Tomita; Kazuhiro Honbe; Yoshiaki Kitazawa

1994-01-01

87

Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

2012-01-01

88

Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Healthy Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the normal reference range of pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) values in healthy Korean subjects and to find out the factors that may affect them. Methods A total of 280 eyes of 280 normal subjects were included in this study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length, POBF, systemic blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured. The mean, standard deviation, range, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of POBF were calculated, and the influences of various parameters to POBF were determined by multiple regression analyses. Results The mean POBF value was 766.0±221.6 µl/min in men and 1021.1±249.5 µl/min in women. The 5th and 95th percentiles for POBF values were 486.0 µl/min and 1140.0 µl/min in men and 672.0 µl/min and 1458.0 µl/min in women. The POBF values were significantly influenced by gender, mean blood pressure, pulse rate, and axial length. Conclusions Even though the POBF values were influenced by gender, BP, and axial length, we could define the normal reference range of POBF in healthy Koreans.

Kim, Seung Kab; Cho, Byung Joo; Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Chan Yun

2008-01-01

89

An automatic identification and removal method for eye-blink artifacts in event-related magnetoencephalographic measurements.  

PubMed

While measuring event-related magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals using visual stimuli, eye blinks were inevitable and generated large magnetic artifacts. Since trials containing eye blinks were excluded from the analyses, the signal-to-noise ratio of the event-related signals was decreased. In this study, we propose a method to identify the eye blink magnetic artifacts and remove them automatically using independent component analysis preprocessed by principal component analysis. The method evaluates the spatiotemporal similarity between independent components and both MEG and electro-oculogram data based on a newly devised cost function. Testing of the method on event-related MEG signals measured by a 306-channel whole-head system in a visual perception task led to the successful identification and removal of eye-blink artifacts in all trials containing eye blinks from all the seven subjects. PMID:18057516

Okada, Y; Jung, J; Kobayashi, T

2007-10-31

90

Optical Properties of In Situ Eye Lenses Measured with X-Ray Talbot Interferometry: A Novel Measure of Growth Processes  

PubMed Central

The lens, a major optical component of the eye, has a gradient refractive index, which is required to provide sufficient refractive power and image quality. The refractive index variations across the lens are dependent on the distributions and concentrations of the varying protein classes. In this study, we present the first measurements of the refractive index in the in situ eye lens from five species using a specially constructed X-ray Talbot grating interferometer. The measurements have been conducted in two planes: the one containing the optic axis (the sagittal plane) and the plane orthogonal to this (the equatorial plane). The results show previously undetected discontinuities and fluctuations in the refractive index profile that vary in different species. These may be linked to growth processes and may be the first optical evidence of discrete developmental stages.

Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Mohri, Satoshi; Regini, Justyn; Pierscionek, Barbara

2011-01-01

91

Measurement of the eye’s near infrared wave-front aberration using the objective crossed-cylinder aberroscope technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the crossed-cylinder aberroscope technique to obtain the near infrared (784 nm) wave-front aberration of the human eye. We compared the results with those obtained under the same conditions using red light (633 nm). Other than the greater retinal scattering of the near infrared light, third- and fourth-order wave-front aberrations are similar in both wavelengths. Values of the calculated

Norberto López-Gil; Howard C. Howland

1999-01-01

92

Dynamic measurement of intraocular pressure using a mechanical model of the human eye.  

PubMed

Heightened intraocular pressure (IOP) is not always indicative of glaucoma, but is an important risk factor for the progression of certain types of eye damage not obviously felt by the sufferer. A number of measurement systems have been devised in the past to measure the IOP by applying force or pressure to the cornea, but past studies have shown that the cornea thickness and its curvature have a significant effect on measurements which may ultimately lead to clinical misdiagnosis. A cyclic strain controlled dynamic probing measurement system has been developed using an indenter of diameter 3.06 mm operating at actuation frequencies of between 0.1 Hz and 4 Hz and displacements up to 1 mm. The cyclic strain is actuated by a linear stage with a load cell and indenter coupled in series. The load cell records the resultant cyclic force where the dynamic modulus is expressed as amplitude ratio and phase lag. The mechanical eye model consists of a silicone membrane that can be varied in thickness and it is distended hydraulically to simulate a range of IOP. A pressure sensor measures the dynamic IOP within the system which will be compared against the dynamic modulus. The relationship between the mechanical properties and the physical properties of the membrane will be established in order to develop a probe which can be used clinically taking into account the effects of corneal stiffness and hydraulic behaviour of the eye. The preliminary study reported here a significant increase in amplitude ratio and mean ratio with increasing the frequency similar to the behaviour found in biological materials and gelatin. PMID:18376019

Hien, M; Yang, T H J; Reuben, R L; Else, R W

2008-01-01

93

Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans  

PubMed Central

Previous Korean total diet studies (KTDSs) have estimated dietary exposure to toxic chemicals based on 110-120 representative foods selected from over 500 foods appeared in the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which would result in a possible underestimation. In order to find measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to heavy metals, this study examined the feasibility of mapping foods to the representative foods in the KTDS by comparing estimates. In mapping, those foods not analyzed in the 2009 KTDS (443 out of 559 foods appeared in the 2007 KNHANES) were mapped to the 114 representative foods used in the 2009 KTDS based on the closeness in regards to biological systematics and morphological similarity. Dietary exposures to total mercury and lead were re-estimated using the content of total mercury and lead in 114 foods analyzed in the 2009 KTDS, food intake, and individual's own body weight for respondents in the 2007 KNHANES instead of mean body weight of Koreans used in the 2009 KTDS. The re-estimates of exposure with mapping were approximately 50% higher than the original estimates reported in the 2009 KTDS. In addition, mapping enabled the comparison of percentile distribution of the exposure among populations of different age groups. In conclusion, estimates via mapping resulted in a more comprehensive estimation of dietary exposure to heavy metals present in foods that Koreans consume.

Koh, Eunmi; Shin, Hyehyung; Yon, Miyong; Nam, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Dohee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Choi, Hoon

2012-01-01

94

Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans.  

PubMed

Previous Korean total diet studies (KTDSs) have estimated dietary exposure to toxic chemicals based on 110-120 representative foods selected from over 500 foods appeared in the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which would result in a possible underestimation. In order to find measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to heavy metals, this study examined the feasibility of mapping foods to the representative foods in the KTDS by comparing estimates. In mapping, those foods not analyzed in the 2009 KTDS (443 out of 559 foods appeared in the 2007 KNHANES) were mapped to the 114 representative foods used in the 2009 KTDS based on the closeness in regards to biological systematics and morphological similarity. Dietary exposures to total mercury and lead were re-estimated using the content of total mercury and lead in 114 foods analyzed in the 2009 KTDS, food intake, and individual's own body weight for respondents in the 2007 KNHANES instead of mean body weight of Koreans used in the 2009 KTDS. The re-estimates of exposure with mapping were approximately 50% higher than the original estimates reported in the 2009 KTDS. In addition, mapping enabled the comparison of percentile distribution of the exposure among populations of different age groups. In conclusion, estimates via mapping resulted in a more comprehensive estimation of dietary exposure to heavy metals present in foods that Koreans consume. PMID:23198023

Koh, Eunmi; Shin, Hyehyung; Yon, Miyong; Nam, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Dohee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Cho-Il

2012-10-31

95

Questionnaire Design from a Cross-Cultural Perspective: An Empirical Investigation of Koreans and Non-Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A persistent challenge to self-report data across racial, ethnic, or cultural groups is the inherent difficulty of attaining cross-cultural comparability of key measures. The cur - rent research study investigated the cross-cultural functioning of health-survey questions presented to four groups: (1) Koreans who were monolingual in Korean; (2) non-Korean native speakers of English; (3) bilingual Koreans interviewed in English, and

Gordon. Willis; Elaine. Zahnd

2007-01-01

96

Anterior Chamber Measurements by Pentacam and AS-OCT in Eyes With Normal Open Angles  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the reproducibility and agreement of anterior chamber measurements between the Pentacam (PTC) and the Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AOCT) in normal healthy eyes with open angle. Methods Prospective cross-sectional comparative case series. A total of 162 eyes of 81 healthy volunteers with normal open angle were included in this study. Anterior chamber angle (ACA) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured with PTC and AOCT. Intra-observer variability and inter-methods agreement of both instruments for ACA and ACD were evaluated. Results Values of temporal and nasal ACA measured by two instruments were similar, and the results of ACD were also not significantly different between modalities (p>0.01). ACA and ACD measurements by PTC and AOCT showed good intra-observer and inter-method agreements (all >0.9). Conclusions PTC and AOCT are presumed to be very useful for the anterior chamber angle examination. They may provide good images and quantitative data about the angle structures including ACA and ACD.

Yi, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kang, Sung Yong; Ma, Kyoung Tak; Kim, Chan Yun

2008-01-01

97

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive\\u000a measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they\\u000a were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In general, who is a happy

Myoung So Kim; Hye Won Kim; Kyeong Ho Cha; Jeeyoung Lim

2007-01-01

98

Validation of Korean Versions of the Lubben Social Network Scales in Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS) was designed to measure perceived social support received from family and friends. This study tests the structural validity of two forms of the LSNS: the Korean revised LSNS (K-LSNS-R) and the Korean 6-item LSNS (K-LSNS-6). The data were drawn from survey interviews of 142 Korean American caregivers in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Both

Michin Hong; Banghwa Lee Casado; Donna Harrington

2011-01-01

99

Measurement and standardization of eye safety for optical radiation of LED products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blue light hazard (BLH) to human eye's retina is now a new issue emerging in applications of artificial light sources. Especially for solid state lighting sources based on the blue chip-LED(GaN), the photons with their energy more than 2.4 eV show photochemical effects on the retina significantly, raising damage both in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The photobiological safety of artificial light sources emitting optical radiation has gained more and more attention worldwide and addressed by international standards IEC 62471-2006(CIE S009/E: 2002). Meanwhile, it is involved in IEC safety specifications of LED lighting products and covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to artificial optical radiation. In practical applications of the safety standards, the measuring methods of optical radiation from LED products to eyes are important in establishment of executable methods in the industry. In 2011, a new project to develop the international standard of IEC TR62471-4,that is "Measuring methods of optical radiation related to photobiological safety", was approved and are now under way. This paper presents the concerned methods for the assessment of optical radiation hazards in the standards. Furthermore, a retina radiance meter simulating eye's optical geometry is also described, which is a potential tool for blue light hazard assessment of retinal exposure to optical radiation. The spectroradiometric method integrated with charge-coupled device(CCD) imaging system is introduced to provide more reliable results.

Mou, Tongsheng; Peng, Zhenjian

2013-06-01

100

The efficiency of SMEs in the global market: Measuring the Korean performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the technical efficiency, the productivity index and input resources utilization of supported small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Korea and indexed them using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology. For these purposes, we measured the efficiency index of the fund-receiving enterprise by using the DEA model as the real data for input and output factors relating to an enterprise's

Ji-Chung Yang

2006-01-01

101

Experimental techniques for measuring the biomechanical response of the eye during impact.  

PubMed

Over 2 million eye injuries occur each year in the United States as a result of trauma. In order to show the injury potential of objects such as BB guns, paintball guns, automotive airbag systems, and other consumer products, researchers have frequently tested enucleated eyes which have been placed in simulated orbits and held in place with a 10% gelatin solution. The purpose of this study is to perform biomechanical impact tests using both in-situ human eyes and human eyes mounted in simulated orbits, to compare the responses of both. A total of 12 dynamic eye impact tests were performed to develop force-deflection characteristics of the human eye in-situ, determine the effects that the extraocular muscles have on the response of the eye to dynamic impacts, and to characterize the force-deflection response of eyes supported with a gelatin solution within a simulated orbit. It was found that force-deflection corridors are similar with the extraocular muscles left intact or transected. Impact tests performed on eyes mounted in simulated orbits made of polycarbonate and filled with a 10% gelatin solution showed force-deflection responses that matched those of the in-situ eye impact tests. It is concluded that the use of simulated orbits to perform eye impact tests offers the appropriate boundary conditions to represent the in-situ human eye under dynamic eye impact events. PMID:17487049

Kennedy, Eric A; McNally, Craig; Duma, Stefan M

2007-01-01

102

The measurement and interpretation of Brillouin scattering in the lens of the eye.  

PubMed

Brillouin scattering from hypersonic waves in the eye lenses of many animals has been observed with a multipass Fabry Perot interferometer. The measured values of speed and attenuation range widely among the different species and in different parts of any one lens. These variations correlate broadly with the observed stiffness and the densities that have been measured with a graded column. From the spectroscopic and density measurements high-frequency elastic moduli may be derived. The results are also evaluated at a macromolecular level in terms of scattering of hypersonic waves from spherical entities composed of the crystallins and their aggregates. Reasonable agreement is obtained for the hypersonic speed for lower protein concentration; the hypersonic attenuation and variation with scattering vector are consistent with the presence of large aggregates (of order 100 nm radius) in certain of the materials. PMID:6127691

Randall, J; Vaughan, J M

1982-03-22

103

Ocular Sarcoidosis in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

The aim of current study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of ocular sarcoidosis in a Korean population. We conducted a retrospective study of 104 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis seen at Asan Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, from 1993 to 2007. Medical records, photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were reviewed. Of 104 patients, 22 (21%) had intraocular involvement with female predominance (86%, M:F=3:19). Of the 39 eyes with ocular involvement, 16 (41%) eyes had isolated anterior uveitis, 12 (31%) eyes had intermediate uveitis, 6 eyes (15%) had panuveitis with retinal vasculitis, and 5 (13%) eyes had panuveitis with punched multifocal choroiditis. Mean duration of ophthalmologic follow-up was 62 months. All ocular inflammation was well managed with topical steroid and/or systemic steroid with relatively good final visual outcomes. Ocular complications such as cataract (12 eyes, 30%), glaucoma (6 eyes, 15%), vitreous opacity (1 eye, 3%), cystoid macular edema (3 eyes, 7%), neovascularization (2 eye, 5%), and epiretinal membrane (4 eye, 10%) were related to ocular sarcoidosis. In Korea, where sarcoidosis is very rare, our study indicates relatively low ocular and predominantly non posterior segment involvement with relatively good visual prognosis.

Lee, Sun Young; Lee, Hee Gyung; Kim, Dong Soon; Kim, June-Gone; Chung, Hyewon

2009-01-01

104

The resolving power of diurnal superposition eyes measured with an ophthalmoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The eyes of skipper butterflies and agaristid moths are of the superposition type, and they have fully open pupils in daylight. The quality of the images in these eyes was examined with an ophthalmoscopic technique. Images of objects shown to the eye in a plane at infinity could be photographed on the retina.2.In the agaristid moths the retinal mosaic was

M. F. Land

1984-01-01

105

North Korean Policy Elites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

North Korea's policy-making procedures remain a mystery to foreigners. This report, written by five North Korean specialists, attempts to identify the North Korean elite, any factions existing among them, and the sources of information to which they have ...

A. Y. Mansourov J. S. Bermudez K. E. Gause K. O. Hassig R. C. Hassig

2004-01-01

106

Design and validation of a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer for measurements of the eye over a wide field of view  

PubMed Central

Peripheral vision and off-axis aberrations not only play an important role in daily visual tasks but may also influence eye growth and refractive development. Thus it is important to measure off-axis wavefront aberrations of human eyes objectively. To achieve efficient measurement, we incorporated a double-pass scanning system with a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) to develop a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer (SSHA). The prototype SSHA successfully measured the off-axis wavefront aberrations over +/? 15 degree visual field within 7 seconds. In two validation experiments with a wide angle model eye, it measured change in defocus aberration accurately (<0.02?m, 4mm pupil) and precisely (<0.03?m, 4mm pupil). A preliminary experiment with a human subject suggests its feasibility in clinical applications.

Wei, Xin; Thibos, Larry

2010-01-01

107

Design and validation of a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer for measurements of the eye over a wide field of view.  

PubMed

Peripheral vision and off-axis aberrations not only play an important role in daily visual tasks but may also influence eye growth and refractive development. Thus it is important to measure off-axis wavefront aberrations of human eyes objectively. To achieve efficient measurement, we incorporated a double-pass scanning system with a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) to develop a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer (SSHA). The prototype SSHA successfully measured the off-axis wavefront aberrations over +/- 15 degree visual field within 7 seconds. In two validation experiments with a wide angle model eye, it measured change in defocus aberration accurately (<0.02microm, 4mm pupil) and precisely (<0.03microm, 4mm pupil). A preliminary experiment with a human subject suggests its feasibility in clinical applications. PMID:20173936

Wei, Xin; Thibos, Larry

2010-01-18

108

Predicting Glaucomatous Progression in Glaucoma Suspect Eyes Using Relevance Vector Machine Classifiers for Combined Structural and Functional Measurements  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The goal of this study was to determine if glaucomatous progression in suspect eyes can be predicted from baseline confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (CSLO) and standard automated perimetry (SAP) measurements analyzed with relevance vector machine (RVM) classifiers. Methods. Two hundred sixty-four eyes of 193 participants were included. All eyes had normal SAP results at baseline with five or more SAP tests over time. Eyes were labeled progressed (n = 47) or stable (n = 217) during follow-up based on SAP Guided Progression Analysis or serial stereophotograph assessment. Baseline CSLO-measured topographic parameters (n = 117) and baseline total deviation values from the 24-2 SAP test-grid (n = 52) were selected from each eye. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to train and test RVMs using the CSLO and SAP features. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas were calculated using full and optimized feature sets. ROC curve results from RVM analyses of CSLO, SAP, and CSLO and SAP combined were compared to CSLO and SAP global indices (Glaucoma Probability Score, mean deviation and pattern standard deviation). Results. The areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) for RVMs trained on optimized feature sets of CSLO parameters, SAP parameters, and CSLO and SAP parameters combined were 0.640, 0.762, and 0.805, respectively. AUROCs for CSLO Glaucoma Probability Score, SAP mean deviation (MD), and SAP pattern standard deviation (PSD) were 0.517, 0.513, and 0.620, respectively. No CSLO or SAP global indices discriminated between baseline measurements from progressed and stable eyes better than chance. Conclusions. In our sample, RVM analyses of baseline CSLO and SAP measurements could identify eyes that showed future glaucomatous progression with a higher accuracy than the CSLO and SAP global indices. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00221897, NCT00221923.)

Bowd, Christopher; Lee, Intae; Goldbaum, Michael H.; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

2012-01-01

109

Eye Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

110

Simple eye-safe lidar for cloud height measurement and small forest fire detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and robust eye-safe lidar was developed on the basis of a rangefinder optical scheme comprising an Er:glass laser which generates 8 mJ pulses of 1540-nm radiation with the pulse repetition rate of 0.17 Hz and a 38-mm-diameter telescope. Reliable measurements of the cloud height up to 3700 m and early forest-fire detection with a range of 3000 m were experimentally demonstrated. Theoretical estimations indicate that using an optical scheme built around a 10 Hz Er:glass lasers and 150 mm light gathering optics early forest fire detection in a range up to 6500 m can be achieved.

Lavrov, A.; Utkin, A. B.; Vilar, R.

2010-07-01

111

Methods of measuring the iridocorneal angle in tomographic images of the anterior segment of the eye  

PubMed Central

Introduction This paper presents the problem of automatic measurement of the iridocorneal angle in tomographic images of the anterior segment of the eye. It includes the results of the comparison of well-known methods for measuring the iridocorneal angle with new methods, proposed in this paper. All these methods concern tomographic image analysis and processing. Material and method In total, approximately 100’000 tomographic images (from about 6’000 patients) were analysed. They were obtained using two devices: SOCT Copernicus (Optopol Tech. SA, Zawiercie, Poland) and Visante OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA). The patients, aged 12 to 78 years with varying degrees of the iridocorneal angle pathology, were from the region of Silesia, Poland. The images were in DICOM or RAW formats and analysed in the software developed by the authors for the purposes of this study. Results The results indicate that the measurement method proposed by the authors, which is based on the calculation of the minimum distance between the iris and the cornea in the adopted area, is the most accurate. For this method sensitivity was 0.88, specificity 0.89 and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.88. The other known methods for measuring the iridocorneal angle gave worse results, that is, for example, for the measurement of the distance between the iris and the cornea AUC?=?0.87, sensitivity?=?0.86 and specificity?=?0.71. For another well-known method of measuring the iridocorneal angle AUC?=?0.77, sensitivity?=?0.82 and specificity?=?0.61. Conclusions The study proved that the proposed method of measuring the minimum distance between the iris and the cornea within the adopted area is the most effective in the classification of the iridocorneal angle in patients with a high degree of pathology of all the compared measurement methods based on tomographic images. However, it requires fully automated measurement.

2013-01-01

112

Attenuated Age-Related Thinning of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Long Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the impact of axial length on the age-related peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning. Methods This cross-sectional observational comparative case series included 172 eyes from 172 healthy Korean subjects. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured using an Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 scan of spectral domain Cirrus HD OCT and the axial length was measured using IOL Master Advanced Technology. In age groups based on decade, the normal ranges of peripapillary RNFL thickness for average, quadrant, and clock-hour sectors were determined with 95% confidence intervals. After dividing the eyes into two groups according to axial length (cut-off, 24.50 mm), the degrees of age-related RNFL thinning were compared. Results Among the eyes included in the study, 53 (30.81%) were considered to be long eyes (axial length, 25.04 ± 0.48 µm) and 119 (69.19%) were short-to-normal length eyes (axial length, 23.57 ± 0.60 µm). The decrease in average RNFL thickness with age was less in long eyes (negative slope, -0.12 µm/yr) than in short-to-normal length eyes (negative slope, -0.32 µm/yr) (p < 0.001). Conclusions Age-related thinning of peripapillary RNFL thickness is attenuated in long eyes compared to short-to-normal length eyes.

Kim, Eun-Ji; Hong, Samin; Kim, Chan Yun; Lee, Eun Suk

2011-01-01

113

Does Rebound Tonometry Probe Misalignment Modify Intraocular Pressure Measurements in Human Eyes?  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To examine the influence of positional misalignments on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with a rebound tonometer. Methods. Using the iCare rebound tonometer, IOP readings were taken from the right eye of 36 healthy subjects at the central corneal apex (CC) and compared to IOP measures using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT). Using a bespoke rig, iCare IOP readings were also taken 2?mm laterally from CC, both nasally and temporally, along with angular deviations of 5 and 10 degrees, both nasally and temporally to the visual axis. Results. Mean IOP?±?SD, as measured by GAT, was 14.7 ± 2.5?mmHg versus iCare tonometer readings of 17.4 ± 3.6?mmHg at CC, representing an iCare IOP overestimation of 2.7 ± 2.8?mmHg (P < 0.001), which increased at higher average IOPs. IOP at CC using the iCare tonometer was not significantly different to values at lateral displacements. IOP was marginally underestimated with angular deviation of the probe but only reaching significance at 10 degrees nasally. Conclusions. As shown previously, the iCare tonometer overestimates IOP compared to GAT. However, IOP measurement in normal, healthy subjects using the iCare rebound tonometer appears insensitive to misalignments. An IOP underestimation of <1?mmHg with the probe deviated 10 degrees nasally reached statistical but not clinical significance levels.

Beasley, Ian G.; Laughton, Deborah S.; Coldrick, Benjamin J.; Drew, Thomas E.; Sallah, Marium; Davies, Leon N.

2013-01-01

114

Korean Immigrants in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Koreans have been admitted to the United States as legal immigrants since the change in the immigration law in 1965. A significant proportion of the new Korean immigrants have settled in Los Angeles. As a result, the Los Angeles Korean community, the home of some 200,000 Koreans, has become not only the largest Korean center in

Pyong Gap Min

1990-01-01

115

A Study on Sea Level Variations of the Korean Peninsula and Surrounding Areas Based on Tide Gauge, GPS and Satellite Altimeter Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level variations of the Korean peninsula and surrounding areas in the ranges of 20-40 °N and 110-145 °E were investigated for the purpose of understanding the regional characteristics of the abnormal sea level rise near the Jeju island located in the southern edge of the Korean peninsula. For this study, we used tide gauge (TG) data, Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, and satellite altimeter measurements taken in the study area. We used the data at 194 TG stations. We obtained the TG data from 38 stations operated by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) in Korea. We also collected monthly mean sea level observations from 139 and 17 TG stations of Japan and China, respectively. The data of Japan and China are from Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) services. We computed sea level rates using monthly mean sea level measurements, and analyzed spatial-temporal correlation through the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. As the second part of our study, we derived absolute sea level rise rates by correcting the TG data for crustal deformation rates. To obtain the uplift rates in the area, we used continuous measurements at permanent GPS stations located at the TG site. For GPS data processing high-precision GPS data processing program GIPSY-OASIS II was used. To analyze local signatures of crustal deformation, we subtracted the primary EOF mode signal from the GPS height time series. Furthermore, we compared the obtained absolute sea level rates with satellite altimeter measurements. We obtained and analyzed TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeter data provided by AVISO from 1993 to 2010. We found that the absolute sea level rates from geodetic measurements are generally in good agreement with radar altimeter rates.

Kim, K.; Park, K.; Won, J.

2010-12-01

116

The use of short coherence length laser light for eye length measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for an accurate knowledge of the length of the eye, for example for improved precision in the design and manufacture of optical lens implants and other opthalmic surgical procedures. The parameter itself is not readily determined, and the primary method in use at the moment in ultrasonography, which gives a direct estimate of the eye length.

D. N. Wang; G. Dick; S. Chen; K. T. V. Grattan; A. W. Palmer

1992-01-01

117

C.R.T. spot-follower device for eye-movement measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eye-movement detector, using the reflection of a light beam on the cornea and a properly designed feedback loop to counterbalance the ocular rotation by suitably adjusting the position of the light source, is presented. The displacement of the light source is transduced into an electrical signal whose functional dependence on the eye rotation is linear, to a very good

Guido Palmieri; Giulia Anna Oliva; Maria Scotto

1971-01-01

118

Fourier domain OCT measurement of macular, macular ganglion cell complex, and peripapillary RNFL thickness in glaucomatous Chinese eyes.  

PubMed

Purpose. To evaluate and compare the glaucoma discrimination ability of macula, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC), and peripapillary nerve fiber layer (ppNFL) thickness in Chinese patients using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Methods. A total of 64 normal subjects (N), 47 glaucoma suspects (GS), and 48 glaucoma patients (G) were enrolled in the study. The thickness of mGCC, ppNFL, and total macula were measured using RTVue-100 FD-OCT (software version: 4.0.7.5; Optovue). The GCC and ONH protocols were used for obtaining images in all subjects. For each binocular subject, one eye was chosen randomly for analysis. Results. The average thicknesses of macular, mGCC, and ppNFL in normal eyes were significantly different from those in GS or G eyes (p<0.001). The mGCC thickness correlated well with ppNFL thickness (correlation coefficients for N, GS, and G eyes are 0.397 [p=0.001], 0.822 [p<0.0001], and 0.865 [p<0.0001]). Areas under receiver operating characteristic curve of macular, mGCC, and ppNFL thickness are 0.940 (p<0.0001), 0.998 (p<0.0001), and 0.977 (p<0.0001), discriminating G from N eyes. There was no significant difference comparing the discriminating powers of NFL, GCC, and macular thickness. Conclusions. The mGCC measurements provide another measurement of neural loss in glaucoma, and may serve as a promising parameter for ppNFL thickness in the clinical assessment of glaucoma. For glaucomatous eyes, mGCC and ppNFL thicknesses performed better discriminating abilities compared with macular thickness. PMID:22467590

Chen, Junyi; Huang, Haili; Wang, Min; Sun, Xinghuai; Qian, Shaohong

2012-03-20

119

Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students.  

PubMed

This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r's = .27 - .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = -.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students. PMID:20694190

Lee, Richard M; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

2010-01-01

120

Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students  

PubMed Central

This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r’s = .27 – .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = ?.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students.

Lee, Richard M.; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

2010-01-01

121

Measurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High Resolution Fly's Eye Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the cosmic ray spectrum above 1017.2 eV using the two air-fluorescence detectors of the High Resolution Fly's Eye observatory operating in monocular mode. We describe the detector, phototube, and atmospheric calibrations, as well as the analysis techniques for the two detectors. We fit the spectrum to a model consisting of galactic and extragalactic sources.

R. U. Abbasi; T. Abu-Zayyad; J. F. Amann; G. Archbold; J. A. Bellido; K. Belov; J. W. Belz; D. R. Bergman; Z. Cao; R. W. Clay; M. D. Cooper; H. Dai; B. R. Dawson; A. A. Everett; Yu. A. Fedorova; J. H. Girard; R. C. Gray; W. F. Hanlon; M. H. Holzscheiter; P. Hüntemeyer; B. F. Jones; C. C. Jui; K. Kim; M. A. Kirn; E. C. Loh; N. Manago; L. J. Marek; K. Martens; G. Martin; J. A. Matthews; J. N. Matthews; J. R. Meyer; S. A. Moore; P. Morrison; A. N. Moosman; J. R. Mumford; M. W. Munro; C. A. Painter; L. Perera; K. Reil; R. Riehle; M. Roberts; J. S. Sarracino; M. Sasaki; S. R. Schnetzer; P. Shen; K. M. Simpson; G. Sinnis; J. D. Smith; P. Sokolsky; C. Song; R. W. Springer; B. T. Stokes; S. F. Taylor; S. B. Thomas; T. N. Thompson; G. B. Thomson; D. Tupa; S. Westerhoff; L. R. Wiencke; T. D. Vanderveen; A. Zech; X. Zhang

2004-01-01

122

Measurements of simultaneously recorded spike and local field potentials suggest that spatial selection emerges in the frontal eye field  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The frontal eye field (FEF) participates in selecting the location of behaviorally relevant stimuli for guiding attention and eye movements. We simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in the FEF of monkeys performing memory-guided saccade and covert visual search tasks. We compared visual latencies and the time course of spatially selective responses in LFPs and spiking activity. Consistent with the view that LFPs represent synaptic input, visual responses appeared first in the LFPs followed by visual responses in the spiking activity. However, spatially selective activity identifying the location of the target in the visual search array appeared in the spikes about 30 ms before it appeared in the LFPs. Because LFPs reflect dendritic input and spikes measure neuronal output in a local brain region, this temporal relationship suggests that spatial selection necessary for attention and eye movements is computed locally in FEF from non-spatially selective inputs.

Monosov, Ilya E.; Trageser, Jason C.; Thompson, Kirk G.

2008-01-01

123

Fiber optic point-source for in-vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering in the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber optic point-source was designed for in vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering. The point-source consists of an optical fiber, with a core diameter of about 8 micrometers , mounted in a stainless steel cannula. At the tip of the cannula the entrance face of a 1-mm micro prism is fixed. The hypotenuse face of the prism is coated with aluminum and acts as a mirror reflecting the light out through the exit face. The arrangement allows light fed into the optical fiber to be emitted in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the cannula. The cannula is bent to allow its in vivo introduction into the eye at the posterior pole. The prism is positioned close to the retina along the optical axis of the eye. The light is transmitted through the eye in a reversed beam path (from vitreaous towards cornea). In the vitreous, the light source emits within a numerical aperture of about 0.1 allowing the exiting light to be well confined through the dilated pupil. After careful calibration of the light source, accurate measurements can easily be performed by positioning detector equipment outside the eye. The small size of the point-source (in the range of the eye's resolution) allows measurement of light scatter at both wide and narrow angles. With this intraocular fiber optic technique, it is possible to perform several types of experiments, including measurements of light transmission and scattering, and also studies of fluorescence phenomena in different parts of the ocular media.

Soderberg, Per G.; Torstensson, Per-Arne; Beckman, Claes M.; Ren, Jianming; Algvere, Peep; Tengroth, Bjorn M.

1994-06-01

124

On-Eye Measurement of Optical Performance of Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lenses Based on Ocular and Corneal Aberrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Our aim was to obtain a complete description of the interactions of rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses with the optics of normal eyes. Methods. We measured total and anterior-surface aberrations in four subjects, who were all long-term RGP contact lens wearers. The anterior-surface wave aberration was obtained from videokeratographic elevation maps, and ocular wave aberration was measured with

CARLOS DORRONSORO; SERGIO BARBERO; LOURDES LLORENTE; SUSANA MARCOS

2003-01-01

125

Translation and validation of Caregiving Satisfaction Scale into Korean.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to establish the equivalence and to examine the psychometric properties of a Korean translation of the Caregiving Satisfaction Scale (CSS). A convenience sample of 44 bilingual Koreans was selected. The Cronbach's alpha for the English and Korean versions were .87 and .90, respectively. There was significant mean difference between items 3 and 12 of the English items and their Korean translations. Pearson's Correlations demonstrated that 13 of the 15 CSS items had significant correlations (r = .35-.75, p < .05) between two versions. The correlation between total scores of both versions was .86 (p < .001). Overall, none of the items would be regarded as having unacceptable numeric properties. According to the fine process for translation, back-translation, and bilingual field test, the Korean version of the CSS appears to have concrete construct validity and reliability for use in measuring caregiver satisfaction in the Korean population. PMID:10943174

Son, G R; Zauszniewski, J A; Wykle, M L; Picot, S J

2000-08-01

126

Spatial and temporal measurements of eye movement in children with dyslexia.  

PubMed

This paper presents the first reading data in Croatian collected with an eye-tracking device. The eye-tracking method allows for research into two crucial levels underlying reading: the visual and the cognitive. The aim of this paper is to show the differences in eye movements in children with dyslexia using the principles of cognitive-control view. Despite the well-known definitions and vast literature on dyslexia, the neural basis of dyslexia varies greatly on the individual level. The three children studied in this paper were tested behaviorally using set of language tests for language behavior assessment on all language levels: phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon and pragmatics. Two children had low scores on most language tests, and all three children had poor reading and writing level. Each of the children had to read two texts silently while their eye movements were recorded by means of an infrared eye-tracking system. We analyzed the number, position, and duration of fixations and the number and position of regressive (or back) saccades. Our results show intergroup differences (between a typically developing child and the three children with dyslexia), and intragroup differences (among all three children with dyslexia). The great number of fixations, longer duration of fixations, and great number of regression saccades are the main features that differentiate the children with dyslexia form the typically developing child. The only difference found between language and visual subtypes of dyslexia was a shorter duration of fixations for the child with a visual processing disorder. PMID:21648333

Kraljevi?, Jelena Kuvac; Palmovi?, Marijan

2011-01-01

127

Eyelid contour detection and tracking for startle research related eye-blink measurements from high-speed video records.  

PubMed

Using the positions of the eyelids is an effective and contact-free way for the measurement of startle induced eye-blinks, which plays an important role in human psychophysiological research. To the best of our knowledge, no methods for an efficient detection and tracking of the exact eyelid contours in image sequences captured at high-speed exist that are conveniently usable by psychophysiological researchers. In this publication a semi-automatic model-based eyelid contour detection and tracking algorithm for the analysis of high-speed video recordings from an eye tracker is presented. As a large number of images have been acquired prior to method development it was important that our technique is able to deal with images that are recorded without any special parametrisation of the eye tracker. The method entails pupil detection, specular reflection removal and makes use of dynamic model adaption. In a proof-of-concept study we could achieve a correct detection rate of 90.6%. With this approach, we provide a feasible method to accurately assess eye-blinks from high-speed video recordings. PMID:23880079

Bernard, Florian; Deuter, Christian Eric; Gemmar, Peter; Schachinger, Hartmut

2013-07-21

128

High quality optical microangiography of ocular microcirculation and measurement of total retinal blood flow in mouse eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization and measurement of retinal blood flow (RBF) is important to the diagnosis and management of different eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is developed for generating 3D dynamic microcirculation image and later refined into ultra-high sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG) for true capillary vessels imaging. Here, we present the application of OMAG imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image mouse posterior eye. By applying UHS-OMAG scanning protocol and processing algorithm, we achieved true capillary level imaging of retina and choroid vasculature in mouse eye. The vascular pattern within different retinal layers and choroid was presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [1] without knowing Doppler angle was adopted for the measurement of total retinal blood flow. The axial blood flow velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area of the central retinal artery.

Zhi, Zhongwei; Yin, Xin; Dziennis, Suzan; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

2013-03-01

129

Morphometric measurement of Schlemm's canal in normal human eye using anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography to measure Schlemm's canal (SC) morphometric values in the living human eye. Fifty healthy volunteers with 100 normal eyes were measured in the nasal and temporal side. Comparison with the published SC morphometric values of histologic sections proves the reliability of our results. The statistical results show that there are no significant differences between nasal and temporal SC with respect to their diameter, perimeter, and area in our study (diameter: t=0.122, p=0.903; perimeter: t=-0.003, p=0.998; area: t=-1.169, p=0.244); further, no significant differences in SC morphometric values are found between oculus sinister and oculus dexter (diameter: t=0.943, p=0.35; perimeter: t=1.346, p=0.18; area: t=1.501, p=0.135).

Shi, Guohua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

2012-01-01

130

Corneal thickness and elevation measurements using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography in normal and keratoconic eyes.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography is being used increasingly for corneal measurements. The current study compared corneal thickness and corneal elevation using SS-OCT (Casia, Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) and slit scanning topography (Orbscan IIz, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, New York). DESIGN: Prospective study PARTICIPANTS: 41 normal and 46 keratoconus subjects METHODS: All eyes were imaged using SS-OCT and slit scanning tomography during the same visit. Mean central (CCT) and thinnest (TCT) corneal thickness and best-fit sphere (BFS) measurements were compared between the instruments. Corneal thickness was also measured with ultrasound pachymetry (USP). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement of measurements between SS-OCT and scanning slit topography was analyzed. Intra-rater reproducibility coefficient (RCs) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were evaluated. RESULTS: In normal eyes, CCT measured by SS-OCT (549.6±32.6 ?m) was thinner compared with slit scanning topography (557.5±30.1 ?m; p<0.0001) and USP (556.8±34.1 ?m; p=<.0001). USP readings had better 95% limits of agreement (LoA) with SS-OCT (-20.3 to +5.9) than slit scanning topography (-20.5 to +22.0). In keratoconus eyes, CCT was thinner on SS-OCT than slit scanning topography (p=0.081) and USP (p=0.001). There were significant differences between TCT, anterior BFS and posterior BFS measurements between both instruments (p< 0.05 for all). Overall, RCs and ICCs were significantly better with SS-OCT for measurement of CCT, anterior BFS and, posterior BFS (all p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal thickness and elevation measurements were significantly different between SS-OCT and slit scanning topography. With a faster scan-speed, better RCs and ICCs, SS-OCT may provide a reliable alternative for measurement of corneal parameters. PMID:23566209

Jhanji, Vishal; Yang, Bingzhi; Yu, Marco; Ye, Cong; Leung, Christopher Ks

2013-04-01

131

Oxygen distribution and vascular injury in the mouse eye measured by phosphorescence-lifetime imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maps of the oxygen distribution in the retina of the mouse eye were obtained by phosphorescence-lifetime imaging. Phosphor dissolved in the blood was excited by modulated light and phosphorescence imaged through microscope optics with an intensified-CCD camera. Phosphorescence lifetimes and oxygen pressures were calculated for each pixel of the images. The resolution was sufficient to permit the detection of anomalies that result in reduced oxygen pressures in individual retinal capillaries. High-resolution maps of oxygen distribution in the retina can provide greater understanding of the role of oxygen and vascular function in diseases of the eye.

Wilson, David F.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Grosul, Pavel; Vaccarezza, M. Noel; Kuroki, Akiko; Bennett, Jean

2005-09-01

132

Very fast wave-front measurements at the human eye with a custom CMOS-based Hartmann-Shack sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe what we believe to be the first wave-front measurements of the human eye at a sampling rate of 300 Hz with a custom Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor that uses complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This sensor has been developed to replace standard charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras and the slow software image processing that is normally used to reconstruct the

Thomas Nirmaier; Gopal Pudasaini; Josef Bille

2003-01-01

133

Monitoring of trauma surgeons' exposure to radiation. Measurements of hand, eye and thyroid with highly sensitive thermoluminescence detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a A prospective study of 24 operative procedures involving minimal invasive techniques and fluoroscopic guidance was undertaken\\u000a in order to measure the radiation exposure to the primary surgeon. Radiation was monitored with the use of high sensitive\\u000a thermoluminescent dosimeters. At the spots of dosimetry (eyes, thyreoid gland, hand and genitals under lead apron) the dose\\u000a was uniformly low and ranged

M. Fuchs; H. Modler; A. Schmid; C. Dumont; K. M. Stürmer

1999-01-01

134

Measurement of the flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from monocular observations by the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment.  

PubMed

We have measured the cosmic ray spectrum above 10(17.2) eV using the two air-fluorescence detectors of the High Resolution Fly's Eye observatory operating in monocular mode. We describe the detector, phototube, and atmospheric calibrations, as well as the analysis techniques for the two detectors. We fit the spectrum to a model consisting of galactic and extragalactic sources. PMID:15169276

Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Amann, J F; Archbold, G; Bellido, J A; Belov, K; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Cao, Z; Clay, R W; Cooper, M D; Dai, H; Dawson, B R; Everett, A A; Fedorova, Yu A; Girard, J H V; Gray, R C; Hanlon, W F; Hoffman, C M; Holzscheiter, M H; Hüntemeyer, P; Jones, B F; Jui, C C H; Kieda, D B; Kim, K; Kirn, M A; Loh, E C; Manago, N; Marek, L J; Martens, K; Martin, G; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J N; Meyer, J R; Moore, S A; Morrison, P; Moosman, A N; Mumford, J R; Munro, M W; Painter, C A; Perera, L; Reil, K; Riehle, R; Roberts, M; Sarracino, J S; Sasaki, M; Schnetzer, S R; Shen, P; Simpson, K M; Sinnis, G; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Song, C; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Taylor, S F; Thomas, S B; Thompson, T N; Thomson, G B; Tupa, D; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L R; VanderVeen, T D; Zech, A; Zhang, X

2004-04-15

135

Double-pass measurements of the retinal-image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye's optical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a modified double-pass apparatus with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes to measure the optical transfer function in the human eye and have applied the technique to three different problems. First, we confirm that in the eye the double-pass spread function is the cross correlation of the input spread function with the output spread function (J. Opt.

Pablo Artal; Ignacio Iglesias; Norberto López-Gil; Daniel G. Green

1995-01-01

136

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four European Populations  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world.

Candille, Sophie I.; Absher, Devin M.; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Li, Jun Z.; Myers, Richard M.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D.

2012-01-01

137

A validation of eye movements as a measure of elementary school children's developing number sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number line estimation task captures central aspects of children's developing number sense, that is, their intuitions for numbers and their interrelations. Previous research used children's answer patterns and verbal reports as evidence of how they solve this task. In the present study we investigated to what extent eye movements recorded during task solution reflect children's use of the number

Michael Schneider; Angela Heine; Verena Thaler; Joke Torbeyns; Bert De Smedt; Lieven Verschaffel; Arthur M. Jacobs; Elsbeth Stern

2008-01-01

138

Creativity and Confucianism Among American and Korean Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in creative styles and Confucian ideas between Koreans and Americans and to examine the relationship between creativity and Confucianism. A total number of 579 educators (227 American and 352 Korean) participated in this study. Eastern-Western Perspective Scale was used to measure participants’ level of Confucianism and the Torrance Tests of Creative

Kyung Hee Kim; Hang Eun Lee; Ki-Byung Chae; Lori Anderson; Christopher Laurence

2011-01-01

139

The Protein Polymorphism of Haptoglobin in Korean Elite Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate protein polymorphism of the haptoglobin (Hp) and the relationship between Hp phenotypes and anthropometric or biochemical parameters in elite Korean male athletes. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 120 Korean male elite athletes. The Hp phenotypes were determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by peroxidase staining. Then anthropometric or biochemical measurements were made: body composition,

Byung Yong Kang; Chin Yang Kang; Sang Duk Oh; Joon Seol Bae; Ki Tae Kim; Kang Oh Lee

2003-01-01

140

Construct Validity of the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

b Background: Domestic violence against married women has persisted throughout Korean history. However, very little empirical research has been conducted in Korea about domestic violence, its causes, or women's responses. b Objective: To develop and test psychometrically the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale (KWAIS) to measure women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands in Korea. b Methods: The first

Myunghan Choi; Linda R. Phillips; Aurelio José Figueredo; Katheleen Insel; Sung-Kil Min

2008-01-01

141

Measurements of folded path optical scintillation using a corner cube, a cat's eye and a flat mirror reflector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical prediction of the folded path weighting function for optical scintillation strength was made by Dr. Avinu Ze'evi. In an effort to verify this prediction, a sixty-one meter, enclosed turbulence chamber was built, allowing the position of a turbulence source to be moved and the scintillation strength measured at different path positions. This experiment tested the Ze'evi hypothesis using a corner cube, a cat's eye and a flat mirror and compared the results of each. The experimental results do not follow Dr. Ze'evi's theory. The general pattern of both the corner cube and the flat mirror have less weight at the target end than predicted. The cat's eye scintillation followed the predicted weighting.

Kim, J. H.

1984-12-01

142

Measuring drug-induced eye irritation: a simple new clinical assay.  

PubMed

Thirty-six normal subjects received a drop in either eye of two of four ophthalmic solutions, balanced saline (S), carteolol, 1% (C1), carteolol, 2% (C2), or timolol, 0.5% (T), in a double-blind, randomized trial in a balanced incomplete block design. Subjects reported immediately, at three, and again at ten minutes after administration whether one eye felt more irritated and marked an analog scale of irritation. An observer also made ratings at three minutes based on responses to stereotyped questions. Significant differences in irritation between timolol and each of the other drugs and placebo were shown by analog scale scores immediately after instillation of the solutions. Maximum likelihood estimates were calculated based on statements of subject preference, and a significant preference was demonstrated. Observer ratings also demonstrated a treatment effect. This simple clinical assay system provides a new, valid method for estimating irritation induced by ophthalmic solutions. PMID:3873478

Scoville, B; Krieglstein, G K; Then, E; Yokoyama, S; Yokoyama, T

1985-04-01

143

Silent giant cell arteritis in an elderly Korean woman.  

PubMed

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a rare disease among Asians. Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, which accompanies GCA, has not yet been reported in Koreans. Diagnosis of GCA is difficult if typical symptoms other than visual loss are absent. Here, we report a case of an 83-year-old Korean woman presenting with sudden visual loss in both eyes (oculus uterque, OU). Her visual acuities included perception of light in the right eye (oculus dexter, OD) and perception of hand motion in the left eye (oculus sinister, OS). The results of the Hardy-Rand-Rittler test and Ishihara test showed total dyschromatopsia OU. The Goldmann perimetry test revealed a total field defect OD and paracentral island OS. Fundus examination revealed chalky-white disc swelling OU. Other systemic symptoms and signs were unremarkable. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and platelet count were highly elevated. Temporal artery biopsy revealed multiple lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells in the arterial media layer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GCA in a Korean that has been confirmed with temporal artery biopsy. In conclusion, silent GCA can occur in Koreans, and hence, elderly patients presenting with chalky-white disc swelling, and corresponding laboratory findings must be evaluated for GCA. PMID:23730119

Cha, Dong Min; Lee, Taeseung; Choe, Gheeyoung; Yang, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

2013-04-25

144

Silent Giant Cell Arteritis in an Elderly Korean Woman  

PubMed Central

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a rare disease among Asians. Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, which accompanies GCA, has not yet been reported in Koreans. Diagnosis of GCA is difficult if typical symptoms other than visual loss are absent. Here, we report a case of an 83-year-old Korean woman presenting with sudden visual loss in both eyes (oculus uterque, OU). Her visual acuities included perception of light in the right eye (oculus dexter, OD) and perception of hand motion in the left eye (oculus sinister, OS). The results of the Hardy-Rand-Rittler test and Ishihara test showed total dyschromatopsia OU. The Goldmann perimetry test revealed a total field defect OD and paracentral island OS. Fundus examination revealed chalky-white disc swelling OU. Other systemic symptoms and signs were unremarkable. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and platelet count were highly elevated. Temporal artery biopsy revealed multiple lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells in the arterial media layer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GCA in a Korean that has been confirmed with temporal artery biopsy. In conclusion, silent GCA can occur in Koreans, and hence, elderly patients presenting with chalky-white disc swelling, and corresponding laboratory findings must be evaluated for GCA.

Cha, Dong Min; Lee, Taeseung; Choe, Gheeyoung; Yang, Hee Kyung

2013-01-01

145

Korean History: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Kenneth Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, this comprehensive bibliography is offered as an update and supplement to the 1980 annotated bibliography Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide. Robinson's bibliography includes his earlier Korean War bibliography (see the November 5, 1999 Scout Report), as well as covering early modern Korean history, the nineteenth century, modern history of the North and South into the 1960s, economics, literature, the Korean diaspora, law, women, demography, education, and music, among others. An excellent resource for students and scholars alike, the bibliography is easily navigated via a table of contents or menu buttons on the left-hand side of the browser window.

146

Ancient Japan's Korean Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes relations among the peoples of the Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago between A.D. 350 and 700 from an archaeological perspective. Until recently, the international academic community was divided between those who advocated the \\

William Wayne Farris

1996-01-01

147

Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively. PMID:23714934

Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

2013-05-01

148

Eye Protection  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5

Pashby, Tom

1986-01-01

149

An Active Intraoral Shape Measurement Scheme Using a Compact Compound-Eye Camera with Integrated Pattern Projectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an active intraoral shape measurement scheme to realize a compact intraoral diagnostic system for measuring the three-dimensional shapes of gums and teeth. To measure intraoral surfaces with little texture, compact pattern projectors based on diffractive optical elements are integrated in lens gaps of a compact compound-eye camera called a thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO). The three-dimensional shape is reproduced on the basis of triangulation using the amount of pattern distortion. A scaled-up prototype system is constructed to verify the measurement scheme using the TOMBO camera and a spatial light modulator. The prototype system demonstrates an rms distance accuracy of 0.46 mm. A temporal change of the shape is quantitatively evaluated with a reference surface based on teeth positions.

Kagawa, Keiichiro; Tanabe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Chizuko; Ogura, Yusuke; Nakao, Yoshizumi; Toyoda, Takashi; Masaki, Yasuo; Ueda, Masatoshi; Tanida, Jun

2009-09-01

150

Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in optic atrophy eyes of patients with optic neuritis using optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To measure the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in optic atrophy eyes of\\u000a patients with optic neuritis and investigate the correlation between the RNFL thickness and the visual function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  To compare the RNFL thickness using StratusOCT, three groups of the subjects were enrolled, including 72 patients with optic\\u000a atrophy with definite demyelinating optic neuritis

Xin-Ling Wang; Tao Yu; De-Zhao Xia; Jin-Song Zhang; Qi-chang Yan; Ya-Hong Luo

2010-01-01

151

Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy and reproducibility of the optic nerve head analyser (ONHA) and the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) were compared and the performance of the HRT in measuring fundus elevations was evaluated. The coefficient of variation of three repeated measurements in a model eye and in volunteers and the relative error in a model eye was calculated. With ONHA measurements the pooled coefficient of variation in volunteers was 9.3% in measuring cup areas and 8.4% in measuring the cup volume. In a model eye the pooled coefficient of variation was 7.6% for the parameter 'cup area' and 9.9% for the parameter 'cup volume'. The pooled relative error in the model eye was 6.6% for the parameter 'cup area' and 5.1% for the parameter 'cup volume'. With HRT measurements in volunteers the pooled coefficient of variation of both the parameters 'volume below contour' and 'volume below surface' was 6.9%. In the model eye the pooled coefficient of variation was 2.4% for the 'volume below contour' and 4.1% for the parameter 'volume below surface'. The pooled relative error in the model eye was 11.3% for the 'volume below contour' and 11% for the 'volume below surface'. The pooled relative error in measuring retinal elevations in the model eye was 3.8%. The coefficient of variation was 3.5%. The accuracies of the HRT and ONHA were similar. However, as the ONHA 'cup volume' is unreliable in patients because of the design of the ONHA whereas the HRT volume parameters are reliable it seems reasonable to assume that the HRT is superior to the ONHA. Only the HRT is capable of quantifying retinal elevations. Images

Janknecht, P; Funk, J

1994-01-01

152

Korean Teachers' Attitudes toward Academic Brilliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a replication of a study designed by Tannenbaum (1962) and repeated by Cramond and Martin (1987) measuring U.S. attitudes toward intelligence by having respondents rate 8 hypothetical students who varied in their combinations of athleticism, effort, and academic ability. This study investigated 132 Korean preservice and in-service…

Lee, Seon-Young; Cramond, Bonnie; Lee, Jongyeun

2004-01-01

153

An unusual attraction to the eyes in Williams-Beuren syndrome: A manipulation of facial affect while measuring face scanpaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. This study aimed to investigate face scanpaths and emotion recognition in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and whether: (1) the eyes capture the attention of WBS individuals faster than typically developing mental age-matched controls; (2) WBS patients spend abnormally prolonged periods of time viewing the eye region; and (3) emotion recognition skills or eye gaze patterns change depending on the emotional

Melanie A. Porter; Tracey A. Shaw; Pamela J. Marsh

2010-01-01

154

Eye Health and Safety Among Latino Farmworkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmworkers face a variety of risk factors for eye injuries. Measures of eye protection use and of eye safety knowledge and beliefs are based on a survey of 300 Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Few farmworkers report using eye protection (8.3%); most (92.3%) report that employers do not provide eye protection. Approximately 70% report that they are not trained in

Amit Verma; Mark R. Schulz; Sara A. Quandt; Erin N. Robinson; Joseph G. Grzywacz; Haiying Chen; Thomas A. Arcury

2011-01-01

155

Experiments on a Model Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

1978-01-01

156

Experiments on a Model Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)|

Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

1978-01-01

157

Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements by Pentacam, noncontact specular microscope, and ultrasound pachymetry in normal and post-LASIK eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements taken with Pentacam, noncontact specular microscope (NCSM), and ultrasound pachymetry (US) in normal and post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eyes and to assess the agreement between the three devices. Design Prospective clinical trial. Patients and methods Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured in 94 eyes of normal volunteer and in 72 eyes of post-LASIK patients. Measurements were made with the three devices. Results In normal eyes, the mean (±SD) CCT taken with Pentacam, NCSM, and US was 552.6 ± 36.8 ?m, 511.9 ± 38.6 ?m, and 533.3 ± 37.9 ?m, respectively. The average values of CCT taken with the three instruments were significantly different. In post-LASIK eyes the mean CCT with Pentacam, NCSM, and US was 483.02 ± 6.03 ?m, 450.7 ± 5.3 ?m, and 469.5 ± 5.8 ?m, respectively. The average values of CCT taken were significantly different for Pentacam vs. NCSM (P = 0.046) and Pentacam vs. US (P = 0.02), but not significant for NCSM vs. US (P = 0.352). The Bland and Altman method for assessing clinical agreement between 3 instruments showed that in normal eyes, the mean values and paired differences of the three CCT devices were found to be statistically independent. In post-LASIK eyes, there was significant association between the difference and the mean of the Pentacam and NCSM, and US and NCSM. Conclusion The three devices cannot be used interchangeably in normal and post-LASIK eyes. Pentacam tends to give significantly thicker reading than ultrasound pachymetry.

Al-Ageel, Saleh; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M.

2009-01-01

158

Depression and Korean American immigrants.  

PubMed

Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

2008-02-01

159

Korean Women in America: A Comparison of the Perception of Leadership between Korean American Women and Korean International Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study supplements the scarcity of research on Korean women in America. It explores the perception of leadership between Korean American women and Korean international women. It was inspired by stories that were told by Korean women indicating that Korean women in America first and foremost deal with the question, \\

Eun Hye Kang

2006-01-01

160

Analysis of Facial Deformities in Korean Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Methods One hundred ninety six patients with leprosy were examined for various facial deformities using a nasal speculum, endoscope, and digital camera. The frequency and severity of external nasal deformities and septal perforations were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Eye deformities, ear deformities, and facial palsy were also assessed. Results Seventy-one patients (36.2%) displayed external nasal deformities: 28 minimal contractures, three cartilage contractures, two bony-cartilage contractures, and 38 skin defects. The external nasal deformity and severe form deformity in lepromatous types were more frequent compared to other types (P<0.05 for each variable). Twenty-three patients (9%) displayed septal perforations, among whom 11 had cartilaginous perforations and 12 had bony-cartilaginous perforations. The frequency of septal and bony-cartilaginous perforations did not differ significantly between the types of leprosy (P>0.05 for each variable). Sixty-one patients (31.1%) had eye deformities and 19 patients (9.7%) had facial nerve palsy, common in the borderline type. No cases of ear deformities were observed. Conclusion Korean patients had characteristic deformities according to the type of leprosy. They were different from those seen in the prior analyses of Caucasian populations.

Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Ok Joo

2013-01-01

161

Eye Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of simple activities not only illustrates how our eyes work but also dramatically shows how the brain interprets the eyes' information. Uses these activities to introduce a study of the eye to elementary students and to motivate their interest. (Author/RK)

Headley, Dale C.

1978-01-01

162

Pterygotus eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many modern and fossil arthropods, eurypterids had compound eyes and other sensory devices. Many eurypterids display small, bean-shaped eyes which are oriented for side viewing. The large bulbous eyes of Pterygotus are located on the edge of the head and were probably useful for looking both laterally and vertically.

2001-03-01

163

Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The causative agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever was first isolated in 1976 from the rodent Apodemus agrarius coreae and it is registered as Hantaan virus. This report presents the results on (1) the first visualization of Hantaan virus by EM and (2) intra...

H. W. Lee

1981-01-01

164

Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results on (1) isolation of Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) virus from patients (2) antibody responses in animals (3) the ratio of clinical and subclinical infection (4) cultivation of the virus in a tissue culture cells and (5) ve...

H. W. Lee

1979-01-01

165

Finite Control in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

Lee, Kum Young

2009-01-01

166

An artificial eye for evaluating videobased eye recording systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Videobased corneal-reflection-to-pupil-center systems are widely used in eye movement research. In this paper, an artificial\\u000a eye drawn on a computer screen is presented. The artificial eye provides a way to simulate measurements of eye position in\\u000a human subjects. The method allows testing videobased systems on the level of the signal and on the level of the calibration\\u000a algorithm used to

Daniel Cavegn; Johan Van Rensbergen; Géry d’Ydewalle

1993-01-01

167

Comparison of different intraocular pressure measurement techniques in normal eyes, post surface and post lamellar refractive surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or epithelial laser in situ keratomileusis (Epi)-LASIK using Goldmann applanation tonometry, air puff tonometry, ocular response analyzer corneal compensated IOP (ORA IOPcc) and Pentacam corrected IOP. Methods A prospective comparative clinical study was conducted between February and September 2011 on 30 eyes divided into four groups, i.e. 20 corneas of 10 patients before LASIK (group A), 20 corneas of the same patients 2 months postoperatively (group B), 10 corneas of five patients before Epi-LASIK (group C), and 10 corneas of the same patients 2 months postoperatively (group D). Patient age ranged from 20 to 50 years. IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation and air puff tonometry, ORA corneal compensation, and Pentacam correction (which also measured central corneal thickness). Results Significant positive linear correlations were found between IOP values measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and other techniques, and with preoperative pachymetry in group A. The correlation between preoperative Pentacam-corrected and preoperative ORA corneal-compensated IOP was strongest for Goldmann applanation tonometry (r = 0.97 and r = 0.858 respectively, P < 0.001). Compared with preoperative values, postoperative IOP measured by the four methods were significantly lower. The difference was statistically significant when IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation and air puff tonometry compared with the ORA and Pentacam methods (P < 0.001 for LASIK patients and P = 0.017 for Epi-LASIK patients). Nonsignificant correlations were found between the degree of lowering of postoperative IOP and postoperative pachymetry in groups B and D. Conclusion Refractive surgery causes significant lowering of IOP as measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry, air puff tonometry, ORA compensation, and Pentacam correction. LASIK has a greater effect than Epi-LASIK on IOP measurement error following refractive surgery.

Shousha, Shireen MA; Abo Steit, Mahmoud AH; Hosny, Mohamed HM; Ewais, Wael A; Shalaby, Ahmad MM

2013-01-01

168

Gender Differences in Total and Regional Body Composition Changes as Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Korean Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to gain normal reference values and to evaluate gender differences in total and regional body composition changes according to age and Tanner stage by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean. Four hundred and forty-nine healthy subjects, aged 5–20yr were enrolled. Until 9yr of age, males had a higher lean tissue mass and a lower percent

Jung Sub Lim; Jin Soon Hwang; Gi Jeong Cheon; Jun Ah Lee; Dong Ho Kim; Kyung Duk Park; Kyung Hee Yi

2009-01-01

169

Normal weight obesity in Korean adults.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: A better way to define obesity is in terms of the percentage of body fat (BF). Subjects with normal weight, but excess BF are vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of subjects having normal weight obesity (NWO) using optimal cut-offs of the BF percentage reflecting risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the Korean population conducted in 2009-2010. PARTICIPANTS: We surveyed 5313 men and 6904 women aged 20 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: We investigated the relations between the BF percentage (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-related risk factors for CVD (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia) in Korean adults. NWO was defined as the combination of a normal body mass index (BMI; 18·5-22·9 kg/m(2) in Asian subjects) and BF percentages above the determined cut-off values. RESULTS: There were strong and graded associations of increasing BF percentages with the prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cut-off values (defined as being overweight) in men and women were 20·6% and 33·4% BF, respectively, and the second cut-off values (defined as obesity) were 25·7% and 36·0% BF. Thirty-two per cent of normal weight adults had BF percentages greater than or equal to the overweight or obesity cut-offs (NWO). Subjects with NWO had a lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass, a more atherogenic lipid profile and greater insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity can be defined as 26% BF or greater in Korean men and 36% BF or greater in Korean women. There was a high prevalence of clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities among subjects with NWO. PMID:23362933

Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon

2013-01-31

170

Research Spotlight: Two eyes are better than one for measuring rain from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One predicted consequence of climate change is a global redistribution of precipitation and the resultant shifts in regional rainfall volumes. To forecast the details of Earth's changing climate, researchers rely on the accurate detection and measurement of rainfall volumes. One type of rain, the light, warm drizzle often found in coastal regions or during a spring shower, is especially difficult to measure using satellite observations. The two most promising techniques for measuring warm rain—passive microwave (PMW), which sees through clouds and measures the microwave radiation emitted by rain, and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) detection, which measures reflected sunlight at wavelengths up to near-infrared absorption bands of water—both have shortcomings. In their new study, Bennartz et al. try to marry the two techniques, using the strengths of each to improve the accuracy of warm rain detection. The researchers assessed the viability of using combined VNIR and PMW data with a simplified cloud model before testing their technique with satellite observations and independently observed precipitation data for a region along the western coast of South Africa. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2009JD013679, 2010)

Schultz, Colin

2011-03-01

171

A NOVEL APPROACH TO IMAGE CODING USING OFF-LINE FOVEATION CONTROLLED BY MULTIPLE EYE-TRACKING MEASUREMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a wavelet transform to compress individual frames in a video sequence controlled by points of gaze coordinates col- lected from different viewers by an eye-tracker. Unlike most eye-tracking controlled compression approaches, we make the compression \\

Marcus Nystrom; Mirek Novak; Kenneth Holmqvist

172

Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method. PMID:23541790

Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

2013-03-16

173

Corneal thickness measurements and frequency doubling technology perimetry abnormalities in ocular hypertensive eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIt has been suggested that some patients currently diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT) may have thicker than average corneas that result in an overestimation of their true intraocular pressure. Consequently, patients with OHT with greater corneal thickness may be at a lower risk for functional glaucomatous damage, including visual field loss measured with frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry. The purpose

Felipe A Medeiros; Pamela A Sample; Robert N Weinreb

2003-01-01

174

Intuitive operability evaluation of robotic surgery using brain activity measurement to identify hand-eye coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical robots have undergone considerable improvement in recent years, but the intuitive operability, representing user inter-operability, has not been quantitatively evaluated. Thus, we propose a method for measuring brain activity to determine intuitive operability in order to design a robot with intuitive operability. The objective of this paper is to clarify the angle between the endoscope and the manipulator that

Satoshi Miura; Yo Kobayashi; Masatoshi Seki; Takehiko Noguchi; Masahiro Kasuya; Yuki Yokoo; Masakatsu G. Fujie

2012-01-01

175

Cultural influences on travel lifestyle: A comparison of Korean Australians and Koreans in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the travel behaviour of two groups of Koreans: those resident in Australia and those resident in Korea. A series of items measuring travel-specific lifestyle were analysed using factor analysis and cluster analysis. The two groups were classified into four clustered segments based on seven travel lifestyle factors. Chi-square tests

Sun-Hee Lee; Beverley Sparks

2007-01-01

176

Eye Health and Safety Among Latino Farmworkers  

PubMed Central

Farmworkers face a variety of risk factors for eye injuries. Measures of eye protection use and of eye safety knowledge and beliefs are based on a survey of 300 Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Few farmworkers report using eye protection (8.3%); most (92.3%) report that employers do not provide eye protection. Approximately 70% report that they are not trained in preventing eye injuries; 81% believe that their chances of getting an eye injury are low. Many farmworkers choose to take risks in order to save time. Interventions are needed that target farmworker knowledge and beliefs about eye safety.

Verma, Amit; Schulz, Mark R.; Quandt, Sara A.; Robinson, Erin N.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

177

Experimental evaluation of eye-blink parameters as a drowsiness measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a Drowsiness and increased tendency to fall asleep during daytime is still a generally underestimated problem. An increased\\u000a tendency to fall asleep limits the efficiency at work and substantially increases the risk of accidents. Reduced alertness\\u000a is difficult to assess, particularly under real life settings. Most of the available measuring procedures are laboratory-oriented\\u000a and their applicability under field conditions is

Philipp P. Caffier; Udo Erdmann; Peter Ullsperger

2003-01-01

178

There's more to the picture than meets the eye: Measuring tangible and intangible capital in two marginal communities in rural Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A missing link in economics has been what Veblen in 1908 termed intangible capital. This includes common norms, trust and high levels of cooperative performance. Intangibles are invisible to the eye and not easily measured in quantitative terms. They nevertheless involve visible, socioeconomic outcomes and should therefore rightly be seen as productive, like tangibles. Thus, uneven levels of intangible capital

Gunnar Lind Haase Svendsen; Jens Fyhn Lykke Sřrensen

2007-01-01

179

There's More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: Measuring Tangible and Intangible Capital in Two Marginal Communities in Rural Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A missing link in economics has been what Veblen in 1908 termed intangible capital. This includes common norms, trust and high levels of cooperative performance. Intangibles are invisible to the eye and not easily measured in quantitative terms. They nevertheless involve visible, socioeconomic outcomes and should therefore rightly be seen as…

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sorensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

2007-01-01

180

Anemia in Elderly Koreans  

PubMed Central

Recently, the geriatric population in Korea has grown to comprise approximately 10% of the total population, and anemia has become a significant problem among elderly patients. Many elderly patients have anemia due to nutritional deficiency, chronic inflammation, or comorbid diseases; however, in a significant fraction of the patients with anemia, the cause remains obscure. Anemia of any degree is recognized as a significant independent contributor to morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. This article summarizes the patterns of anemia in Korean geriatric patients.

2011-01-01

181

Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... Yes These may be signs of a serious eye infection called PERIORBITAL CELLULITIS. URGENT SEE YOUR DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY. No 12. Is there a firm, painful lump in the ... 13. Is the white of the eye pink, red or irritated, and are there any ...

182

DNA barcoding Korean birds.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding, an inventory of DNA sequences from a standardized genomic region, provides a bio-barcode for identifying and discovering species. Several recent studies suggest that the sequence diversity in a 648 bp region of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome c oxi- dase I (COI) might serve as a DNA barcode for identify- ing animal species such as North American birds, in- sects and fishes. The present study tested the effective- ness of a COI barcode in discriminating Korean bird species. We determined the 5' terminus of the COI bar- code for 92 species of Korean birds and found that spe- cies identification was unambiguous; the genetic differ- ences between closely related species were, on average, 25 times higher than the differences within species. We identified only one misidentified species out of 239 specimens in a genetic resource bank, so confirming the accuracy of species identification in the banking system. We also identified two potential composite species, calling for further investigation using more samples. The finding of large COI sequence differences between species confirms the effectiveness of COI barcodes for identifying Korean bird species. To bring greater reliability to the identification of species, increased in- tra- and interspecies sampling, as well as supplementa- tion of the mitochondrial barcodes with nuclear ones, is needed. PMID:17202861

Yoo, Hye Sook; Eah, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Young-Jun; Min, Mi-Sook; Paek, Woon Kee; Lee, Hang; Kim, Chang-Bae

2006-12-31

183

The Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean College Stress Inventory (KCSI), which is designed to measure Korean college students' experiences and symptoms of career stress. Even though there have been numerous scales related to career issues, few scales measure the career stress construct and its dimensions. Factor structure, internal…

Choi, Bo Young; Park, Heerak; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

2011-01-01

184

Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop marks were clearly visible following a dry season in spring 2011. These patterns are in coincidence with higher conductivity patterns caused by a higher amount of silt and clay. Good correlations were found for LAI measurements taken during a growing season with underlying sediments especially in the early stages of plant development. Finally, ECa measurements of two heterogeneous fields were used for a 3D layer inversion which will be further implemented into landscape models. This study shows that multiple EMI measurements can be successfully used to recover buried river systems, highlight possible sample locations and support farmers to manage their fields more precisely.

Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2013-04-01

185

Learning Korean language in China: motivations and strategies of non-Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career and strategies mainly in establishing Korean sociocultural context for Korean language

Fang Gao

2010-01-01

186

Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are

Huanqing Guo; Zhaoqi Wang; Qiuling Zhao; Wei Quan; Yan Wang

2005-01-01

187

Americanization of Korean political advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores televised political ads in the 1992 presidential election in the US and Korea to determine whether Korean political advertising follows American campaign styles—the findings are that it does. More specifically, the results demonstrated few differences between the two groups. However, some deep?seated Korean cultural values still remain distinct in terms of negative advertising use and the category

Soobum Lee; Lynda Lee Kaid; Jinyoung Tak

1998-01-01

188

Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

Kim, Eunhyun

2010-01-01

189

Korean Initiative of GHS Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To implement a globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) in Korea, an interminsterial GHS committee involving 6 ministries established an expert working group composed of 7 experts from relevant organizations and one private consultant to prepare an official Korean GHS version by March, 2005. As such, the translation and review of the official Korean GHS version,

Il Je YU; Cheol Hong LIM; Ho Soon HWANG; Dae Won LEE; Man Sik HWANG; Jae Bong LEE; Ok-Sun CHUNG; Kyungok KWON; Jung Yun CHOI; Kyun KIM; Geewon CHUNG

2005-01-01

190

Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

191

Wavefront aberrations in the accommodated human eye based on individual eye model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we firstly construct individual eye models based on the wavefront and the measured cornea structure of the eyes. Then we analyze the influence of accommodation on the wavefront aberrations based on individual eye model. The individual eye model has the same wavefront aberration as that measured from Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor. The optical design software ZEMAX is used

Yang Wang; Zhao-Qi Wang; Huan-Qing Guo; Yan Wang; Tong Zuo

2007-01-01

192

Eye Melanoma  

MedlinePLUS

... therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as protons or gamma rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation ... from a machine that directs radiation, such as proton beams, to your eye (external beam radiation or ...

193

An eye on eye development.  

PubMed

The vertebrate eye is composed of both surface ectodermal and neuroectodermal derivatives that evaginate laterally from an epithelial anlage of the forming diencephalon. The retina is composed of a limited number of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types and is seen as a model for the brain with reduced complexity. The eye develops in a stereotypic manner building on evolutionarily conserved molecular networks. Eye formation is initiated at the onset of gastrulation by the determination of the eye field in the anterior neuroectoderm. Homeobox transcription factors, in particular Six3 are crucially involved in the establishment and maintenance of retinal identity. The eye field expands by proliferation as gastrulation proceeds and is initially confined to a single retinal primordium by the differential activity of specifying transcription factors. This central field is subsequently split in response to secreted factors emanating from the ventral midline. Concomitant with medio-lateral patterning at the onset of neurulation, morphogenesis sets in and laterally evaginates the optic vesicle. Strikingly during this process the neuroectoderm in the eye field transiently loses epithelial features and cells migrate individually. In a second morphogenetic event, the vesicle is transformed into the optic cup, concomitant with onset and progression of retinal differentiation. Accompanying optic cup morphogenesis, neural differentiation is initiated from a retinal signalling centre in a stereotypic and species specific manner by secreted signalling factors. Here we will give an overview of key events during vertebrate eye formation and highlight key players in the respective processes. PMID:23684892

Sinn, Rebecca; Wittbrodt, Joachim

2013-05-15

194

Lessons from Korean Capsule Endoscopy Multicenter Studies  

PubMed Central

Since its development, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) introduced a new area in the study of small bowel disease. We reviewed and discussed current issues from Korean capsule endoscopy multicenter studies. Main results are as follows: First, there was no significant difference in diagnostic yield according to the method of bowel preparation. Second, VCE represents a reliable and influential screening measure in patients with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and this technique could successfully alter the clinical course especially for patients with small bowel tumor. Third, the inter-observer variation in the expert group was lower than that in trainee group. Fourth, studies about the spontaneous capsule passage after retention showed 2.5% of retention rate and the size of lumen was an important factor of spontaneous passage. We need larger scale studies on the effect of bowel preparation methods on the diagnostic yield and further studies about the learning curve or unique capsule endoscopic findings for small intestinal diseases in Korean patients.

Kim, Kyeong Ok

2012-01-01

195

Factors Influencing Korean Immigrant Fathers' Involvement with Adolescent Children: The Mediating Effect of Father Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used an exploratory cross-sectional structural equation modeling (SEM) design, in which 376 Korean immigrant fathers were administered measures of Father Involvement, Father Identity, Acculturation, Marital Satisfaction, and Religious Commitment and a demographic questionnaire. The surveys were administered primarily in Korean church environments throughout an 18-state region. The primary purposes of this study were to test a model for

Chan Young John Park

2010-01-01

196

Reasons for Living and Their Moderating Effects on Korean Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study validated the use of the Korean version of the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (KRFL-A) in a group of 406 South Korean high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original 5-factor structure, and other psychometric properties demonstrated the usefulness of the KRFL-A as a measure of cognitive…

Lee, Seung-yeon

2011-01-01

197

Korean Preschoolers' Advanced Inhibitory Control and Its Relation to Other Executive Skills and Mental State Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed executive function and mental state understanding in Korean preschoolers. In Experiment 1, forty 3.5- and 4-year-old Koreans showed ceiling performance on inhibition and switching measures, although their performance on working memory and false belief was comparable to that of Western children. Experiment 2 revealed a similar…

Oh, Seungmi; Lewis, Charlie

2008-01-01

198

Reasons for Living and Their Moderating Effects on Korean Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study validated the use of the Korean version of the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (KRFL-A) in a group of 406 South Korean high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original 5-factor structure, and other psychometric properties demonstrated the usefulness of the KRFL-A as a measure of cognitive…

Lee, Seung-yeon

2011-01-01

199

Monocular and binocular measurements of smooth eye-pursuit by rural children in kindergarten and grade two.  

PubMed

Toward developing baseline data for monocular and binocular smooth eye-pursuit 22 midwestern rural Caucasian kindergarten and 24 second-grade children were asked to follow a hand-held penlight with their eyes. The examiner held the student's hand and penlight and monitored the fastest speed in inches per second that the eyes pursued the light with no observed aberration. Range of movement in inches was also noted. Analysis showed moderate correlations for 6-wk. test-retest reliability, monocular and binocular skills are different; pursuit skill of a flickering light is moderately related to that of binocular flashlight; and skills of students at Grade 2 are more advanced than those of students in kindergarten. PMID:2342863

Palmer, L L; Macdonald, J E

1990-04-01

200

Countercurrents from the West: “blue-eyed” Zen masters, Vipassan? meditation, and Buddhist psychotherapy in contemporary Korea.  

PubMed

One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassan? meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa S?n practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy. This new wave of transnational influence from the West has changed not only the way Koreans practice Buddhism but also how they perceive Buddhist history and their own identities. In addition, the perceived “prestige” of Buddhism in the West has provided a new rhetorical strategy to defend Buddhism against other religions, particularly Korean evangelical Christianity. PMID:22145173

Bongseok Joo, Ryan

2011-01-01

201

Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number…

Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

2012-01-01

202

The energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays measured by the High Resolution Fly's Eye observatory in stereoscopic mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Resolution Fly's Eye cosmic ray observatory is designed to observe cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere with energies above 10 18 eV. These ultra high energy cosmic rays produce a cascade of many particles called an extended air shower. Charged particles from the air shower deposit energy in the atmosphere, which acts as a calorimeter, causing atmospheric N

William F. Hanlon

2008-01-01

203

Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

2003-08-01

204

Korean initiative of GHS activities.  

PubMed

To implement a globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) in Korea, an interminsterial GHS committee involving 6 ministries established an expert working group composed of 7 experts from relevant organizations and one private consultant to prepare an official Korean GHS version by March, 2005. As such, the translation and review of the official Korean GHS version, including annexes, started in October, 2004 and was completed on March 15, 2005. The official Korean GHS version has now been posted on the websites of the relevant ministries and organizations to solicit public opinions. The official Korean GHS version will be finalized after a public hearing scheduled for May, 2005. Collaborative efforts as regards implementing and disseminating the GHS in Korea will be continued to avoid any confusion or duplication and for effective use of resources. PMID:16294928

Yu, Il Je; Lim, Cheol Hong; Hwang, Ho Soon; Lee, Dae Won; Hwang, Man Sik; Lee, Jae Bong; Chung, Ok-Sun; Kwon, Kyungok; Choi, Jung Yun; Kim, Kyun; Chung, Geewon

2005-10-01

205

The Importance of Perceived Endorser Credibility in South Korean Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements in Korean advertising. Beyond traditional measures of attitude toward the ad, the brand and intent to purchase, influences of perceived credibility were also examined to gain a better understanding of the process. Celebrities were found to be highly effective in creating more favorable responses on the dependent measures; however,

Carrie La Ferle; Sejung Marina Choi

2005-01-01

206

Melanoma of the eye  

MedlinePLUS

Malignant melanoma - choroid; Malignant melanoma - eye; Eye tumor; Ocular melanoma ... affect several parts of the eye, including the: Choroid Ciliary body Conjunctiva Eyelid Iris Orbit The choroid ...

207

Eye Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... helps you gather important information such as medical history, medical and personal contact information, legal documentation, allergies, etc., and keep it handy to take with you to the hospital. Click below to download: The Eyes in Marfan syndrome CALL OUR HELP CENTER: 800-8-MARFAN ...

208

Googly Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)|

Boss, Susan

2009-01-01

209

Who Is the Authentic Korean American? Korean-Born Korean American High School Students' Negotiations of Ascribed and Achieved Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the identity negotiations of a group of Korean-born Korean American (KBKA) high school students. One of the major tensions that arise from within the Korean American community is who should be considered an “authentic” member. Therefore, in this article I illustrate (a) the way American-born Korean Americans' (ABKAs') (mis)recognition (ascribed identity) influences the identities of KBKA high

John D. Palmer

2007-01-01

210

Automatic eye tracking in video image sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new algorithm is developed to implement automatic eye tracking without prior reference model and prior knowledge of size, orientation, shape, color and other data for the human eyes. The algorithm is based on the analysis of the eye features in eye contrast, eye blinking, and other properties. It consists of two stages. In the initialization stage the algorithm locates the approximate head location from two consecutive video frames. The size of three same size blocks is determined. They are used to detect the left and right eyes. Two eyes are symmetric and blink simultaneously at all the time. The algorithm extracts the similarity features of two eyes and dissimilarity of eyes from the region between eyes which is represented by middle block. The measures are implemented by the analysis of correlation and horizontal contrast property. The algorithm is able to detect the eye status of blinking eyes and closed eye for a period of time in a video frame sequence. This algorithm is a dynamic automatic eye tracking system that can adapt the environment change and reinitialize if the tracking is lost. The experiments of this method show satisfactory results in term of accuracy and reasonable time complexity. It shows that the method can be applied to eye tracking regardless of skin color, orientation of head, size of head, background changing, or other constraints. The experiments are conducted in targeting to a moving head by 20 frames/second video sequence.

Qian, Kai; Zhou, GuoWei; Hung, Chih-Cheng; Bhattacharya, Prabir; Liu, Jigang

2001-08-01

211

The development of vowel spaces in English- and Korean-learning infants' speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous study (Yang, 1996) revealed that the vowel spaces of adult speech differ between English and Korean. This study longitudinally investigated whether vowel spaces of English- and Korean-learning infants' speech demonstrated similar patterns to their ambient languages. Speech samples of English- and Korean-learning infants were collected at 12 and 24 months and transcribed by either native English- or Korean-speakers, respectively. First and second formants of each vowel were measured using LPC, spectral peak value, and spectrographic formant mid points. The vowel spaces between the two groups displayed similar patterns at 12 months although the frequency of occurrence of each vowel differed (e.g., [i] occurs more frequently in English than in Korean). However, the vowel spaces showed different patterns at 24 months. F2 values for front vowels [i, e] were higher in English-learning infants' speech than those in Korean. [a] in Korean was located at a central position of vowel space while it was located at a back position in English. These patterns were similar to the adult vowel space of Korean and English. This study suggests that infants form vowel space similar to their own languages at around 24 months.

Lee, Soyoung

2005-04-01

212

The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world.

Scott, Robert

2011-01-01

213

Airbags and Eye Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although airbags measurably reduce the overall risk of injury to adults (including eye injury), and death from motor vehicle accidents, injuries attributed to airbag deployment have been reported. To identify reported cases of ocular trauma related to airbag deployment, a MEDLINE search from 1991 to 2000 was performed. A total of 263 injuries in 101 patients were identified. Patient demographics,

Joel A Pearlman; K. G. Au Eong; Ferenc Kuhn; Dante J Pieramici

2001-01-01

214

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children usually receive ...

215

Foreign Body in Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Foreign Body in Eye htmForeignBodyEye Eyelashes prevent most particles or objects from entering the eye, and tears usually are able to rinse out particles that do get in the eye. Occasionally, a ...

216

Retinal nerve fiber layer and macular inner retina measurements by spectral domain optical coherence tomograph in Indian eyes with early glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the diagnostic abilities of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular inner retina (MIR) measurements by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD–OCT) in Indian eyes early glaucoma. Methods In an observational, cross-sectional study, 125 eyes of 64 normal subjects and 91 eyes of 59 early glaucoma patients underwent RNFL and MIR imaging with SD–OCT. Glaucomatous eyes had characteristic optic nerve and RNFL abnormalities and correlating visual field defects and a mean deviation of better than or equal to -6?dB on standard automated perimetry. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivities at a fixed specificity and likelihood ratios (LRs) were estimated for all RNFL and MIR parameters. Results The AUCs for the RNFL parameters ranged from 0.537 for the temporal quadrant thickness to 0.821 for the inferior quadrant RNFL thickness. AUCs for the MIR parameters ranged from 0.603 for the superior minus inferior MIR thickness average to 0.908 for ganglion cell complex focal loss volume (GCC–FLV). AUC for the best MIR parameter (GCC–FLV) was significantly better (P<0.001) than that of the best RNFL parameter (inferior quadrant thickness). The sensitivities of these parameters at high specificity of 95%, however, were comparable (52.7% vs58.2%). Evaluation of the LRs showed that outside normal limits results of most of the RNFL and MIR parameters were associated with large effects on the post-test probability of disease. Conclusion MIR parameters with RTVue SD–OCT were as good as the RNFL parameters to detect early glaucoma.

Rao, H L; Babu, J G; Addepalli, U K; Senthil, S; Garudadri, C S

2012-01-01

217

Stressors related to depression among elderly Korean immigrants.  

PubMed

While depression in the elderly is well documented, little is known about depression in specific groups of immigrant elderly. In this study, 160 elderly Korean immigrants completed measures of depression, stressful life events, acculturative stress, family relationships, social support, and demographic variables. Findings revealed that income, acculturative stress, and living place were significant predictors of depression. As income declined, depression increased; living with one's adult children was associated with less depression; depression increased in concert with acculturative stress. These findings suggest that maintaining family relationships may be a key factor in preventing and/or lessening depression in elderly Korean immigrants. PMID:22224966

Lee, Young-Me; Holm, Karyn

2012-01-01

218

Acculturation and Dietary Practices Among Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Examine variation in dietary practices and nutritional intakes of Korean Americans at different acculturation levels.Design Cross-sectional mail survey.Subjects\\/setting US national sample of 348 Korean Americans (46% of the Korean American sample to whom questionnaires were delivered).Statistical analysis performed Analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, Spearman rank correlation, ?2 test, and multiple regression analysis.Results Korean Americans who were more acculturated consumed

SOO-KYUNG LEE; JEFFEREY SOBAL; EDWARD A FRONGILLO

1999-01-01

219

Korean safeguards experience and its perspective  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of Korean safeguards implementation. The Korean safeguards program has been influenced by a wide range of international and national developments. The Joint Declaration for Denuclearization in the Korean peninsula and the recent establishment of the technology Center for Nuclear Control are the most prominent factors to have a major impact on Korean safeguards. Their influences, as well as the general status of safeguards in Korea, are described.

Yoon, W.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejon (Korea, Republic of). Technology Center for Nuclear Control

1995-07-01

220

Eye contricks  

PubMed Central

Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

Wade, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

221

Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

2010-01-01

222

External Factors Inducing Korean Overseas Direct Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines globalization motives and behaviors of Korean manufacturing industries by analyzing the influences and patterns of overseas direct investment of Korean manufacturing firms. While there have been many studies on the U.S., European, or Japanese ODI, Korea being a new player in ODI, few studies have been done on Korean ODI. In the following sections, an overview of

Kang H. Park; Yong T. Lim

223

Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

2013-01-01

224

The current state of Korean paleoanthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hominid fossil and Paleolithic archaeology records from the Korean Peninsula are extensive, but relatively little is known about the Korean human evolutionary record outside this region. The Korean paleoanthropological record is reviewed here in light of major research issues, including the hominid fossil record, relative and chronometric dating, lithic analysis, hominid subsistence, and the presence of bone tools, art

Christopher J. Norton

2000-01-01

225

Processing of the Korean Eojoel Ambiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Korean writing is a syllabary where spaces occur between phrases rather than between words. This characteristic of Korean allows different types of information in Korean sentences to be dissociated in ways that are not possible in the languages that have been the focus of most psycholinguistic research, thereby providing new opportunities to…

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun; Gordon, Peter C.

2009-01-01

226

Clinical Features of Idiopathic Juxtafoveal Telangiectasis in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis (IJT) in Koreans. Methods Medical records of 16 patients with IJT were analyzed during the period from 1997 to 2009. Diagnosis was based on biomicrosopic and fluorescein angiographic findings and the group was determined according to the Gass and Blodi classification. Results We analyzed eight patients in group 1A (50%), two in group 1B (12.5%), and six in group 2A (37.5%). Diverse treatment modalities, such as macular laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, intravitreal antiangiogenic agent, and steroid injection, were applied for macular edema in nine eyes; however, only two eyes showed visual improvement. Conclusions In this case series, group 1A was the most common. For macular edema related to IJT, current treatment strategies had no consistent effect.

Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Yun Taek

2011-01-01

227

Market change and diversity in the Korean movie market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the relationships among the different, measurable aspects of media diversity (source, content and exposure) were examined. The aim was to look at how changes in the market environment affect the diversity of movies that are exhibited. The Korean movie market since the late 1980s provides a fruitful example of how an increased exhibition outlet affects the source,

Sora Park

2011-01-01

228

Blitzkrieg or Sitzkrieg? Assessing a second Korean War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic measures, developed for conventional force balance assessment in Central Europe during the Cold War, are applied to the situation on the Korean Peninsula. Many of the Cold War analytical techniques in the context of the post?Cold War situation, are applied to one of the two major regional theaters that the US military is prepared to fight in.

1999-01-01

229

Age estimation of Korean children based on dental maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between age and dental maturity and to establish the standard database of dental maturity based on the Demirjian's stages, which can be used for the age estimation of Korean children. For this purpose, dental maturity was measured by the Demirjian's stages on a randomly selected sample of panoramic radiographs taken

Sang Eon Lee; Sang-Hoon Lee; Jeong-Yun Lee; Hee-Kyung Park; Young-Ku Kim

2008-01-01

230

The study of eye movements in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review covers material appearing in the literature from 1935 to 1944. The studies are reviewed under the following headings: techniques of measurement, analysis of the reading process, oculomotor co-ordination, factors in variability, special reading situations, heredity and certain environmental factors, eye movements in the reading clinic, training eye movements, and central versus peripheral processes. Certain studies on eye

M. A. Tinker

1946-01-01

231

Effects of diphenhydramine on human eye movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak saccadic eye movement velocity (SEV) and average smooth pursuit gain (SP) are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by diazepam and provide reliable, quantitative measures of benzodiazepine agonist effects. To evaluate the specificity of these eye movement effects for agents acting at the central GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and the role of sedation in benzodiazepine effects, we studied eye movement effects

James R. Hopfenbeck; Deborah S. Cowley; Allen Radant; Peter P. Roy-Byrne; David J. Greenblatt

1995-01-01

232

Clinical Features of Korean Patients with Congenital Aniridia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the clinical features of Korean patients with congenital aniridia. Methods This retrospective study focused on 60 eyes from 31 patients who were diagnosed with congenital aniridia at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital from 1996 to 2007. Patient age, gender, visual acuity (VA), family history, and previous ocular history were recorded. The presence of keratopathy, glaucoma, cataract, foveal hypoplasia, and other ocular or systemic anomalies were evaluated for each patient. Results The proportion of sporadic cases was 29.0%. Cataract (82.5%), glaucoma (51.6%), keratopathy (71.6%), and foveal hypoplasia (81.8%) commonly accompanied aniridia. Thirty-four (60.7%) eyes had VAs less than 20/200 and 20 eyes (35.7%) had VAs between 20/200 and 20/60. In patients without a past history of ocular surgery, the mean central corneal thickness was 643.05 ± 37.67 µm and the mean endothelial cell count was 3,349.44 ± 408.17 cells/mm2. Ocular surface surgeries were performed in 6 eyes. The clarity of the transplanted corneal graft vanished in 5 eyes with the progression of peripheral neovascularization and subepithelial fibrosis. The mean age of cataract surgery in 8 eyes was 29.8 ± 5.9 years. Postoperative worsening of corneal clouding and glaucomatous damage were observed in 4 eyes. Two infants had bilateral congenital glaucoma. Two children with sporadic aniridia were identified to have Wilm's tumors. Conclusions Congenital aniridia is a progressive congenital disorder that is commonly accompanied by complications that can lead to impaired vision. Regular, careful examinations for these accompanying complications should be performed in all patients with congenital aniridia.

Park, Shin Hae; Park, Young Gun; Lee, Mee Yon

2010-01-01

233

Traumatic Experiences and Mental Health of North Korean Refugees in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted at Hanawon-a government sponsored educational facility for the settlement of North Korean refugees during their initial phase in South Korea-in 2004 to explore their mental health status and traumatic experiences in North Korea and during their escape period. Methods A survey was conducted in November 2004 with 62 North Korean refugees at Hanawon, and the Trauma Checklist was used to measure their traumatic experiences. To measure their psychological-mental health status, the Personality Assessment Inventory was administered. Results In comparison with the traumatic experiences of the North Korean refugees found in the study conducted in 2001 at Hanawon using the same methods, the current study showed a relatively lower frequency of traumatic experiences among the participants. The Personality Assessment Inventory results revealed that the study participants scored higher than average South Koreans in all clinical scales. Particularly, their mania (62.51) and schizophrenia (61.75) scores were above 60, a clinically meaningful score. In the gender comparison, the males exhibited meaningfully higher levels of alcohol problem, non-support, and warmth scale scores. Conclusion Compared to the 2001 study, the overall traumatic experiences among North Korean refugees participated in this study. But continous support is necessary for their successful adaptation to South Korean Society have declined. The North Korean refugees at Hanawon experienced difficulties maintaining their mental health and the men in particular requested more intensive care and support for this purpose.

Yu, Shi-Eun; Cho, Young-A; Eom, Jin-Sup

2008-01-01

234

Allelic frequencies of 20 visible phenotype variants in the korean population.  

PubMed

The prediction of externally visible characteristics from DNA has been studied for forensic genetics over the last few years. Externally visible characteristics include hair, skin, and eye color, height, and facial morphology, which have high heritability. Recent studies using genome-wide association analysis have identified genes and variations that correlate with human visible phenotypes and developed phenotype prediction programs. However, most prediction models were constructed and validated based on genotype and phenotype information on Europeans. Therefore, we need to validate prediction models in diverse ethnic populations. In this study, we selected potentially useful variations for forensic science that are associated with hair and eye color, iris pattern, and facial morphology, based on previous studies, and analyzed their frequencies in 1,920 Koreans. Among 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 SNPs were polymorphic, 6 SNPs were very rare (minor allele frequency < 0.005), and 4 SNPs were monomorphic in the Korean population. Even though the usability of these SNPs should be verified by an association study in Koreans, this study provides 10 potential SNP markers for forensic science for externally visible characteristics in the Korean population. PMID:23843775

Lim, Ji Eun; Oh, Bermseok

2013-06-30

235

Allelic Frequencies of 20 Visible Phenotype Variants in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

The prediction of externally visible characteristics from DNA has been studied for forensic genetics over the last few years. Externally visible characteristics include hair, skin, and eye color, height, and facial morphology, which have high heritability. Recent studies using genome-wide association analysis have identified genes and variations that correlate with human visible phenotypes and developed phenotype prediction programs. However, most prediction models were constructed and validated based on genotype and phenotype information on Europeans. Therefore, we need to validate prediction models in diverse ethnic populations. In this study, we selected potentially useful variations for forensic science that are associated with hair and eye color, iris pattern, and facial morphology, based on previous studies, and analyzed their frequencies in 1,920 Koreans. Among 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 SNPs were polymorphic, 6 SNPs were very rare (minor allele frequency < 0.005), and 4 SNPs were monomorphic in the Korean population. Even though the usability of these SNPs should be verified by an association study in Koreans, this study provides 10 potential SNP markers for forensic science for externally visible characteristics in the Korean population.

Lim, Ji Eun

2013-01-01

236

OrbitView: Eye movement visualization software  

PubMed Central

Measurement of eye movements often helps to diagnose ocular motor disorders in the clinic, and is also used as a research tool in ocular motor, vision and vestibular research. Eye movements, however, are usually recorded without simultaneous video recordings, making offline interpretation difficult. We developed a tool that converts the measured eye movement data into a three-dimensional (3D) movie of eye movements. Having useful functions such as slow-play, pause and exaggeration of the movements, this new software provides a research and teaching tool to aid interpretation of the recorded eye movements.

Hong, Simon; Optican, Lance M.; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Zee, David S.; Shaikh, Aasef G.

2011-01-01

237

Korean Interpersonal Patterns: Implications for Korean/American Intercultural Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A descriptive field study was conducted in Seoul, Korea, to assess Korean interpersonal communication. The data for the study were collected through observations of interpersonal communication patterns among students in university classes, between faculty and students as well as among various faculty members, among business people, and between…

Merchant, Jerrold J.

238

The Korean Version of the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale: Psychometric Properties and the Connection to Trauma among Korean Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective The Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale (A-DES) is a screening measure for dissociative experience in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Methods The Korean version of the A-DES was administered to a normative group of 371 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and a traumatized group of 33 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with known trauma. Results The internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha=0.91) and the test-retest correlation of the A-DES was high (r=0.99). Correlation between the A-DES and other measures of dissociation was moderate (r=0.48). There were no significant age differences in mean total A-DES scores for the normative sample, or for boys or girls separately. Nor were there any significant gender differences for any age group. The mean total score of the A-DES was significantly higher in the traumatized group than in the normative group. There was a statistically significant difference between adolescents with self-reported trauma and those without a trauma history in the normative group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the A-DES is a reliable measure with excellent internal consistency and good stability over a 4-week test-retest interval with single factor structure. It can be used to screen for dissociative symptoms in Korean adolescents between the ages 12 and 18.

Shin, Jung-Uk; Jeong, Sung Hoon

2009-01-01

239

Start Position Strongly Influences Fixation Patterns during Face Processing: Difficulties with Eye Movements as a Measure of Information Use  

PubMed Central

Fixation patterns are thought to reflect cognitive processing and, thus, index the most informative stimulus features for task performance. During face recognition, initial fixations to the center of the nose have been taken to indicate this location is optimal for information extraction. However, the use of fixations as a marker for information use rests on the assumption that fixation patterns are predominantly determined by stimulus and task, despite the fact that fixations are also influenced by visuo-motor factors. Here, we tested the effect of starting position on fixation patterns during a face recognition task with upright and inverted faces. While we observed differences in fixations between upright and inverted faces, likely reflecting differences in cognitive processing, there was also a strong effect of start position. Over the first five saccades, fixation patterns across start positions were only coarsely similar, with most fixations around the eyes. Importantly, however, the precise fixation pattern was highly dependent on start position with a strong tendency toward facial features furthest from the start position. For example, the often-reported tendency toward the left over right eye was reversed for the left starting position. Further, delayed initial saccades for central versus peripheral start positions suggest greater information processing prior to the initial saccade, highlighting the experimental bias introduced by the commonly used center start position. Finally, the precise effect of face inversion on fixation patterns was also dependent on start position. These results demonstrate the importance of a non-stimulus, non-task factor in determining fixation patterns. The patterns observed likely reflect a complex combination of visuo-motor effects and simple sampling strategies as well as cognitive factors. These different factors are very difficult to tease apart and therefore great caution must be applied when interpreting absolute fixation locations as indicative of information use, particularly at a fine spatial scale.

Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

2012-01-01

240

Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.  

PubMed

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

2013-02-04

241

Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels  

PubMed Central

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population.

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young

2013-01-01

242

Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

Fang, Gao

2009-01-01

243

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

244

Markup of Korean Dictionary Entries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dictionary markup (encoding) is one of the concerns of TEI (Text Encoding Initiative), an international project for text encoding. In this paper, we investigate ways to use and extend TEI encoding scheme for the markup of Korean dictionary entries. Since TEI suggestions for dictionary markup are mainly for western language dictionaries, we need to cope with problems to be encountered

Beom-mo Kang

1996-01-01

245

Korean Basic Course: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

246

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

247

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

248

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

249

Bionic Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both Web sites come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research. The first article describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone." Earlier this year, researchers at the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center in Houston experimented with "photosensitive ceramic films that respond to light much as rods and cones do," the subject of the second Web site. Researchers hope these films will eventually be used to restore lost vision in human eyes. Each article is available as an audio file, and includes helpful diagrams and Web links for related articles and information.

Phillips, Tony.; Price, Steve.

2002-01-01

250

Diagnosing disconjugate eye movements  

PubMed Central

Background: Saccades are fast eye movements that conjugately shift the point of fixation between distant features of interest in the visual environment. Several disorders, affecting sites from brainstem to extraocular muscle, may cause horizontal saccades to become disconjugate. Prior techniques for detection of saccadic disconjugacy, especially in internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO), have compared only one point in abducting vs adducting saccades, such as peak velocity. Methods: We applied a phase-plane technique that compared each eye’s velocity as a function of change in position (normalized displacement) in 22 patients with disease variously affecting the brainstem reticular formation, the abducens nucleus, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the oculomotor nerve, the abducens nerve, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles; 10 age-matched subjects served as controls. Results: We found three different patterns of disconjugacy throughout the course of horizontal saccades: early abnormal velocity disconjugacy during the first 10% of the displacement in patients with INO, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, and advanced extraocular muscle disease; late disconjugacy in patients with disease affecting the neuromuscular junction; and variable middle-course disconjugacy in patients with pontine lesions. When normal subjects made disconjugate saccades between two targets aligned on one eye, the initial part of the movement remained conjugate. Conclusions: Along with conventional measures of saccades, such as peak velocity, phase planes provide a useful tool to determine the site, extent, and pathogenesis of disconjugacy. We hypothesize that the pale global extraocular muscle fibers, which drive the high-acceleration component of saccades, receive a neural command that ensures initial ocular conjugacy. GLOSSARY Abd. = abducens; CN = cranial nerve; CPEO = chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia; EM = eye movement; H = horizontal; INO = internuclear ophthalmoparesis; MG = myasthenia gravis; MLF = medial longitudinal fasciculus; MS = multiple sclerosis; P = patient; PI = prediction interval; PPRF = paramedian pontine reticular formation; RIP = raphe interpositus; V = vertical.

Serra, Alessandro; Liao, Ke; Matta, Manuela; Leigh, R John

2008-01-01

251

Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: A questionnaire survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of Internet addiction to depression and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. The participants were 1573 high-school students living in a city who completed the self-reported measures of the Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Major Depression Disorder-Simple Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior. A correlational survey design was employed.

Kyunghee Kim; Eunjung Ryu; Mi-Young Chon; Eun-Ja Yeun; So-Young Choi; Jeong-Seok Seo; Bum-Woo Nam

2006-01-01

252

Reasons for Living and Their Moderating Effects on Korean Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study validated the use of the Korean version of the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (KRFL-A) in a group of 406 South Korean high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original 5-factor structure, and other psychometric properties demonstrated the usefulness of the KRFL-A as a measure of cognitive protective factors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the

Seung-yeon Lee

2011-01-01

253

Factors of Breast Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to assess breast cancer screening rates and explore factors related to all three measures of\\u000a breast cancer screening, mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE), among Korean immigrants\\u000a in the United States. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean women aged 40 and older in Cook County, Illinois. Of\\u000a this group,

Eunice E. Lee; Louis F. Fogg; Georgia R. Sadler

2006-01-01

254

Dynamic sensing of human eye using a high speed camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye pressure is an important index for judging whether an eye suffers from glaucoma or not. Conventional eye pressure measurements provide us with meaningful data only under the assumption that all the subjects have the same eye stiffness. Our former work, however, says that the assumption is not valid. This work is an extended version. By combining both a

Yuichi Kurita; Yoshichika Iida; Roland Kempf; Makoto Kaneko; Hiromu K Mishima; Hidetoshi Tsukamoto; Eiichiro Sugimoto

2005-01-01

255

Relation of Eye Dominance and Eye Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is a well-known fact that while our vision is binocular, one eye (more often the right than the left) is in fact preferred or dominant in fixation and sighting. Much has been published on this subject, especially in its relation to handedness. We conjectured that if one eye is dominant in sighting, the other, that is, the non-dominant eye,

S. T. Chan; K. S. F. Chang

1960-01-01

256

Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 ?m tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 ?l/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient ?a and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

2008-02-01

257

Cuffless and noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure using radial artery tonometry pressure sensor with concept of Korean traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Parameters for noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular disease. We developed a new method to measure blood pressure (BP) noninvasively without cuff. In Korean traditional medicine, the degree of the pulse depth is one of the important criteria to diagnosis. We combined this concept with pulse wave analysis. With clinical data obtained from 163 subjects, we selected APm (applied pressure which has a maximum value of pulse wave), elasticity of wrist tissue, depth of blood vessel, cardiac output and h1 as parameters to estimate blood pressure. And with the parameters, we induced multi regression equation of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP). And the probabilities of these parameters to explain SBP, DBP, and MAP were 89.5%, 91.1% and 94.6%, respectively. To estimate PP, we added h1 to the parameters to explain PP was 97.5%. We compared the estimated SBP, DBP, MAP and PP through the multiple regression equations to the actual measured SBP, DBP, MAP and PP through the wrist type BP meter. Differences were (+/- SD) 0.38 +/- 9.95, -1.0 +/- 8.2, 0.02 +/- 6.9 and 0.05 +/- 5.9mmHg for SBP, DBP, MAP and PP, respectively. According to the American National Standard for Electronic or Automated Sphygmomanometers, the mean difference (MD) should be +/- 5mmHg or less with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 8mmHg or less. Hence, the results of MAP and PP were within the limits for the AAMI SP 10 criteria and the results of SBP and DBP were not within the limits for the AAMI SP 10 criteria. The preliminary results indicate the results are quite reliable and promising. PMID:18002775

Park, Mikyoung; Kang, HeeJung; Huh, Young; Kim, Kyung-Chul

2007-01-01

258

Development of a Communication Support Device Controlled by Eye Movements and Voluntary Eye Blink  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A communication support interface controlled by eye movements and voluntary eye blink has been developed for disabled in- dividuals with motor paralysis who cannot speak. Horizontal and vertical electro-oculograms were measured using two surface electrodes attached above and beside the dominant eye and referring to an earlobe electrode and amplified with AC-coupling in order to reduce the unnecessary drift.

Junichi Hori; Koji Sakano; Yoshiaki Saitoh

2006-01-01

259

The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling,Sturnus vulgaris, is a diurnal, ground feeding bird of the order Passeriformes. Aspects of its visual fields, eye movements and the optical structure of its eye are described.1.The magnitude of eye movements as a function of elevation in the median sagittal plane of the head was measured (Fig. 1). Maximum eye movement amplitude (32°) occurs in a plane

Graham R. Martin

1986-01-01

260

Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays in the North: Measurement of UHE Cosmic Rays with the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Detector  

SciTech Connect

The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) observatory has been collecting Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) data since 1997. The experiment observes cosmic ray air showers via the air fluorescence technique and consists of two observatory sites separated by 12.6 km in the western Utah desert. The two stations can each measure the cosmic rays in monocular mode. In addition, the data from the two stations can also be combined to form a stereo measurement of the air showers. The experiment measures such properties as the energy spectrum, chemical composition, and p-air cross-section of these cosmic rays. It also searches for point sources and other anisotropy. The spectrum is measured above {approx}3 x 1017 eV and shows significant structure including the 'ankle' and a steep fall off which is consistent with the expectation of the GZK. threshold. The spectrum is inconsistent with a continuing spectrum at the 5{sigma} level. The composition is measured using the Xmax technique. It was found to be predominantly light and unchanging over the range from 1018 to 3 x 1019 eV. Finally, several different styles of searches for anisotropy in the data were performed. There are some tantalizing hints including potential correlation with BL Lac objects and the 'AGASA triplet', however these will need to be confirmed with an independent data set.

Matthews, J. N. [University of Utah - Department of Physics, 115 South 1400 East no. 201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); High Energy Astrophysics Institute, 115 South 1400 East no. 201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2006-11-17

261

North Korean nuclear development program and Japan  

SciTech Connect

In the past year, the Northeast Asian security debate has been preoccupied with the status and potential implications of a North Korean nuclear program. Recently, one of the more common assertions has been that Japan may be on the verge of developing nuclear weapons in response to the North Korean nuclear program. Before such predictions are made, it is important to examine the extent of the North Korean nuclear program, and the likely ramifications of a North Korean nuclear capability. Only then is it possible to make any assessments of potential Japanese responses.

Cheng, D.

1994-01-01

262

Characteristics of the Korean stock market correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish in this study a network structure of the Korean stock market, one of the emerging markets, with its minimum spanning tree through the correlation matrix. Based on this analysis, it is found that the Korean stock market does not form the clusters of the business sectors or of the industry categories. When the MSCI (Morgan Stanley Capital International Inc.) index is exploited, we find that the clusters of the Korean stock market is formed. This finding implicates that the Korean market, in this context, is characteristically different from the mature markets.

Jung, Woo-Sung; Chae, Seungbyung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Moon, Hie-Tae

2006-02-01

263

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Postpartum Care Your Recovery after Vaginal Birth ???? ? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Postpartum Depression Emotional Changes after Giving Birth ?? ? ...

264

Infant eyes: A window on cognitive development  

PubMed Central

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking “under the hood” if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants’ gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous datasets from eye-trackers requires users to think hard about what they are measuring and what these measures mean for making inferences about underlying cognitive processes. The present commentary highlights these concerns, both technical and interpretive, and reviews the five articles that comprise this Special Issue.

Aslin, Richard N.

2011-01-01

265

Do cultural factors predict mammography behavior among Korean immigrants?  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a study of the correlates of mammogram use among Korean American women. Background Despite the increasing incidence of and mortality from breast cancer, Asian women in the United States of America report consistently low rates of mammography screening. A number of health beliefs and sociodemographic characteristics have been associated with mammogram participation among these women; however, studies systematically investigating cultural factors in relation to mammogram experience have been scarce. Methods We measured screening-related health beliefs, modesty and use of Eastern medicine in 100 Korean American women in 2006. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine the unique contribution of the study variables, after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Findings Only 51% reported past mammogram use. Korean American women who had previously had mammograms were statistically significantly older and had higher perceived benefit scores than those who had not. Perceived benefits (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval=2.12, 18.76) and breast cancer susceptibility (odds ratio=3.18, 95% confidence interval=1.06, 9.59) were statistically significant correlates of mammography experience, whereas cultural factors did not correlate. Post hoc analysis showed that for women with some or good English skills, cultural factors statistically significantly correlated with health beliefs and breast cancer knowledge (p < 0.05). Conclusion Nurses should consider the inclusion in culturally-tailored interventions of more targeted outreach and healthcare system navigation assistance for promoting mammography screening in Korean American women. Further research is needed to unravel the interplay between acculturation, cultural factors, and health beliefs related to cancer screening behaviors of Korean American women.

Lee, Hanju; Kim, Jiyun; Han, Hae-Ra

2009-01-01

266

High-resolution ultrafast eye tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an eye tracking system that combines optical and electronic image processing for the precise measurement of eye movement parameters, including direction, speed, and acceleration. The system applies optical joint Fourier transform correlator and novelty filtering to measure the cross-correlation peak displacement caused by eye movements using magnified images of iris landmark patterns. This permits a 0.026 degree(s) accuracy of eye displacement measurements within a 6 degree(s) tracking range, or a 0.1 degree(s) accuracy within a 20 degree(s) range. Using digital micromirror device SLMs in the Fourier transform optical system, an inverse Fourier transform DSP module, and a high-speed digital camera, the eye tracking system will make it possible to detect and characterize saccadic intrusions in smooth pursuit eye movement.

Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Vasiliev, Anatoly A.; Kim, Dai H.; Savant, Gajendra D.

1997-12-01

267

Eye muscle repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

268

What Is Dry Eye?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Espańol Media Inquiries find an eye M.D. ask an eye M.D. Search GetEyeSmart.org Diseases & Conditions A ... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies & Children Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Screening Guidelines ...

269

Lagophthalmos in enophthalmic eyes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To report a case series of enophthalmic patients with lagophthalmos. Methods: A retrospective review of the electronic medical records at a tertiary health care centre of all patients with the diagnoses of “enophthalmos” and “lagophthalmos”. Patients who had a history of diseases (such as Graves’ orbitopathy), trauma or surgery of the orbit and eyelid were excluded. Enophthalmos was defined as exophthalmometric reading of 14 mm or less in both eyes. Results: Seven patients (14 eyes) with bilateral enophthalmos were found to have concomitant lagophthalmos. All patients had deep superior sulci bilaterally. The upper eyelids were seen to be severely retro-placed behind the superior orbital rim. The extraocular motilities were full with no focal neurological deficit. The orbicularis oculi function was normal with no facial paralysis. The orbits were soft on retropulsion and no facial asymmetry was noted. The mean exophthalmolmetry reading measured 12.6 (SD 1.1) mm. The lagophthalmos varied from 1–5 mm. One patient (one eye) with 3 mm lagophthalmos developed a corneal ulcer and was treated with topical antibiotics and gold weight placement in the upper eyelid. Conclusion: Enophthalmic patients with deep superior sulci and retro-placed upper eyelids may present with lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy.

Yip, C-C; Gonzalez-Candial, M; Jain, A; Goldberg, R A; McCann, J D

2005-01-01

270

Optical properties of the mouse eye.  

PubMed

The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the mouse eye and found that it follows predictions of the water-filled schematic mouse eye. Results indicate that the optical quality of the mouse eye assessed by measurement of its aberrations is remarkably good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements predict that adaptive optics based on this method of wavefront sensing will provide improvements in retinal image quality and potentially two times higher lateral resolution than that in the human eye. PMID:21483598

Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T; Williams, David R

2011-02-28

271

Working with Korean Immigrant Alcohol Abusing Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

As cultural and ethnic diversity increases in American society, it becomes crucial for professionals working with alcohol abusing clients to gain cultural sensitivity. This article seeks to aid the clinician in culturally sensitive treatment with Korean immigrant alcohol abusers. As an aid to providing effective treatment for this population, the following areas are discussed: the pattern of Korean immigration to

Sun-Kyung Shin; E. Miles Hutton

2003-01-01

272

Birth outcomes of Korean women in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Since the end of the Korean War, immigration of Koreans to the United States has increased rapidly. In 1990, 11.6 percent of all Asians in the United States were of Korean ethnicity, and it is projected that Koreans will outnumber all other Asian groups, except Filipinos, in the United States by the year 2030. Despite the growing size of this population, very little is known about their health status. This study, using 1979-89 Hawaii vital record data, investigates the relationship between maternal sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care utilization factors, and birth outcomes among Koreans as compared with Caucasians. The ethnic term "Caucasian" is used in Hawaii's vital records and is synonymous with non-Hispanic whites. Korean mothers were more likely to be older and have lower educational attainment, and less likely to be adolescent, single, or to have received adequate prenatal care than Caucasian mothers. More than 80 percent of the Korean mothers were foreign born. Significantly higher risks for very preterm delivery (less than 33 weeks) and very low birth weight births were observed for Koreans as compared with Caucasians. Nativity had no effect on birth outcome in this population. The results of this study suggest that prevention of preterm birth is an important focus for improving pregnancy outcomes in this growing ethnic group. PMID:8341786

Mor, J M; Alexander, G R; Kieffer, E C; Baruffi, G

273

Statistical Analysis on the Korean Transportation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the Korean transportation system including subway, highway and express bus systems. The network topology and traffic pattern of the Korean transportation system is studied. We find the transportation have many complexity features such as scale-free property. We also find the relationship between the traffic flow, and the population and the distance.

Kwon, Okyu; Oh, Gabjin; Jung, Woo-Sung

2012-02-01

274

Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth

2012-01-01

275

Nuclear Dilemma--Korean War Deja Vu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leading up to or sometime during the Korean War conflict the US decided due to political and strategic reasons that they would not use nuclear weapons against North Korea--even as there was great concern that the North Koreans would push the US off the Ko...

T. A. Pickering

2006-01-01

276

North Korean nuclear crisis and Russia's role  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korean government officially admitted to having at least one nuclear bomb at this year. This dramatic change suggested that North Korean government have changed nuclear policy and strategy. Russia will get more economic benefits with South Korea than with North Korea. Russia will maintain friendly relations with North Korea in the future only up to a level that does

Myung-Soo Lee

2005-01-01

277

The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

2005-01-01

278

The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

2005-01-01

279

The Genrification of “Korean Drama” in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates that the process of defining Korean drama as idol drama or Qiongyao drama with realist or melodramatic orientations by different agents for “self-aggrandizement” is embedded in gender and ethnic\\/class tensions as a result of postcolonial nation formation and globalization. The profit motive underscores the definition of Korean drama as idol drama, which is articulated through discourses of

Fang-chih Irene Yang

2008-01-01

280

Fiber optic point-source for in-vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering in the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber optic point-source was designed for in vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering. The point-source consists of an optical fiber, with a core diameter of about 8 micrometers , mounted in a stainless steel cannula. At the tip of the cannula the entrance face of a 1-mm micro prism is fixed. The hypotenuse face of the prism is

Per G. Soderberg; Per-Arne Torstensson; Claes M. Beckman; Jianming Ren; Peep Algvere; Bjorn M. Tengroth

1994-01-01

281

Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.

2004-11-01

282

Naturalistic Sensibility and Modern Korean Literature: Kim Tongin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the origin of the naturalistic sensibility in modern Korean literature. To this end, this study focuses on the Korean writer Kim Tongin and his analogous relationship with his western forerunners of naturalism. An established opinion is that Korean naturalism is nothing but another name for fatalism, and that Korean naturalists misunderstand the

Hyunsue Kim

2007-01-01

283

Shamanism in Korean Hamlets since 1990: Exorcising Han  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Korean Shakespeare boom of the last twenty years, Hamlet has been performed more than any other drama. Hamlet productions admired by Korean audiences and critics have, like other successful Shakespeare productions in the same period, shared a common tendency for Koreanization in respect of style and theme. The Koreanization of Hamlet productions, in particular, is closely connected with

Hyon-u Lee

2011-01-01

284

Limitations to resolution in superposition eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Limitations to spatial resolution in the ventral refracting superposition eye of the crepuscular dung beetle, Onitis alexis, were investigated using intracellular electrophysiological recordings and optical modelling.2.The measured angular-sensitivity functions for Onitis are narrow compared to many superposition eyes, but display considerable off-axis flanks, or flare. These flanks are reduced as the eye becomes light adapted, but the acceptance angle remains

Eric J. Warrant; Peter D. McIntyre

1990-01-01

285

Investigations on rat eyes with diabetic cataract and naphthalene cataract by Zeiss-Scheimpflug measuring system SLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental cataract development can be objectively monitored in rats by Scheimpflug slit-image photography and microdensitometric image analysis. Zeiss (Oberkochen, Federal Republic of Germany) has developed a new computerized slit-lamp measuring system that works according to the Scheimpflug principle; we have very successfully applied it to rats with streptozotocin-induced cataracta diabetica vera and with naphthalene-induced opacities. With these cataract models we

Otto Hockwin; Heike Laser; Alfred Wegener

1986-01-01

286

Analysis and discussion on the control system of human eye aberration measurement unit based on information fusion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reveals that there are higher-order aberrations in visual optical systems, and the important factors are higher-order aberrations that affect the quality of vision to further improve. To correct the higher-order aberrations, the aberrations of vision system must be effectively measured and analyzed. It is important to use the wave-front aberration technology at the human ophthalmology disease diagnosis, especially

Jian-Heng Zhao; An-Cheng Xu; Xue-Tao Pan

2010-01-01

287

Two Cases of Human Thelaziasis and Brief Review of Korean cases  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to describe 2 cases of human thelaziasis (HT) which occurred in Gyeongsangnam- do and to briefly review the previously reported Korean cases. A 58-year old woman, residing in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, came to Gyeongsang National University Hospital (GNUH) complaining of foreign body sensation and itching of the right eye in March 2000. Total 6 adult nematodes of Thelazia callipaeda (2 males and 4 females) were detected in her right eye. A 80-year old man, residing in Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, came to GNUH complaining of foreign body sensation, itching, and pain of the right eye in December 2007. A total of 5 worms (4 females and 1 degenerated) were removed from his right eye. We analyzed characteristics of the total 39 Korean HT cases reported to date, including the present 2 cases. Most of the cases (71.8%) occurred in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do before 2000, and 21 cases (53.8%) were males and 18 (46.2%) were females. The prevalence was higher in younger ages below 30 years (48.7%) than 31-60 years (41.0%) and over 61 years (10.3%). The seasonal prevalence showed a higher incidence in autumn (43.6%) than in other seasons. Most of the cases (94.9%) were conjunctival sac infections and only 2 (5.1%) were intraocular cases. The present 2 HT cases are the first reported cases in Gyeongsangnam-do. Some characteristics of Korean HT cases were analyzed.

Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yoo, Ji Myong

2011-01-01

288

Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.  

PubMed

In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

2011-04-29

289

Acculturation and health risk behaviors among Californians of Korean descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study examined the effects of acculturation on health behaviors among Korean-Americans in California compared to Koreans in Seoul.Methods. Telephone interviews were conducted with 2,830 Korean-American adults in California (completion rate exceeding 86%) and 500 Korean adults in Seoul (completion of about 50%).Results. Among Korean-Americans, acculturated women were more likely to smoke and drink while acculturated men were more

Yoon Ju Song; C. Richard Hofstetter; Melbourne F Hovell; Hee Young Paik; Hae Ryun Park; Jooeun Lee; Veronica Irvin

2004-01-01

290

Pulse Wave Velocity in Korean American Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Arterial stiffness is an important clinical marker of cardiovascular diseases. Although many studies have been conducted on different racial groups, less is known about arterial stiffness in Asian Americans. Korean Americans constitute the fifth largest subgroup in the Asian American population and reportedly have a noticeably high prevalence of hypertension. The aims of this study were to assess arterial stiffness and blood pressure and to examine the effect of age and gender on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in 102 Korean American men and women aged 21 to 60 years. The values of arterial stiffness for Korean Americans in this study were compared to published reference values for other racial and ethnic groups. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, which is the gold standard for determining arterial stiffness. Findings indicated that aging was an important determinant of arterial stiffness, which increased linearly with age. Although there was no gender difference observed in arterial stiffness, the effect of age on arterial stiffness was greater in women than in men. After adjusting for covariates including age, body mass index, and smoking, multiple regression models showed that arterial stiffness and gender were significant predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The comparisons of these findings to those from several other studies that used the same method to measure arterial stiffness showed that Korean Americans may have levels of arterial stiffness that are similar to or slightly higher than those of other racial groups. Considering that arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of future development of hypertension, more studies are required to examine cardiovascular risk of this understudied group.

Logan, Jeongok G.; Barksdale, Debra J.

2013-01-01

291

Some optical features of the eyes of stomatopods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical dimensions of individual ommatidia from various regions in the eyes of six species of stomatopod have been measured. Using these measurements, estimates of the sensitivity and acceptance angle of each ommatidium were calculated. The relationship between sensitivity distribution in various eye regions and habitat was examined. There is a good correlation between the sensitivity of eyes in the six

N. J. Marshall; M. F. Land

1993-01-01

292

Eye Protective Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological effect of infrared radiation on the retina of the eye is discussed. Experimental data are presented on filter systems recommended for eye protective goggles which will reduce the level of high intensity thermal radiation. The filter systems...

W. B. Plum J. B. Crilly

1964-01-01

293

Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... conjunctivitis with redness of the eye and mucoid debris on the eyelashes. Overview Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is ... Inflammatory causes such as chemicals, fumes, dust, and debris Allergies Injuries Oral genital contact with someone who ...

294

Palpebral slant - eye  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye, or palpebral slant. Slanting and a fold of skin ( epicanthal fold ) are normal in people of Asian descent. Abnormal ... with Down syndrome often also have an epicanthal fold in the inner corner of the eye.

295

The Evil Eye : A Cautious Look  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are\\u000a examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of

Allan S. Berger

296

Driver Eye Fixations under Different Operating Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The eye fixations of six individuals were measured while driving on straight and curved sections of road, night and day, and with and without a car in front of them. Eye fixations on straight sections were distributed uniformly over the road, while on cur...

P. L. Olson D. S. Battle T. Aoki

1989-01-01

297

Eye movements and the enhancement of edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical examination of retinal photochemistry leads to a hypothesis for Mach band phenomena based on eye movements. This retinal model suggests why minimally distinct borders fade under eye fixation and agrees qualitatively with subjective measures of border contrast as a function of overall field luminance.

Steven D. Woods; Richard H. Rand; H. David Block; Donald C. Lewis

1985-01-01

298

Multifractal analysis of the Korean agricultural market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the long-term memory effects of the Korean agricultural market using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. In general, the return time series of various financial data, including stock indices, foreign exchange rates, and commodity prices, are uncorrelated in time, while the volatility time series are strongly correlated. However, we found that the return time series of Korean agricultural commodity prices are anti-correlated in time, while the volatility time series are correlated. The n-point correlations of time series were also examined, and it was found that a multifractal structure exists in Korean agricultural market prices.

Kim, Hongseok; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

2011-11-01

299

Stereo and Eye Movement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes a method to solve the stereo correspondence using controlled eye (or camera) movements. These eye-movements essentially supply additional image-frames which can be used to constrain the stereo matching. Because the eye-movements ar...

D. Geiger A. Yuille

1988-01-01

300

Eyes” on the Thrones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Greek and Byzantine sovereigns are known in history by nicknames that are of ophthalmologic origin; the sobriquets derive from characteristics of their eyes or their actions in relation to the eyes. The first was Antigonos I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed), who was the most eminent successor of Alexander the Great and Sovereign of Eastern Mediterranean Asia. He obtained his nickname

John Lascaratos

1999-01-01

301

Dwarf Eye Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

302

Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women.

Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

2012-01-01

303

Clinical Characteristics of Optic Neuritis in Koreans Greater than 50 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report clinical characteristics of optic neuritis (ON) in Koreans >50 years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with ON between January 2000 and December 2009. We obtained the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Goldmann perimetry, relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), and color function tests as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients who were in the acute stage of the disorder. Results Nine eyes in eight patients were included. The mean age of patients at presentation was 60.5 years (range, 53 to 71 years). Six patients were female, and two were male. There was one patient with bilateral ON. The mean BCVA at presentation was 20 / 400 (no light perception-20 / 70). Eight eyes (89%) complained of pain with eye movement. Six eyes (66%) had disc edema. Central scotoma was the most common field defect. All eyes had color abnormalities. Five eyes in four patients showed abnormalities of the involved optic nerves on MRI. The patients were followed for a mean of 11.3 months (range, 2 to 34 months). All of the patients recovered to a BCVA of 20 / 40 or better within 2 months. On the last follow-up, the mean BCVA was 20 / 20 (20 / 40 to 20 / 16). Four eyes showed remnant central scotoma. One eye had remnant RAPD, and two eyes had mild color abnormalities. Conclusions Although ON is uncommon in elderly patients, it can develop in patients >50 years of age, and clinical features of optic neuritis in elderly patients are similar to those of younger patients.

Choi, Jin; Chang, Ji Woong; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk

2012-01-01

304

HUMAN EYE OPTICS: Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm.

Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu

2009-02-01

305

[Fish eye disease].  

PubMed

A 67-year-old man complained of impaired vision at night for several months. He was known to have arcus senilis (arcus lipoides corneae) since aged 21 years. For the last 20 years both corneas had become progressively more cloudy. His mother was said to have had similar eye changes. Ophthalmological examination discovered no abnormality other than marked corneal dystrophy with hardly separable arcus senilis. General physical examination was normal. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum were within normal limits, but serum concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (8 mg/dl) was reduced as were, within the high density lipoprotein fraction, the concentrations of triglyceride (4 mg/dl), phospholipids (38 mg/dl), the proportion of cholesterol esters (31%), and the cholesterol-esterification rate (51 nmol/ml . h). The HDL-associated activity of lecithin-cholesterol-acetyltransferase activity was scarcely measurable (0.9 nmol/ml . h). The signs in this case (cloudy cornea, marked decrease in serum HDL cholesterol concentration without premature arteriosclerosis) are typical of fish eye disease. PMID:7924949

Schmidt, H H; Diekstall, F F; Bojanovski, D; Manns, M P

1994-10-14

306

Uncertainties in the North Korean Nuclear Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

North Korea is a master at denying the United States information on its sensitive military capabilities. The resulting lack of information on the North Korean nuclear weapon threat makes that highly uncertain. This briefing addresses those uncertainties, ...

B. W. Bennett

2010-01-01

307

A Bi-National Comparative Study of Health Behaviors of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans in California.  

PubMed

Few studies have compared health behaviors of Koreans in their home country and Korean Americans. Using 2009 data from the Community Health Survey (South Korea) and the California Health Interview Survey (USA), we compared native Koreans and Korean Americans, grouped by level of acculturation, on prevalence of specific health behaviors and self-rated health, and conducted multiple logistic regression comparing the odds of these behaviors among the groups adjusted for demographic variables. While Korean Americans exhibit healthier behaviors than Koreans in some areas (e.g., reduced smoking and binge drinking in men, increased utilization of flu vaccinations), we also identified problem behaviors (e.g., increased body weight in Korean American men, uptake of alcohol drinking and smoking among Korean American women). Findings support the critical need for health promotion programs addressing these health behaviors to prevent future health problems among Korean Americans. PMID:22918692

Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

2012-08-24

308

Goodness-of-Fits of the Spirometric Reference Values for Koreans and USA Caucasians to Spirometry Data from Residents of a Region within Chungbuk Province  

PubMed Central

Background Korean regression models for spirometric reference values are different from those of Americans. Using spirometry results of Korean adults, goodness-of-fits of the Korean and the USA Caucasian regression models for forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were compared. Methods The number of study participants was 2,360 (1,124 males and 1,236 females). Spirometry was performed under the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. After excluding unsuitable participants, spirometric data for 729 individuals (105 males and 624 females) was included in the statistical analysis. The estimated FVC and FEV1 values were compared with those measured. Goodness-of-fits for Korean and USA Caucasian models were compared using an F-test. Results In males, the expected values of FVC and FEV1 using the Korean model were 12.5% and 5.7% greater than those measured, respectively. The corresponding values for the USA Caucasian model were 3.5% and 0.6%. In females, the difference in FVC and FEV1 were 13.5% and 7.7% for the Korean model, and 6.3% and 0.4% for the USA model, respectively. Goodness-of-fit for the Korean model regarding FVC was not good to the study population, but the Korean regression model for FEV1, and the USA Caucasian models for FVC and FEV1 showed good fits to the measured data. Conclusion These results suggest that the USA Caucasian model correlates better to the measured data than the Korean model. Using reference values derived from the Korean model can lead to an overestimation regarding the prevalence of abnormal lung function.

Eom, Sang Yong; Moon, Sun In; Yim, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Chul Ho; Kim, Guen Bae; Kim, Yong Dae; Kang, Jong Won; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Kim, Sung Jin; Choi, Byung Sun; Yu, Seung Do; Chang, Soung Hoon; Park, Jung Duck

2012-01-01

309

Crisis Guide: The Korean Peninsula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations has created a number of interactive guides that address everything from Africa's conflict zones to the region along Pakistan's Afghan border. This particular interactive feature deals with the ongoing political situation on the Korean Peninsula. After a brief audio and visual introduction, visitors can take in eight chapters that cover the region's historical background, military history, and nuclear facilities. Along with graphics such as charts and tables, some of the chapters include interactive timelines and maps. One chapter that should not be missed is the one dedicated to exploring the subject of "Military Balance". In this chapter, users can learn about the military assets in the region held by the United States, Japan, China, Russia, and South and North Korea. It's quite an overview, and this site could also be used in an introductory political science or international relations course.

310

North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant health study.

2012-01-01

311

The Separation of Visual Axes in Apposition Compound Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the interommatidial angle (Deltaphi) and facet diameter (D) of the same ommatidia in a number of insects and crustaceans with large eyes have been related to the effective intensity at which the eye functions by the following theory. The highest spatial frequency which the eye is able to reconstruct as a pattern is limited by the interommatidial angle

G. A. Horridge

1978-01-01

312

Nd:YAG Laser Shock Waves in Artificial Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd:YAG laser surgery is performed by inducing optical breakdown in the interior of the eye. The optical breakdown is accompanied by shock waves which expand throughout the entire eye. In our experiments, we measured the amplitudes of shock waves at the walls of artificial eyes caused by single and multiple pulses of optical energy originating from an Nd:YAG laser at

Ingo Wilmanns; Richard Stodtmeister; Lutz E. Pillunat

1988-01-01

313

Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

Kang, Kyoung-Ho

2009-01-01

314

Korean Teachers’ Beliefs and Teaching Practices in Korean Early Childhood Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs and practices of early childhood teachers in Korea. 54 child care teachers, 58 private kindergarten teachers and 45 public kindergarten teachers participated in this study. The Teacher Questionnaire was adapted for the Korean situation using both Korean and American early childhood education experts to determine cultural appropriateness of items (i.e.,

Joan E. Herwig

1997-01-01

315

Small Screen, Big Tourism: The Role of Popular Korean Television Dramas in South Korean Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a popular cultural phenomenon originating in Korea which has assumed significance across Asia and beyond. This ‘Korean wave’ or Hallyu includes the circulation and consumption of Korean popular television dramas. An exploratory case study approach is presented to provide insights on the relationships between this phenomenon and patterns of tourism in Korea related to the wider concept

Sangkyun Kim; Philip Long; Mike Robinson

2009-01-01

316

Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

Jeong-kyu, Lee

317

Sustained eye closure slows saccades.  

PubMed

Saccadic eye movements rapidly orient the line of sight towards the object of interest. Pre-motor burst neurons (BNs) controlling saccades receive excitation from superior colliculus and cerebellum, but inhibition by omnipause neurons (OPNs) prevents saccades. When the OPNs pause, BNs begin to fire. It has been presumed that part of the BN burst comes from post-inhibitory rebound (PIR). We hypothesized that in the absence of prior inhibition from OPNs there would be no PIR, and thus the increase in initial firing rate of BNs would be reduced. Consequently, saccade acceleration would be reduced. We measured eye movements and showed that sustained eye closure, which inhibits the activity of OPNs and thus hypothetically should weaken PIR, reduced the peak velocity, acceleration, and deceleration of saccades in healthy human subjects. Saccades under closed eyelids also had irregular trajectories; the frequency of the oscillations underlying this irregularity was similar to that of high-frequency ocular flutter (back-to-back saccades) often seen in normal subjects during attempted fixation at straight ahead while eyes are closed. Saccades and quick phases of nystagmus are generated by the same pre-motor neurons, and we found that the quick-phase velocity of nystagmus was also reduced by lid closure. These changes were not due to a mechanical hindrance to the eyes, because lid closure did not affect the peak velocities or accelerations of the eyes in the "slow-phase" response to rapid head movements of comparable speeds to those of saccades. These results indicate a role for OPNs in generating the abrupt onset and high velocities of saccades. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is PIR in pre-motor burst neurons. PMID:20573593

Shaikh, Aasef G; Wong, Aaron L; Optican, Lance M; Miura, Kenichiro; Solomon, David; Zee, David S

2010-05-24

318

Preparation and Characterization of an Extract of German Cockroach From a Korean Source  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cockroach (CR) is an important cause of respiratory allergic disorders. We prepared a German CR extract in a standardized way and analyzed its allergenic properties. Methods The extract was prepared from German CR (Blattella germanica) obtained from a Korean colony, and its allergenic activity was compared with that of the commercial Hollister-Stier (HS) extract. The concentrations of Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were measured, and an in vitro specific IgE binding inhibition assay was performed to assess IgE reactivity. Proteolytic activity was examined by gelatin zymography. Results Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were detected at 405 U/mg and 273 ng/mg, respectively, in the Korean extract, and at 187 U/mg and 56 ng/mg, respectively, in the HS extract. The Korean extract showed 94.2% inhibition of IgE reactivity, as compared with the HS extract. A similar pattern of IgE-reactive bands was detected for the two extracts, indicating that their allergenic components are similar. The proteolytic activities of the Korean and HS extracts were found to be similar in gelatin zymography. The endotoxin levels in the Korean and HS extracts were 3,440 EU/mL and 6,580 EU/mL, respectively. Conclusions The German CR extract was prepared in a standardized way. The extract produced in this study will be useful for the development of allergy diagnostics and immunotherapeutic agents.

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Shil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Hong, Chein-Soo

2013-01-01

319

Artificial eye for in vitro experiments of laser light interaction with aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial eye has been designed and assembled that mimics the focusing geometry of the living eye. The artificial eye's focusing characteristics are measured and compared with those of the in vivo system. The artificial eye is used to measure several nonlinear optical phenomena that may have an impact on the laser damage thresholds of the retina produced by ultrashort

Clarence P. Cain; Gary D. Noojin; Daniel X. Hammer; Robert J. Thomas; Benjamin A. Rockwell

1997-01-01

320

Prevention of Eye Injuries  

PubMed Central

In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4

Pashby, Tom

1981-01-01

321

Embryonic quail eye development in microgravity.  

PubMed

The US-Russian joint quail embryo project was designed to study the effects of microgravity on development of Japanese quail embryos incubated aboard Mir. For this part of the project, eyes from embryonic days 14 and 16 (E14 and E16) flight embryos were compared with eyes from several groups of ground-based control embryos. Measurements were recorded for eye weights; eye, corneal, and scleral ring diameters; and numbers of bones in scleral ossicle rings. Transparency of E16 corneas was documented, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to observe corneal innervation. In addition, corneal ultrastructure was observed at the electron microscopic level. Except for corneal diameter of E16 flight embryos, compared with that of one of the sets of controls, results reported here indicate that eye development occurred normally in microgravity. Fixation by cracking the shell and placing the egg in paraformaldehyde solution did not adequately preserve corneal nerves or cellular ultrastructure. PMID:10797121

Barrett, J E; Wells, D C; Paulsen, A Q; Conrad, G W

2000-05-01

322

United States Army Reserve. Mobilization for the Korean War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2011 Defense Authorization Bill provided for the Department of Defense 60th Anniversary of the Korean War Commemoration Committee. The committee is dedicated to thanking and honoring all of the veterans of the Korean War, their families, and especiall...

2013-01-01

323

Marked reduction and distinct patterns of eye blinking in patients with moderately dry eyes during video display terminal use  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo analyze the spontaneous eye-blink rate (SEBR) and blinking pattern in patients with moderately dry eyes during video display terminal (VDT) use.MethodsThe SEBR of 30 patients with dry eye syndrome (median age 44.8 years, range 18 – 67 years) was measured using a computer-based video analysis system. Only complete eye blinks were recorded during 10 min of conversation, during initial VDT

Torsten Schlote; Gregor Kadner; Nora Freudenthaler

2004-01-01

324

Regression methods when the eye is the unit of analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The eye is often the unit of measurement for outcomes, and frequently also for covariates, in vision research, and measurements in the two eyes of the same person are often strongly but far from perfectly correlated. Advances have occurred in development and accessibility of analytic approaches to evaluate determinants of eye-specific outcomes including information from both eyes of some subjects. Methods We illustrate available regression approaches to analyze correlated outcomes from both eyes in data sets with both eye- and subject-specific exposures and potential confounding variables. We consider cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs, and discrete, continuous, and time-to-event outcomes. Results Across a range of study designs and measurement scales for the outcome variable, we show the under-estimation of P-values and widths of confidence intervals that occurs when the correlation between paired eyes in a person is ignored, and the reduced precision that occurs in separate analyses of right or left eyes, or in analyses of persons rather than eyes. By comparison, regression models with the eye as the unit of analysis and appropriate consideration of the correlation between paired outcomes generally offer maximal use of available data, enhanced interpretability of covariate-outcome associations, and efficient use of information from subjects who contribute only one eye to analyses. Conclusions For many studies in vision research, the now widely available regression models that appropriately treat the eye as the unit of analysis offer the best analytic approach.

Glynn, Robert J; Rosner, Bernard

2012-01-01

325

Multicamera Networks: New eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to ancient Greek mythology, Argus, the hundred-eyed guardian of the goddess Hera, alone defeated a whole army of Cyclopes, one-eyed giants. The mythological power of many eyes becomes a reality in this book, after seeing the capabilities of current multi camera networks. The preceding chapters have communi- cated the excitement around this newly formed field. Multi-camera networks are new

Marcel Proust

326

Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

SciTech Connect

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-02-28

327

LASIK and dry eye.  

PubMed

Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery. PMID:17540125

Toda, Ikuko

328

Relative image size, not eye position, determines eye dominance switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent paper examined eye dominance with the eyes in forward and eccentric gaze [Vision Res. 41 (2001) 1743]. When observers were looking to the left, the left eye tended to dominate and when they were looking to the right, the right eye tended to dominate. The authors attributed the switch in eye dominance to extra-retinal signals associated with horizontal

Martin S. Banks; Tandra Ghose; James M. Hillis

2004-01-01

329

Eye movements in repeated multiple object tracking.  

PubMed

Contrary to other tasks (free viewing, recognition, visual search), participants often fail to recognize repetition of trials in multiple object tracking (MOT). This study examines the intra- and interindividual variability of eye movements in repeated MOT trials along with the adherence of eye movements to the previously described strategies. I collected eye movement data from 20 subjects during 64 MOT trials at slow speed (5°/s). Half of the trials were repeated four times, and the remaining trials were unique. I measured the variability of eye-movement patterns during repeated trials using normalized scanpath saliency extended to the temporal domain. People tended to make similar eye movements during repeated presentations (with no or vague feeling of repetition) and the interindividual similarity remained at the same level over time. Several strategies (centroid strategy and its variants) were compared with data and they accounted for 48.8% to 54.3% of eye-movement variability, which was less then variability explained by other peoples' eye movements (68.6%). The results show that the observed intra- and interindividual similarity of eye movements is only partly explained by the current models. PMID:23766540

Lukavský, Ji?í

2013-06-13

330

Eye Safety: Emergency Response and Disaster Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Minimum necessary eye protection guidelines(Summary); Eye hazards for emergency response and disaster recovery; Four points to eye safety; Type of eye protection; Eye safety for prescription lens wearers; First aid for eye injuries and Informati...

2001-01-01

331

Developing cultural competence in working with Korean immigrant families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide an in-depth examination of the historical background, cultural values, family roles, and community contexts of Korean Americans as an aid to both researchers and clinicians in developing cultural competence with this particular group. First, the concept of cultural competence is defined. A brief history of Korean immigration patterns to the United States and demographic information about Korean

Irene J. Kim; Luke I. C. Kim; James G. Kelly

2006-01-01

332

Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul

2009-01-01

333

Jeong exchange and collective leadership in Korean organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the Korean management system work with open interaction and without excessive power abuse, in spite of the emphasis on authority and hierarchy in Korean society? This paper explicates the concept of jeong exchange, an emotional support mechanism based on informal social ties, as the basis of social capital in Korean collectives (woori). Jeong exchange is first described and

Inju Yang

2006-01-01

334

What North Korea wants. [North Korean nuclear policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author draws upon his experiences from his four trips to North Korea, during which he discussed nuclear issues with North Korean leaders, to help explain part of the North Korean reasoning behind its threats to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its gyrating nuclear policies. In essence, the author believes that North Korean nuclear policy

1993-01-01

335

English Article Deletion in Korean EFL Learners' Compositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study quantitatively analyzed the frequency of English article deletion by Korean learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Subjects were 49 freshmen in a South Korean university. The absence of an article system in Korean induces usage errors in which learners ungrammatically either omit or add an article. The study especially focuses on…

Lee, Hikyoung

1997-01-01

336

The Dynamics of Korean Youth in Family and Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on adolescence and youth in Korean society. The various age classifications for young people in Korea are delineated including an ideal type of the Korean youth. The paper concludes that Korean youth are confronted with problems similar to other young people around the world.

Woo Sik Chung

1991-01-01

337

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

338

Comparison of Models of Acculturation: The Case of Korean Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether a unidimensional or bidimensional model better explained acculturation of Korean Americans on two levels (separate domains of acculturation and overall acculturation), also noting whether there were meaningfully different forms of acculturation in Korean Americans. Surveys of a national sample of Korean Americans indicated that on…

Lee, Soo-Kyung; Sobal, Jeffrey; Frongillo, Edward A.

2003-01-01

339

Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

2011-01-01

340

Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20…

Cha, Mi Yang

2009-01-01

341

Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1998-01-01

342

SOUTH KOREAN NATIONAL PRIDE: DETERMINANTS, CHANGES, AND SUGGESTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at how proud South Koreans are of their nation's achievements, how strongly South Koreans feel their country is superior to other countries, what factors are impor- tant to explain differences in national pride, and how impor- tant perceptions on social trust and current political and eco- nomic situations are in determining Koreans' level of national pride. The

Kiseon Chung; Hyun Choe

343

A New VoiceKorean American Women in Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the cultural meanings Korean American women give to participation in sports. Interviews with six Korean American women at a large Midwestern university revealed that their sporting experiences involved a complicated process of identity construction, not only as Asian American women but also as ethnically Korean American women. In addition, the study shows how sport becomes a focal

Yomee Lee

2005-01-01

344

Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

2011-01-01

345

Acculturation and delinquent behavior —?The case of Korean American youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to see the relationship between the modes of acculturation and delinquent behavior among Korean American youths in the United States. A self?reported survey was administered to a total of 400 elementary to high school students with Korean ethnicity at 20 randomly drawn Korean churches nationwide. A total of 129 questionnaires were returned and subjected for further

Yoon Ho Lee

1998-01-01

346

Complex spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex Spectral Optical Tomography (SOCT) in comparison to ordinary SOCT produces images free of parasitic terms with extended measurement range. This technique requires stability of the object during at least three consecutive measurements. With a new fast SOCT instrument it was possible to make measurements regardless of involuntary eye movements. The first measurements of human eye in vivo based on Complex SOCT are presented.

Targowski, Piotr; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Gorczynska, Iwona

2003-10-01

347

Why are Korean American Physicians Reluctant to Recommend Colorectal Cancer Screening to Korean American Patients? Exploratory Interview Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Korean Americans have one of the lowest screening rates for colorectal cancer. Although physician recommendation is one of\\u000a the most important predictors of cancer screening across populations, only few Korean American patients receive such a recommendation. Methods We interviewed 14 Korean American physicians in Los Angeles area who primarily serve Korean Americans to explore why they\\u000a are reluctant to

Angela M. Jo; Annette E. Maxwell; Albert J. Rick; Jennifer Cha; Roshan Bastani

2009-01-01

348

Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior of Korean American Dry Cleaner Couples  

PubMed Central

Objective The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe and compare lifestyle physical activity (leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity), using both self-report and an objective measure of step counts, in self-employed Korean American married couples working together at dry cleaners, and (2) examine the relationship between self-report and objective measures of physical activity. Design and Sample Seventy couples participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive, face-to-face interview survey. Measures Two self-reports (28-item Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity Questionnaire and Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire) and one objective measure (New Lifestyles-800 pedometer) were used. Results The husbands spent significantly more time than their wives in moderate- to vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity (207 vs. 122 minutes/week) and occupational physical activity (2,585 vs. 1,065 minutes/week). Most couples (91%) met recommended levels of physical activity based on their occupational physical activity. Pedometer steps correlated significantly only with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Study findings suggest that to increase physical activity in Korean American couples who work in a small business, moderate-intensity lifestyle physical activity interventions across leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity will be more successful than traditional leisure-time interventions. In addition, results suggest that there is a need for interventions that target both members of the married couple.

Sukyung, Ju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Eunice, Lee; Arlene, Miller

2013-01-01

349

Acoustic characteristics of Korean stops in Korean child-directed speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of cross-linguistic studies have documented that the acoustic properties of speech addressed to young children include exaggeration of pitch contours and acoustically salient features of phonetic units. It has been suggested that phonetic modifications of child-directed speech facilitate young children's speech perception by providing detailed phonetic information about the target word. While there are several studies reporting vowel modifications in speech to infants (i.e., hyper-articulated vowels), there has been relatively little research about consonant modifications in speech to young children (except for VOT). The present study examines acoustic properties of Korean stops in Korean mothers' speech to their children aged 29 to 38 months (N=6). Korean tense, lax, and aspirated stops are all voiceless in word-initial position, and are perceptually differentiated by several acoustic parameters including VOT, f0 of the following vowel, and the amplitude difference of the first and second harmonics at the voice onset of the following vowel. This study compares values of these parameters in Korean motherese to those in speech to adult Koreans from same speakers. Results focus on the acoustic properties of Korean stops in child-directed speech and how they are modified to help Korean young children learn the three-way phonetic contrast.

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-04-01

350

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training Using Eye Blink Switch for Locked-in Syndrome Patient.  

PubMed

Locked-in Syndrome is a severe pontine stroke causing quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism with preservation of only vertical gaze and upper eyelid movement in a conscious patient. We present a case of a Locked-in Syndrome patient who received communication training with augmentative and alternative communication equipment by using eye blinks. After 3 weeks of training, the patient was able to make an attempt to interact with other people, and associate a new word by Korean alphabet selection. Augmentative and alternative communication equipment which uses eye blinks might be considered to be beneficial in improving the communication skills of locked-in syndrome patients. PMID:22639753

Park, Si-Woon; Yim, You-Lim; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Seung-Min

2012-04-30

351

Relationships between dietary intake and cognitive function level in Korean elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive performance in Korean elderly people. Data for dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cognitive function tests were collected and the relationships of the variables were analyzed. A random sample of 210 men and 239 women in Korea, aged 60 and over, was selected. Subjects were free-living elderly people who had not experienced

L Lee; SA Kang; HO Lee; B-H Lee; J-H Kim; IK Jung; JE Lee

2001-01-01

352

Serum Leptin as a Predictor of Fatty Liver in 7YearOld Korean Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study investigated the usefulness of serum leptin as a predictor of fatty liver disease in Korean children. Methods: One hundred and twenty-four children were recruited from urban areas in Korea. Anthropometrical parameters and clinical variables, such as the levels of serum lipids, insulin and leptin, were measured. Fatty liver disease was detected via hepatic sonogram. We also collected

In Kyoung Kim; Jihye Kim; Jae Heon Kang; Jihyun Song

2008-01-01

353

Effects of gender, age, and body parameters on the ventricular volume of Korean people  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure the average ventricular volume of normal Koreans (aged in their 20s or 40s) and to analyze the effects of gender, age, and body parameters, such as height and weight on ventricle size. Magnetic resonance brain images were recorded for 118 people in their 20s (58 men, 60 women) and 100 in their

Soon-Cheol Chung; Gye-Rae Tack; Jeong-Han Yi; Bongsoo Lee; Mi-Hyun Choi; Beob-Yi Lee; Soo-Yeol Lee

2006-01-01

354

Acculturation, Food Consumption, and Diet-related Factors among Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how Korean Americans with different levels of acculturation varied in food consumption, and which diet-related factors were important to acculturation and food consumption. Pretested questionnaires were mailed to a national sample, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Sociocultural acculturation was measured with a two-culture matrix model and Gordon's theoretical work and showed

Soo-Kyung Lee; Jeffery Sobal; Edward A. Frongillo

1999-01-01

355

Acculturation, Stress, and Depressive Symptoms Among Korean Immigrants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 157 Korean immigrants responded to measures of acculturation level, stress from acculturation, and depressive symptoms. The authors hypothesized that adaptive acculturation would depend on assimilation regarding social interactions and the host culture's language as well as on retention of a core identity, including values and traditions of the culture of origin. Consistent with the mediation hypothesis, acculturation,

Yunjin Oh; Gary F. Koeske; Esther Sales

2002-01-01

356

Genetic Polymorphisms of OPG , RANK , and ESR1 and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of genetic polymorphisms of OPG, RANK, and ESR1, which regulate osteoclastogenesis, on bone mineral density (BMD), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 650 Korean postmenopausal women. BMDs of the distal radius and the calcaneus were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Genetic polymorphisms of OPG 163 A > G, 1181 G > C; RANK 421

J. Y. Choi; A. Shin; S. K. Park; H. W. Chung; S. I. Cho; C. S. Shin; H. Kim; K. M. Lee; K. H. Lee; C. Kang; D. Y. Cho; D. Kang

2005-01-01

357

Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.  

PubMed

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

2008-09-01

358

Eyes for relighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric (mirror + lens) imaging system with a very wide field of view. We present a detailed analysis of the characteristics of this corneal imaging system. Anatomical studies have shown that the shape of a normal cornea (without major defects) can be approximated with

Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2004-01-01

359

Protect Those Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build prototypes for protective eyewear. They choose different activities or sports that require protective eyewear and design a device for that particular use. Students learn about the many ways in which the eyes can be damaged and how engineers incorporate different features and materials into eyewear designs to best protect the eyes.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

360

Surviving Drosophila eye development  

Microsoft Academic Search

During eye development, cell death interplays dynamically with events of differentiation to achieve the remarkably patterned structure of the fly compound eye. Mutations in genes that affect the normal developmental process can lead to excessive death of progenitor cells, or, alternatively, to the differentiation of supernumerary neurons, pigment and cone cells due to survival of cells that would normally be

Nancy M Bonini

1997-01-01

361

The eye of providence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye in a triangle that appears on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States was called the Eye of Providence by the designers of the seal. The origins of this symbol which appeared in the last half of the seventeenth century are documented nowhere. However, consideration of analogous symbols and seventeenth century writers makes it clear

Albert M. Potts

1973-01-01

362

Subpixel Eye Gaze Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the accuracy problem of an eye gaze tracking system. We first analyze the technical barrier for a gaze tracking system to achieve desired accuracy, and then propose a subpixel tracking method to break the barrier. We present new algorithms for detecting the inner eye corner and the center of an iris in subpixel accuracy, and we apply

Jie Zhu; Jie Yang

2002-01-01

363

Imaging in the aging eye  

SciTech Connect

Retinal imaging may seem a simple endeavor, given that the eye is far more transparent and accessible than internal organs such as the heart. Optical imaging techniques allow high resolution, with measurements of living tissues reported in microns, in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging. Most retinal imaging techniques are less invasive than endoscopy. There is a long-standing acceptance of retinal imaging as an important set of techniques in research and medicine.(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

Elsner, Ann E. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Remky, Andreas [Augenklinik der RWTH, Aachen, (Germany); Walker, Joseph P. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States); Wing, Glenn L. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Raskauskas, Paul A. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fletcher, Donald C. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kelley, Linda M. [Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States); Kiesel, Cheryl [Retinal Consultants of SW Florida, Ft. Meyers, Florida (United States)

2000-07-01

364

Dose reduction in computed tomography: the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose measured in patients with beryllium oxide-based optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose to the lens and the testes\\u000a of patients undergoing CT examinations. Fifty-one male patients underwent CT twice with identical protocols initially without,\\u000a the second time with protective garments. Doses to the testes and the lenses were recorded with beryllium oxide-based dosimeters.\\u000a The

Henrik Grobe; Marian Sommer; Arne Koch; Volker Hietschold; Jürgen Henniger; Nasreddin Abolmaali

2009-01-01

365

Lessons of the North Korean crisis  

SciTech Connect

The crisis involving North Korea`s suspected nuclear weapon program is over, at least for now. Pyongyang has agreed to suspend its decision to withdraw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and to assume its obligations allowing continued International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities, although it has yet to accept IAEA {open_quotes}special{close_quotes} inspections of suspect nuclear sites. In exchange, North Korea obtained a few specific commitments from the United States - nuclear non-aggression, for example - as well as hints of longer-term benefits such as high-level US-North Korean talks extending to other topics, the cancellation of the US-South Korean {open_quotes}Team Spirit{close_quotes} military exercise, the right to reciprocal inspections in South Korea and an influx of South Korean and Japanese investment, provided North Korea meets its obligations under the NPT.

Mazarr, M.J.

1993-07-01

366

Validation of the Korean Version of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale  

PubMed Central

Study Design A prospective study. Purpose To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS). Overview of Literature The validity of Korean version of NPDS has not been completely demonstrated yet. Methods Translation/retranslation of the English version of NPDS was conducted, and all steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were performed. The Korean version of the visual analog scale (VAS) measure of pain, NPDS and the previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) were mailed to 91 patients, who had been surgically treated for degenerative cervical disease. Eighty-one patients responded to the first mailing of questionnaires and 69 of the first time responder returned their second survey. Factor analysis and reliability assessment by kappa statistics of agreement for each item, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's ? were conducted. Concurrent and construct validity were also evaluated by comparing the responses of NPDS with the results of VAS and responses of SF-36. Results Factor analysis extracted 3 factors. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement greater than 0.6. The NPDS showed excellent test/re-test reliability. Internal consistency of Cronbach's ? was found to be very good. The NPDS was correlated with the VAS. The Korean version of NPDS showed good significant correlation with SF-36 total score and with single SF-36 domains scores. Conclusions The adapted Korean version of the NPDS was successfully translated and is considered suitable for outcome assessments in the Korean-speaking patients with neck pain.

Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Lee, Hong Seok; Goh, Tae Sik

2013-01-01

367

Near-to-eye display test station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate near-to-eye virtual displays with optics, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate designed, developed, and integrated the Near to Eye Display Test Station (NDTS). The system utilizes kinematically interchangeable sensor heads to capitalize on the strengths of each sensor for the applications\\/measurements for which its best suited. The station allows the user to evaluate a near to

David A. Fellowes; Russell S. Draper

2003-01-01

368

Advocacy for eye care.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

369

Personal identification by eyes.  

PubMed

Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems. PMID:22220469

Marinovi?, Dunja; Njiri?, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzi?, Vedrana

2011-09-01

370

Penetrating eye injuries.  

PubMed Central

A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable.

Patel, B C

1989-01-01

371

Gender Stereotypes Depicted by Western and Korean Advertising Models in Korean Adolescent Girls’ Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using content analysis based on Goffman’s (1979) typology, the authors examined gender role stereotypes in Korean fashion magazines targeting adolescent girls. Korean women\\u000a were more stereotypically portrayed than any other group as smiling, pouting, and with a childlike or cute expression. On\\u000a the other hand, Western women were more stereotypically portrayed than any other group in the categories of licensed

Kyoungtae Nam; Guiohk Lee; Jang-Sun Hwang

2011-01-01

372

The report of coping strategies and psychosocial adjustment in Korean mothers of children with cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Parents of children with cancer must cope with multiple challenges over time. As most research on parental coping has been conducted in Western countries, little information is available on the parental experience of coping in non-Western countries. Using a new cultural sample of Korean mothers, this study describes their coping strategies. In addition, the association of particular coping patterns with mothers’ report of psychosocial adjustment is investigated. Methods A total of 200 Korean mothers of children with cancer participated in the study. Coping strategies were measured by the Coping Health Inventory for Parents in the following three categories: Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, Seeking Social Support, and Seeking Information. Maternal psychosocial adjustment was measured by psychological distress, family relationship, and social relationship subscales from the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. Results Korean mothers reported coping strategies related to Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation as being most helpful. More frequent use of coping pattern, Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, and less frequent use of coping pattern, Information-Seeking were significantly associated with lower psychological distress and better family relationship after children’s medical and maternal characteristics were controlled for. Coping pattern, Seeking Social Support was only predictive of social relationships. Conclusions This study suggests that culture may play a significant role in the report of coping among Korean mothers. Future studies should consider culturally preferred coping methods and available resources as they relate to different adjustment outcomes.

Han, Hae-Ra; Cho, Eun Joo; Kim, Daehee; Kim, Jiyun

2011-01-01

373

Effect of Human Placental Extract on Health Status in Elderly Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Human placental extract (HPE) has begun to be used in Korea in various ways to improve health, even though evidence-based data is insufficient. This study investigated the effects of HPE on health status in elderly Koreans. Design. Randomized, single-blind, and case-control study design. Setting and Participants. Thirty-nine community-dwelling healthy Koreans ?65 years of age. Intervention. The participants were randomly categorized into a placebo group (n = 17) and HPE group (n = 22). The HPE group received abdominal subcutaneous injections of HPE for 8 weeks. The placebo group was injected with normal saline. Measurements. The degree of health status was surveyed by the Korean health status measure for the elderly (KoHSME V1.0) at baseline and the end of the study. Results. In the HPE group, the scores of physical function, sexual life, and general heath perception at the end of the study period were significantly improved from baseline (P = .007, .020, and .005, resp.), while the health status of the placebo group remained unchanged during the study period. There was a significant difference over the study period between the two groups in the mean change of the physical function score (P = .036). Conclusion. A HPE injection regimen can improve the health status in elderly Koreans.

Kong, Mihee; Park, Sat Byul

2012-01-01

374

Why is allergic eye disease a problem for eye workers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is allergic eye disease, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in particular, a problem for eye workers and patients in hot climates? A large number of children are affected Over a quarter of 2,250 children seen at a tertiary referral paediatric eye clinic in East Africa had vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Even more came flocking to screening clinics complaining of itchy eyes. This

Anthony Hall

2005-01-01

375

Eye tracking young children with autism.  

PubMed

The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics, promote early identification, and inform treatment. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance and abnormal brain functioning, particularly during the processing of social information. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties. PMID:22491039

Sasson, Noah J; Elison, Jed T

2012-03-27

376

Dynamics of the Saccadic Eye-Movement Mechanism; and Neurological Servomechanisms: Section I, the Crayfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dynamics of saccadic eye-movement mechanism: An on-line computer was used to experimentally measure the dynamic performance of horizontal eye movement saccades. A mathematical model based upon physiological measurements in the literature was assembled for...

G. Cook L. Stark

1966-01-01

377

Multimodal eye recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

2010-04-01

378

Normal Eye Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Photos, Images, and Videos » Search Results Photos, Images, and Videos Search Results Instructions for Downloading Photographs and Images Description: A color illustration of the eye highlighting the cornea, pupil and ...

379

Common Eye Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... older could improve their vision through proper refractive correction. More than 3.3 million Americans aged 40 ... the National Eye Institute showed that proper refractive correction could improve vision among 11 million Americans aged ...

380

A Role of Eye Vergence in Covert Attention  

PubMed Central

Covert spatial attention produces biases in perceptual and neural responses in the absence of overt orienting movements. The neural mechanism that gives rise to these effects is poorly understood. Here we report the relation between fixational eye movements, namely eye vergence, and covert attention. Visual stimuli modulate the angle of eye vergence as a function of their ability to capture attention. This illustrates the relation between eye vergence and bottom-up attention. In visual and auditory cue/no-cue paradigms, the angle of vergence is greater in the cue condition than in the no-cue condition. This shows a top-down attention component. In conclusion, observations reveal a close link between covert attention and modulation in eye vergence during eye fixation. Our study suggests a basis for the use of eye vergence as a tool for measuring attention and may provide new insights into attention and perceptual disorders.

Sole Puig, Maria; Perez Zapata, Laura; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Super, Hans

2013-01-01

381

THE GEOPOLITICS OF THE KOREAN NUCLEAR CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. unilateralism in rejecting the Sunshine Policy and North Korean unilateralism in seeking regime survival through nuclear weapons have forced Japan, South Korea, China, and Russia to agree to a multilateral approach to reduce threats to their interests. After making clear to the North its own preferred outcome, each has been in close touch with the United States in the

Gilbert Rozman

382

Korean Oriental Medicine in Stroke Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean Oriental medicine (KOM), known as Hanbang in Korea, is the primary health care system for more than 20% of the population in Korea. Often integrated with allopathic Western medicine, it has been used and studied extensively in Korea for a variety of conditions, including stroke and Parkinson’s disease. Although KOM shares its origins with traditional Chinese medicine, its unique

Yong-Suk Kim; Jun Wang; Douglas Mann; Susan Gaylord; Hye-Jung Lee; Michael Lee

2005-01-01

383

Threat Analysis - North Korean Nuclear Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Joel S. Wit, in his analysis of U.S. North Korean policy, stated that, 'For 50 years, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has been the poster child for rogue states.' Whether called a 'rogue state,' a 'state of concern,' or a 'failed state,' ...

P. J. Rowman

2002-01-01

384

Nation, State and Football: The Korean Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two states that were created with the split of the Korean nation have been vying with each other over legitimacy and supremacy for most part of their postcolonial history. This essay explores the relations between the two nationalisms and football – a game that is highly popular at, and particularly appreciated by, each of the sister-adversaries. As demonstrated, on the one

Guy Podoler

2008-01-01

385

Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling.

Koh, Hesung Chun

2006-01-01

386

Towards securing better nutrition, Korean experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the Korean diet and health status may be of great significance for current problems in nutrition and public health in different parts of the world. In Korea, the death rate for coronary heart disease is extremely low compared with mortality in industrialized countries. Diet may account for the strikingly low incidence of coronary heart disease in Korea. According

Bum Suk Tchai

1997-01-01

387

Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

Murfin, Brian

2009-01-01

388

Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

Silva, David J., Ed.

389

American Colleges See Potential in Korean Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For colleges in the United States seeking a foothold in South Korea's formerly insular higher-education sector, the lure seems to be part location, part alumni lobbying, and part desire to be part of the country's rapid transformation. The South Korean government's newfound openness to overseas universities is helping persuade American college…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

390

Possessor raising in Chinese and Korean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possessor NP may move out from the Spec position of a containing NP in some Asian languages such as Chinese and Korean, yielding the so-called 'Possessor Raising Construction'. From the perspective of a syntactic theory based on principles and parameters of Universal Grammar, rather than on differing sets of rules for different particular languages, we in this article argue

Jie Xu

2005-01-01

391

How Will External Powers Affect Korean Reunification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Korean peninsula has been a focus of contention since the nineteenth century. Following the division of the peninsula after World War II, the issue of when, and how, Korea will be reunified has been a subject of intense interest, one that has been enc...

S. M. Tavar

2005-01-01

392

Women in the South Korean Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the changing role of women in the Korean armed forces and explores the issue of gender integration in the military. During the past half-century, the utilization of women in the armed forces has been limited in Korea due to constitutional and cultural restraints. Yet the expansion of utilizing females in the military is becoming a global trend.

Doo-Seung Hong

2002-01-01

393

Proper Human Relationships: Korean Principals' Leadership Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to better understand the values that Korean educational administrators associate with leadership, researchers surveyed a random sample of 292 subjects in South Korea in the spring of 2000. Using several well-tested instruments, the researchers were able to report findings of relevance to scholars interested in cultural influences on…

Bryant, Miles; Son, Jong Ho

394

Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

Murfin, Brian

2009-01-01

395

On the Exportability of Korean Movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe authors investigate factors that may affect the exportability of Korean films released from 1996 to 2002. They employ a binary probit model to test the exportability. The findings indicate that the number of screens, action genre, and year dummies of 2000 and 2001 are important determinants of exportability in the overall model. The authors tried to capture the dynamic

Shi Young Lee; Eun-mee Kim; Sung Hee Jun

2009-01-01

396

Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how students at many universities often fail to reach their full potential as English-language learners because of low motivation. Draws examples from the South Korean context to discuss such problems, and proposes solutions that can be applied to contexts worldwide. (Author/VWL)

Niederhauser, Janet S.

1997-01-01

397

The current state of korean paleoanthropology.  

PubMed

The hominid fossil and Paleolithic archaeology records from the Korean Peninsula are extensive, but relatively little is known about the Korean human evolutionary record outside this region. The Korean paleoanthropological record is reviewed here in light of major research issues, including the hominid fossil record, relative and chronometric dating, lithic analysis, hominid subsistence, and the presence of bone tools, art and symbolism. Some of the major conclusions drawn from this review include: (1) hominid fossils have been found in nine separate sites on the Korean Peninsula; (2) possible Homo erectus fossils are present in North Korea; (3) Ryonggok Cave, in North Korea, has exposed the remains of at least five archaic Homo sapiens individuals; (4) a possible burial of an anatomically modern Homo sapiens child, discovered in Hungsu Cave in South Korea, has been tentatively dated to roughly 40,000 years ago; (5) handaxes and cleavers have been found at a number of sites near Chongokni and they appear to date to at least 100,000 years ago; and (6) taphonomic studies are necessary for addressing issues related to determining the nature of hominid-carnivore interaction over similar resources (e.g. carcasses and shelter); and the presence/absence of Early Paleolithic bone tools, art, and symbolism in Korea. PMID:10835263

Norton, C J

2000-06-01

398

Application of Calculated Panel Reactive Antibody Using HLA Frequencies in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background Introduction of the Luminex panel reactive antibody (PRA)-single antigen (SA) assay has increased the detection rates of unacceptable antigens in sensitized patients; the calculated PRA (CPRA) level represents the percentage of actual organ donors that express 1 or more of these unacceptable antigens. We developed a CPRA calculator based on the HLA frequencies in Koreans to measure sensitization levels in Korean patients. Methods To develop the calculator, we obtained the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR phenotypes of 1,622 Koreans, and compared these with previously reported frequencies in Koreans. Sera from patients awaiting kidney transplantation were tested for HLA antibodies by Luminex PRA-screen, PRA-identification (ID), and PRA-SA assays. The measured %PRA from the PRA-screen (N=55) and PRA-ID (N=71) were compared to the %CPRA for the unacceptable antigens obtained from PRA-SA. Results Phenotype frequencies used for the CPRA calculator agreed with previously reported data. The concordance rates among the 3 PRA methods for the detection of class I and class II antibodies were 76.1-81.8% (kappa, 0.519-0.636) and 72.7-83.6% (0.463-0.650), respectively. For the detection of broadly sensitized sera (>50% or >80%), the concordance rates were over 80%. In sera with 80-100% CPRA, 91.7% and 94.4% of the samples had concordant results (80-100% PRA) in the PRA-screen and PRA-ID assay, respectively. Conclusions Although further clinical studies are required to confirm the benefits of CPRA values, adoption of CPRA analysis based on HLA frequencies in Koreans may be useful for sensitization measurements and organ-allocation algorithms.

Jang, Ji-Young; Kim, Yoon-Joo; Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Yeon-Joon; Han, Kyungja

2012-01-01

399

Development of prototypes of half-mask facepieces for Koreans using the 3D digitizing design method: a pilot study.  

PubMed

In the Korean market there are several respirators for industrial purposes. Some of them are imported from global manufacturers such as 3M, and the others are developed by domestic companies. However, some of the locally made respirators have a face-seal leakage problem because they were not designed taking into account Korean facial characteristics. This pilot study was conducted to develop three face models for a half-mask based on the Korean fit-test panel and also to design three well-fitting silicon prototypes (large, medium and small) for Korean faces. For a test panel, 50 subjects were selected on the basis of lip length and face length. Shapes of faces from the test panel were scanned by a 3D scanner (Vivid 900, Minolta). The facial dimension scales for three size groups were established through statistical analysis. To ensure that the shapes fit the mean facial dimensions of each size group, similarly shaped sample faces were selected from the test panel. Mean faces with representative facial dimensions as well as face models (mannequins) were made by the Rapid Prototyper (RP; Z400, Z Corps, USA). These were reshaped to fit the mean faces by clay-modeling. The face models were digitized to recheck the fit of the facial dimensions. On the basis of the face models, three types of masks were developed through digital modeling, and tangible models were prototyped by RP. Three differently sized prototype masks were made with silicon and examined by simple naked eye test. This procedure established the mask design process based on digital technology; it can be applied for similar design projects in the future. Further study is needed to verify whether these prototypes would be a good fit for Korean faces. PMID:15509630

Han, Don-Hee; Rhi, Joomyung; Lee, Jinheon

2004-10-27

400

Korean nursing students' intention to migrate abroad.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Migration of Korean nurses has continued with changing patterns and reasons. However, detailed studies of migration among Korean nursing students are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the intention, reasons, and preferences of migration among Korean nursing students. This study also identified priorities and barriers to the decision of nursing students to migrate and work abroad. DESIGN: A descriptive study using a questionnaire was used for this study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 717 nursing students from four BSN programs and three diploma programs at nursing schools in D city and K province of South Korea were included in the analysis. RESULTS: According to the results, 69.8% of respondents intended to migrate abroad, if possible, or absolutely in the future. The score for females who answered "yes, if possible" regarding the intention to migrate was significantly higher, compared to males. More than 64% of respondents eventually want to return to Korea after migration. The two most common reasons for migration were economic reason (salary) (29.7%) and "professional development (28.2%)". Half of all respondents preferred the US as the destination country of migration (50.5%). "Working condition" was the most prevalent reason for the decision regarding the destination and the place to work. More than 71% of respondents selected "the lack of language proficiency" as a barrier to migration. CONCLUSIONS: Economic reason was not as strong as in the past to explain migration of Korean nursing students. Most Korean nursing students want to return back with professional development and higher degree. Even permanent migration and return migration of nurses are an inevitable part of globalization, positive and negative aspects of migration between donor as well as destination countries should be investigated. PMID:23660240

Lee, Eunjoo; Moon, Mikyung

2013-05-01

401

Peak torque and electromyographic responses during fatiguing concentric muscle actions with eyes-open versus eyes-closed.  

PubMed

This study compared peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) mean frequency responses during fatiguing muscle actions with eyes-open vs eyes-closed. On four separate days, 21 men (M age = 23 yr.) performed 100 repeated maximal concentric muscle actions of the forearm flexors with eyes-open, eyes-closed, eyes-closed for first 50 muscle actions, and eyes-closed for the last 50 muscle actions while surface EMG signals were collected from the biceps brachii. The data were examined with seven separate repeated measures analyses of variance. There were no mean differences among the conditions for initial, average, and final peak torque, percent decline, the linear slope coefficient for the decline in peak torque, as well as the linear slope coefficient and y-intercept for the normalized EMG mean frequency vs repetition number relationships. These findings indicate performance during fatiguing muscle actions is not influenced by whether participants have their eyes open or closed throughout testing. PMID:24032332

Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M

2013-04-01

402

Job Information Deprivation in the United States: A Case Study of Korean Immigrants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the methods of job information acquisition used by recent Korean immigrants. Indicates the Koreans most frequently use personal contact with other Koreans. Reviews findings from the perspective of labor market segmentation. (Author/MK)|

Kim, Kwang Chung; And Others

1981-01-01

403

Gender Differences in the Fagerstr?m Test for Nicotine Dependence in Korean Americans  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study was conducted to compare gender differences in the psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Methods The sample comprised 334 Korean immigrants (97 women and 237 men) who reported daily smoking for the past six months. Item-by-item responses and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were compared by gender. Promax rotation was selected based on findings from previous studies suggesting correlated factors. Results Compared with men, women smoked fewer cigarettes per day, were more likely to smoke when ill in bed, and were less likely to smoke frequently in the morning. The entire sample and men within the sample had the same factor loading pattern, where three items (time to first cigarette, the cigarette most hate to give up, and smoke more frequently in the morning) were loaded on Factor 1 (morning smoking) and the remaining three items (difficult to refrain from smoking in public places, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking even when ill in bed) on Factor 2 (daytime smoking). For women, however, neither the 1- nor 2-factor model fit the data well. Conclusions For Korean American male smokers, the psychometric properties of the FTND were similar to those seen in other populations, but this was not the case with Korean American women. Clinicians may need to modify their interpretation of nicotine dependence severity if basing only on the FTND with Korean Women. The FTND assesses smoking patterns which has a cultural influence and other measures of nicotine dependence should be considered

Kim, Sun S.; Fang, Hua; DiFranza, Joseph; Ziedonis, Douglas M.; Ma, Grace X.

2012-01-01

404

Gender Differences in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in Korean Americans.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to compare gender differences in the psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). METHODS: The sample comprised 334 Korean immigrants (97 women and 237 men) who reported daily smoking for the past six months. Item-by-item responses and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were compared by gender. Promax rotation was selected based on findings from previous studies suggesting correlated factors. RESULTS: Compared with men, women smoked fewer cigarettes per day, were more likely to smoke when ill in bed, and were less likely to smoke frequently in the morning. The entire sample and men within the sample had the same factor loading pattern, where three items (time to first cigarette, the cigarette most hate to give up, and smoke more frequently in the morning) were loaded on Factor 1 (morning smoking) and the remaining three items (difficult to refrain from smoking in public places, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking even when ill in bed) on Factor 2 (daytime smoking). For women, however, neither the 1- nor 2-factor model fit the data well. CONCLUSIONS: For Korean American male smokers, the psychometric properties of the FTND were similar to those seen in other populations, but this was not the case with Korean American women. Clinicians may need to modify their interpretation of nicotine dependence severity if basing only on the FTND with Korean Women. The FTND assesses smoking patterns which has a cultural influence and other measures of nicotine dependence should be considered. PMID:22936953

Kim, Sun S; Fang, Hua; Difranza, Joseph; Ziedonis, Douglas M; Ma, Grace X

2012-07-13

405

Eye-S: a full-screen input modality for pure eye-based communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, several eye input methods have been developed, which, however, are usually designed for specific purposes (e.g. typing) and require dedicated graphical interfaces. In this paper we present Eye-S, a system that allows general input to be provided to the computer through a pure eye-based approach. Thanks to the \\

Marco Porta; Matteo Turina

2008-01-01

406

A feminist critique of breast cancer research among Korean women.  

PubMed

Studies indicate ethnic differences in incidence, mortality, and survival rate of breast cancer. Despite the low incidence rate of breast cancer among the Korean population, Koreans are reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer. In this article, using a feminist perspective, the reasons why Korean women have been reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer are analyzed through a critical review of research among Korean women. A total of 469 studies (145 unpublished master's theses and doctoral dissertations and 324 articles published in South Korea and in the United States) were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued in terms of biases present in the research process. Through a feminist critique of the literature, four possible reasons are proposed: androcentric views and assumptions underlying the research, modesty issues imbedded in Korean culture, the victim-blaming tendency of Korean culture, and intense emotions without adequate support. PMID:10943171

Im, E O

2000-08-01

407

Acculturation, social support, and quality of life for Korean immigrant breast and gynecological cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study examines the direct and\\/or indirect pathways among acculturation, social support, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) for Korean immigrant breast and gynecological cancer survivors.Design. The QOL-Cancer Survivor measure was translated and then administered to 51 survivors. This tool measured acculturation by assessing westernization, language barriers, and length of stay. In addition, the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was

Jung-won Lim; Jaehee Yi; Brad Zebrack

2008-01-01

408

Alexithymia, Hemisphericity, and Conjugate Lateral Eye Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEMs) of 102 university students were measured in conjunction with the administration of the Schalling-Sifneos Personality Scale, a self-report measure of alexithymia. There was a significant positive correlation beween CLEM scores and alexithymia scores for all subjects, suggesting the existence of a relationship between right hemishpere activation and alexithymic characteristics. These results are discussed in

Gordon Cole; Paul Bakan

1985-01-01

409

Perceptual user interfaces using vision-based eye tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multi-camera vision-based eye tracking method to robustly locate and track user's eyes as they interact with an application. We propose enhancements to various vision-based eye-tracking approaches, which include (a) the use of multiple cameras to estimate head pose and increase coverage of the sensors and (b) the use of probabilistic measures incorporating Fisher's linear discriminant to robustly

Ravikrishna Ruddarraju; Antonio Haro; Kris Nagel; Quan T. Tran; Irfan A. Essa; Elizabeth D. Mynatt

2003-01-01

410

Technical support for microwave experiments on the eye lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A research program at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is concerned with the mechanism by which microwave exposure produces cataracts in the eye lens. Science Applications, Inc. (SAI) has supported WRAIR personnel in system design, equipment assembly, and operation of experiments to measure the physical effects in the eye lens as it is subjected to microwave pulses of varying peak power levels. SAI also developed theoretical models for the thermoacoustic wave phenomena involved and the vibrational motion of the eye lens.

Wyeth, N. C.

1984-03-01

411

Horizontal compensatory eye movements in goldfish ( Carassius auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Goldfish were deprived of visual input and\\/or normally functional horizontal semicircular canals.2.Their horizontal eye movements were measured from cinematographic records, and the extent to which the eyes compensated for horizontal rotations of the head was given by the “compensation factor,” CF, the ratio (rotation of the eyes relative to the head)\\/(rotation of the head). All data were obtained from freely-swimming

Pamela R. Johns

1974-01-01

412

Symbiotic Potential, Competitiveness, and Serological Properties of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Indigenous to Korean Soils †  

PubMed Central

The symbiotic potential of Bradyrhizobium japonicum isolates indigenous to seven Korean soils was evaluated by inoculating soybeans with 10- and 1,000-fold-diluted soil suspensions (whole-soil inocula). At both levels, significant differences in the symbiotic potential of the indigenous B. japonicum isolates were demonstrated. The relationship between rhizobial numbers in the whole-soil inocula (x) and nitrogen fixation parameters (y) was best predicted by a straight line (y = a + bx) when the numbers in the inocula were 100 to 10,000 ml-1, while the power curve (y = axb) predicted the variation when the numbers were 1 to 100 ml-1. Thirty isolates from three soils showed wide differences in effectiveness (measured as milligrams of shoot N per plant), and several were of equal or greater effectiveness than reference strain B. japonicum USDA 110 on soybean cultivars Clark and Jangbaekkong. On both of the soybean cultivars grown in a Hawaiian mollisol, the Korean B. japonicum isolate YCK 213 and USDA 110 were of equal effectiveness; USDA 110 was the superior strain in colonization (nodule occupancy). Korean isolates YCK 117 and YCK 141 were superior colonizers compared with USDA 110. However, B. japonicum USDA 123 was the superior colonizer compared with isolates YCK 213, YCK 141, and YCK 117. In an immunoblot analysis of 97 indigenous Korean isolates of B. japonicum, 41% fell into the USDA 110 and USDA 123 serogroups. Serogroups USDA 110 and USDA 123 were represented in six of the seven soils examined. In one Korean soil, 100% of the B. japonicum isolates reacted only with antisera of YCK 117, an isolate from the same soil.

Kang, Ui Gum; Somasegaran, Padma; Hoben, Heinz J.; Bohlool, B. Ben

1991-01-01

413

Symbiotic Potential, Competitiveness, and Serological Properties of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Indigenous to Korean Soils.  

PubMed

The symbiotic potential of Bradyrhizobium japonicum isolates indigenous to seven Korean soils was evaluated by inoculating soybeans with 10- and 1,000-fold-diluted soil suspensions (whole-soil inocula). At both levels, significant differences in the symbiotic potential of the indigenous B. japonicum isolates were demonstrated. The relationship between rhizobial numbers in the whole-soil inocula (x) and nitrogen fixation parameters (y) was best predicted by a straight line (y = a + bx) when the numbers in the inocula were 100 to 10,000 ml, while the power curve (y = ax) predicted the variation when the numbers were 1 to 100 ml. Thirty isolates from three soils showed wide differences in effectiveness (measured as milligrams of shoot N per plant), and several were of equal or greater effectiveness than reference strain B. japonicum USDA 110 on soybean cultivars Clark and Jangbaekkong. On both of the soybean cultivars grown in a Hawaiian mollisol, the Korean B. japonicum isolate YCK 213 and USDA 110 were of equal effectiveness; USDA 110 was the superior strain in colonization (nodule occupancy). Korean isolates YCK 117 and YCK 141 were superior colonizers compared with USDA 110. However, B. japonicum USDA 123 was the superior colonizer compared with isolates YCK 213, YCK 141, and YCK 117. In an immunoblot analysis of 97 indigenous Korean isolates of B. japonicum, 41% fell into the USDA 110 and USDA 123 serogroups. Serogroups USDA 110 and USDA 123 were represented in six of the seven soils examined. In one Korean soil, 100% of the B. japonicum isolates reacted only with antisera of YCK 117, an isolate from the same soil. PMID:16348454

Kang, U G; Somasegaran, P; Hoben, H J; Bohlool, B B

1991-04-01

414

Causes of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed at analyzing the causes of death of prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War (1950-1953) who fought for the Communist side (North Korea and the People's Republic of China). In 1998, the United States Department of Defense released new information about the prisoners including, 7,614 deaths of the POW during the Korean War. The data on the causes of death of the POWs during the Korean War provides valuable information on the both the public health and history of the conflict. Materials and Methods To analyze the causes of death of the POWs, we classified the clinical diagnosis and findings on 7,614 deaths into 22 chapters, as outlined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision (ICD-10). Second, we traced changes in the monthly death totals of POWs as well as deaths caused by common infectious diseases and external causes of death including injury over time from August 1950 to September 1953. Results The most common category of causes of deaths of POWs was infectious disease, 5,013 (65.8%) out of 7,614 deaths, followed by external causes including injury, 817 (10.7%). Overall, tuberculosis and dysentery/diarrhea were the most common causes of death. Deaths caused by acute and chronic infection, or external causes showed different patterns of increases and decline over time during the Korean War. Conclusion The information and data on POWs' deaths during the Korean War reflects the critical impact of the POWs' living conditions and the effect of public health measures implemented in POW camps during the war.

Lee, Myoung-Soon; Kang, Min-Jung

2013-01-01

415

[Immunology of the eye].  

PubMed

Due to its vascularisation and system of lymphatic drainage, the eye is privileged territory for development of immunological phenomena. The tears, because of lactoferrin, lysozymes, mucins, different immunoglobulins: IgA (CALT), IgG and IgM, are the first line of defence against physical, chemical, infectious and extra-ocular antigenic attack. ACAID, "Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation", by its type of defence against intra-ocular aggressors, assures some protection of the eye and explains the development of some intra-ocular tumours and tolerance to corneal grafts. PMID:8318143

Hassoun, S

1993-03-01

416

Development of Tibiofemoral Angle in Korean Children  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to identify the chronological changes of the knee angle or the tibiofemoral angles in normal healthy Korean children. Full-length anteroposterior view standing radiographs of 818 limbs of 452 Korean children were analyzed. The overall patterns of the chronological changes in the knee angle were similar to those described previously in western or Asian children, but the knee angle development was delayed, i.e., genu varum before 1 yr, neutral at 1.5 yr, increasing genu valgum with maximum a value of 7.8° at 4 yr, followed by a gradual decrease to approximately 5-6° of genu valgum of the adult level at 7 to 8 yr of age. These normative data on chronological changes of knee angles should be taken into consideration when evaluating lower limb alignment in children.

Yoo, Jae Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Chung, Chin Youb; Yoo, Won Joon

2008-01-01

417

Victimization in South Korean Children's Peer Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports a cross-sectional investigation of the behavioral, academic, and psychosocial correlates of victimization in South Korean children's peer groups. The participants were 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls; from 10–12-years-old) recruited from a primary school in Seoul, South Korea. Multi-informant assessments (peer nominations, teacher ratings, and self-reports) of peer victimization, social behavior, loneliness\\/social dissatisfaction, and academic functioning were

David Schwartz; JoAnn M. Farver; Lei Chang; Yoolim Lee-Shin

2002-01-01

418

Korean household waste management and recycling behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid industrial and economic development in the recent several decades has caused serious environmental problems in Korea. The country has very limited carrying capacity; the population density in Korea is 481 people per km2, ranking the third-highest in the world [1]. In 1995, the Korean government implemented a volume-based waste fee system (unit pricing system) that required every household

Seunghae Lee; Hae Sun Paik

2011-01-01

419

Trends in North Korean foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea’s foreign policy track record in the post-cold war era is mixed. Most notable setbacks are the diplomatic normalization\\u000a between the Soviet Union (now Russia) and South Korea; the reversal of its UN policy that paved the way for the simultaneous\\u000a admission of the two Korean states to the world organization; and the diplomatic normalization between China and South

B. C. Koh

1994-01-01

420

Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.  

PubMed

This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

2012-02-01

421

Cytotoxicity of heat-treated Korean mistletoe.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic effects of preparations of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album L. var. coloratum Ohwi) on non-tumorigenic A31 cells and tumorigenic MSV cells were investigated. While the aqueous extract from Korean mistletoe (<8 microg/ml) showed strong cytotoxicity on both cell lines, the heat-treated extract was much less cytotoxic with TD50 values of above 300 microg/ml. The heat-treated extract showed a growth-enhancing effect on non-tumorigenic cells and a cytotoxic effect on tumorigenic cells. The alkaloids fraction, which was isolated from the crude extract, was not cytotoxic to non-tumorigenic A31 cells up to 550 microg/ml, but was cytotoxic to tumorigenic MSV cells at 138 microg/ml. Heat treatment did not change the cytotoxic effects of the alkaloids fraction, indicating that the selective cytotoxicity of the heat-treated mistletoe extract on tumorigenic MSV cells might be due to its alkaloids. In order to study the changes in the cytotoxicity of fermented Korean mistletoe, the crude and heat-treated extracts were inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum. During 7 days of fermentation, the cytotoxicity of the fermented heat-treated extract was increased while that of the fermented crude extract was not changed significantly. PMID:9563647

Park, J H; Hyun, C K; Shin, H K

1998-04-10

422

Korean SDO Data Center for Asian Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacecraft Solar Dynamic Observatory(SDO) satellite launched on Feb. 11,2010 by NASA for the five year mission to study the solar energy and its influence on space weather. Space Weather Prediction Center in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute(KASI) is constructing Korean Data Center of SDO for Asia region based on the letter of agreement between KASI and NASA for space weather research. SDO produces the data amount of about 1.5 TB/day and its raw data amount of about 550 TB /year. Stanford University in USA has been already operating the data center for scientific raw data, but there is a limit to use its data for space weather research and space weather service in real time because of network environment. Korean Data Center for SDO will provide scientific data not only to Korean institutes and Universities but also to international space weather societies. KASI has designed the data transfer system by using GLORIAD(10G/sec) in order to get higher performance and stability. After the first construction of data transfer and storage system in this year, we will start to distribute high quality SDO data for solar physics and space weather research in Asia region.

Park, Young-deuk

2012-07-01

423

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Highly Myopic Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of cataract surgery in highly myopic Korean subjects. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 694 eyes of 694 patients who underwent cataract surgery. The case group included 347 eyes of 347 patients whose axial lengths (AXL) were ?26.00 mm, and the control group included 347 eyes of 347 patients with AXL between 22.00 and 25.99 mm. Cataract density was determined preoperatively using the Pentacam Scheimpflug imaging system. We compared age at operation, cataract type, coexisting disease, visual prognosis, and complications. Results The mean age at the time of the operation was 59.60 ± 12.28 years in the case group and 67.47 ± 11.36 years in the control group. The case group had a larger proportion of nuclear cataracts and posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC), 40.63% and 26.22%, respectively, versus 25.07% and 11.82%, respectively, in the control group. Postoperative corrected visual acuity showed a negative correlation with AXL (R2 = 0.172), and severe funduscopic findings were related to poor visual prognosis (p = 0.05). The incidence of retinal detachment in the case group after cataract surgery was 1.72%, compared with 0.28% in the control group. Conclusions Highly myopic eyes tend to develop cataracts earlier than normal eyes and to have a higher prevalence of coexisting disease and complications, such as retinal detachment. Nuclear cataracts and PSC were more common in the highly myopic group. Poor visual prognosis was associated with longer axial length and retinal myopic degeneration.

Jeon, Sohee

2011-01-01

424

Relationship between Eye Dominance and Head Tilt in Humans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous data suggested that vertical imbalances between the eyes produced by lateral head tilt are linked to ocular dominance, but no studies have heretofore objectively measured head tilt in addressing this relationship. Photographic measurements of the...

F. H. Previc

1994-01-01

425

Biomimetic microfabricated compound eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past century, compound eyes in nature have been one of the most studied and intriguing topics in physiological optics due to their unique optical scheme for imaging. Hundreds to ten thousands of integrated optical units called ommatidia are spherically arranged along a curvilinear surface and point in different directions. Each ommatidium collects light within a small angular acceptance

Ki-Hun Jeong

2005-01-01

426

Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael

2010-01-01

427

Eyes for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

Orfield, Antonia

2008-01-01

428

[Eye and the pregnacy].  

PubMed

Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist. PMID:22888682

Dima, Anne Marie

2012-01-01

429

The artificial eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, restoring sight to the blind has been counted as nothing less than miraculous. Today, computer engineering, ophthalmology and biology are uniting in an effort to achieve just that. This article on bio-electronic vision or popularly, “the artificial eye” explains briefly how far the field has come and how far it has yet to go. The following topics are

M. Ponnavaillo; V. P. Kumar

1999-01-01

430

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... related macular degeneration (AMD) . And the more a person smokes, the higher the risks. The good news is ... increases the risk of serious vision loss in people with other eye diseases. And when women smoke during pregnancy they are more likely to give ...

431

Astronomical lobster eye telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and discuss astronomical LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescopes based on Multi Foil Optics including recent results of the development and tests of advanced laboratory samples. An alternative proposal for a space experiment based on this optics - Lobster All Sky Monitor - is also briefly presented and discussed.

Hudec, Rene; Sveda, Libor; Inneman, Adolf; Pina, Ladislav

2004-10-01

432

ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL SPECIES TO THE EYE IRRITATION POTENTIAL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG  

EPA Science Inventory

Eye irritation measurements are available from smog chamber solar irradiations of selected hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxide mixtures. These results have been used to compute eye irritation intensity parameters for formaldehyde, acrolein, peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate...

433

Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye?  

MedlinePLUS

... eye that did not develop normal sight during early childhood. It is sometimes called "lazy eye." Amblyopia: What ... time to correct amblyopia is during infancy or early childhood. Amblyopia in children and adults Newborn infants are ...

434

Eye Detection and Eye Blink Detection Using AdaBoost Learning and Grouping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a precise eye detection and eye blink detection algorithm. Eye detection combines and separates scanning results based on an MCT-based AdaBoost detector. The algorithm detects eyes by applying the eye detector to eye candidate regions of a face. To eliminate outliers, we select an eye candidate group by grouping eye candidates. A refinement process using the average

Inho Choi; Seungchul Han; Daijin Kim

2011-01-01

435

A new method for calculating eye movement displacement from AC coupled electro-oculographic signals in head mounted eye–gaze input interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various eye movement measurement devices used in eye–gaze input interfaces are generally expensive or necessarily restrict the user's head motion. We proposed a novel eye–gaze input interface that combined a head mounted display with an electro-oculograph amplified via an AC coupling. Experiments were carried out to create a necessary calculation method for the displacement of an eye movement from an

Naoaki Itakura; Kazutaka Sakamoto

2010-01-01

436

The Diversity of Eye Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter starts with a description of the optics of camera-type eyes, in which an image is projected upon a retina with\\u000a cornea and lens as refracting elements. Ray tracing is explained with the human eye as an example of a terrestrial vertebrate’s\\u000a eye. Then the comparison is made to camera eyes of aquatic and amphibious animals, with an explanation

Lars Olof Björn

437

Light Transmittance of Ocular Media in Living Rabbit Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure the transmittance of electromagnetic radia- tion, particularly visible light, through the ocular media of living and whole rabbit eyes. Pre- vious determinations have been carried out on excised cadaver eyes. Methods. A specially designed fiberoptic probe (outer diameter, 0.9 mm) was placed in the vitreous in front of the retina using

Peep V. Algvere; Per-Arne L. Torstensson; M. Tengroth

438

Effects of parental care on offspring growth in the Korean wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus kyebangensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objective of this study was to measure the possible effects of prolonged parental care on offspring growth in Korean\\u000a wood-feeding cockroaches, Cryptocercus kyebangensis. In the field-caught subsocial woodroaches of C. kyebangensis, offspring with both parents were greater in both head width and body weight than those with single parents. Manipulation\\u000a experiments showed that offspring separated from their parents

Yung Park; Jae Choe

2003-01-01

439

Biochemical methane potential and solid state anaerobic digestion of Korean food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an anaerobic digestion process for Korean food wastes containing 15–30% total solids (TS) the biochemical methane potentials (BMP) of their components and mixture (mixed food waste, MFW) were measured. The methane yields of cooked meat, cellulose (as control), boiled rice, fresh cabbage and MFW were 482, 356, 294, 277 and 472 ml CH4\\/gVS added and anaerobic

Ho Nam Chang; Soon Chul Park

1995-01-01

440

LEACHABILITY OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM CEMENT-SOLIDIFIED WASTE FORM PRODUCED AT KOREAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leach test of radionuclide in cement-solidified waste form was performed. After leach test, compressive strength of waste form was measured. Cement-solidified waste form produced at Korean nuclear power plant, Kori (PWR) was chosen for the leach test. Specimens were cored out from a full-scale waste form (200 l drum size). The leach test procedure used for this study was ANSI\\/ANS

Jae Min Lee; Jooho Whang; Chang Lak Kim; Joo Wan Park

2002-01-01

441

Effects of acculturation and social network support on depression among elderly Korean immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Acculturation and social network support have been identified as predictors of mental health for immigrant and elderly populations. The present study examined both independent and interactive effects of acculturation and social network support on depressive symptomatology among elderly Korean immigrants.Method: Self-reported measures included sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation, social network support, and depressive symptoms. This study used cross-sectional analysis of a

Bum Jung Kim; Cindy C. Sangalang; Taesuk Kihl

2012-01-01

442

Screening of Korean edible wild plants for estrogenic activity using MCF7 cell proliferation assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This present study was performed to investigate estrogenic activity of Korean edible wild plants for alternative of estrogen\\u000a replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. When the estrogenic activity was measured by estrogen induced proliferation of\\u000a MCF-7 cells, of investigated 29 extracts, 3 samples of kudzu vine (Pueraria thunbergiana), Cardamine leucantha, and David Vetchling (Lathyrus davidii) exhibited a significant proliferation of above

Young Min Lee; Ho Young Jung; Ji Hyun Bae; Jin Young Lee; Hwan Hee Jang; Dong Sik Park; Jae-Hyun Kim

2011-01-01

443

LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE  

EPA Science Inventory

In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

444

Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades.

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

2001-01-01

445

Eye Location using Hierarchical Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eyes are important facial landmarks, both for image normalization due to their relatively constant interocular distance, and for post processing due to their anchoring model-based schemes. In this paper a hierarchical classifier for precise eye location algorithm is introduced. The new algorithm involves three main steps. First, a classifier based on AdaBoost algorithm is introduced to locate eye pair

Gao-Feng Xu; Lei Huang; Chang-Ping Liu; Shi-Qi Ding

2007-01-01

446

Biomedical Devices for the Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the structure and function of the human eye, learning some amazing features about our eyes, which provide us with sight and an understanding of our surroundings. Students also learn about some common eye problems and the biomedical devices and medical procedures that resolve or help to lessen the effects of these vision deficiencies, including vision correction surgery.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

447

ADAPTIVE EYE MODEL - Poster Paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose experimental adaptive eye model based on flexible 18-electrode bimorph mirror reproducing human eye aberrations up to 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials at frequency of 10Hz. The accuracy of aberrations reproduction in most cases is better than ?/10 RMS. The model is introduced to aberrometer for human eye aberrations compensation to improve visual acuity test.

Galetskiy, Sergey O.; Kudryashov, Alexey V.

2008-01-01

448

Eye injuries in coal mining.  

PubMed

The incidence of eye injuries in the coal mining industry in one British Coal Area in 1 year is presented and discussed. The discussion reviews the literature on eye injuries generally. The problems of ensuring adequate eye protection in mining operations are described: plans for a future survey to pinpoint critical areas are outlined. PMID:2599638

Carreck, G C

1989-05-01

449

International adoption: A case review of Korean children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the controversial transracial adoption of African American children by Caucasian families in the U.S., international, transracial adoption of Asian children has not received much scientific or societal attention. There has been a steady increase in this unnoticed minority group, made up largely of Korean children. This paper reviews the developmental characteristics of post-adoption adjustments among Korean adoptees

Wun Jung Kim

1995-01-01

450

Multivocal Post-Diasporic Selves: Entangled in Korean Dramas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I interrogate my personal diaries documenting my life in New York, Beijing, Tokyo, and Sydney over a 20-year period. Taking bearings from Bakhtinian thoughts, I explore the emergence of my post-diasporic identity as a second generation Korean American through watching South Korean dramas. By conversing with journals kept over a 20-year period, I…

Choi, Julie

2012-01-01

451

North Korean Special Purpose Forces an Assessment of the Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to assess the threat that the North Korean Special Forces pose, and to explore how this threat might be deterred or countered. This thesis will answer three questions. First, in the event of a second Korean War, what will the...

M. S. Durtschi

1995-01-01

452

Multivocal Post-Diasporic Selves: Entangled in Korean Dramas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I interrogate my personal diaries documenting my life in New York, Beijing, Tokyo, and Sydney over a 20-year period. Taking bearings from Bakhtinian thoughts, I explore the emergence of my post-diasporic identity as a second generation Korean American through watching South Korean dramas. By conversing with journals kept over a 20-year period, I…

Choi, Julie

2012-01-01

453

Family Processes and Psychosocial Problems of the Young Korean Gifted  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely known that Korean parents have a high aspiration for providing opportunities of higher education and high expectations for their children’s academic achievement. Young Korean gifted children with ages from four to ten years did not show many psychosocial problems. However, some showed such problems as distractibility and inattentiveness, aggressiveness, helplessness, or psychiatric symptoms, when parents exert pressure,

Seokhee Cho; Yeuhong Yoon

2005-01-01

454

Purchasing global luxury brands among young Korean consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Since South Korea has widened its market doors to global trade, demand has been continuously on the rise for foreign luxury brands, especially from young South Korean consumers. This study aims to identify the determinants of young South Korean consumers' purchasing intentions toward foreign luxury fashion brands and their relative importance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data used in this

Hye-Jung Park; Nancy J. Rabolt; Kyung Sook Jeon

2008-01-01

455

Understanding KCC certification: Indispensable step for Korean IT market penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the IT companies are looking at Korea as one of the major market for their products. However, there is one obstacle that gives companies tough times in deciding whether to enter Korean market or not. Now is the time to get rid of the bothersome obstacle once and for all. Entering the Korean IT market surely is an

Bong-Jai Hur

2009-01-01

456

Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

2007-01-01

457

Traditional Korean children's songs: collection, analysis and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the presence of Korean traditional children's songs in the memories of a selection of elderly people who preserve them. Since there are few collections of traditional Korean children's songs, it was reasoned that by going to human resources for such music, heritage songs might be gathered which could then be adapted to a curriculum in music for

Young-Youn Kim

1999-01-01

458

Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence

Kim Tae-woo; Adriane C. Littlefield; Michael Geoffrey Vannoni; Kim Sang-beom; Jennifer Gay Koelm; John Norman Olsen; Kim Myong-jin; Shin Sung-tack

2003-01-01

459

What Does It Mean to Study Korean Religion(s)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we study Korean religion, we face two sets of basic questions. First, what do we mean by “religion”? How broad should be the range of phenomena that we want to include in our study? Should we study Korean religion as a single organic unity or as a plurality of diverse traditions? Above all, the classical question whether or not

Hee-Sung Keel

2010-01-01

460

Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

2008-01-01

461

Difficulties in Quality Doctoral Academic Advising: Experiences of Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines difficulties encountered by international students in establishing strong and supportive academic advising relationships, with a special focus on Korean doctoral students in the USA. Interviews about barriers, experienced and perceived, to quality advising interactions were conducted with eight Korean international students…

Kim, Youngjoo

2007-01-01

462

A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

2012-01-01

463

Language Ideologies and Bilingual Education: A Korean-American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is an ethnographic record of an ongoing journey during which I have tried to understand the kinds of language ideologies that my students and I have constructed about the Korean language. My students are mainly Korean-American university students who have never successfully achieved native fluency in their heritage language, although…

Jeon, Mihyon

2007-01-01

464

Developing Cultural Competence in Working with Korean Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors provide an in-depth examination of the historical background, cultural values, family roles, and community contexts of Korean Americans as an aid to both researchers and clinicians in developing cultural competence with this particular group. First, the concept of cultural competence is defined. A brief history of Korean immigration…

Kim, Irene J.; Kim, Luke I. C.; Kelly, James G.

2006-01-01

465

KOREAN TRADITIONAL FOOD: STATUS, PROSPECTS AND VISION FOR GLOBALIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Bulletin describes the unique properties and diversity of Korean traditional food, as well as some prospects and directions for its future development as an industry. Traditional foods are prepared with the use of ingredients unique to a particular area and people. They are considered as historic food, and are transferred from generation to generation with some local variations. Korean

Dong-Hwa Shin

466

Quality of Korean Cataloging Records in Shared Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, the issue of quality control in cataloging records has been discussed, in particular in bibliographic control in the shared databases for various languages, but no earlier studies assess the quality of Korean cataloging records in the databases. This study examines the quality of Korean cataloging records in OCLC's WorldCat by evaluating records in terms of specific errors, error

Hee-Sook Shin

2003-01-01

467

Developing Cultural Competence in Working with Korean Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors provide an in-depth examination of the historical background, cultural values, family roles, and community contexts of Korean Americans as an aid to both researchers and clinicians in developing cultural competence with this particular group. First, the concept of cultural competence is defined. A brief history of Korean immigration…

Kim, Irene J.; Kim, Luke I. C.; Kelly, James G.

2006-01-01

468

Using tourism to promote peace on the Korean Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the proposition that tourism has some potential to act as a mechanism for promoting international peace by examining the reactions of South Korean tourists who have visited Mt. Gumgang, a newly developed resort area in North Korea. The paper finds that the opportunity to visit the latter country had a positive impact on South Koreans and there

Jillian Prideaux; B PRIDEAUX

2007-01-01

469

Gender Differences in Correlates of Mental Health Among Elderly Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study examined the differential impact of social roles and socioeconomic resources on the mental health of Korean men and women aged 65 years or older. Methods. The study sample was a weighted population of 930 people (905 survey samples) aged 65 years or older who had responded to the health behavior survey of the 2001 Korean National Health

Gyeong-Suk Jeon; Soong-Nang Jang; Seon-Ja Rhee; Ichiro Kawachi; Sung-Il Cho

2007-01-01

470

Development of environmental education in the Korean kindergarten context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmental educators insist that environmental education (EE) should be started from a young age. The Korean Ministry of Education (1999) has also emphasized the importance of environmental education in early childhood by including content and objectives regarding EE in the 1999 National Curriculum of Kindergarten. However, many Korean kindergarten teachers do not sufficiently implement environmental education in their teaching

Keum Ho Shin

2008-01-01

471

Impact of behavioral performance management in a Korean application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine whether the use of money, social recognition, and feedback have a similar impact on employee performance in the context of a modern Korean broadband internet service firm. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study design was a quasi-field experiment (with control group). First, the leaders of this Korean firm were trained in behavioral

Fred Luthans; Shanggeun Rhee; Brett C. Luthans; James B. Avey

2008-01-01

472

Community-based colorectal cancer intervention in underserved Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information

Grace X. Ma; Steve Shive; Yin Tan; Wanzhen Gao; Joanne Rhee; Micah Park; Jaesool Kim; Jamil I. Toubbeh

2009-01-01

473

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

474

Are Korean Secondary School Girls Physically Active During Leisure Time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aims in this study were to identify the types of physical activity during leisure time and to determine if Korean secondary school girls participate in enough physical activity during leisure time to promote health. Of the 1,088 girls randomly selected by a multistaged cluster sampling technique, 705 girls completed questionnaires. Seventy-five percent of Korean secondary school girls spent time

Minhaeng Cho; Wook-Dong Kwon; Yong-Bae Jeon

2010-01-01

475

Some Lexico-Grammatical Features of Korean English Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a corpus-based investigation of the use of English in Korean English newspapers. The study examines modals which express meanings associated with volition and prediction and prepositions which denote spatial relations believed to result from contact with Korean. The results show some aspects of the nativization of English in Korea.…

Jung, Kyutae; Min, Su Jung

1999-01-01

476

Difficulties in Quality Doctoral Academic Advising: Experiences of Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines difficulties encountered by international students in establishing strong and supportive academic advising relationships, with a special focus on Korean doctoral students in the USA. Interviews about barriers, experienced and perceived, to quality advising interactions were conducted with eight Korean international students…

Kim, Youngjoo

2007-01-01

477

Global Capacity Expansion Strategies: Lessons Learned from Two Korean Carmakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was motivated by an empirical observation that two Korean carmakers, Daewoo and Hyundai, have pursued very different globalisation strategies despite their structural similarities. From in-depth case studies and extensive interviews with top managers, we learned several lessons. Being direct competitors in the Korean automobile industry has affected the firms' globalisation strategies to a great extent: each company took

Bowon Kim; Yoonseok Lee

2001-01-01

478

Multivocal Post-Diasporic Selves: Entangled in Korean Dramas  

Microsoft Academic Search

I interrogate my personal diaries documenting my life in New York, Beijing, Tokyo, and Sydney over a 20-year period. Taking bearings from Bakhtinian thoughts, I explore the emergence of my post-diasporic identity as a second generation Korean American through watching South Korean dramas. By conversing with journals kept over a 20-year period, I recreate my past, relive memories, and illuminate

Julie Choi

2012-01-01

479

Validating the retail service quality scale for US and Korean customers of discount stores: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study was designed to determine whether the retail service quality scale could be validated in a discount retail setting in the