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1

Eye Movements and Parafoveal Processing during Reading in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parafoveal word processing was examined during Korean reading. Twenty-four native speakers of Korean read sentences in two conditions while their eye movements were being monitored. The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to create a mismatch between characters displayed before and after an eye movement contingent display change. In the…

Kim, Young-Suk; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian

2012-01-01

2

Driver eye height measurement  

E-print Network

Engineering DRIVER EYE HEIGHT MEASUREMENT A Thesis by ANTHONY DANIEL ABRAHAMSON Approved as to style and content by: I (C irman of Committee) (Member) (Memb er ) Head of Department) December 1978 ABSTRACT Driver. Eye Height Neasurement. (December... was establish d in the early sixties when passenger vehicles were styled differentl; than tnda; . The changing design of passenger cars has resulted in a considerable lowering in the eye heights of drivers between 1960 and 1978. The objective of this ress rch...

Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

2012-06-07

3

Linguistic complexity and information structure in Korean: Evidence from eye-tracking during reading  

PubMed Central

The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded complement sentences; the third experiment additionally examined reading of sentences with object-modifying, object-extracted relative clauses. In Korean, both of these structures place two NPs with nominative case marking early in the sentence, with the embedded and matrix verbs following later. The type (pronoun, name or description) of these two critical NPs was varied in the experiments. When the initial NPs were of the same type, comprehension was slowed after participants had read the sentence-final verbs, a finding that supports the view that working memory in language comprehension is constrained by similarity-based interference during the retrieval of information necessary to determine the syntactic or semantic relations between noun phrases and verb phrases. Ease of comprehension was also influenced by the association between type of NP and syntactic position, with the best performance being observed when more definite NPs (pronouns and names) were in a prominent syntactic position (e.g., matrix subject) and less definite NPs (descriptions) were in a non-prominent syntactic position (embedded subject). This pattern provides evidence that the interpretation of sentences is facilitated by consistent packaging of information in different linguistic elements. PMID:16970936

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

2006-01-01

4

Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

2009-11-01

5

Understanding Health Literacy Measurement Through Eye Tracking  

PubMed Central

This study used eye-tracking technology to explore how individuals with different levels of health literacy visualize health-related information. The authors recruited 25 university administrative staff (more likely to have adequate health literacy skills) and 25 adults enrolled in an adult literacy program (more likely to have limited health literacy skills). The authors administered the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) health literacy assessment to each participant. The assessment involves having individuals answer questions about a nutrition label while viewing the label. The authors used computerized eye-tracking technology to measure the amount of time each participant spent fixing their view at nutrition label information that was relevant to the questions being asked and the amount of time they spent viewing nonrelevant information. Results showed that lower NVS scores were significantly associated with more time spent on information not relevant for answering the NVS items. This finding suggests that efforts to improve health literacy measurement should include the ability to differentiate not just between individuals who have difficulty interpreting and using health information, but also between those who have difficulty finding relevant information. In addition, this finding suggests that health education material should minimize the inclusion of nonrelevant information. PMID:24093355

Mackert, Michael; Champlin, Sara E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Weiss, Barry D.

2013-01-01

6

An aerodynamic study of Korean stop consonants: measurements and modeling.  

PubMed

Measurements were made of intraoral air pressure and oral flow of ten native speakers uttering word pairs contrasting Korean fortis and lenis voiceless stop consonants in initial position. The production of fortis stops was found to be characterized by a higher intraoral pressure before release, yet a lower oral flow after release, than corresponding lenis stops. Possible reasons for this difference were explored with the use of a computer implemented aerodynamic model, giving an output of air pressure and flow. Input parameters were adjusted in accordance with known or hypothesized variations in glottal area function, vocal tract wall tension, respiratory muscle force, and supraglottal cavity volume, as given in the literature. In addition to the previously known differences in glottal area, it is inferred from the results of the modeling experiment that fortis stops are produced with greater vocal tract wall tension than lenis stops. Speaker-specific production strategies such as larynx lowering and heightened subglottal pressure during fortis stops and differences noted between word pairs are also discussed. PMID:3819172

Dart, S N

1987-01-01

7

The construction of individual eye model based on eye's wavefront aberration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There were four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software -ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

Wang, Zhao-Qi; Guo, Huan-Qing

2005-08-01

8

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 49, No. 1, July 2006, pp. 121125 Customized Correction of Wavefront Aberrations in Abnormal Human Eyes  

E-print Network

of Wavefront Aberrations in Abnormal Human Eyes by Using a Phase Plate and a Customized Contact Lens Tae Moon.S.A. (Received 6 February 2006) Wavefront aberrations in human eyes were measured with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront in human eyes. The fabricated customized optics could successfully correct higher- order aberrations

Yoon, Geunyoung

9

Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')

2011-12-01

10

Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.  

PubMed

Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye height (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the height of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between height of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye height estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in height estimates in cases with height measurements based on time of the gait cycle and based on the degree of head tilt from video material. Our data also provide descriptive statistics which may be helpful when comparing eye height measurements of a perpetrator with one or more suspects. PMID:24503163

Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjćr, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

2014-03-01

11

Obesity in Korean pre-adolescent school children: comparison of various anthropometric measurements based on bioelectrical impedance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI), percentage-weight-for-height (PWH) and percentage body fat (PBF), and to compare their validity based on PBF with the BMI criteria of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) for childhood obesity in Korean pre-adolescent school children.Design:Statistical comparative analysis for anthropometric measures.Subjects:Korean pre-adolescent children (438 boys and 454 girls, aged 8–12 years, mean BMI 19.5±3.4

S Yoo; S-Y Lee; K-N Kim; E Sung

2006-01-01

12

Eye movement measurement in diagnostic assessment of disorders of consciousness.  

PubMed

We review the literature to appraise the evidence supporting or disputing the use of eye movement measurement in disorders of consciousness (DOC) with low levels of arousal or awareness, such as minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state (VS), and coma for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We will focus on the effectiveness of each technique in the diagnostic classification of these patients and the gradual trend in research from manual to computerized tracking methods. New tools have become available at clinicians' disposal to assess eye movements with high spatial and temporal fidelity. The close relationship between eye movement generation and organic dysfunction in the brain allows these tools to be applied to the assessment of severe DOC as a unique supplementary toolset. We posit that eye tracking can improve clinical diagnostic precision for DOC, a key component of assessment that often dictates the course of clinical care in DOC patients. We see the emergence of long-term eye-tracking studies with seamless integration of technology in the future to improve the performance of clinical assessment in DOC. PMID:25120529

Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Cusimano, Michael D

2014-01-01

13

Eye Movement Measurement in Diagnostic Assessment of Disorders of Consciousness  

PubMed Central

We review the literature to appraise the evidence supporting or disputing the use of eye movement measurement in disorders of consciousness (DOC) with low levels of arousal or awareness, such as minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state (VS), and coma for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We will focus on the effectiveness of each technique in the diagnostic classification of these patients and the gradual trend in research from manual to computerized tracking methods. New tools have become available at clinicians’ disposal to assess eye movements with high spatial and temporal fidelity. The close relationship between eye movement generation and organic dysfunction in the brain allows these tools to be applied to the assessment of severe DOC as a unique supplementary toolset. We posit that eye tracking can improve clinical diagnostic precision for DOC, a key component of assessment that often dictates the course of clinical care in DOC patients. We see the emergence of long-term eye-tracking studies with seamless integration of technology in the future to improve the performance of clinical assessment in DOC. PMID:25120529

Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Cusimano, Michael D.

2014-01-01

14

EEG and eye-tracking based measures for enhanced training.  

PubMed

This paper describes a project whose goal was to establish the feasibility of using unobtrusive cognitive assessment methodologies in order to optimize efficiency and expediency of training. QUASAR, EyeTracking, Inc. (ETI), and Safe Passage International (SPI), teamed to demonstrate correlation between EEG and eye-tracking based cognitive workload, performance assessment and subject expertise on X-Ray screening tasks. Results indicate significant correlation between cognitive workload metrics based on EEG and eye-tracking measurements recorded during a simulated baggage screening task and subject expertise and error rates in that same task. These results suggest that cognitive monitoring could be useful in improving training efficiency by enabling training paradigms that adapts to increasing expertise. PMID:23366217

Soussou, Walid; Rooksby, Michael; Forty, Charles; Weatherhead, James; Marshall, Sandra

2012-01-01

15

Custom-oriented wavefront sensor for human eye properties measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of correct measurement of human eye aberrations is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). In this paper we show capabilities to measure aberrations by means of the aberrometer built in our lab together with Active Optics Ltd. We discuss the calibration of the aberrometer and show invalidity to use for the ophthalmic calibration purposes the analytical equation based on thin lens formula. We show that proper analytical equation suitable for calibration should have dependence on the square of the distance increment and we illustrate this both by experiment and by Zemax Ray tracing modeling. Also the error caused by inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the beam imaged onto the aberrometer's Shack-Hartmann sensor is discussed.

Galetskiy, Sergey; Letfullin, Renat; Dubinin, Alex; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis

2005-12-01

16

A Preformed Scleral Search Coil for Measuring Mouse Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Mice are excellent subjects for use of genetic-manipulation techniques to study the basis of pathological and normal physiology and behavior; however behavioral analyses of associated phenotypes is often limited. To improve the accuracy and specificity of repeated measurements of vestibular function, we developed a miniaturized, contact-lens scleral search coil to measure mouse eye movements. We describe the physical attributes and document its functionality by measuring vestibulo-ocular responses in normal mice. This coil should greatly improve the sensitivity and documentation of vestibular dysfunction in mouse models of pathology and dysfunction while allowing screening of significant numbers of subjects. PMID:20817027

Kaneko, Chris R. S.; Rosenfeld, Sam; Fontaine, Ethan; Markov, Alex; Phillips, James O.; Yarno, John

2010-01-01

17

How to measure the Transverse Chromatic Aberration of the human eye in off-axis angles  

E-print Network

1 How to measure the Transverse Chromatic Aberration of the human eye in off-axis angles Bita Daemi.2. Anatomy of the human eye and helpful all the time. I learnt a lot from you, not only in optics of the eye also in how

18

Noninvasive polarimetric glucose measurement system for eye phantoms and in-vivo measurement requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level is a key technology for improved diagnosis and therapy for Diabetes patients. Optical measurement techniques like polarimetry measuring at the human eye offer promising properties for non-invasive and painless application. This article presents a polarimetric measurement system utilizing the polarizing properties of the Aqueous Humour (AH) for quantative glucose measurements. In particular the special requirements of in-vivo measurements for such a system are discussed.

Rawer, Rainer C.; Vollmer, Patrick; Malz, Andre; Stork, Wilhem; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus D.

2003-10-01

19

Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman

2013-09-01

20

Eye Movements in Autistic, Mentally Retarded and Normal Young Children: Simultaneous Measurement by an Eye Camera System for Autistic Children (ECSA) and an Electro-Oculography (EOG).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smooth pursuit eye movements and saccadic eye movements in Japanese autistic, mentally retarded, and normal young children were simultaneously measured by an eye camera system (ECS) and an electro-oculography (EOG) system. The ECS was developed in the laboratory of the Research Institute for the Education of Exceptional Children at Tokyo Gakugei…

Itoh, Hideo

1987-01-01

21

Residual bone height measured by panoramic radiography in older edentulous Korean patients  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to obtain statistical data on the residual bone height at different natural tooth positions by panoramic radiography in edentulous Korean patients aged 60-90 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included the diagnostic panoramic radiographs of 180 randomly selected edentulous patients without systemic diseases affecting bone. The radiographic selection criteria included absence of obvious facial asymmetry, clearly visible anatomic structures, and no surgical and fracture history. The panoramic radiographs of 79 patients met these criteria and were used in the analysis. The same researcher processed all the radiographs by using a standardized method. The height of the residual bone was measured at 18 predetermined sites (7 in the maxilla and 11 in the mandible) on digitized and printed radiographs by using a Digimatic caliper, triangle, and ruler. Gender- and age-related differences were statistically analyzed by using the t-test and rank-sum test (?=0.05). RESULTS The maxillary residual bone height did not show significant gender-related differences, but male patients had significantly higher residual bone in the mandible(P<.05). No significant height differences at the measured sites were noted among the 60s, 70s, and 80s age groups. CONCLUSION Dentists should pay greater attention to older female edentulous patients because they are more prone to rapid residual bone resorption. Residual bone resorption may not be affected by age. PMID:24605207

Liang, Xiang Hua; Kim, Young-Mi

2014-01-01

22

Measurement with fiber optics of nystagmus eye movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually for study and to analyze the nystagmus eye movements is used a non invasive method for eye movements with an infrared limbus reflection technique, based on an IR-LED emitter and photo diodes detectors, also using a scleral search coil in a magnetic field and digital image processing. We use a new technique, silica-based fiber optic system with rod lens that consist in two pairs, a pair for horizontal eye movements and another for vertical eye movements and a circular array in order to detect torsional nystagmus. This fiber optics bundle was made on a spectacle mounted differential reflectivity device. The electrical signals detected are introduced to two instrumentation amplifiers (horizontal and vertical), an amplifier-multiplex for torsional nystagmus and we use an interface of eight channels A/D connected to the PC. The software is developed to analyze: position, velocity, acceleration, cross correlation, FFT based processing for frequency analysis and power spectral density determination. The results obtained were in these areas: nystagmus, eye tracking (X - Y), saccadic eye movements related to visual stimulus on a visual perimeter then compared with the IR-LED and photo transistors techniques and application for disabled.

Suaste-Gomez, Ernesto; Leija, Lorenzo S.; Sossa-Azuela, Humberto J.

1995-05-01

23

Double-pass measurement of human eye aberrations: limitations and practical realization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of correct eye aberrations measurement is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). The double-pass technique commonly used for measuring aberrations of a human eye involves some uncertainties. One of them is loosing the information about odd human eye aberrations. We report about investigations of the applicability limit of the double-pass measurements depending upon the aberrations status introduced by human eye and actual size of the entrance pupil. We evaluate the double-pass effects for various aberrations and different pupil diameters. It is shown that for small pupils the double-pass effects are negligible. The testing and alignment of aberrometer was performed using the schematic eye, developed in our lab. We also introduced a model of human eye based on bimorph flexible mirror. We perform calculations to demonstrate that our schematic eye is capable of reproducing spatial-temporal statistics of aberrations of living eye with normal vision or even myopic or hypermetropic or with high aberrations ones.

Letfullin, Renat R.; Belyakov, Alexey I.; Cherezova, Tatyana Y.; Kudryashov, Alexis V.

2004-11-01

24

Assessment of Eye Fatigue Caused by 3D Displays Based on Multimodal Measurements  

PubMed Central

With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively. PMID:25192315

Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

2014-01-01

25

Statistical approaches to assessing single and multiple outcome measures in dry eye therapy and diagnosis.  

PubMed

Dry eye is a multifactorial disease which would require a broad spectrum of test measures in the monitoring of its treatment and diagnosis. However, studies have typically reported improvements in individual measures with treatment. Alternative approaches involve multiple, combined outcomes being assessed by different statistical analyses. In order to assess the effect of various statistical approaches to the use of single and combined test measures in dry eye, this review reanalyzed measures from two previous studies (osmolarity, evaporation, tear turnover rate, and lipid film quality). These analyses assessed the measures as single variables within groups, pre- and post-intervention with a lubricant supplement, by creating combinations of these variables and by validating these combinations with the combined sample of data from all groups of dry eye subjects. The effectiveness of single measures and combinations in diagnosis of dry eye was also considered. PMID:24112230

Tomlinson, Alan; Hair, Mario; McFadyen, Angus

2013-10-01

26

MEASUREMENT OF FIREBRAND PRODUCTION AND HEAT RELEASE RATE (HRR) FROM BURNING KOREAN PINE TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of real scale fire experiments were performed to determine the mass and size distribution of firebrands generated from Korean Pine (pinus koraiensis) trees. The experiments were performed at the Building Research Institute (BRI) in Tsukuba, Japan. The tree height was fixed and tree moisture content was varied to examine the influence that this parameter has on the mass

Samuel L. Manzello; Alexander Maranghides; John R. Shields; William E. Mell; Yoshihiko Hayashi; Daisaku Nii

27

Nutritional issues of Korean Americans.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural equation modeling were used for analysis. Participants reported retaining elements of the traditional Korean diet regardless of acculturation. The worst eating habits were seen in participants who were younger (t = 4.57), currently not married (t = 3.10), less educated (F = 5.03), and acculturated to American society (F = 5.93) at the p < .05. Clinicians should provide culturally sensitive interventions targeting Korean Americans with poor dietary habits by providing population-specific, tailored interventions about the benefits of healthy eating and modeling healthier recipes for traditional Korean dishes. PMID:21160079

Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen

2011-05-01

28

29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 00, 101-104 Comparison of UHE Composition Measurements by Fly's Eye,  

E-print Network

Measurements by Fly's Eye, HiRes-prototype/MIA and Stereo HiRes Experiments P. Sokolskya , John Belza-fluorescence experiments: Stereo Fly's Eye, HiRes/MIA, and HiRes. A shift of 13 gm/cm2 of the stereo Fly's Eye data , well. These are the Stereo Fly's Eye [1], the HiRes Prototype/MIA[2] and the HiRes[3] experiments. The Fly's Eye

29

Reliability of Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyser Measurements in Virgin and Post-PRK Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) eyes and compare the results between these two groups. Methods Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. Results The intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC?0.90) in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC?0.88). The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r?=?0.437 and 0.483, respectively, p<0.05) and negatively with deformation amplitude (r?=??0.384 and ?0.375, respectively, p<0.05) in both groups. Compared to post-PRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29±0.21 vs. 6.96±0.17 ms, p<0.05) and lower deformation amplitude (1.06±0.07 vs. 1.17±0.08 mm, p<0.05). Conclusions CorVis ST demonstrated reliable measurements for CCT, IOP, and 1st applanation time, as well as relatively reliable measurement for deformation amplitude in both virgin and post-PRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter. PMID:25302580

Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Hua, Yanjun; Eidet, Jon Roger; Hu, Di; Wang, Jingting; Utheim, Tor Paaske

2014-01-01

30

North Korean \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today some foreign observers have begun to claim significant changes in the North Korean ‘‘socialist realism’’ literary tradition, such as a broadening of the permissible range of topics and even some concessions to alternative discourses. This article investigates whether the most favored branch of contemporary North Korean literature, namely, ‘‘rural fiction,’’ has indeed become a conduit of political liberalization and,

Tatiana Gabroussenko

2009-01-01

31

Comparison of corneal thickness measurements using ultrasound and Orbscan slit-scanning topography in normal and post-LASIK eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare corneal thickness measurements made by ultrasonic and slit-scanning techniques in normal eyes and in eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).Setting: Corneal Diseases and Excimer Laser Research Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland.Methods: Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured in 101 eyes of 59 normal subjects and in 30 eyes of 21 post-LASIK patients. Measurements were made

H. Soma Chakrabarti; Jennifer P. Craig; Arun Brahma; Tahira Y. Malik; Charles N. J. McGhee

2001-01-01

32

MEASURING COGNITIVE LOAD DURING VISUAL TASKS BY COMBINING PUPILLOMETRY AND EYE TRACKING  

E-print Network

MEASURING COGNITIVE LOAD DURING VISUAL TASKS BY COMBINING PUPILLOMETRY AND EYE TRACKING May 2010 #12;iv #12;Abstract Visualizations and visual interfaces can provide the means to analyze. However, cognitive pupillometry has been generally limited to experiments using auditory stimuli

Stanford University

33

Objective measurement of the optical image quality in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication reviews some recent studies on the optical performance of the human eye. Although the retinal image cannot be recorded directly, different objective methods have been developed, which permit to determine optical quality parameters, such as the Point Spread Function (PSF), the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the geometrical ray aberrations or the wavefront distortions, in the living human eye. These methods have been applied in both basic and applied research. This includes the measurement of the optical performance of the eye across visual field, the optical quality of eyes with intraocular lens implants, the aberrations induced by LASIK refractive surgery, or the manufacture of customized phase plates to compensate the wavefront aberration in the eye.

Navarro, Rafael M.

2001-05-01

34

Macular Pigment Measurement by Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Older Subjects: The Carotenoids and Age-Related Eye Disease Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS. MPOD in eyes of 54 women, age 50 and 79 years (mean, 66), was studied. The spatial profile of MPOD was measured in the right eye, and two spatial points were also measured in the left eye. Forty-eight of these inexperienced subjects completed the protocol on two separate visits. For a subset of the group, the MPOD at two

D. Max Snodderly; Julie A. Mares; Billy R. Wooten; Lisa Oxton; Michael Gruber

2004-01-01

35

Measuring Health Literacy Among Immigrants with a Phonetic Primary Language: A Case of Korean American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is\\u000a rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities.\\u000a This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test\\u000a of

Hae-Ra Han; Jiyun Kim; Miyong T. Kim; Kim B. Kim

2011-01-01

36

Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

2005-10-01

37

A Review of Quality of Life Measures in Dry Eye Questionnaires  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dry eye disease (DED) is an ocular disease that affects 5% to 17% of the US population. Because of the negative effects of DED on patients’ quality of life (QOL), disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL in patients with dry eyes are essential in the monitoring and management of this chronic ocular condition. This review provides clinicians and researchers with a summary of the current questionnaires available for assessing QOL in patients with dry eyes. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed in March 2013. Results There are only 2 validated, reliable dry eye questionnaires with QOL measures currently available for clinic use: the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life questionnaire (IDEEL). Multiple other dry eye questionnaires assess some degree of QOL, but they have either not been tested for validity and reliability or are limited in QOL measures they assess. Conclusions The OSDI and IDEEL are validated, reliable disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL measures in patients with DED. Because of its extensive development process and multiple QOL measures, the IDEEL offers a more thorough assessment of the effect of DED on QOL for clinical trials, whereas the OSDI may be the more convenient option for clinical use as a result of its shorter completion time. Other questionnaires used to assess QOL in DED (eg, 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire and Texas Eye Research and Technology Center DEQ) are fairly limited in this assessment. Finally, because of the negative effects of DED on QOL, this review emphasizes the importance of including QOL measures in future questionnaires for the monitoring and management of DED. PMID:24326332

Grubbs, Joseph R.; Tolleson-Rinehart, Sue; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M.

2014-01-01

38

Toward an Appropriate Baseline for Measures of Eye Movement Behavior During Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In empirical studies of human eye movement behavior during reading, it is common to compute various summary measures from the data, but these measures are typically not evaluated with respect to corresponding measures of baseline performance. The authors present a method for deriving an appropriate baseline by mapping the actual behavior to a…

McDonald, Scott A.; Shillcock, Richard C.

2005-01-01

39

Measuring the scaling properties of temporal and spatial patterns: from the human eye to the foraging albatross  

E-print Network

Measuring the scaling properties of temporal and spatial patterns: from the human eye, we will move on to a physical system ­ movements of the human eye as a person looks at patterns projected on a screen. The human eye is chosen because it highlights the challenges of interpreting real

Taylor, Richard

40

Comparison of Keeler Pulsair EasyEye tonometer and Ocular Response Analyzer for measuring intraocular pressure in healthy eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained with Pulsair EasyEye (PEE) and Ocular Response Analyser (ORA) in healthy patients. Methods Sixty-five eyes from 65 patients underwent a full optometric examination, including central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP measured with PEE and ORA. Differences between IOP measurements between both tonometers were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficients between IOP values and ORA corneal biomechanics parameters were also obtained. Results Statistically significant differences were found between IOP of PEE (IOPk) and Goldmann-corrected IOP of ORA (IOPg; p = 0.001). IOPk and corneal resistance-corrected IOP of ORA (IOPcc) were also found to differ significantly (p = 0.025). Mean differences between IOPg-IOPk, IOPcc-IOPk and IOPg-IOPcc were 0.71 ± 1.66, 0.70 ± 2.46 and 0.01 ± 1.54 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that IOPk, IOPg, and IOPcc were significantly correlated among them (p < 0.001): r = 0.816 for IOPk-IOPg, r = 0.826 for IOPcc-IOPg and r = 0.587 IOPcc-IOPk. IOPk and IOPg were linearly associated with corneal resistance factor (CRF; r = 0.626 and r = 0.619, respectively) and with CCT (r = 0.531 and r = 0.579, respectively). IOPcc had a linear relationship with corneal hysteresis (CH) (r = ?0.482) and similar results were found between CRF and CH (r = 0.841), CRF and CCT (r = 0.681) or between CH and CCT (r = 0.466). Conclusions Differences between mean values of IOP measured with PEE and ORA are statistically significant, with ORA tonometer taking higher IOP values than PEE in most of the cases. IOPk, IOPcc and IOPg have, al least, moderate positive linear correlations and ORA biomechanics parameters CRF, CH and CCT have a linear positive relation between them.

Lopez-De La Fuente, Carmen; Sanchez-Cano, Ana; Ferreras, Antonio; Fuertes-Lazaro, Isabel

2012-01-01

41

Assessing the Cultural Appropriateness of the Finding Meaning Through Caregiving Scale for Korean Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Before psychometric instruments can be used for populations other than those for whom they were originally developed, validation of cultural appropriateness is essential. This article describes the assessment of the cultural appropriateness of the Finding Meaning Through Caregiving Scale (FMTCS) with Korean female family caregivers. The FMTCS measures finding meaning among caregivers from an existential perspective and has three subscales: Loss/Powerlessness, Provisional Meaning, and Ultimate Meaning. The instrument’s cultural appropriateness was examined through semistructured interviews with ten Korean-born female family caregivers, five caregivers living in Korea, and five living in the United States, The interview data are reported according to the three dimensions described by Flaherty and colleagues (1988): content, semantic, and conceptual equivalence. Although the majority of items of the FMTCS appeared applicable to Korean caregivers, items on the Loss/Powerlessness and Provisional Meaning subscales asking caregivers about feelings related to missing their past relationships or communications appeared inappropriate for many Korean daughters-in-law. Of equal importance, a unique source of meaning among Korean caregivers that is not assessed in the FMTCS is an interpersonal context, including the importance caregivers place on teaching children and feeling proud of one’s caregiving accomplishments in the eyes of other relatives. The addition of new items that address the interpersonal context is warranted to improve the instrument’s cultural appropriateness for Korean caregivers. PMID:15132009

Lee, Eunice E.; Farran, Carol J.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Sadler, Georgia Robins

2011-01-01

42

Modeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of theModeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of the Human EyeHuman Eye  

E-print Network

of the Human EyeHuman Eye Introduction The eye as an optical system suffers from both longitudinal chromatic.Software modeling of the eye and LCA corrector We designed a two-triplet air-spaced system, using glasses, WA, USA). The chromatic eye model was added to the simulation, and optimization was performed

Ribak, Erez

43

The Relationship of Creativity Measures to School Achievement and to Preferred Learning and Thinking Style in a Sample of Korean High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major purposes of this study were to ascertain for a sample of 193 11th-grade Korean high school students (92 males and 101 females) the extent to which performance in selected measures of creativity involving both verbal and visual tasks was related to (a) school achievement as revealed by a quantitative indicator (percentage score) and (b) the expressed preference for

Junghee Kim; William B. Michael

1995-01-01

44

A Model-Based Approach for the Measurement of Eye Movements Using Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a video eye-tracking algorithm which searches for the best fit of the pupil modeled as a circular disk. The algorithm is robust to common image artifacts such as the droopy eyelids and light reflections while maintaining the measurement resolution available by the centroid algorithm. The presented algorithm is used to derive the pupil size and center coordinates, and can be combined with iris-tracking techniques to measure ocular torsion. A comparison search method of pupil candidates using pixel coordinate reference lookup tables optimizes the processing requirements for a least square fit of the circular disk model. This paper includes quantitative analyses and simulation results for the resolution and the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm presented in this paper provides a platform for a noninvasive, multidimensional eye measurement system which can be used for clinical and research applications requiring the precise recording of eye movements in three-dimensional space.

Sung, Kwangjae; Reschke, Millard F.

1997-01-01

45

Correlation of Intraocular Pressure Measured With Goldmann and Dynamic Contour Tonometry in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) values measured by both Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) in both normal and glaucomatous eyes, and to determine the relationship between these parameters and central corneal thickness (CCT). Patients and Methods Forty-seven subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma and 38 normal subjects attended a 12-hour session during which IOP was assessed at 7 time points, every 2 hours, by both GAT and DCT. CCT was also assessed at the same visit. Mean IOP was calculated for each eye of each subject by each method from the 7 diurnal IOP measurements obtained. Results Mean IOP was higher when measured by DCT than by GAT in both normal (by 1.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001) and glaucomatous (by 1.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001) eyes. IOP measurements by GAT and DCT were moderately correlated in both normal (r2=0.354, P<0.0001) and glaucomatous (r2=0.552, P<0.0001) eyes. In normal eyes, there was a weak positive correlation between GAT IOP and CCT (r2=0.088, slope=0.022 mm Hg/µm, P=0.009) and no correlation between DCT IOP and CCT (r2=0.007, slope=0.005 mm Hg/µm, P=0.468). In glaucomatous eyes, there was no correlation between GAT IOP and CCT (r2=0.006, slope=0.007 mm Hg/µm, P=0.473) and a weak inverse correlation between DCT IOP and CCT (r2=0.075, slope= ?0.021 mm Hg/µm, P=0.008). Conclusions Both GAT and DCT are affected by CCT, albeit in different ways. Normal and glaucomatous eyes exhibit different relationships between CCT and IOP measured by either GAT or DCT. The relationships between CCT and transcorneal IOP measurements are complex and incompletely characterized, which limits the clinical interpretation of GAT and DCT measurements of IOP in both normal and glaucomatous eyes. PMID:19225347

Realini, Tony; Weinreb, Robert N.; Hobbs, Gerald

2009-01-01

46

Measurement of human eye irritation using a CO{sub 2} reference scale  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a combined system for human eye exposure and sensory evaluation. The system was developed as part of a research program which is focused on development of biological response models to be used for prediction of the potential of emissions from building materials to cause sensory irritation in the indoor environment. The method describes in this paper measures air pollutants potential to cause sensory eye irritation using a master scale (the sensory irritation caused by the emissions ar measured in terms of concentration of a reference irritant.). The purpose of this study was to test the exposure equipment, the exposure procedure, the evaluation procedure, and the statistical method. The principle of the combined system is that subjects compare the intensity of sensory irritation in one eye which is exposed to polluted air with the intensity of sensory irritation in the other eye, which is exposed to a reference gas. This left-right eye comparison was chosen because it is quicker to perform than having subjects first exposed to the pollutant gas bilaterally and afterwards exposed to the reference gas bilaterally. Moreover, by making the comparison simultaneously, the subject does not have to remember the impression of the previous exposure. In this study, CO{sub 2} was used both as a simulation of the air pollution and as the reference gas.

Hempel-Joergensen, A.; Kjaergaard, S.K.; Moelhave, L. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. for Environmental and Occupational Medicine

1996-12-31

47

fMRI measurements of color in macaque and human Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Center,  

E-print Network

fMRI measurements of color in macaque and human Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Center, San Francisco observations. Firstly, the relative amplitudes of responses to color and luminance stimuli in macaque area V1: color vision, functional imaging, visual cortex, color appearance/constancy Citation: Wade, A., Augath

Wandell, Brian A.

48

Measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM) are actively integrated in various optical systems for dynamic diffractive optical elements imaging. To achieve the best performance, high stability and linearity of phase modulation is required. This article presents results of measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of state of the art LC SLM with HD resolution "HoloEye PLUTO VIS".

Bondareva, A. P.; Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.; Starikov, R. S.; Starikov, S. N.

2014-09-01

49

Eye Tracking as a Measure of Noticing: A Study of Explicit Recasts in SCMC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…

Smith, Bryan

2012-01-01

50

Application of eye movement measuring system OBER 2 to medicine and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OBER 2 is an infrared light eye movement measuring system and it works with IBM PC compatible computers. As one of the safest systems for measuring of eye movement it uses a very short period of infrared light flashing time (80 microsecond for each measure point). System has an advanced analog-digital controller, which includes background suppression and prediction mechanisms guaranteeing elimination of slow changes and fluctuations of external illumination frequency up to 100 Hz, with effectiveness better than 40 dB. Setting from PC the active measure axis, sampling rate (25 - 4000 Hz) and making start and stop the measure, make it possible to control the outside environment in real-time. By proper controlling of gain it is possible to get high time and position resolution of 0.5 minute of arc even for big amplitude of eye movement (plus or minus 20 degree of visual angle). The whole communication system can also be driven directly by eye movement in real time. The possibility of automatic selection of the most essential elements of eye movement, individual for each person and those that take place for each person in determined situations of life independently from personal features, is a key to practical application. Hence one of conducted research topic is a personal identification based on personal features. Another task is a research project of falling asleep detection, which can be applied to warn the drivers before falling asleep while driving. This measuring system with a proper expert system can also be used to detect a dyslexia and other disabilities of the optic system.

Ober, Jozef; Hajda, Janusz; Loska, Jacek; Jamicki, Michal

1997-08-01

51

Simulation of eye deformation in the measurement of intraocular pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The procedure of measuring the intraocular pressure by an optical analyzer is numerically simulated. The cornea and the sclera are considered as axisymmetrically deformable shells of revolution with fixed boundaries; the space between these shells is filled with incompressible fluid. Nonlinear shell theory is used to describe the stressed and strained state of the cornea and sclera. The optical system is calculated from the viewpoint of the geometrical optics. Dependences between the pressure in the air jet and the area of the surface reflecting the light into a photodetector are obtained. The shapes of the regions on the cornea surface are found from which the reflected light falls on the photodetector. First, the light is reflected from the center of the cornea, but then, as the cornea deforms, the light is reflected from its periphery. The numerical results make it possible to better interpret the measurement data.

Khusainov, R. R.; Tsibul'Skii, V. R.; Yakushev, V. L.

2011-02-01

52

Lyin' Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

2013-01-01

53

Measurement of the axial eye length by wavelength-tuning interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative approach to measure intraocular optical distances in vivo is wavelength tuning interferometry. The principle of this technique is that every wavelength shift of a laser diode is associated with a phase shift of the waves reflected at the cornea and the retina. This results in a change of the interference order of the fringe system that will occur when the two wavefronts interfere. By Fourier transform of the intensity data, we cannot only measure the axial eye length but also other intraocular distances. In our approach we used an external cavity, single mode laser diode at a center wavelength of 780 nm which is tunable over 15 nm. First measurements were carried out in a model eye using the mode hop free tuning range of 9 nm, at the maximum tuning rate of 0.33 nm/s. The precision we obtained for the axial eye length was 0.04 mm. The large tuning range cannot be used of in vivo measurements because of the slow scanning rate of 0.33 nm/s. With this scanning rate the signal frequency corresponding to the axial eye length is on the order of 30 Hz. This is within the frequency range of the intensity modulations caused by fundus pulsations due to the heart beat and can therefore not be separated from them. The in vivo measurements have to be performed by tuning the wavelength of the laser with a piezoelectric transducer to achieve signal frequencies in the kHz range. Since the tuning range in this case in only 0.18 nm the resolution is about 50 times worse than that achieved in the model eye.

Lexer, Franz; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Kulhavy, Manfred; Fercher, Adolf F.

1996-12-01

54

Noninvasive measurement of pharmacokinetics by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the eye of mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: For generating preclinical pharmacokinetics (PKs) of compounds, blood is drawn at different time points and levels are quantified by different analytical methods. In order to receive statistically meaningful data, 3 to 5 animals are used for each time point to get serum peak-level and half-life of the compound. Both characteristics are determined by data interpolation, which may influence the accuracy of these values. We provide a method that allows continuous monitoring of blood levels noninvasively by measuring the fluorescence intensity of labeled compounds in the eye and other body regions of anesthetized mice. Procedures: The method evaluation was performed with four different fluorescent compounds: (i) indocyanine green, a nontargeting dye; (ii) OsteoSense750, a bone targeting agent; (iii) tumor targeting Trastuzumab-Alexa750; and (iv) its F(-alxea750 fragment. The latter was used for a direct comparison between fluorescence imaging and classical blood analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found an excellent correlation between blood levels measured by noninvasive eye imaging with the results generated by classical methods. A strong correlation between eye imaging and ELISA was demonstrated for the F( fragment. Whole body imaging revealed a compound accumulation in the expected regions (e.g., liver, bone). Conclusions: The combination of eye and whole body fluorescence imaging enables the simultaneous measurement of blood PKs and biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled compounds.

Dobosz, Michael; Strobel, Steffen; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Osl, Franz; Scheuer, Werner

2014-01-01

55

Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure  

SciTech Connect

We used a fast psychophysical procedure to determine the wave-front aberrations of the human eye {ital in vivo}. We measured the angular deviation of light rays entering the eye at different pupillary locations by aligning an image of a point source entering the pupil at different locations to the image of a fixation cross entering the pupil at a fixed location. We fitted the data to a Zernike series to reconstruct the wave-front aberrations of the pupil. With this technique the repeatability of the measurement of the individual coefficients was 0.019 {mu}m. The standard deviation of the overall wave-height estimation across the pupil is less than 0.3 {mu}m. Since this technique does not require the administration of pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil, we were able to measure the changes in the aberrations of the eye during accommodation. We found that administration of even a mild dilating agent causes a change in the aberration structure of the eye. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

He, J.C.; Marcos, S.; Webb, R.H.; Burns, S.A. [Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

1998-09-01

56

New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and ice sheets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mapping and measurement of glaciers and their changes are useful in predicting sea-level and regional water supply, studying hazards and climate change [Haeberli et al., 1998],and in the hydropower industry Existing inventories cover only about 67,000 of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers and are based on data collected over 50 years or more [e.g.,Haeberli et al., 1998]. The data available have proven that small ice bodies are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the Antarctic ice sheet and its fringing ice shelves are undergoing unexpected, rapid change. According to many glaciologists, much larger fluctuations in land ice—with vast implications for society—are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change [Oppenheimer, 1998].

Kieffer, Hugh; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Barry, Roger; Bindschadler, Robert; Bishop, Michael; MacKinnon, David; Ohmura, Atsumu; Raup, Bruce; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bamber, Jonathan; Braun, Mattias; Brown, Ian; Cohen, Denis; Copland, Luke; DueHagen, Jon; Engeset, Rune V.; Fitzharris, Blair; Fujita, Koji; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hagen, Jon Oue; Hall, Dorothy; Hoelzle, Martin; Johansson, Maria; Kaab, Andi; Koenig, Max; Konovalov, Vladimir; Maisch, Max; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Reeh, Niels; Rignot, Eric; Rivera, Andres; De Ruyter de Wildt, Martiyn; Scambos, Ted; Schaper, Jesko; Scharfen, Greg; Shroder, Jack; Solomina, Olga; Thompson, David; van der Veen, Kees; Wohlleben, Trudy; Young, Neal

2000-01-01

57

Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans With Immigrant\\/U.S.Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant\\/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant\\/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two

Richard M. Lee; Andrea Bora Yun; Hyung Chol Yoo; Kim Park Nelson

2010-01-01

58

Korean Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Academic Brilliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a replication of a study designed by Tannenbaum (1962) and repeated by Cramond and Martin (1987) measuring U.S. attitudes toward intelligence by having respondents rate 8 hypothetical students who varied in their combinations of athleticism, effort, and academic ability. This study investigated 132 Korean preservice and in-service teachers’ attitudes on the same measure. Both Korean teacher groups favored

Seon-Young Lee; Bonnie Cramond; Jongyeun Lee

2004-01-01

59

Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

2012-01-01

60

Eye Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When we read, our eyes don't scan the lines at a constant speed. Rather, they move in fits and starts across the page, lingering on unfamiliar words and re-reading confusing phrases or sentences. In this Science Update, you'll hear how scientists can measure the way we process language by observing people's eye movements.

Science Update;

2002-05-27

61

The depth-of-field of the human eye from objective and subjective measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depth-of-field (DOF) measured through psychophysical methods seems to depend on the target's characteristics. We use objective and subjective methods to determine the DOF of the eye for different pupil diameters and wavelengths in three subjects. Variation of image quality with focus is evaluated with a double-pass technique. Objective DOF is defined as the dioptric range for which the image

Susana Marcos; Esther Moreno; Rafael Navarro

1999-01-01

62

Measuring the Value of Point-of-Purchase Marketing with Commercial Eye-Tracking Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In today’s cluttered point-of-purchase environments, creating consumer pull through brand equity is not enough; marketers must also create “visual equity” through P-O-P marketing, i.e., increased consideration due to the visual salience of the product at the point of purchase. Commercial eye-tracking studies are commonly,used to measure the ability of P-O-P marketing to attract consumer attention. In this research, we

Pierre Chandon; J. Wesley Hutchinson; Scott H. Young

63

Eye Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that ... spread from person to person. What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms What Causes Eye Allergies? Eye ...

64

Adjusted color probability codes for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in healthy Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background Though a newly developed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) is at the center of interests for many ophthalmologic researchers and clinicians, its own characteristics are not fully evaluated yet. The main purpose of this study was to establish the adjusted color probability codes for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy Koreans and to compare them with original color codes provided by spectral domain OCT. Methods Two hundred ninety-five healthy Korean eyes were enrolled and their peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT. For each decade of age, the normal thickness reference was determined on the basis of z-scores and the adjusted color probability codes were established. Then the agreements between adjusted and original color codes were calculated using weighted Kappa (Kw) coefficient. Results On the basis of Kw coefficient, the overall agreement between the adjusted and original probability color codes was not excellent (Kw range of 0.500 to 0.806). If the adjusted probability codes were assumed as a standard of comparison, the original color codes showed the false-negative in 11% of eyes and the false-positive in 0.3% of eyes for average RNFL thickness. Conclusions Adjusted color probability codes judged by the Korean normative data showed a discrepancy with original codes. It implies that normal reference and adjusted probability codes for each ethnicity might be needed to determine whether a certain RNFL thickness is within normal range or not. PMID:24678925

2014-01-01

65

The Eyes Test as a Measure of Individual Differences: How much of the Variance Reflects Verbal IQ?  

PubMed Central

Developed by Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social-perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, a face-processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test), and the Eyes Test to 42 college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples. PMID:22783217

Peterson, Eric; Miller, Stephanie F.

2012-01-01

66

Automated measurement of choroidal thickness in the human eye by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

We present a new method to automatically segment the thickness of the choroid in the human eye by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). A swept source PS-OCT instrument operating at a center wavelength of 1040 nm is used. The segmentation method is based entirely on intrinsic, tissue specific polarization contrast mechanisms. In a first step, the anterior boundary of the choroid, the retinal pigment epithelium, is segmented based on depolarization. In a second step, the choroid-sclera interface is found by using the birefringence of the sclera. The method is demonstrated in five healthy eyes. The mean repeatability (standard deviation) of thickness measurement was found to be 18.3 µm. PMID:22453435

Torzicky, Teresa; Pircher, Michael; Zotter, Stefan; Bonesi, Marco; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K

2012-03-26

67

Reproducibility analysis of measurements with a mechanical semiautomatic eye model for evaluation of intraocular lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical eye models are used to validate ex vivo the optical quality of intraocular lenses (IOLs). The quality measurement and test instructions for IOLs are defined in the ISO 11979-2. However, it was mentioned in literature that these test instructions could lead to inaccurate measurements in case of some modern IOL designs. Reproducibility of alignment and measurement processes are presented, performed with a semiautomatic mechanical ex vivo eye model based on optical properties published by Liou and Brennan in the scale 1:1. The cornea, the iris aperture and the IOL itself are separately changeable within the eye model. The adjustment of the IOL can be manipulated by automatic decentration and tilt of the IOL in reference to the optical axis of the whole system, which is defined by the connection line of the central point of the artificial cornea and the iris aperture. With the presented measurement setup two quality criteria are measurable: the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the Strehl ratio. First the reproducibility of the alignment process for definition of initial conditions of the lateral position and tilt in reference to the optical axis of the system is investigated. Furthermore, different IOL holders are tested related to the stable holding of the IOL. The measurement is performed by a before-after comparison of the lens position using a typical decentration and tilt tolerance analysis path. Modulation transfer function MTF and Strehl ratio S before and after this tolerance analysis are compared and requirements for lens holder construction are deduced from the presented results.

Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Reutterer, Bernd; Lux, Kirsten; Drauschke, Andreas

2014-03-01

68

Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper relates to the ocular optical design and vision analysis of refractive correction of the eye. After the purpose statement and the assumption list, the concept of the schematic eye matching a particular (measured) wavefront is introduced. This concept is based on the fact that the ocular wavefront, together with the corneal topography, can be seen as the mathematical global representation of the eye working in monochromatic light and having a foveal vision. The discussed design technique, including an iterative optimization method, could be applied in any ocular correction that utilizes cornea topography and/or ocular wavefront, e.g. contact lens or intra-corneal implant. However, the application this paper refers to is the ocular refractive correction by a procedure using the LADARVISION. It consists of surgical removal and subsequent replacement of a corneal flap on a stromal surface whose shape has been changed by laser ablation of the tissue. Subsequent sections of this paper are dedicated to establishing the limits of possible refractive correction, the influences of the flap and corneal topography into the refractive correction calculation. Finally a realistic evaluation of the results and a list of possible developments of this new optical design method are discussed.

Curatu, Eugene O.; Pettit, George H.; Campin, John A.

2002-06-01

69

Psychometric Properties of a Korean Measure of Person-Directed Care in Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the validity and reliability of a person-directed care (PDC) measure for nursing homes in Korea. Method: Managerial personnel from 223 nursing homes in 2010 and 239 in 2012 were surveyed. Results: Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis for the first sample generated a 33-item PDC measure with eight factors.…

Choi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Minhong

2014-01-01

70

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 17451748 Molybdenum and Zirconium Neutron Total Cross Section Measurements in  

E-print Network

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 17451748 Molybdenum;-1746- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011 Fig. 2. Experimental setup showing

Danon, Yaron

71

Experimental techniques for measuring the biomechanical response of the eye during impact.  

PubMed

Over 2 million eye injuries occur each year in the United States as a result of trauma. In order to show the injury potential of objects such as BB guns, paintball guns, automotive airbag systems, and other consumer products, researchers have frequently tested enucleated eyes which have been placed in simulated orbits and held in place with a 10% gelatin solution. The purpose of this study is to perform biomechanical impact tests using both in-situ human eyes and human eyes mounted in simulated orbits, to compare the responses of both. A total of 12 dynamic eye impact tests were performed to develop force-deflection characteristics of the human eye in-situ, determine the effects that the extraocular muscles have on the response of the eye to dynamic impacts, and to characterize the force-deflection response of eyes supported with a gelatin solution within a simulated orbit. It was found that force-deflection corridors are similar with the extraocular muscles left intact or transected. Impact tests performed on eyes mounted in simulated orbits made of polycarbonate and filled with a 10% gelatin solution showed force-deflection responses that matched those of the in-situ eye impact tests. It is concluded that the use of simulated orbits to perform eye impact tests offers the appropriate boundary conditions to represent the in-situ human eye under dynamic eye impact events. PMID:17487049

Kennedy, Eric A; McNally, Craig; Duma, Stefan M

2007-01-01

72

The measurement and interpretation of Brillouin scattering in the lens of the eye.  

PubMed

Brillouin scattering from hypersonic waves in the eye lenses of many animals has been observed with a multipass Fabry Perot interferometer. The measured values of speed and attenuation range widely among the different species and in different parts of any one lens. These variations correlate broadly with the observed stiffness and the densities that have been measured with a graded column. From the spectroscopic and density measurements high-frequency elastic moduli may be derived. The results are also evaluated at a macromolecular level in terms of scattering of hypersonic waves from spherical entities composed of the crystallins and their aggregates. Reasonable agreement is obtained for the hypersonic speed for lower protein concentration; the hypersonic attenuation and variation with scattering vector are consistent with the presence of large aggregates (of order 100 nm radius) in certain of the materials. PMID:6127691

Randall, J; Vaughan, J M

1982-03-22

73

Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test as a Measure of Postflight Ataxia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Astronauts returning from space flight universally exhibit impaired posture and locomotion. Measurement of this impairment is an evolving process. The walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing NASA interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance. METHODS: Seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. RESULTS/ CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular ataxia, as well as providing instant feedback of postural ataxia without the use of complex test equipment.

Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D.L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2010-01-01

74

Black Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

75

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Download PDF Eye Cancer: Overview This section has been reviewed and ... up Eye Cancer - Statistics › f t g e + Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview ...

76

THE READING EYE AND EYE MOVEMENT PHOTOGRAPHY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EYE-MOVEMENT PHOTOGRAPHY PROVIDES THE TEACHER OF READING, THE READING DIAGNOSTICIAN, AND THE VISION SPECIALIST WITH AN OBJECTIVE AND PRACTICAL MEANS FOR MEASURING THE WAY A PERSON HAS LEARNED TO USE HIS EYES IN READING WITH ANY FUNCTIONAL OR INTERPRETIVE DIFFICULTIES IN EFFECT. EYE MOVEMENTS ARE NEITHER THE CAUSE NOR THE EFFECT OF POOR READING,…

Educational Developmental Labs., Inc., Huntington, NY.

77

In situ measurement of spectral changes in the anterior eye following application of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds.  

PubMed

The ocular structures are very sensitive to damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, exposure is linked to corneal and conjunctival damage, cataract formation and may also be implicated in the aetiology of age-related macular degeneration. These structures are usually protected by wearing suitable eyeglasses and goggles. An alternative to conventional eyeglasses/goggles is the concept of "liquid sunglasses" which involve the topical application of eye drops that are designed to block harmful UV radiation reaching the sensitive ocular surfaces. The evaluation of such compounds directly applied to the eye surface requires in situ measurements to compare the efficacy of different formulations. A novel ocular spectrometer system has been used to evaluate changes in the transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through the anterior eye following topical application of candidate UV-absorbing formulations. The key feature of the system is the ability to propagate a beam of light tangentially through the anterior eye using a compact, hand-held lens assembly incorporating UV-transmitting optical fibres. A range of formulations containing UV-absorbing compounds were topically applied to ex vivo rabbit eyes. Significant increases in the absorption of the UV spectrum were detected in seven of the eight formulations studied, demonstrating the potential of this measurement technique in the evaluation of formulations developed as potential topical ocular sunscreens. PMID:20144709

Kek, W K; Miller, J; Rawson-Lax, E; Wilson, C G; Uttamchandani, D

2010-06-01

78

A Study on Sea Level Variations of the Korean Peninsula and Surrounding Areas Based on Tide Gauge, GPS and Satellite Altimeter Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level variations of the Korean peninsula and surrounding areas in the ranges of 20-40 °N and 110-145 °E were investigated for the purpose of understanding the regional characteristics of the abnormal sea level rise near the Jeju island located in the southern edge of the Korean peninsula. For this study, we used tide gauge (TG) data, Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, and satellite altimeter measurements taken in the study area. We used the data at 194 TG stations. We obtained the TG data from 38 stations operated by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) in Korea. We also collected monthly mean sea level observations from 139 and 17 TG stations of Japan and China, respectively. The data of Japan and China are from Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) services. We computed sea level rates using monthly mean sea level measurements, and analyzed spatial-temporal correlation through the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. As the second part of our study, we derived absolute sea level rise rates by correcting the TG data for crustal deformation rates. To obtain the uplift rates in the area, we used continuous measurements at permanent GPS stations located at the TG site. For GPS data processing high-precision GPS data processing program GIPSY-OASIS II was used. To analyze local signatures of crustal deformation, we subtracted the primary EOF mode signal from the GPS height time series. Furthermore, we compared the obtained absolute sea level rates with satellite altimeter measurements. We obtained and analyzed TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeter data provided by AVISO from 1993 to 2010. We found that the absolute sea level rates from geodetic measurements are generally in good agreement with radar altimeter rates.

Kim, K.; Park, K.; Won, J.

2010-12-01

79

Healthy Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

80

Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... eye, you're right! What color is your iris? Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake ... iris, the pupil, and the anterior chamber. The iris (say: EYE-riss) is the colorful part of the eye. ...

81

Measures of Body Shape and Adiposity as Related to Incidence of Age-Related Eye Diseases: Observations From the Beaver Dam Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To examine the effect of obesity on the incidence of age-related eye disease. Methods. Participants of the Beaver Dam Eye Study were examined every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988–1990 through 2008–2010). Lens and fundus photographs were used to evaluate presence and severity of cataract and macular degeneration. Height and weight were measured at all examinations. Waist and hip circumference were measured at all examinations beginning at the first follow-up (1993–1995). Models of ocular outcomes over 15 years were stratified by sex and smoking status. Results. Overall, 2641 participants contributed 5567 person-visits to 15-year incidence analysis. Female nonsmokers had increased risk of late AMD associated with higher body mass index (BMI; hazard ratio [HR] per 2.5 kg/m2 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.50, P < 0.001), waist to hip ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.95, 95% CI 1.33–2.86, P < 0.001), waist circumference (HR per 5 cm 1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, P < 0.001), and waist to height ratio (HR per 0.1 cm/cm 1.74, 95% CI 1.31–2.31, P < 0.001). Increased BMI was also associated with early AMD in female nonsmokers (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19, P = 0.02). Conclusions. Female nonsmokers had risk of late AMD associated with increasing measures of greater obesity and increased risk of early AMD associated with greater BMI. PMID:24667857

Howard, Kerri P.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Ronald

2014-01-01

82

The South Korean Twin Registry: an update.  

PubMed

The South Korean Twin Registry (SKTR) is an ongoing nation-wide volunteer registry of South Korean twins and their families, which was established in the year 2001 to understand genetic and environmental etiologies of psychological and physical traits among South Koreans. Recently, the SKTR sampling has been extended in two important ways. First, we began to recruit twins from lower socio-economic families to study interaction effects of gene by environmental context. Second, as a parallel study of the SKTR, the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry was developed to understand the origin of the population group differences/similarities in psychological traits between South Koreans and Nigerians. This article summarizes the main findings (based on the SKTR sample to date), recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment, measures, and future plans for the SKTR. PMID:23194648

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Chung, Kee Wha; Shin, Joong Sik; Song, Tae-Bok

2013-02-01

83

Saccadic eye movement characteristics in adult Niemann-Pick Type C disease: relationships with disease severity and brain structural measures.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. A parameter related to horizontal saccadic peak velocity was one of the primary outcome measures in the clinical trial assessing miglustat as a treatment for NPC. Neuropathology is widespread in NPC, however, and could be expected to affect other saccadic parameters. We compared horizontal saccadic velocity, latency, gain, antisaccade error percentage and self-paced saccade generation in 9 adult NPC patients to data from 10 age-matched controls. These saccadic measures were correlated with appropriate MRI-derived brain structural measures (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields, supplemental eye fields, parietal eye fields, pons, midbrain and cerebellar vermis) and with measures of disease severity and duration. The best discriminators between groups were reflexive saccade gain and the two volitional saccade measures. Gain was also the strongest correlate with disease severity and duration. Most of the saccadic measures showed strongly significant correlations with neurophysiologically appropriate brain regions. While our patient sample is small, the apparent specificity of these relationships suggests that as new diagnostic methods and treatments become available for NPC, a broader range of saccadic measures may be useful tools for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy. PMID:23226429

Abel, Larry A; Bowman, Elizabeth A; Velakoulis, Dennis; Fahey, Michael C; Desmond, Patricia; Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Adamson, Christopher L; Walterfang, Mark

2012-01-01

84

EyeSys corneal topography measurement applied to calibrated ellipsoidal convex surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS\\/BACKGROUND--This study was carried out to assess the accuracy of the EyeSys videokeratoscope by using convex ellipsoidal surfaces of known form. METHODS--PMMA convex ellipsoidal buttons were calibrated using Form Talysurf analysis which allowed subsequent calculation of the vertex radius and p value of the surface. The EyeSys videokeratoscope was used to examine the same ellipsoids. The tabular data provided by

W A Douthwaite

1995-01-01

85

Identification of Real-Time Diagnostic Measures of Visual Distraction With an Automatic Eye-Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was conducted to identify eye glance measures that are diagnostic of visual distraction. Background: Visual distraction degrades performance, but real-time diagnostic measures have not been identified. Method: In a driving simulator, 14 participants responded to a lead vehicle braking at -2 or -2.7 m\\/s2 periodically while reading a varying number of words (6-15 words every 13 s)

Harry Zhang; Matthew R. H. Smith; Gerald J. Witt

2006-01-01

86

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Diabetes Complications High Blood Sugar ?? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual ... ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations MRSA MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) MRSA (???? ?? ...

87

High quality optical microangiography of ocular microcirculation and measurement of total retinal blood flow in mouse eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization and measurement of retinal blood flow (RBF) is important to the diagnosis and management of different eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is developed for generating 3D dynamic microcirculation image and later refined into ultra-high sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG) for true capillary vessels imaging. Here, we present the application of OMAG imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image mouse posterior eye. By applying UHS-OMAG scanning protocol and processing algorithm, we achieved true capillary level imaging of retina and choroid vasculature in mouse eye. The vascular pattern within different retinal layers and choroid was presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [1] without knowing Doppler angle was adopted for the measurement of total retinal blood flow. The axial blood flow velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area of the central retinal artery.

Zhi, Zhongwei; Yin, Xin; Dziennis, Suzan; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

2013-03-01

88

Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The findings of these three studies indicate that temperature of the eye, measured using DITI, can be used as an indicator of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle as an alternative to using vaginal or rectal temperature. PMID:25253816

George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

2014-11-01

89

Kinetics of rhodopsin regeneration in situ and in the excised median eye of Limulus polyphemus measured using electrophysiological methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivation of rhodopsin after photoregeneration from metarhodopsin in the UV-sensitive cells of the median eye of Limulus was examined by means of extracellular electroretinogram (ERG) measurements. Absorbed photons convert the transducing rhodopsin\\u000a (Rt) to metarhodopsin, which is thermostable and can be reconverted by another photon to non-transducing rhodopsin (Rn). The\\u000a amplitude of the ERG is assumed to correlate linearly

F.-H. Grus; H. Stieve

1998-01-01

90

Reproducibility of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Pseudophakic Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the reproducibility of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurement (measurement agreement) and its color-coded classification (classification agreement) by Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in pseudophakic eyes. Methods Two-hundred five participants having glaucoma or glaucoma suspected eyes underwent two repeated Cirrus OCT scans to measure cpRNFL thickness (optic disc cube 200 × 200). After classifying participants into three different groups according to their lens status (clear media, cataract, and pseudophakic), values of intra-class coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variance, and test-retest variability were compared between groups for average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses and that corresponding to four quadrant maps. Linear weighted kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of agreement of color code classification in each group. Results ICC values were all excellent (generally defined as 0.75 to 1.00) for the average and quadrant RNFL thicknesses in all three groups. ICC values of the clear media group tended to be higher than those in the cataract and pseudophakic groups for all quadrants and average thickness. Especially in the superior and nasal quadrants, the ICC value of the cataract group was significantly lower than that of the clear media and pseudophakic groups. For average RNFL thickness, classification agreement (kappa) in three groups did not show a statistically significant difference. For quadrant maps, classification agreement (kappa) in the clear media group was higher than those in the other two groups. Conclusions Agreement of cpRNFL measurement and its color code classification between two repeated Cirrus OCT scans in pseudophakic eyes was as good as that in eyes with clear crystalline lens. More studies are required to ascertain the effect of lens status on the reproducibility of Cirrus OCT according to different stages of glaucoma patients. PMID:24688256

Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Jun Mo; Park, Kyoung Soo

2014-01-01

91

Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

2008-01-01

92

Construct Validity of the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

b Background: Domestic violence against married women has persisted throughout Korean history. However, very little empirical research has been conducted in Korea about domestic violence, its causes, or women's responses. b Objective: To develop and test psychometrically the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale (KWAIS) to measure women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands in Korea. b Methods: The first

Myunghan Choi; Linda R. Phillips; Aurelio José Figueredo; Katheleen Insel; Sung-Kil Min

2008-01-01

93

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four European Populations  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world. PMID:23118974

Candille, Sophie I.; Absher, Devin M.; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Li, Jun Z.; Myers, Richard M.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D.

2012-01-01

94

Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

95

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

96

Rapid, Accurate, and Non-Invasive Measurement of Zebrafish Axial Length and Other Eye Dimensions Using SD-OCT Allows Longitudinal Analysis of Myopia and Emmetropization  

PubMed Central

Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2?=?0.9548, R2?=?0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of ?0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of ?0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors. PMID:25334040

Collery, Ross F.; Veth, Kerry N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A.

2014-01-01

97

Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.

2008-01-01

98

Atmospheric Laser Radar Measurements Using Two Novel, Eye-Safe Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel, eye-safe infrared optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) were developed, characterized and used in a lidar system to monitor the atmosphere. The theoretical phase matching relations of both OPOs were detailed to determine the theoretical wavelength tuning curves. A AgGaSe_2 OPO tunable in wavelength near 3.39 mum produced 2 mJ pulses at a 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency with near

Sarah Rhodes Harrell

1995-01-01

99

Eye Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... that the eye can handle. The Eye With Glaucoma In most types of glaucoma, the eye’s drainage system becomes clogged so the ... with “normal” IOP can experience vision loss from glaucoma. The Fluid Inside Aqueous humor is the clear, ...

100

Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found. PMID:17009515

Gumpenberger, Michaela; Kolm, Gabriela

2006-01-01

101

Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload  

PubMed Central

While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 min segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz.

Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Erp, Jan B. F.

2014-01-01

102

The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.  

PubMed

The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture. PMID:24456354

Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

2014-01-01

103

The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

2010-01-01

104

Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning  

PubMed Central

Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

2014-01-01

105

Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

2014-01-01

106

Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

2014-01-01

107

Total Factor Productivity in Korean Manufacturing Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, parametric and non-parametric methods are employed to measure the total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Korean manufacturing industry from 1993 to 2003. The analysis period contains both periods before and after the Asian financial crisis. The TFP growth rate is decomposed into different components. Also different elasticities are reported. By classifying the results by period and

Inha Oh; Jeong-Dong Lee; Almas Heshmati

2008-01-01

108

Korean Teachers' Attitudes toward Academic Brilliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a replication of a study designed by Tannenbaum (1962) and repeated by Cramond and Martin (1987) measuring U.S. attitudes toward intelligence by having respondents rate 8 hypothetical students who varied in their combinations of athleticism, effort, and academic ability. This study investigated 132 Korean preservice and in-service…

Lee, Seon-Young; Cramond, Bonnie; Lee, Jongyeun

2004-01-01

109

Depression and Korean American immigrants.  

PubMed

Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

2008-02-01

110

Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, if the eyelids are opened too widely. Frequently ... disease when the eye protrudes forward or after cosmetic surgery if the eyelids are opened too widely, dry ...

111

Korean Women in America: A Comparison of the Perception of Leadership between Korean American Women and Korean International Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study supplements the scarcity of research on Korean women in America. It explores the perception of leadership between Korean American women and Korean international women. It was inspired by stories that were told by Korean women indicating that Korean women in America first and foremost deal with the question, \\

Eun Hye Kang

2006-01-01

112

An unusual attraction to the eyes in Williams-Beuren syndrome: A manipulation of facial affect while measuring face scanpaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. This study aimed to investigate face scanpaths and emotion recognition in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and whether: (1) the eyes capture the attention of WBS individuals faster than typically developing mental age-matched controls; (2) WBS patients spend abnormally prolonged periods of time viewing the eye region; and (3) emotion recognition skills or eye gaze patterns change depending on the emotional

Melanie A. Porter; Tracey A. Shaw; Pamela J. Marsh

2010-01-01

113

Pterygotus eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many modern and fossil arthropods, eurypterids had compound eyes and other sensory devices. Many eurypterids display small, bean-shaped eyes which are oriented for side viewing. The large bulbous eyes of Pterygotus are located on the edge of the head and were probably useful for looking both laterally and vertically.

2001-03-01

114

Telepsychiatry Services for Korean Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Asian Americans often face cultural and language barriers when obtaining mental health treatment. With the small number of Asian mental health providers, it is difficult to ensure the linguistic and ethnic matching of providers and patients. Telepsychiatry holds great promise to address the unique needs of Asian Americans. We developed a project to establish telepsychiatry services that connect Korean mental health patients in Georgia with a linguistically and culturally competent psychiatrist in California and assessed the level of acceptability of psychiatric treatment via real-time teleconferencing among these patients. Upon the completion of the program, 16 patients (5 men, 11 women) completed a questionnaire that measured their acceptability of the telepsychiatry service. The findings indicate a high level of acceptance of the program among Korean patients. The quantitative and qualitative data show that they especially appreciated the cultural sensitivity of the consultation and the comfortable interaction with the provider. However, challenges such as technical issues of teleconferencing may negatively affect the quality of the clinical interaction. Our study expands the knowledge base regarding the acceptability of such services to a population that experiences disparities in mental health care. Future research should extend telepsychiatry services to other Asian population groups that experience lower access to mental health services. PMID:23234426

Shim, Ruth; Lukaszewski, Tim; Yun, Karen; Kim, Soo Hyun; Ruth, George

2012-01-01

115

Corneal topography measurement of the eye by means of radial shearing interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of the measurement of the corneal topography was worked out. This measurement system uses an interferometer based on radial shearing. This paper presents the preliminary results of the experiments. The results are compared with other methods.

Kowalik, Waldemar; Garncarz, Beata E.; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

2001-03-01

116

Chest wall thickness measurements and the dosimetric implications for male workers in the south Korean uranium industry.  

PubMed

Using ultrasound techniques, the Human Monitoring Laboratory has measured chest wall thicknesses of a group of male workers at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A site-specific biometric equation has been developed for these workers, who are somewhat smaller than other workers reported in the literature. Chest wall thickness is an important modifier on lung counting efficiency. These data have been put into the perspective of the ICRP recommended dose limits for occupationally exposed workers: 100 mSv in a 5-year period with a maximum of 50 mSv in any one year. For measured chest wall thicknesses of 1.9 cm to 4.1 cm and a 30 min counting time, the achievable MDAs for natural uranium in the KAERI lung counter vary from 6.6 mg to 13.2 mg. These values are close to, or even exceed, the predicted amounts of natural uranium that will remain in the lung (absorption type M and S) after an intake equal to the Annual Limit on Intake corresponding to a committed dose of 20 mSv. This paper shows that the KAERI lung counter probably cannot detect an intake of Type S natural uranium in a worker with a chest wall thickness equal to the average value (2.7 cm) under routine counting conditions. PMID:11468802

Kramer, G H; Lee, T Y; Lee, J I; Chang, S Y

2001-01-01

117

Brief report: broad autism phenotype in adults is associated with performance on an eye-tracking measure of joint attention.  

PubMed

The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data demonstrated the feasibility of administrating this experimental paradigm to a diverse sample of healthy adult college students (N = 44). Results revealed that individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly related to a self-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype, suggesting that individual variation in the broad autism phenotype is related to individual differences in gaze allocation. PMID:23921972

Swanson, Meghan R; Siller, Michael

2014-03-01

118

Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

2012-01-01

119

Serum measurements of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer among Korean men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To investigate the relationships of serum testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels with prostate cancer risk and also with known prognostic parameters of prostate cancer in Korean men who received radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for clinically-localized prostate cancer.Methods:Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were determined in 592 patients who subsequently received prostate

Sung Kyu Hong; Byung Kyu Han; Jae Seung Jeong; Seong Jin Jeong; Ki Hyuk Moon; Seok Soo Byun; Sang Eun Lee

2008-01-01

120

Korean American Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by the Korean Heritage Library (KHL) at the University of Southern California, this archive brings together a wide collection of digitized materials related to the Korean-American experience in a single searchable interface. The database indexes over 11,000 pages of documents, more than 1,300 photos, and some oral history recordings from five collections, which are described on the homepage. While the archive offers numerous options for searching (word or phrase, name, title, subject, etc.), a browse function would be a very helpful addition. Initial returns include a brief description and the option to mark records for printing. Full records contain a thumbnail image (or link to the audio), title, rights owner, distribution restrictions, and a contact email address, among other details.

2001-01-01

121

Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children. PMID:21643484

Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan

2011-01-01

122

An exploration of through-the-eye intraocular pressure measurement device  

E-print Network

Glaucoma, caused by an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the leading causes of blindness. As constant monitoring of IOP is essential in the treatment of glaucoma, the IOP measurement techniques described in ...

Chiu, Flora T. (Flora Tze Kwan)

2005-01-01

123

Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.

2013-03-01

124

Objective accommodation measurements in prepresbyopic eyes using an autorefractor and an aberrometer  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To test the repeatability of the iTrace wavefront aberrometer (Tracey Technologies, Inc.) and the WR-5100K autorefractor (Grand Seiko Co., Ltd.) and to measure accomodation in young and phakic prepresbyopic subjects. SETTING University of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, Texas, USA. METHODS This study comprised 30 young adults and 15 prepresbyopic subjects. Accommodation was stimulated with near charts presented at various distances. Measurements were repeated 3 times for each target distance with both instruments. For test–retest reliability, the entire protocol was repeated on 3 additional days in 3 prepresbyopic subjects as well as twice on the same day in the young adults. RESULTS The mean age was 25.5 years ± 3.25 (SD) (range 21 to 31 years old) in the young adult group and 41.2 ± 2.98 years (range 38 to 49 years) in the prepresbyopic group. Bland-Altman analysis of repeated measures of the young subjects had limits of agreements (LoA) of 1.58 diopters (D) or less for each instrument and when compared between instruments. Normalized mean stimulus response functions in the prepresbyopic group were similar for the 2 instruments. Bland-Altman analysis of the accommodation measurements between the 2 instruments showed a mean difference of 0.07 D and an LoA of 0.70 D. Repeated measures of 3 prepresbyopic subjects had a range of standard deviations from 0.07 to 0.51 D. CONCLUSION The accommodative responses measured with the 2 instruments were not significantly different, and testing showed both instruments to be suitable for objective measurement of accommodation in a phakic prepresbyopic population with low accommodative amplitudes. PMID:18471632

Win-Hall, Dorothy M.; Glasser, Adrian

2010-01-01

125

Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook  

PubMed Central

A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

2014-01-01

126

Research Spotlight: Two eyes are better than one for measuring rain from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One predicted consequence of climate change is a global redistribution of precipitation and the resultant shifts in regional rainfall volumes. To forecast the details of Earth's changing climate, researchers rely on the accurate detection and measurement of rainfall volumes. One type of rain, the light, warm drizzle often found in coastal regions or during a spring shower, is especially difficult to measure using satellite observations. The two most promising techniques for measuring warm rain—passive microwave (PMW), which sees through clouds and measures the microwave radiation emitted by rain, and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) detection, which measures reflected sunlight at wavelengths up to near-infrared absorption bands of water—both have shortcomings. In their new study, Bennartz et al. try to marry the two techniques, using the strengths of each to improve the accuracy of warm rain detection. The researchers assessed the viability of using combined VNIR and PMW data with a simplified cloud model before testing their technique with satellite observations and independently observed precipitation data for a region along the western coast of South Africa. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2009JD013679, 2010)

Schultz, Colin

2011-03-01

127

Eye Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... the pupil (which is a hole in the iris, the colored part of the eye), and then through a lens that performs more ... will be successful. The best results occur when sight is still normal. In photocoagulation , the eye care professional makes tiny burns on the retina ...

128

The Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean College Stress Inventory (KCSI), which is designed to measure Korean college students' experiences and symptoms of career stress. Even though there have been numerous scales related to career issues, few scales measure the career stress construct and its dimensions. Factor structure, internal…

Choi, Bo Young; Park, Heerak; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

2011-01-01

129

Intuitive operability evaluation of robotic surgery using brain activity measurement to identify hand-eye coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical robots have undergone considerable improvement in recent years, but the intuitive operability, representing user inter-operability, has not been quantitatively evaluated. Thus, we propose a method for measuring brain activity to determine intuitive operability in order to design a robot with intuitive operability. The objective of this paper is to clarify the angle between the endoscope and the manipulator that

Satoshi Miura; Yo Kobayashi; Masatoshi Seki; Takehiko Noguchi; Masahiro Kasuya; Yuki Yokoo; Masakatsu G. Fujie

2012-01-01

130

Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement with SD-OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes: distribution and correlation with age  

PubMed Central

AIM To determine peripapillary retinal fiber layer thickness (RNFL) measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in normal and glaucomatous eyes in a large sample of exclusively white population and compare results with other similarly constructed studies. METHODS Average, maximum, minimum and per quadrant RNFL thickness were measured in normal and glaucomatous Greek patients with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)/SD-OCT device. The effect of age in normal RNFL thickness was also determined. RESULTS A total of 278 normal (278 patients) and 67 glaucomatous (67 patients) eyes were included in the study. Average RNFL thickness was 114.8±13.3µm in normal and 92.1±18.5µm in glaucomatous eyes (P<0.001). In normal discs, superior quadrant was the thickest, followed by the inferior, nasal and temporal. Decline of normal RNFL thickness with age was statistically significant for average RNFL thickness (1.92µm per decade of life) and for the superior and inferior quadrants of the disc. CONCLUSION SD-OCT peripapillary RNFL measurements can be used to distinguish between normal and glaucomatous eyes and establish normative databases, since normal disc measurements differ between different ethnic groups and between different SD-OCT devices. PMID:24195045

Kampougeris, George; Spyropoulos, Dimitrios; Mitropoulou, Adrianna; Zografou, Aggeliki; Kosmides, Pericles

2013-01-01

131

There's More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: Measuring Tangible and Intangible Capital in Two Marginal Communities in Rural Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A missing link in economics has been what Veblen in 1908 termed intangible capital. This includes common norms, trust and high levels of cooperative performance. Intangibles are invisible to the eye and not easily measured in quantitative terms. They nevertheless involve visible, socioeconomic outcomes and should therefore rightly be seen as…

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sorensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

2007-01-01

132

Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

133

Teaching English Pronunciation to Koreans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides teachers of Korean children and adults with information on the problems Koreans encounter in learning to pronounce English. Principles of contrastive analysis and error analysis are used to give insight into these pronunciation problems. The first section dealing with problem sounds covers the following: (1) an explanation of…

Robson, Barbara

134

Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

2013-01-01

135

Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

Kim, Eunhyun

2010-01-01

136

A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

2008-01-01

137

Eye dilation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

Greyson Orlando (None;)

2006-12-11

138

Measured statistics of laser beam scintillation in strong refractive turbulence relevant to eye safety.  

PubMed

The time series of irradiance from a diverged He-Ne laser were measured using receiver aperture sizes that simulate the day-adapted and night-adapted human pupil. The data are within the saturation-of-scintillation regime wherein the irradiance variance decreases with further increases of propagation distance and refractive turbulence strength. Irradiance probability distributions, as well as the joint statistics of irradiance and duration of large irradiance values, are presented. The ocular hazard contributed by scintillation is found to decrease with increases of range and/or refractive turbulence strength; this effect is independent of the decrease of mean irradiance associated with such increases of range and refractive turbulence strength. PMID:3679828

Hill, R J; Churnside, J H; Sliney, D H

1987-12-01

139

Eyes, Bulging  

MedlinePLUS

... Manuals available in print, online, and as mobile applications. See more at MerckManuals.com Sections in Patients & ... Sometimes preceded by symptoms of sinusitis CT or MRI A mass in the eye socket such as ...

140

"We Shouldn't Be Forgotten": Korean Military Brides and Koreans in Kansas  

E-print Network

This dissertation goes beyond the West/East Coast paradigm of Korean immigration to the United States by focusing on the Korean diaspora in Kansas. The dissertation argues that the Korean diaspora in Kansas is unique in a ...

Kim, Sang Jo

2012-08-31

141

A novel device for head gesture measurement system in combination with eye-controlled human–machine interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the design and combination of an eye-controlled and a head-controlled human–machine interface system. This system is a highly effective human–machine interface, detecting head movement by changing positions and numbers of light sources on the head. When the users utilize the head-mounted display to browse a computer screen, the system will catch the images of the user's eyes

Chern-Sheng Lin; Chien-Wa Ho; Kai-Chieh Chang; San-Shan Hung; Hung-Jung Shei; Mau-Shiun Yeh

2006-01-01

142

Eye Injuries at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Home Tweet You might think that ... the American National Standards Institute eye protection standard.) Eye Injury Risks in the House Using hazardous products ...

143

Eye Drop Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Putting in Eye Drops Prescription eye drops for glaucoma help maintain the pressure in your eye at ... a "Best Technique" for Putting in Eye Drops? Glaucoma Eye Drops: Suggestions on Use Glaucoma and the ...

144

Three unrecorded marine fish species from Korean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three marine fish species are recorded for the first time from Korean waters: a molid (Ranzania laevis, 1 specimen, 279.8 mm SL) and bramid ( Pterycombus petersii, 3 specimens, 95.3-214.0 mm SL) collected from a large purse seine off Jeju Island, in the southern sea of Korea, and a carangid ( Carangoides dinema, 1 specimen, 194.5 mm SL) from a set net in coastal waters off Busan, in the southeastern sea of Korea. R. laevis is characterized by a wedge-shaped body and truncated clavus; P. petersii by the dorsal fin origin above or behind the posterior margin of eye, and dorsal and anal fins depressible; and C. dinema by a row of black blotches along the second dorsal fin base, the curved part of the lateral line longer than straight part, and 18 and 16 dorsal and anal fin rays, respectively. New Korean names are proposed for all three species.

Park, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jin Koo; Moon, Jee Hwan; Kim, Cheol Bum

2007-12-01

145

Stages of Change: Korean Women's Attitudes and Barriers Toward Mammography Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive and negative aspects of breast cancer screening were measured to gain insight into the barriers that prevent Korean women from participating in mammography screening. Breast cancer screening behaviors, attitudes, and barriers were identified from a convenience sample of 328 Korean women recruited in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Jeju, South Korea. Pros, cons, and decisional balance constructs of the transtheoretical

Hee Sun Kang; Eileen Thomas; Bo Eun Kwon; Myung-Sun Hyun; Eun Mi Jun

2008-01-01

146

Reasons for Living and Their Moderating Effects on Korean Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study validated the use of the Korean version of the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (KRFL-A) in a group of 406 South Korean high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original 5-factor structure, and other psychometric properties demonstrated the usefulness of the KRFL-A as a measure of cognitive…

Lee, Seung-yeon

2011-01-01

147

The Draize eye test.  

PubMed

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by an exigency for public protection, the Draize eye test became a governmentally endorsed method to evaluate the safety of materials meant for use in or around the eyes. The test involves a standardized protocol for instilling agents onto the cornea and conjunctiva of laboratory animals. A sum of ordinal-scale items of the outer eye gives an index of ocular morbidity. Advances in ocular toxicology are challenging the validity, precision, relevance, and need of the Draize eye test. Preclinical product-safety tests with rabbits and other mammals also raise ethical concerns of animal wellbeing. Some use the Draize test as a rallying point for how animals are treated in science and industry. A battery of cellular systems and computer models aim to reduce and ultimately to replace whole-animal testing. Molecular measures of ocular toxicity may eventually allow comprehensive screening in humans. The Draize eye test was created and refined for humanitarian reasons and has assuredly prevented harm. Its destiny is to be progressively supplanted as in vitro and clinical alternatives emerge for assessing irritancy of the ocular surface. PMID:11425356

Wilhelmus, K R

2001-01-01

148

Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in Korean  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners.

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo

2014-01-01

149

Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

2003-08-01

150

The acquisition of Korean word-initial stops.  

PubMed

A number of studies have investigated acquisition of stop voicing contrast in various languages by voice onset time measurement. Korean stops, however, are all voiceless word-initially and are differentiated by multiple acoustic-phonetic parameters resulting in a three-way contrast (fortis, aspirated, and lenis). The present study examines developmental patterns of Korean word-initial stops produced by 40 Korean children aged 2;6 (year; month), 3;0, 3;6, and 4;0 years, and compare the children's productions to those of 10 female adults. Voice onset time, fundamental frequency, and amplitude difference between the first and second harmonics of the post-stop vowel are obtained from monosyllabic near-minimal triplets at three places of articulation (labial, alveolar, and velar). Acoustic measures of children's productions reveal both universal phonetic patterns and phonetic variation associated with articulatory complexity specific to Korean. Language-specific fundamental frequency variation begins to emerge as early as 2;6, but appears to be mastered later than the voice onset time distinction. In comparison to the adults, young Korean children exhibit greater overlap across stop categories, and the acoustic overlap decreases over age. Results suggest that language-specific phonetic details as well as universal patterns should be examined to provide a better understanding of the speech sound development of a given language. PMID:19507977

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2009-06-01

151

Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

2014-01-01

152

Eye and orbit ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

153

Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number…

Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

2012-01-01

154

Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults Is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data…

Swanson, Meghan R.; Siller, Michael

2014-01-01

155

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Eleven keratoconic (KC) patients (13 eyes) and one normal eye  

E-print Network

(13 eyes) and one normal eye were recruited in this study. · Conventional scleral lenses were fitted to individual eyes and aberration measurements were performed on each eye with the scleral lens on using a Shack, Perry Rosenthal2 1Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY; 2Boston Foundation

Yoon, Geunyoung

156

Korean and American Music Reduces Pain in Korean Women After Gynecologic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women

Marion Good; Sukhee Ahn

2008-01-01

157

Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

Kim, Eunhyun

2014-01-01

158

Who Is the Authentic Korean American? Korean-Born Korean American High School Students' Negotiations of Ascribed and Achieved Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the identity negotiations of a group of Korean-born Korean American (KBKA) high school students. One of the major tensions that arise from within the Korean American community is who should be considered an “authentic” member. Therefore, in this article I illustrate (a) the way American-born Korean Americans' (ABKAs') (mis)recognition (ascribed identity) influences the identities of KBKA high

John D. Palmer

2007-01-01

159

The injured eye.  

PubMed

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3-4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-27

160

The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-01

161

Characteristics of Type D personality in Korean adolescents.  

PubMed

To examine the prevalence of the Type D construct using the Korean version of the Type D Personality-14 (DS14) on the Korean youth population and to identify relationships between the Type D construct and other mental health measures. Adolescent participants aged 13-18 years were recruited from 12 schools (7 middle schools and 5 high schools) in Ansan city, located in the southwest area of Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. A total of 4,899 students were assessed with the Korean version of the DS14, Beck depression inventory (BDI), Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI), Adolescent Mental health Problem behavior Questionnaire (AMPQ), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korean version (AUDIT-K). We found significant differences in all the measured scales and subscale scores between two groups, those with Type D personality and those without (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). When comparing the distributions of the high risk participants identified by the results of BDI, K-ESI, AMPQ, and AUDIT-K between participants with either Type D or non-Type D personality, a significantly higher proportion of high risk participants were in the Type D personality group according to all measures (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). In conclusions, Type D adolescents experience various and more severe mental health problems. Type D personality was more related with internalizing symptoms in Korean adolescents. DS14 can be useful in a community mental health program designed for adolescents. PMID:22899442

Lee, Moon-Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Cha, Jae Yeon; Lee, Hongjae

2012-12-01

162

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics ... vision may start to occur. Follow Us Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke—or quitting if you ...

163

Preventing Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

164

Eye Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

165

Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations.

Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2014-01-01

166

Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.  

PubMed

The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

2013-12-01

167

Select Bibliography of the Korean War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

Sandler, Stanley

2000-01-01

168

Korean Folk Music in Your Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koreans are a growing minority in the United States. Worldwide, it is believed that more than seventy million people speak Korean, approximately as many as who speak Italian. The music of Korea offers a delightful addition to the general music classroom. There are several reasons why Korean music is not readily accessible to most general music…

Bowman, Barbara G.

2008-01-01

169

Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

2010-01-01

170

Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean

Bonacich, Edna; And Others

171

Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

2013-01-01

172

Clinical Features of Idiopathic Juxtafoveal Telangiectasis in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis (IJT) in Koreans. Methods Medical records of 16 patients with IJT were analyzed during the period from 1997 to 2009. Diagnosis was based on biomicrosopic and fluorescein angiographic findings and the group was determined according to the Gass and Blodi classification. Results We analyzed eight patients in group 1A (50%), two in group 1B (12.5%), and six in group 2A (37.5%). Diverse treatment modalities, such as macular laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, intravitreal antiangiogenic agent, and steroid injection, were applied for macular edema in nine eyes; however, only two eyes showed visual improvement. Conclusions In this case series, group 1A was the most common. For macular edema related to IJT, current treatment strategies had no consistent effect. PMID:21860567

Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Yun Taek

2011-01-01

173

Eye Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.

174

The Rhodopsin Content of Human Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To measure the total amount of rhodopsin in human eyes across the life span and to test the hypothesis that the rhodopsin content of infants' and the elderly's eyes is lower than at other ages. METHODS. Rhodopsin was extracted from retinal and pig- ment epithelial fractions of 196 eyes of 102 donors, ages 27 weeks' gestation through 94 years,

Anne B. Fulton; Janice Dodge; Ronald M. Hansen; Theodore P. Williams

1999-01-01

175

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

176

Allelic Frequencies of 20 Visible Phenotype Variants in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

The prediction of externally visible characteristics from DNA has been studied for forensic genetics over the last few years. Externally visible characteristics include hair, skin, and eye color, height, and facial morphology, which have high heritability. Recent studies using genome-wide association analysis have identified genes and variations that correlate with human visible phenotypes and developed phenotype prediction programs. However, most prediction models were constructed and validated based on genotype and phenotype information on Europeans. Therefore, we need to validate prediction models in diverse ethnic populations. In this study, we selected potentially useful variations for forensic science that are associated with hair and eye color, iris pattern, and facial morphology, based on previous studies, and analyzed their frequencies in 1,920 Koreans. Among 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 SNPs were polymorphic, 6 SNPs were very rare (minor allele frequency < 0.005), and 4 SNPs were monomorphic in the Korean population. Even though the usability of these SNPs should be verified by an association study in Koreans, this study provides 10 potential SNP markers for forensic science for externally visible characteristics in the Korean population. PMID:23843775

Lim, Ji Eun

2013-01-01

177

Traumatic Experiences and Mental Health of North Korean Refugees in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted at Hanawon-a government sponsored educational facility for the settlement of North Korean refugees during their initial phase in South Korea-in 2004 to explore their mental health status and traumatic experiences in North Korea and during their escape period. Methods A survey was conducted in November 2004 with 62 North Korean refugees at Hanawon, and the Trauma Checklist was used to measure their traumatic experiences. To measure their psychological-mental health status, the Personality Assessment Inventory was administered. Results In comparison with the traumatic experiences of the North Korean refugees found in the study conducted in 2001 at Hanawon using the same methods, the current study showed a relatively lower frequency of traumatic experiences among the participants. The Personality Assessment Inventory results revealed that the study participants scored higher than average South Koreans in all clinical scales. Particularly, their mania (62.51) and schizophrenia (61.75) scores were above 60, a clinically meaningful score. In the gender comparison, the males exhibited meaningfully higher levels of alcohol problem, non-support, and warmth scale scores. Conclusion Compared to the 2001 study, the overall traumatic experiences among North Korean refugees participated in this study. But continous support is necessary for their successful adaptation to South Korean Society have declined. The North Korean refugees at Hanawon experienced difficulties maintaining their mental health and the men in particular requested more intensive care and support for this purpose. PMID:20046340

Yu, Shi-Eun; Cho, Young-A; Eom, Jin-Sup

2008-01-01

178

Videoanalysis of involuntary eye movements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method for monitoring of involuntary eye motion on the basis of image processing and analysis technology is posed. The efficiency of the program for the object movement analysis by its trajectory and spectrum is demonstrated. The results of measuring of involuntary eye movements of patients with nystagmus are presented. The measuring results characterizing the nystagmus status changing before and after the squint correction is demonstrated.

Skripal, Anatoli V.; Usanova, Tatjana B.; Abramov, Anton V.; Usanov, Dmitry A.

2002-07-01

179

An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

2007-04-01

180

Development and evaluation of the korean health literacy instrument.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Korean Health Literacy Instrument, which measures the capacity to understand and use health-related information and make informed health decisions in Korean adults. In Phase 1, 33 initial items were generated to measure functional, interactive, and critical health literacy with prose, document, and numeracy tasks. These items included content from health promotion, disease management, and health navigation contexts. Content validity assessment was conducted by an expert panel, and 11 items were excluded. In Phase 2, the 22 remaining items were administered to a convenience sample of 292 adults from community and clinical settings. Exploratory factor and item difficulty and discrimination analyses were conducted and four items with low discrimination were deleted. In Phase 3, the remaining 18 items were administered to a convenience sample of 315 adults 40-64 years of age from community and clinical settings. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the instrument. The Korean Health Literacy Instrument has a range of 0 to 18. The mean score in our validation study was 11.98. The instrument exhibited an internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.82, and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. The instrument is suitable for screening individuals who have limited health literacy skills. Future studies are needed to further define the psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Korean Health Literacy Instrument. PMID:25315597

Kang, Soo Jin; Lee, Tae Wha; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Kim, Gwang Suk; Won, Hee Kwan

2014-10-01

181

Red or uncomfortable eye.  

PubMed Central

1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

1992-01-01

182

Eye-Tracking Data  

PubMed Central

Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

2008-01-01

183

Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

Fang, Gao

2009-01-01

184

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

185

Structural Case Assignment in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

Koak, Heeshin

2012-01-01

186

Postpartum nursing for Korean mothers.  

PubMed

Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400

Schneiderman, J U

1996-01-01

187

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

188

Using Eye Makeup  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks ... the skin of the eyelids. Darkening of the iris (the colored portion of the eye) has also been reported, and this side effect ...

189

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by  

E-print Network

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

Ribak, Erez

190

Optoelectronic eye tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eye movement monitor measures both vertical and horizontal eye movements by employing an optoelectronic noncontact technique with a high updates rate. The monitor is controlled by an IBM AT or compatible computer and basically consists of a sensor assembly and two cards, connected to the PC bus: an amplifier and synchronous detection unit and a 12 bit AD/DA converter. The sensor assembly is mounted to spectacle frames and connected with the computer by a flexible cable. All the measurement data are stored in the hard disk and can be represented as vertical and horizontal coordinates of the gaze at selected time moments. The monitor does not interfere with the subject's head movements nor does it obstruct significantly his view of vision. The pulsed bias and synchronous detection make the device insensitive to the background illumination artifacts.

Navikas, Saulius; Verkelis, Jonas

1997-02-01

191

Bionic Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both Web sites come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research. The first article describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone." Earlier this year, researchers at the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center in Houston experimented with "photosensitive ceramic films that respond to light much as rods and cones do," the subject of the second Web site. Researchers hope these films will eventually be used to restore lost vision in human eyes. Each article is available as an audio file, and includes helpful diagrams and Web links for related articles and information.

Phillips, Tony.; Price, Steve.

2002-01-01

192

Eye movements of second language learners when reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text.  

PubMed

The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text. Also, participants' native languages were different in terms of their basic characteristics: English and Korean are spaced, whereas the other two are unspaced; Japanese is character based whereas the other three are alphabetic. Thus, we assessed whether any spacing effects were modulated by native language characteristics. Eye movement measures showed least disruption to reading for word-spaced text and longer reading times for unspaced than character-spaced text, with nonword-spaced text yielding the most disruption. These effects were uninfluenced by native language (though reading times differed between groups as a result of Chinese reading experience). Demarcation of word boundaries through spacing reduces non-native readers' uncertainty about the characters that constitute a word, thereby speeding lexical identification, and in turn, reading. More generally, the results indicate that words have psychological reality for those who are learning to read Chinese as a second language, and that segmentation of text into words is more beneficial to successful comprehension than is separating individual Chinese characters with spaces. PMID:22545927

Shen, Deli; Liversedge, Simon P; Tian, Jin; Zang, Chuanli; Cui, Lei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Rayner, Keith

2012-06-01

193

Attention to food and beverage advertisements as measured by eye-tracking technology and the food preferences and choices of youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (P<0.05). Associations were no longer significant after controlling for demographic characteristics. Attention to advertising was not significantly associated with food/beverage choices. Research with larger samples is needed to more fully understand the role of attention. Future research should also examine the association between attention to advertising and purchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice. PMID:24332473

Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E

2014-04-01

194

Korean preschoolers' advanced inhibitory control and its relation to other executive skills and mental state understanding.  

PubMed

This study assessed executive function and mental state understanding in Korean preschoolers. In Experiment 1, forty 3.5- and 4-year-old Koreans showed ceiling performance on inhibition and switching measures, although their performance on working memory and false belief was comparable to that of Western children. Experiment 2 revealed a similar advantage in a sample of seventy-six 3- and 4-year-old Koreans compared with sixty-four age-matched British children. Korean children younger than 3.5 years of age showed ceiling effects on some inhibition measures despite more stringent protocols and the link between executive function and mental state understanding was not as strong as in the British sample. The results raise key questions about the nature and development of the executive system and its relation to social understanding. PMID:18269510

Oh, Seungmi; Lewis, Charlie

2008-01-01

195

Down Syndrome: Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... eye problems. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

196

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...

197

Ancient-to-modern secular changes in Korean stature.  

PubMed

Statural growth in human populations is a sensitive indicator of socio-economic well-being, and improvements in socio-economic status are reflected in secular increases in adult height. In the present study, we investigated the statures of historical Korean societies to show how stature changed over time. Applying Fujii's equation, derived from modern Japanese, to the measurement of femora removed from 15th- to 19th-century Joseon tombs, the average heights of Korean adults during the Joseon dynasty were estimated to be 161.1 ± 5.6 cm and 148.9 ± 4.6 cm for males and females, respectively. Plotting statures for successive historical societies against time revealed that Korean heights remained relatively unchanged through to the end of the 19th century, a pattern that differs from that seen in many Western countries in which stature transiently decreases after the Middle Ages. In contrast, a sharp increase in Korean stature was observed at the beginning of the 20th century, similar to trends seen in other nations (although exact timing varies in different countries). There were no accompanying changes of stature sexual dimorphism. The data reported in this study reflect the unique historical experience of Korea; the relative isolation of Joseon society, the late onset of modernization (at the end of the 19th century), and the later occurrence of industrialization (during the 1960s). PMID:22270697

Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Hwang, Young-Il

2012-03-01

198

Evaluation of Factors Influencing Grip Strength in Elderly Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objectives Grip strength has been used as a measure of function in various health-related conditions. Although grip strength is known to be affected by both physical and psychological factors, few studies have looked at those factors comprehensively in a population-based cohort regarding elderly Koreans. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential factors influencing grip strength in elderly Koreans. Methods We evaluated dominant hand grip strengths in 143 men and 123 women older than 65 years who participated in a population-based cohort study, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Individuals who had a history of surgery for musculoskeletal disease or trauma in the upper extremity were excluded. Factors assessed for potential association with grip strength were; 1) demographics such as age and gender, 2) body constructs such as height, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD), 3) upper extremity functional status using disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores, and 4) mental health status using a depression scale and the short form-36 (SF36) mental health score. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify factors independently associated with grip strength. Results Grip strengths of dominant hands in elderly Koreans were found to generally decrease with aging, and were significantly different between men and women, as expected. Multivariate analyses indicated that grip strength was independently associated with age, height and BMI in men (R2 = 21.3%), and age and height (R2 = 19.7%) in women. BMD, upper extremity functional status, or mental health status were not found to be associated with grip strength. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in elderly Koreans, grip strength is mainly influenced by age and height in both men and women, and additionally by BMI in men. BMD or self-reported physical or mental health status was not found to influence grip strength in elderly Koreans. This information may be helpful in future studies using grip strength as a measure of function in elderly Koreans. PMID:24524040

Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Ki Woong; Paik, Nam-Jong; Jang, Hak Chul; Chang, Chong Bum; Baek, Goo Hyun; Lee, Young Ho

2012-01-01

199

Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: A questionnaire survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of Internet addiction to depression and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. The participants were 1573 high-school students living in a city who completed the self-reported measures of the Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Major Depression Disorder-Simple Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior. A correlational survey design was employed.

Kyunghee Kim; Eunjung Ryu; Mi-Young Chon; Eun-Ja Yeun; So-Young Choi; Jeong-Seok Seo; Bum-Woo Nam

2006-01-01

200

Factors of Breast Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to assess breast cancer screening rates and explore factors related to all three measures of\\u000a breast cancer screening, mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE), among Korean immigrants\\u000a in the United States. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean women aged 40 and older in Cook County, Illinois. Of\\u000a this group,

Eunice E. Lee; Louis F. Fogg; Georgia R. Sadler

2006-01-01

201

Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

202

Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants' demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

2013-01-01

203

Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

2013-01-01

204

Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

Gao, Fang

2010-01-01

205

Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 ?m tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 ?l/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient ?a and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

2008-02-01

206

Partner violence against Korean immigrant women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review article is to explore the phenomenon of partner violence against Korean immigrant women in the United States by using an ecological model. Analysis of the macrosystem (Korean cultural factors), exosystem (immigration stress), and microsystem (marital power dynamic, family role transitions) factors and personal history and characteristics of Korean male batterers (alcohol use and avoidant attachment style) are examined. The health impact of partner violence in family members and recommendations to decrease the violence are discussed. PMID:20592059

Han, Angela D; Kim, Eun Jung; Tyson, Sheryl Y

2010-10-01

207

The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling,Sturnus vulgaris, is a diurnal, ground feeding bird of the order Passeriformes. Aspects of its visual fields, eye movements and the optical structure of its eye are described.1.The magnitude of eye movements as a function of elevation in the median sagittal plane of the head was measured (Fig. 1). Maximum eye movement amplitude (32°) occurs in a plane

Graham R. Martin

1986-01-01

208

Cuffless and noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure using radial artery tonometry pressure sensor with concept of Korean traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Parameters for noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular disease. We developed a new method to measure blood pressure (BP) noninvasively without cuff. In Korean traditional medicine, the degree of the pulse depth is one of the important criteria to diagnosis. We combined this concept with pulse wave analysis. With clinical data obtained from 163 subjects, we selected APm (applied pressure which has a maximum value of pulse wave), elasticity of wrist tissue, depth of blood vessel, cardiac output and h1 as parameters to estimate blood pressure. And with the parameters, we induced multi regression equation of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP). And the probabilities of these parameters to explain SBP, DBP, and MAP were 89.5%, 91.1% and 94.6%, respectively. To estimate PP, we added h1 to the parameters to explain PP was 97.5%. We compared the estimated SBP, DBP, MAP and PP through the multiple regression equations to the actual measured SBP, DBP, MAP and PP through the wrist type BP meter. Differences were (+/- SD) 0.38 +/- 9.95, -1.0 +/- 8.2, 0.02 +/- 6.9 and 0.05 +/- 5.9mmHg for SBP, DBP, MAP and PP, respectively. According to the American National Standard for Electronic or Automated Sphygmomanometers, the mean difference (MD) should be +/- 5mmHg or less with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 8mmHg or less. Hence, the results of MAP and PP were within the limits for the AAMI SP 10 criteria and the results of SBP and DBP were not within the limits for the AAMI SP 10 criteria. The preliminary results indicate the results are quite reliable and promising. PMID:18002775

Park, Mikyoung; Kang, HeeJung; Huh, Young; Kim, Kyung-Chul

2007-01-01

209

Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts. PMID:22752687

Choi, Sarah E.; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna

2012-01-01

210

Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Tweet When an eye injury does occur, ... serious eye injury yourself. How to recognize an eye injury If you notice any of these signs ...

211

Eating for Your Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

2011-01-01

212

Diabetes and eye disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye that are weak and can bleed Small scars forming on the retina and in other parts of the eye (the vitreous) ... doctor who is trained to treat diabetic eye diseases. Once your eye ... creates small burns in the retina where there are abnormal ...

213

Korean speech sound development in children from bilingual Japanese-Korean environments  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigates Korean speech sound development, including articulatory error patterns, among the Japanese-Korean children whose mothers are Japanese immigrants to Korea. Methods The subjects were 28 Japanese-Korean children with normal development born to Japanese women immigrants who lived in Jeonbuk province, Korea. They were assessed through Computerized Speech Lab 4500. The control group consisted of 15 Korean children who lived in the same area. Results The values of the voice onset time of consonants /ph/, /t/, /th/, and /k*/ among the children were prolonged. The children replaced the lenis sounds with aspirated or fortis sounds rather than replacing the fortis sounds with lenis or aspirated sounds, which are typical among Japanese immigrants. The children showed numerous articulatory errors for /c/ and /l/ sounds (similar to Koreans) rather than errors on /p/ sounds, which are more frequent among Japanese immigrants. The vowel formants of the children showed a significantly prolonged vowel /o/ as compared to that of Korean children (P<0.05). The Japanese immigrants and their children showed a similar substitution /n/ for /?/ [Japanese immigrants (62.5%) vs Japanese-Korean children (14.3%)], which is rarely seen among Koreans. Conclusion The findings suggest that Korean speech sound development among Japanese-Korean children is influenced not only by the Korean language environment but also by their maternal language. Therefore, appropriate language education programs may be warranted not only or immigrant women but also for their children. PMID:21189968

Kim, Jeoung Suk; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Yoon Mi; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Min Kyung

2010-01-01

214

Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

2013-01-01

215

Lagophthalmos in enophthalmic eyes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To report a case series of enophthalmic patients with lagophthalmos. Methods: A retrospective review of the electronic medical records at a tertiary health care centre of all patients with the diagnoses of “enophthalmos” and “lagophthalmos”. Patients who had a history of diseases (such as Graves’ orbitopathy), trauma or surgery of the orbit and eyelid were excluded. Enophthalmos was defined as exophthalmometric reading of 14 mm or less in both eyes. Results: Seven patients (14 eyes) with bilateral enophthalmos were found to have concomitant lagophthalmos. All patients had deep superior sulci bilaterally. The upper eyelids were seen to be severely retro-placed behind the superior orbital rim. The extraocular motilities were full with no focal neurological deficit. The orbicularis oculi function was normal with no facial paralysis. The orbits were soft on retropulsion and no facial asymmetry was noted. The mean exophthalmolmetry reading measured 12.6 (SD 1.1) mm. The lagophthalmos varied from 1–5 mm. One patient (one eye) with 3 mm lagophthalmos developed a corneal ulcer and was treated with topical antibiotics and gold weight placement in the upper eyelid. Conclusion: Enophthalmic patients with deep superior sulci and retro-placed upper eyelids may present with lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy. PMID:15923500

Yip, C-C; Gonzalez-Candial, M; Jain, A; Goldberg, R A; McCann, J D

2005-01-01

216

Optical properties of the mouse eye  

PubMed Central

The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the mouse eye and found that it follows predictions of the water-filled schematic mouse eye. Results indicate that the optical quality of the mouse eye assessed by measurement of its aberrations is remarkably good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements predict that adaptive optics based on this method of wavefront sensing will provide improvements in retinal image quality and potentially two times higher lateral resolution than that in the human eye. PMID:21483598

Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

2011-01-01

217

Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

218

Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth

2012-01-01

219

Qualification of Korean Programmable Logic Controllers \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper covers the comparison of standards on EMC and the programmable (PLC) EMC test results received jointly by Korean - Russian team in Korea Testing Laboratory. The results provide evidence that Korean PLC can meet Russian national standards requirements on EMC for the purpose of their possible implementation at Russian nuclear power plants.

O. V. SARYLOVI; V. P. SIVOKONI; J.-K. Ham; D.-Y. Lee; K. H. Kim; S.-G. Choi

2007-01-01

220

North Korean terrorism: Trends, characteristics, and deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past three decades, South Korea has been subjected to various forms of political violence by North Korea, from a conventional war to nonconventional warfare including guerrilla tactics and terrorism. An analysis of the trends of North Korean terrorism points to the direction of increasing lethality and internationalization.A hypothetical profile of a North Korean terrorist drawn from the knowledge

Jae Taik Kim

1988-01-01

221

Birth outcomes of Korean women in Hawaii.  

PubMed Central

Since the end of the Korean War, immigration of Koreans to the United States has increased rapidly. In 1990, 11.6 percent of all Asians in the United States were of Korean ethnicity, and it is projected that Koreans will outnumber all other Asian groups, except Filipinos, in the United States by the year 2030. Despite the growing size of this population, very little is known about their health status. This study, using 1979-89 Hawaii vital record data, investigates the relationship between maternal sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care utilization factors, and birth outcomes among Koreans as compared with Caucasians. The ethnic term "Caucasian" is used in Hawaii's vital records and is synonymous with non-Hispanic whites. Korean mothers were more likely to be older and have lower educational attainment, and less likely to be adolescent, single, or to have received adequate prenatal care than Caucasian mothers. More than 80 percent of the Korean mothers were foreign born. Significantly higher risks for very preterm delivery (less than 33 weeks) and very low birth weight births were observed for Koreans as compared with Caucasians. Nativity had no effect on birth outcome in this population. The results of this study suggest that prevention of preterm birth is an important focus for improving pregnancy outcomes in this growing ethnic group. PMID:8341786

Mor, J M; Alexander, G R; Kieffer, E C; Baruffi, G

1993-01-01

222

What Korean apologies require of politeness theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a corpus of Korean apologies to discover why a person apologizes and why they choose the form of apology that they do. It argues for an abstracted, generalized politeness1 model (Locher and Watts, 2005; Watts, 2003) in which politeness work in Korean is primarily concerned with relationship construction (Arundale, 2006; Haugh, 2007c; Matsumoto, 1988). This will involve

Hunter Hatfield; Jee-Won Hahn

2011-01-01

223

Thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a Korean population sample of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the S-methylation of the cytotoxic drugs 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine. Red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity is subject to genetic polymorphism, and we have previously demonstrated an interethnic difference in TPMT activity. To investigate whether there was a race-related difference in RBC TPMT activity, TPMT was measured in a Korean population sample

Jeong Ok Park-Hah; Bjřrg Klemetsdal; Roy Lysaa; Kwang Hae Choi; Jarle Aarbakke

1996-01-01

224

Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.

2004-11-01

225

Pathways to Care for Alzheimer's Disease Among Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how Korean Americans make decisions whether to seek help when experiencing symptoms that might signal dementia. In Study 1, patient registry data for 60 Korean and 212 non-Korean Alzheimer's disease patients revealed that both groups waited 3–4 years before seeking help and sought help when memory decline was accompanied by other problems. Among Korean Americans, those

Kecia F. Watari; Margaret Gatz

2004-01-01

226

Development and Characteristics of Korean Elementary Mathematics Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean mathematics education reform centers around revision of the national curriculum and concomitant textbooks with teachers' guidebooks. Almost all Korean teachers use them as their main instructional resources. Given this, it is important to probe Korean mathematics textbooks so as to better understand Korean mathematics education. This paper presents general flows and directions in developing textbooks and related materials, followed

Jeong Suk Pang

227

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, August 2011, pp. 16491653 Fission Physics and Cross Section Measurements with a Lead Slowing down  

E-print Network

and Cross Section Measurements with a Lead Slowing down Spectrometer Y. Danon, R. Block (emeritus), J) A Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) provides a high neutron flux environment that en- ables to be adjusted. PACS numbers: 25.40.-h, 25.85.Ec Keywords: ND2010, Nuclear data, Lead slowing down spectrometer

Danon, Yaron

228

Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments. Materials and Methods: Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression equations were constructed. Results: It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety. Conclusions: The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults. PMID:24860222

Lim, Young-Jin

2014-01-01

229

Comparison of contact lens overrefraction and standard keratometry for measuring corneal curvature in eyes with lenticular opacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo assess the accuracy of corneal power measurement by contact lens overrefraction in patients with normal corneas and to determine the suitability of this method for use in intraocular lens (IOL) calculations.

William G. Zeh; Douglas D. Koch

1999-01-01

230

Psychological Stress and Arterial Stiffness in Korean Americans  

PubMed Central

Objective Arterial stiffness is identified as a causative factor for hypertension. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological stress and arterial stiffness in Korean Americans. Methods A convenience sample of 102 Korean Americans (aged 21–60 years, 60% women) was recruited from North Carolina. Psychological stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, the Social, Attitudinal, Familiar, and Environmental (SAFE) Acculturative Stress Scale, and the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) using the SphygmoCor system (AtCor Medical, Australia). Results This study shows that the emotional stress response, measured by anxiety, significantly predicted arterial stiffness (?= .25, p=.008), independently of such confounding factors as age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), gender, body mass index, smoking, education, and income. Anxiety was neither related to age (r=.12, p=.212) nor MAP (r=.14, p=.151). Additionally, this sample of Korean Americans had higher levels of psychological stress when compared to previous findings from studies of other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Conclusion Findings demonstrate that anxiety is a significant and independent determinant of arterial stiffness. Given that anxiety was not related to MAP, these findings suggest that arterial stiffness may be a pathway to explain the connection between anxiety and hypertension risk. Studies that scrutinize the relationship between anxiety and arterial stiffness are an important next step for future research. Further studies are also recommended to explore cultural factors and individual characteristics that may affect anxiety in Korean Americans. PMID:22691560

Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; Carlson, John; Carlson, Barbara W; Rowsey, Pamela J

2012-01-01

231

Social identity, attribution, and emotion: comparisons of Americans, Korean Americans, and Koreans.  

PubMed

The social identity of another person, in addition to the social identity of self, can be an important factor affecting the types of attribution judgments and emotions that individuals indicate for the other person. In April 2007, the perpetrator of the shooting incident on the Virginia Tech University campus was identified as a person who emigrated to the USA from Korea at a young age. The current study compared non-Korean Americans, Korean Americans, Koreans in the USA, and Koreans in Korea in terms of their attributions and emotions concerning the perpetrator and the shooting incident. Participants were asked to indicate (1) the extent to which they attributed the cause of the incident to either American society or the perpetrator, (2) their emotions (e.g., upset), and (3) the extent to which they categorized the perpetrator as an American, a Korean American, or a Korean. The results indicated that non-Korean Americans were most likely to attribute the cause of the incident to the perpetrator as opposed to American society. Non-Korean Americans, Korean Americans, and Koreans in the United States had more negative emotions (e.g., unhappy, sad, and upset) about the incident than Koreans in Korea did. The results also indicated that individuals differed in their attributions and emotions depending on how they categorized the perpetrator. For example, categorizing the perpetrator as being a Korean was positively related to Americans' tendency to hold the perpetrator responsible, while categorizing the perpetrator as being an American was negatively related to the tendency to hold the perpetrator responsible among Koreans in Korea. The findings may imply that social identity theory, intergroup emotion theory, and cultural orientations (e.g., individualism and collectivism) can provide insights into people's reactions to a tragic incident. PMID:22827576

Park, Hee Sun; Yun, Doshik; Choi, Hye Jeong; Lee, Hye Eun; Lee, Dong Wook; Ahn, Jiyoung

2013-01-01

232

Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

2005-01-01

233

Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.  

PubMed

In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

2011-04-29

234

A coronary heart disease prediction model: the Korean Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of this study were to develop a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk model among the Korean Heart Study (KHS) population and compare it with the Framingham CHD risk score. Design A prospective cohort study within a national insurance system. Setting 18 health promotion centres nationwide between 1996 and 2001 in Korea. Participants 268?315 Koreans between the ages of 30 and 74?years without CHD at baseline. Outcome measure Non-fatal or fatal CHD events between 1997 and 2011. During an 11.6-year median follow-up, 2596 CHD events (1903 non-fatal and 693 fatal) occurred in the cohort. The optimal CHD model was created by adding high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides to the basic CHD model, evaluating using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and continuous net reclassification index (NRI). Results The optimal CHD models for men and women included HDL-cholesterol (NRI=0.284) and triglycerides (NRI=0.207) from the basic CHD model, respectively. The discrimination using the CHD model in the Korean cohort was high: the areas under ROC were 0.764 (95% CI 0.752 to 0.774) for men and 0.815 (95% CI 0.795 to 0.835) for women. The Framingham risk function predicted 3–6 times as many CHD events than observed. Recalibration of the Framingham function using the mean values of risk factors and mean CHD incidence rates of the KHS cohort substantially improved the performance of the Framingham functions in the KHS cohort. Conclusions The present study provides the first evidence that the Framingham risk function overestimates the risk of CHD in the Korean population where CHD incidence is low. The Korean CHD risk model is well-calculated alternations which can be used to predict an individual's risk of CHD and provides a useful guide to identify the groups at high risk for CHD among Koreans. PMID:24848088

Jee, Sun Ha; Jang, Yangsoo; Oh, Dong Joo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Seong-Wook; Seung, Ki-Bae; Mok, Yejin; Jung, Keum Ji; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Young Duk; Baek, Soo Jin; Lee, Duk Chul; Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Moon Jong; Sung, Jidong; Cho, BeLong; Kim, Eung Soo; Yu, Byung-Yeon; Lee, Tae-Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Yong-Jin; Oh, Jang-Kyun; Kim, Sung Hi; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang Baek; Park, Sat Byul; Lee, Soon Young; Yoo, Cheol-In; Kim, Moon Chan; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Park, Joo-sung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Gyu Jang; Woodward, Mark

2014-01-01

235

Dry eye: an inflammatory ocular disease.  

PubMed

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

2014-04-01

236

Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease  

PubMed Central

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement.

Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

2014-01-01

237

Surgeon offsets and dynamic eye movements in laser refractive surgery  

E-print Network

in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures (Technolas 217z; Bausch & Lomb). Eye movements were measured, on average, in both directions. CONCLUSIONS: Most eye movements during LASIK are slow drifts in fixation

Williams, David

238

Challenges of Discourses on “Model Minority” and “South Korean Wind” for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin–Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between society-level discourses and school-level politics under the political,

Gao Fang

2009-01-01

239

The Relationship of Blood Pressure and Other Factors to Serial Retinal Arteriolar Diameter Measurements Over Time: the Beaver Dam Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the relationship of blood pressure (BP), antihypertensive medication use, and other factors to serial measurements of retinal arteriolar diameters over time in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods Retinal arteriolar diameter was measured by computer-assisted methods and summarized as central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) in 4573 persons aged 43–99 years at 4 examinations (each five years apart) over a 15-year interval. Associations of CRAE with risk factors measured concurrently and 5 years previously were determined using multivariate analyses. Results While adjusting for image quality, refraction, and lens status, age (per 10 years: ? estimate ?0.73, p<.001), systolic BP (SBP, per 10 mmHg: concurrent exam ?2.74, p<.001; previous exam ?1.75, p<0.001), smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker: concurrent exam 4.29, p<.001; previous exam 1.63, p=0.004), body mass index (BMI, per category: concurrent exam ?0.51, p=0.04; previous exam ?0.22, p=0.44), and heavy drinking (current vs. past/never heavy drinker: concurrent exam ?2.54, p=0.03; previous exam ?2.42, p=0.02) were associated with CRAE. In the same model, there were significant interactions between concurrent and previous SBP (?0.11, p=0.003) and between concurrent and previous BMI (0.12, p=0.04). Use of calcium channel blockers at both the concurrent and past exam (vs. neither exam 1.59; P=0.01), but not other classes of antihypertensive drugs was associated with CRAE. Conclusions These data show retinal arteriolar diameter is independently associated with past and current SBP, calcium channel blocker use, smoking status, BMI, and heavy drinking over 5-year intervals. The relationships with CRAE were stronger for concurrent than for past measures of these variables. PMID:22893073

Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Lee, Kristine E.; Gangnon, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

2012-01-01

240

Diabetic Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

241

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... or systemic steroids may further reduce the inflammation. Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

242

Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

2005-03-01

243

Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider anisoplanatism effect as a fundamental limitation on the size of high resolution area (isoplanatic patch) of retinal images obtained using fundus cameras equipped with adaptive optics. Isoplanatic patch size was estimated using experimental results for on-axis and off-axis eye aberrations measured by Shack-Hartmann technique. Isoplanatic patch size varied among examined subjects in the range from 1.5 ° to 2.5 ° which is in good agreement with results obtained using ray-tracing technique1. We estimated isoplanatic patch size for Gullstrand eye model and found it to be close to the values obtained from experimental results for subjects with good vision. We also discuss the possibilities of Gullstrand eye model modifications for modeling anisoplanatism effect for each particular subject. We also estimated the efficiency of multibeacon correction method and found out that this method allows us to almost twice increase the area with high resolution.

Dubinin, Alexander; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis

2006-02-01

244

Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle

245

Eye Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... child to open his or her eyes as wide as possible. For an infant or small child, it's helpful to have a second person hold the child's eyes open while you flush. Gently pour a steady stream of lukewarm water (do not heat the water) from a pitcher or faucet over the eye. ...

246

Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Results Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). Conclusion This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women. PMID:24501665

Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul

2014-01-01

247

Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea. PMID:25276012

Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R

2014-09-01

248

Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea. PMID:25276012

Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R.

2014-01-01

249

Finding an Eye Care Professional  

MedlinePLUS

Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...

250

Eye Movements during Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

251

Korean culture and autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on research to date on the identification, description, and treatment of ASD in Korean populations, we argue that at both conceptual and practical levels, early child development and interventions must be understood within cultural context. Culturally informed research on ASD is vital for increasing awareness of the importance of early intervention and the need for educational and psychological services in countries in which autism is stigmatized, misdiagnosed or undiagnosed. PMID:22723126

Kang-Yi, Christina D; Grinker, Roy R; Mandell, David S

2013-03-01

252

Diaspora without Homeland: Being Korean in Japan  

E-print Network

General Douglas MacArthur regarding Japan’s minorityin Peace: MacArthur, Yoshida, and Postwar Japan. Berkeley:MacArthur also added that he could “scarcely criticize the Japanese for this as the Koreans left in Japan

Ryang, Sonia; Lie, John

2009-01-01

253

Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

2010-01-01

254

Crisis Guide: The Korean Peninsula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations has created a number of interactive guides that address everything from Africa's conflict zones to the region along Pakistan's Afghan border. This particular interactive feature deals with the ongoing political situation on the Korean Peninsula. After a brief audio and visual introduction, visitors can take in eight chapters that cover the region's historical background, military history, and nuclear facilities. Along with graphics such as charts and tables, some of the chapters include interactive timelines and maps. One chapter that should not be missed is the one dedicated to exploring the subject of "Military Balance". In this chapter, users can learn about the military assets in the region held by the United States, Japan, China, Russia, and South and North Korea. It's quite an overview, and this site could also be used in an introductory political science or international relations course.

255

Assessing the factors influencing continuous quality improvement implementation: experience in Korean hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the extent of continuous quality improvement (CQI) implementation in Korean hospitals and to identify its influencing factors. Design. Cross-sectional study by mailed questionnaire survey. Study participants. One hundred and seventeen staff members with responsibility for CQI at 67 hospitals with (400 beds. Main outcome measures. The degree of CQI implementation was measured using the Malcolm Baldrige National

SUNHEE LEE; KUI-SON CHOI; HYE-YOUNG KANG; WOOHYUN CHO; YOO MI CHAE

2002-01-01

256

Research priorities of Korean oncology nurses.  

PubMed

Systematic nursing research activities in South Korea began in the 1970s, but research into oncology did not begin until the mid-1980s. Although the number of Korean oncology nursing studies has increased steadily since then, no national agenda exists for future research in oncology nursing. This study involved a descriptive survey of oncology nursing research priorities among Korean oncology nurses. The analysis included 59 members of the Korean Oncology Nursing Society. The questionnaire used by the Oncology Nursing Society in a US survey was revised and translated into Korean. The questionnaire contained 108 items. In addition, respondents were asked to rank 5 items in order of research priority. The Korean Oncology Nursing Society members ranked prevention of cancer and cancer risk reduction as the top research priority, followed by pain management, quality of life, hospice and end-of-life care, and standards of care. These findings provide the basis for developing a Korean oncology nursing research agenda, and for determining the direction of oncology research funding. PMID:14710800

Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Sun; Chung, Bok Yae; Bok, Mi Suuk; Song, Byung Eun; Kong, Sung Wha; Lee, Eun-Ok

2003-10-01

257

Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

2014-01-01

258

Adverse birth outcomes among Korean Americans: The impactof nativity and social proximity to other Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past two decades, the size of the Korean American population has notably increased. Despite this, there has been little research on the perinatal health of this population. This paper examines which and to what extent maternal risk factors are associated with birth outcomes (prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation [IUGR]) among Korean Americans, particularly focusing on maternal nativity and

Youngtae Cho; SEUNG-EUN SONG; W. parkerfrisbie

2005-01-01

259

Phonological Development of Word-Initial Korean Obstruents in Young Korean Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially.…

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2011-01-01

260

Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

Kang, Kyoung-Ho

2009-01-01

261

Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

Jeong-kyu, Lee

262

Association between alcohol consumption and bone strength in Korean adults: the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between alcohol consumption and bone health. A growing body of research has shown that chronic alcoholism leads to osteopenia and increased incidence of skeletal fractures, but some studies have concluded that alcohol consumption may be associated with higher bone mineral density in elderly populations. However, most studies showing a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone status have been in Western countries; and subjects have usually been postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption with bone strength in Korean adults. Data were from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study, which is an ongoing population-based study of adults aged 40 to 70 years from 5 regions. A total of 7713 participants (3368 men, 4345 women) were surveyed about their annual consumption of alcohol such as soju, beer, makkolli, wine, and whisky. Bone strength was measured by stiffness index using the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound method. Overall, the annual age-specific decrease rate in the stiffness index of women was 2.7 times higher than that of men (0.463% for women, 0.169% for men).After adjustment for eligible covariates, the association between alcohol consumption and risk of reduced bone strength showed a J-shaped curve for both men and women. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of reduced bone strength was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.83) in men who drank 4 to 5 cups of soju for an amount of 29.626 to 49.375 g of alcohol per day and 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.86) in men who drank 6 to 7 cups of soju for an amount of 49.376 to 69.125 g of alcohol per day. We found no significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone strength in any other group of men. For women, results suggested that the risk of reduced bone strength was lower in the moderate-consumption group; but no significant relationship was found between alcohol consumption at any level and bone strength. Among Korean adults, alcohol consumption has a J-shaped relationship with risk of reduced bone strength. PMID:20359726

Jin, Li Hua; Chang, Sei Jin; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Ki Soon; Lee, Tae Yong; Ryu, So Yeon; Song, Jae Seok; Park, Jong Ku

2011-03-01

263

North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant health study. PMID:22401814

2012-01-01

264

Standardization of the Korean Version of the Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder Self-Rating Scale  

PubMed Central

Objective Embitterment is a persistent feeling of being let down or insulted, feeling like a "loser", or feeling revengeful but helpless. In South Korea, social injustice experienced during rapid industrial development and protracted unemployment during the Asian economic crisis may lead to strong feelings of embitterment. North Korean defectors and victims of industrial disasters may also experience humiliation and feelings of injustice. Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder (PTED) is a recent conceptualization of a new psychiatric disorder. This study tested the reliability and validation of the Korean version of the PTED Scale. Methods Subjects aged 18 years or older were recruited from a psychiatric outpatient clinic. All subjects were diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Subjects completed the Korean version of the PTED Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15) at baseline and two weeks later. Results Approximately 15.4% of subjects could be categorized as having PTED. The test-retest reliability of the PTED Scale was good (r=0.76) and the internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha=0.962). Positive correlations were found between the PTED Scale, the PHQ-9 and the PHQ-15, indicating substantial convergent validity of the PTED Scale. Conclusion The Korean version of the PTED Scale is a reliable and valid measurement of embitterment in Korean adults as an emotional reaction to a negative life event. PMID:23251201

Shin, Cheolmin; Linden, Michael; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Ko, Young-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Ku; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

2012-01-01

265

Regression methods when the eye is the unit of analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The eye is often the unit of measurement for outcomes, and frequently also for covariates, in vision research, and measurements in the two eyes of the same person are often strongly but far from perfectly correlated. Advances have occurred in development and accessibility of analytic approaches to evaluate determinants of eye-specific outcomes including information from both eyes of some subjects. Methods We illustrate available regression approaches to analyze correlated outcomes from both eyes in data sets with both eye- and subject-specific exposures and potential confounding variables. We consider cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs, and discrete, continuous, and time-to-event outcomes. Results Across a range of study designs and measurement scales for the outcome variable, we show the under-estimation of P-values and widths of confidence intervals that occurs when the correlation between paired eyes in a person is ignored, and the reduced precision that occurs in separate analyses of right or left eyes, or in analyses of persons rather than eyes. By comparison, regression models with the eye as the unit of analysis and appropriate consideration of the correlation between paired outcomes generally offer maximal use of available data, enhanced interpretability of covariate-outcome associations, and efficient use of information from subjects who contribute only one eye to analyses. Conclusions For many studies in vision research, the now widely available regression models that appropriately treat the eye as the unit of analysis offer the best analytic approach. PMID:22568429

Glynn, Robert J; Rosner, Bernard

2012-01-01

266

Exploring Korean Americans’ Interracial Contact Experiences During Recreational Sport Activities  

E-print Network

in recreational sport settings. This study was guided by three research questions: (1) Do Korean Americans perceive the presence of contact hypothesis' optimal conditions in recreational sport settings? (2) What factors influence Korean Americans' perception...

Lee, Kang Jae

2010-07-14

267

Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

SciTech Connect

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-02-28

268

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye  

E-print Network

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eye. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

Cannata, Giorgio

269

Diabetes - Eye Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... diabetes helps prevent and delay these eye diseases. Management of diabetes consists of the following: • Controlling the blood sugar level • Eating healthy • Exercising • Keeping good hygiene • Learning about ...

270

Apologizing in Korean: Cross-cultural Analysis in Classroom Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the sociopragmatic features of American learners of Korean-asa-foreign language (kfl) in the Korean speech act of apology. As an interlanguage pragmatic study that deals with cultures that are distant to English, such as Korean, this study considers cross-cultural and pedagogical implications. The data were collected from a Discourse Completion Task (dct), then analyzed descriptively, and Korean apology

Andrew Sangpil Byon

2006-01-01

271

Detecting Eye Contact using Wearable Eye-Tracking Zhefan Ye Yin Li Alireza Fathi Yi Han  

E-print Network

Keywords Wearable Eye-Tracking, Eye Contact, Developmental Dis- orders, Autism, Attention ACM of autism, and they remain important behaviors to measure in tracking the social development of young. These gaze events arise frequently in clin- ical settings, for example when a child is being examined

Li, Fei-Fei

272

Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

2011-01-01

273

8 Korean Automobile Industry's Production Network in Chinai  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the characteristics of the production network of Korean carmakers in China. It was found that Korean automotive firms in China are forming production networks around Beijing where Hyundai Motors is located. The production network of Korean automotive firms has changed from the vertical and closed structure into a more horizontal and open structure with the intensifying competition.

Sung Chun Jung

274

Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1998-01-01

275

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

276

Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

2012-01-01

277

Statistical Dependency Parsing Korean: From Corpus Generation To Automatic Parsing  

E-print Network

2013-04-23 1 1 Statistical Dependency Parsing Korean: From Corpus Generation To Automatic Parsing Issues in this paper LINGUISTICS 7800 Less work done on dependency parsing in Korean because of the lack of training data in dependency structure. Statistical Dependency Parsing Korean How to extract useful

Palmer, Martha

278

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye  

E-print Network

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye Abstract The eye is a complex optical system that, like other still being in its infancy. Introduction The eye consists of many parts. · Sclera: The majority of the eye, it forms the white shell and the basic shape of the eyeball. · Cornea: The frontal 1/6 of the eye

La Rosa, Andres H.

279

Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.  

PubMed

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

2008-09-01

280

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training Using Eye Blink Switch for Locked-in Syndrome Patient  

PubMed Central

Locked-in Syndrome is a severe pontine stroke causing quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism with preservation of only vertical gaze and upper eyelid movement in a conscious patient. We present a case of a Locked-in Syndrome patient who received communication training with augmentative and alternative communication equipment by using eye blinks. After 3 weeks of training, the patient was able to make an attempt to interact with other people, and associate a new word by Korean alphabet selection. Augmentative and alternative communication equipment which uses eye blinks might be considered to be beneficial in improving the communication skills of locked-in syndrome patients. PMID:22639753

Park, Si-Woon; Yi, Sook-hee; Kim, Hyun-young; Jung, Seung-min

2012-01-01

281

The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

2012-01-01

282

Student Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teachers: A Quantitative Investigation from a Korean University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study uses a questionnaire instrument to measure the importance that students from a Korean university place on a wide range of effective foreign language teacher attributes. Respondents to the present study placed high importance on rapport attributes such as friendliness, care, and patience; and delivery attributes which included the…

Barnes, Bruce D.; Lock, Graeme

2013-01-01

283

Multimodal eye recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms

Zhi Zhou; Yingzi Du; N. L. Thomas; Edward J. Delp III

2010-01-01

284

Med's Neurophysiology Eye Movements  

E-print Network

? 2) the retina is like the camera with a slow shutter speed. The image must be still on the retina you make out what it says? If you can, your VOR is working. There are 5 types of eye movements. 1 if the two eyes rotate at the same speed, in the same direction and by the same amount (conjugate

Vilis, Tutis

285

Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M

1975-01-01

286

Eye tissues study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

2001-08-01

287

The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.  

PubMed

This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while staying in transit countries. Among all the available socio-demographic variables, only four - sex, age at escape and measurement, time interval between escape from North Korea and arrival in South Korea, and year of escape - were found to be significant factors in their growth status. PMID:20646970

Pak, Sunyoung

2010-12-01

288

[A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].  

PubMed

Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151 statements, 59 experiences were extracted. And then 9 categories--at rest after physical activities, after problem solving, fancy, bathing in the bed, situation, rest, particular time, others--were organized. 3. The musics of the relaxation; From 229 statements, 108 musics were extracted, and the 9 categories--Western classical music, semi classical music, Korean song, Korean popular classical music, song, western popular song, hymn, characteristics of music, others--were organized. In conclusion, There are some differences between Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and western concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation. PMID:1495281

Park, J S

1992-01-01

289

Korean Legal Research Resources on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Heija B. Ryoo, Director of Library Systems and Technical Services at the School of Law Library, Southern Illinois University, this site offers a thorough overview of the South Korean legal system accompanied by numerous links to official sites, primary documents, and other authoritative resources. These are arranged under three major headings on a no-nonsense single page. Please be aware that the information provided for each link varies and that many of the sites require the appropriate plug-in for reading Korean characters, though this is noted by the site.

Ryoo, Heija B.

1998-01-01

290

Proposal for the Promotion of Korean Neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

The author conducted a survey on the current status of neurosurgery around the world in preparation for Presidential Address at the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN). The addresses and findings from the survey were presented at ISPN in 2006 and Child's Nervous System in 2007. After reviewing the current status of neurosurgery of various countries, the author would like to share this information with members of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, as well as offer a proposal to promote Korean neurosurgery around the world. PMID:19096536

2008-01-01

291

Optical properties of the mouse eye Ying Geng,1,2,*  

E-print Network

good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements

292

Koreans in Japan: A minority's Changing Relationship with Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Koreans form the largest ethnic minority group in Japan. The present study explores the situation of Korean pupils in Japanese schools by analyzing recent changes in four areas:(1) governmental and school-level policies, (2) school-level programs targeted at Korean children, (3) Korean pupils' academic achievements and (4) their micro-level encounter with schooling. It shows that Japanese schools are now more willing to accommodate special needs of Koreans in mainstream schooling and that Korean students experience schooling more positively than was the case in their parents' generation. The study argues that their relationship with Japanese schools has undergone a significant transformation at least partially because of such changes, even as the shifting nature of the relationship has a long-term influence on Koreans' beliefs about schools. Central government policies are seen as having adjusted in reply to existing school practices, themselves representing a response to classroom reality and local civil movements.

Okano, Kaori H.

2004-03-01

293

Measurement of BOLD Changes Due to Cued Eye-Closure and Stopping During a Continuous Visuomotor Task via Model-Based and Model-Free Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a precursor for investigation of changes in neural activity underlying lapses of responsiveness, we set up a system to simultaneously record functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), eye-video, EOG, and continuous visuomotor response inside an MRI scanner. The BOLD fMRI signal was acquired during a novel 2-D tracking task in which participants (10 males, 10 females) were cued to either

Govinda R. Poudel; Richard D. Jones; Carrie R. H. Innes; Richard Watts; Paul R. Davidson; Philip J. Bones

2010-01-01

294

Korean Futures: Challenges to U.S. Diplomacy of North Korean Regime Collapse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is no shortage of plausible scenarios describing North Korean regime collapse or how the United States and North Korea s neighbors might respond to such a challenge. Yet comparatively little attention has been paid to the strategic considerations th...

F. A. Saeed, J. J. Przystup

2011-01-01

295

Cognitive Function of Korean Neurosurgical Patients: Cross-sectional Study Using the Korean Version of the Mini-mental Status Examination  

PubMed Central

Objective As interest in life quality and expectancy increases, cognitive dysfunction is becoming an important topic. Although there are many foreign articles on this topic, they require cultural interpretation to be applicable to Koreans. The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive function in Korean neurosurgical patients. Methods We recruited 214 adult Korean patients with various cerebral pathologies and treatments from an outpatient clinic. The male-to-female ratio was 88:126, and their ages ranged from 28 to 81 years (mean: 57.9 years). The Korean version of the mini-mental status examination (K-MMSE) was adopted as an instrument for measuring cognitive function, and a score ?23 was defined as cognitive dysfunction. K-MMSE scores were analyzed considering the patients' gender, age, time elapsed since treatments, pathology and treatment modality. A serial analysis was performed for 59 patients who completed the K-MMSE more than once. Results The mean K-MMSE score of 214 patients was 22.3, and 133 patients (62.1%) had a score ?23. Cognitive dysfunction was common regardless of age, gender, pathology or treatment modality. Serial analysis revealed K-MMSE score improvement in 45 of 59 patients (76.3%). The mean time interval between two tests was 11.9 months, and the mean K-MMSE score improvement was 2.7, which was statistically significant (P = 0.000). However, many still had cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most Korean neurosurgical patients showed cognitive dysfunction despite improvement after several months. Patients with trauma or ischemic disease were more vulnerable. More attention should be paid to neuropsychological complications such as cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23210025

Kim, Jiha; Kim, Chi Heon; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Park, Chul-Kee

2012-01-01

296

Task Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity  

E-print Network

. Conclusion: Eye behavior trends reported in this study may provide insight to human behavior correspondingTask Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity: Predicting Behavior Relating of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA Running Head: Task Performance & Eye Activity Abstract word count: 254

Makeig, Scott

297

Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused

Kee Dae Kim

2005-01-01

298

Automatic number plate detection for Korean vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the task of detection of Korean vehicle number plates (also named license plates or registration plates in other countries). A system for number plate detection must cope with wide variations in the appearance of the plates. Few yeas ago, Korea government permits the new types of license plates with wide width as same as foreign country. It occurred

Ho-Sub Yoon; Hong-Chang Lee; Jae-Yeon Lee

2009-01-01

299

Samsung: Re-engineering Korean style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business Process Re-engineering has become one of the most popular and highly debated topics in management in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to try and analyse Korea's largest corporation, the Samsung Corporation, and its particular approach to re-engineering. The paper helps to illustrate not only Samsung's approach, but the general approach of Korean management strategy, and the

Chong Ju Choi

1995-01-01

300

Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

Koh, Hesung Chun

2006-01-01

301

Attitudes toward Women in Adolescent Korean Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1960s Korean society has been influenced by a variety of Western cultures, resulting in considerable changes in the roles assumed by women, especially related to their increasing employment. However, less than 3% of all managers or administrators are women. The Attitudes Toward Women scale and questionnaires concerning other…

Youn, Gahyun

302

Korean Supervisors' Experiences in Clinical Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demand for mental health services in Korea is increasing, and a corresponding rise in the number of trainees in counseling psychology results in a need for effective supervision. Using a grounded theory approach, this study explored Korean supervisors' experiences in supervision to better understand the current status of supervision practice…

Bang, Keeyeon; Park, Jeeseon

2009-01-01

303

Constraints on Noun Incorporation in Korean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the noun incorporation phenomenon in Korean suggests that noun incorporation occurs at D-structure and obeys the Head Movement Constraint syntactically, and the Theme-Only Constraint semantically. First, the structure of "sunrise"-type words is identified, showing that before derivation through nominalization of the affix "-i,"…

Khym, Hangyoo

1997-01-01

304

Eye to I  

E-print Network

This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

Brunstein, Ada

2007-01-01

305

Anatomy of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are present in the orbit (eye socket) that attach to the ... on which contact lenses are placed. Internal (Intraocular)Anatomy Anterior chamber: The anterior chamber is a fluid ( ...

306

Eye Cosmetic Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... contamination may be even greater with "testers" at retail stores, where a number of people are using ... As with any cosmetic product sold on a retail basis to consumers, eye cosmetics are required to ...

307

Foreign Body in Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... the object, you can remove it with the edge of a facial tissue or a moistened cotton swab. For small objects you also can try rinsing your eye with clean water. Sometimes your lashes will lift the object out ...

308

Multimodal eye recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

2010-04-01

309

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, fencing and ... eye problems or if you have a family history of retinal problems. If so, you should be ...

310

Eye Development and Retinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Three embryonic tissue sources—the neural ectoderm, the surface ectoderm, and the periocular mesenchyme—contribute to the formation of the mammalian eye. For this reason, the developing eye has presented an invaluable system for studying the interactions among cells and, more recently, genes, in specifying cell fate. This article describes how the eye primordium is specified in the anterior neural plate by four eye field transcription factors and how the optic vesicle becomes regionalized into three distinct tissue types. Specific attention is given to how cross talk between the optic vesicle and surface ectoderm contributes to lens and optic cup formation. This article also describes how signaling networks and cell movements set up axes in the optic cup and establish the multiple cell fates important for vision. How multipotent retinal progenitor cells give rise to the six neuronal and one glial cell type in the mature retina is also explained. Finally, the history and progress of cellular therapeutics for the treatment of degenerative eye disease is outlined. Throughout this article, special attention is given to how disruption of gene function causes ocular malformation in humans. Indeed, the accessibility of the eye has contributed much to our understanding of the basic processes involved in mammalian development. PMID:23071378

Heavner, Whitney; Pevny, Larysa

2012-01-01

311

Modern sports eye injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

Capao Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcao-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

2003-01-01

312

Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Torn Retina Diabetic Retinopathy Dry Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye ( ... Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye ...

313

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Blood Sugar and Eye Exams Control your blood sugar for several days ...

314

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Blood Sugar and Eye Exams Control your blood sugar for several days ...

315

Financial Aid for Eye Care  

MedlinePLUS

... to eligible candidates age 65 or older. Its Glaucoma EyeCare Program provides a glaucoma eye exam. The EyeCare America Children’s EyeCare Program ... need this exam. For People at Risk for Glaucoma -- Glaucoma is a leading cause of vision loss. ...

316

Receptive field positions in area MT during slow eye movements.  

PubMed

Perceptual stability requires the integration of information across eye movements. We first tested the hypothesis that motion signals are integrated by neurons whose receptive fields (RFs) do not move with the eye but stay fixed in the world. Specifically, we measured the RF properties of neurons in the middle temporal area (MT) of macaques (Macaca mulatta) during the slow phase of optokinetic nystagmus. Using a novel method to estimate RF locations for both spikes and local field potentials, we found that the location on the retina that changed spike rates or local field potentials did not change with eye position; RFs moved with the eye. Second, we tested the hypothesis that neurons link information across eye positions by remapping the retinal location of their RFs to future locations. To test this, we compared RF locations during leftward and rightward slow phases of optokinetic nystagmus. We found no evidence for remapping during slow eye movements; the RF location was not affected by eye-movement direction. Together, our results show that RFs of MT neurons and the aggregate activity reflected in local field potentials are yoked to the eye during slow eye movements. This implies that individual MT neurons do not integrate sensory information from a single position in the world across eye movements. Future research will have to determine whether such integration, and the construction of perceptual stability, takes place in the form of a distributed population code in eye-centered visual cortex or is deferred to downstream areas. PMID:21775589

Hartmann, Till S; Bremmer, Frank; Albright, Thomas D; Krekelberg, Bart

2011-07-20

317

Community-Based Home Healthcare Project for Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the effects of community-based home healthcare projects that influence service performances with regard to Korean national long-term care insurance services in older adults. Methods The project's applicants were 18 operational agencies in national long-term care institutions in Korea, and participants were care recipients (n = 2263) registered in long-term care institutions. We applied our healthcare system to the recruited participants for a 3-month period from October 2012 to December 2012. We measured the community-based home healthcare services such as long-term care, health and medical service, and welfare and leisure service prior to and after applying the community-based home healthcare system. Results After the implementation of community-based home healthcare project, all community-based home healthcare services showed an increase than prior to the project implementation. The nutrition management service was the most increased and its increase rate was 628.6%. A comparison between the long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries showed that health and medical services’ increase rate of nonbeneficiaries was significantly higher than beneficiaries (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our community-based home healthcare project might improve the service implementation for older adults and there was a difference in the increase rate of health and medical services between Korean national long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. PMID:24298438

Lee, TaeBum

2013-01-01

318

Job Information Deprivation in the United States: A Case Study of Korean Immigrants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the methods of job information acquisition used by recent Korean immigrants. Indicates the Koreans most frequently use personal contact with other Koreans. Reviews findings from the perspective of labor market segmentation. (Author/MK)

Kim, Kwang Chung; And Others

1981-01-01

319

An acoustic and aerodynamic study of stops in tonal and non-tonal dialects of Korean  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT This study investigates the acoustic and aerodynamic properties of well&ndashknown three&ndashway distinction of Korean voiceless stops in two dialects, which differ in their tonal systems: non&ndashtonal Seoul Korean (standard Korean...

Lee, Hyunjung

2010-03-29

320

The effect of Korean hand acupuncture on young, single Korean students with irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of Korean hand acupuncture (KHA) on bowel symptoms, stress, mental health, and heart rate variability in women with irritable bowel syndrome. From a total sample of 42 women with irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed with Rome III, 21 were randomly selected to be given KHA, whereas 21 were given sham KHA. The KHA group received KHA on 16 spots related to bowel symptoms, whereas the sham KHA group received treatment to areas unrelated to bowel symptoms. KHA needles were applied for 25 minutes, twice a week, for 4 weeks. After the treatment, bowel symptoms were measured using a Bowel Symptom Severity Scale, stress using a global assessment of recent health, mental health using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and heart rate variability. SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used to analyze the data, and a chi-square test, t test, and paired t test were used for analysis. The KHA group had a decrease in symptoms such as loose stool, bloating, abdominal discomfort, and abdominal pain compared with the sham KHA group (p < .05). However, there were no significant effects on stress, mental health, and heart rate variability. KHA was effective for bowel symptoms such as loose stool, bloating, abdominal discomfort, and abdominal pain, and it could be applied to patients with irritable bowel syndrome. There is a need for further research on the effectiveness of KHA in women with irritable bowel syndrome using more diverse physiological indexes. PMID:23207783

Park, Hyo Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

2012-01-01

321

Longitudinal Assessment of Optical Quality and Intraocular Scattering Using the Double-Pass Instrument in Normal Eyes and Eyes with Short Tear Breakup Time  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the longitudinal changes in optical quality including intraocular scattering in normal eyes and eyes with short tear breakup time (TBUT). Methods We prospectively examined twenty eyes of 20 healthy subjects, and age-matched twenty eyes of 20 short TBUT subjects. The modulation transfer function (MTF) cutoff frequency, the Strehl ratio, and the objective scattering index (OSI) were quantitatively assessed using an Optical Quality Analysis System. We investigated the changes in these variables measured consecutively at the initial examination, 5, and 10 seconds without blinking. We also compared these variables in eyes with short TBUT with those in normal eyes. Results No significant differences in the MTF cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio, or OSI were detected over a 10-second period in normal eyes. These variables also became significantly degraded even over a 5-second period in eyes with short TBUT (p<0.01). We found significant differences in these variables at 5 and 10 seconds (p<0.05), but none immediately after the blink between normal and short TBUT eyes. Conclusions Optical quality including intraocular scattering deteriorated significantly with time in eyes with short TBUT, whereas we found significant differences over a 10-second period in normal eyes. Eyes with short TBUT showed greater deterioration in optical quality after the blink than normal eyes. The longitudinal assessment of optical quality may be effective in distinguishing eyes with short TBUT from normal eyes. PMID:24324787

Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Yanome, Kyohei; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

2013-01-01

322

Mental health issues among urban Korean American immigrants.  

PubMed

Korean immigrants' perception and understanding of mental health and illness were surveyed during four monthly mental health seminars in New York City. In all, 86 Korean immigrants attended the seminars and 34 completed the survey. The seminar participants were primarily financially stable Korean women who were married, educated, and had lived in America more than 10 years. All seminar leaders were Korean immigrants who were working in the mental health field and/or educational setting. Most of the participants acknowledged the need for mental health services but did not seek professional help and coped with the stressors of immigrant life by endurance, patience, and religion. Feedback from seminar leaders noted the following: (a) greater seminar attendance than anticipated, (b) participants' openness to their mental illness issues, (c) need for tailored mental health program for Koreans. Findings support an understanding of the Korean immigrants' mental health issues as complex, chronic, and serious. PMID:17416720

Bernstein, Kunsook S

2007-04-01

323

Detection of vigilance performance using eye blinks.  

PubMed

Research has shown that sustained attention or vigilance declines over time on task. Sustained attention is necessary in many environments such as air traffic controllers, cyber operators, and imagery analysts. A lapse of attention in any one of these environments can have harmful consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine if eye blink metrics from an eye-tracker are related to changes in vigilance performance and cerebral blood flow velocities. Nineteen participants performed a vigilance task while wearing an eye-tracker on four separate days. Blink frequency and duration changed significantly over time during the task. Both blink frequency and duration increased as performance declined and right cerebral blood flow velocity declined. These results suggest that eye blink information may be an indicator of arousal levels. Using an eye-tracker to detect changes in eye blinks in an operational environment would allow preventative measures to be implemented, perhaps by providing perceptual warning signals or augmenting human cognition through non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. PMID:23722006

McIntire, Lindsey K; McKinley, R Andy; Goodyear, Chuck; McIntire, John P

2014-03-01

324

Short-term memory across eye blinks.  

PubMed

The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes. PMID:24147932

Irwin, David E

2014-11-01

325

Eye movements during emotion recognition in faces.  

PubMed

When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear, sadness, shame, and disgust) and neutral facial expressions. Participant eye movements primarily fell in five distinct regions (eyes, upper nose, lower nose, upper lip, nasion). Distinct fixation patterns emerged for each emotion, such as a focus on the lips for joyful faces and a focus on the eyes for sad faces. These patterns were strongest for emotional faces but were still present when viewers sought evidence of emotion within neutral faces, indicating a goal-driven influence on eye-gaze patterns. Experiment 2 verified that these fixation patterns tended to reflect attention to the most diagnostic regions of the face for each emotion. Eye movements appear to follow both stimulus-driven and goal-driven perceptual strategies when decoding emotional information from a face. PMID:25406159

Schurgin, M W; Nelson, J; Iida, S; Ohira, H; Chiao, J Y; Franconeri, S L

2014-01-01

326

Changes of the eye optics after iris constriction?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the possible change in the optics of the human eye after iris constriction. Methods Ocular aberrations were measured under natural viewing conditions in 26 eyes. The measured eyes fixated on a dim target while the contralateral eye was either occluded (so the measured eye had a large pupil) or highly illuminated (so the measured eye had a small pupil). The measured eyes fixated to a dim target placed 0.5 D beyond the subject’s far point. Zernike values obtained in both situations were compared within the same pupil diameter corresponding to the one obtained under the high illumination condition. Results Significant variation in some aberration coefficients were found between the two illumination conditions. Specially, spherical aberration (SA) increased significantly after pupil miosis (P = .0017). The mean increase of SA measured was 0.018 microns, for a 3-mm pupil. Mean values of other ocular aberrations also vary significantly after pupil miosis (changes were larger than the standard deviation of the repeated measurements). A mean paraxial hyperopic shift of one third of diopter was found after iris constriction. Conclusion Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.

Montés-Micó, Robert; Hernández, Patricio; Fernández-Sánchez, Vicente; Bonaque, Sergio; Lara, Francisco; López-Gil, Norberto

2011-01-01

327

New Interfaces for Traditional Korean Music and Dance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the creation of new interfaces that extend traditionalKorean music and dance. Specifically, this research resulted in the design ofthe eHaegum (Korean bowed instrument), eJanggu (Korean drum), and ZiOm wearableinterfaces. The paper describes the process of making these new interfaces aswell as how they have been used to create new music and forms of digital artmaking that blend

Ajay Kapur; Dae Hong Kim; Raakhi Kapur; Kisoon Eom

2013-01-01

328

Phonological development of word-initial Korean obstruents in young Korean children.  

PubMed

This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially. Cross-sectional data were collected from forty Korean children aged 2 ; 6 (year;month), 3 ; 0, 3 ; 6 and 4 ; 0, and the acquisition patterns of Korean obstruents were explored based on productions of mono- and multisyllabic words. Results confirm the universal patterns: stops were acquired before affricates and fricatives. In terms of order of acquisition across different laryngeal types, lenis stops were the last to be acquired. For Korean fricatives, in contrast, the lenis category appears to be acquired earlier than the fortis category. This study proposes that this order of acquisition may be explained by articulatory complexity associated with language-specific phonetic properties. PMID:20214843

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2011-03-01

329

China's policy toward the Korean Peninsula from 1978 to 2000.  

E-print Network

??The Korean peninsula is crucial to China's political, economic and security interests because of a combination of geographic, historical, and political circumstances. China’s economic reforms… (more)

Park, Hun Bong

2003-01-01

330

Some Aspects of Korean Acculturation and Value Orientation Since 1950  

E-print Network

Entertainers." The Korean is very perceptive of the identity of Yanggongju (Western princess), and of their differences from the ordinary Korean girl. Americans are often unaware of the fact that the Korean makes much of the differences in dress, behavior... equivalence relationship. The result in terms of value re-orien tation in Korea today is, that in terms of acceptable "ideal values" the young Korean ? 748 - girl feels as does her American sister, that she must be romantically in love with the man before...

Moos, Felix

1965-01-01

331

Causes of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed at analyzing the causes of death of prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War (1950-1953) who fought for the Communist side (North Korea and the People's Republic of China). In 1998, the United States Department of Defense released new information about the prisoners including, 7,614 deaths of the POW during the Korean War. The data on the causes of death of the POWs during the Korean War provides valuable information on the both the public health and history of the conflict. Materials and Methods To analyze the causes of death of the POWs, we classified the clinical diagnosis and findings on 7,614 deaths into 22 chapters, as outlined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision (ICD-10). Second, we traced changes in the monthly death totals of POWs as well as deaths caused by common infectious diseases and external causes of death including injury over time from August 1950 to September 1953. Results The most common category of causes of deaths of POWs was infectious disease, 5,013 (65.8%) out of 7,614 deaths, followed by external causes including injury, 817 (10.7%). Overall, tuberculosis and dysentery/diarrhea were the most common causes of death. Deaths caused by acute and chronic infection, or external causes showed different patterns of increases and decline over time during the Korean War. Conclusion The information and data on POWs' deaths during the Korean War reflects the critical impact of the POWs' living conditions and the effect of public health measures implemented in POW camps during the war. PMID:23364985

Lee, Myoung-Soon; Kang, Min-Jung

2013-01-01

332

Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. Results In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. Conclusions The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research. PMID:25393277

Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

2014-01-01

333

Construction and Application of a Korean Reference Panel for Imputing Classical Alleles and Amino Acids of Human Leukocyte Antigen Genes  

PubMed Central

Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans. PMID:25398076

Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

2014-01-01

334

Victimization in South Korean Children's Peer Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports a cross-sectional investigation of the behavioral, academic, and psychosocial correlates of victimization in South Korean children's peer groups. The participants were 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls; from 10–12-years-old) recruited from a primary school in Seoul, South Korea. Multi-informant assessments (peer nominations, teacher ratings, and self-reports) of peer victimization, social behavior, loneliness\\/social dissatisfaction, and academic functioning were

David Schwartz; JoAnn M. Farver; Lei Chang; Yoolim Lee-Shin

2002-01-01

335

Korean household waste management and recycling behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid industrial and economic development in the recent several decades has caused serious environmental problems in Korea. The country has very limited carrying capacity; the population density in Korea is 481 people per km2, ranking the third-highest in the world [1]. In 1995, the Korean government implemented a volume-based waste fee system (unit pricing system) that required every household

Seunghae Lee; Hae Sun Paik

2011-01-01

336

Water quality and limnology of Korean reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a Reservoirs are the predominant type of lentic ecosystem in Korea, and they account for a considerable proportion (~59%) of\\u000a the agricultural water uses. There are 18,797 reservoirs in Korea; most (~90%) are small (storage capacity 3), and most provide irrigation water for paddy farming. Characteristics of Korean agricultural reservoirs are high watershed-reservoir\\u000a area ratios, shallow depth, unstable hydrodynamics, and

Soon-Jin Hwang; Soon-Kuk Kwun; Chun-Gyeong Yoon

2003-01-01

337

Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.  

PubMed

This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

2013-08-01

338

A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

339

ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL SPECIES TO THE EYE IRRITATION POTENTIAL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG  

EPA Science Inventory

Eye irritation measurements are available from smog chamber solar irradiations of selected hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxide mixtures. These results have been used to compute eye irritation intensity parameters for formaldehyde, acrolein, peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate...

340

Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael

2010-01-01

341

Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... are different types of laser eye surgery. LASIK - laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis - is one of the most common. Many patients who have LASIK end up with 20/20 vision. But, like all medical procedures, it has both risks and benefits. Only ...

342

The Draize Eye Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of substances are used daily that can damage eyesight. People's eyes are open to accidental or intentional exposure during the production, transportation, use, and disposal of chemical preparations. Ensuring the safety of consumer products was born during the mid twentieth century in the aftermath of chemical warfare research, and was motivated by the hazards of unsafe cosmetics. Justified by

Kirk R Wilhelmus

2001-01-01

343

Eye-Tracking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the eye-movement paradigm and refers to recent experiments applying the paradigm to issues of spoken word recognition (e.g., lexical competitor effects), syntactic processing, reference resolution, focus, as well as issues in cross-modality integration that are central to evaluating the modularity hypothesis. (Seven references) (Author/CK)

Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Spivey-Knowlton, Michael J.

1996-01-01

344

Eye Tracking Denis Leimberg  

E-print Network

over six months at the Section of Intelligent Signal Processing, Department of Informatics discussions, and for introducing the world of eye tracking. Kaare Brandt Petersen, for sparing a day, during his busy ph.d.-nalizing period, to provide for hairy mathematical derivations. Martin E. Nielsen

345

Administering Eye Medications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

346

Through Students' Eyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

1994-01-01

347

Eye Movements and Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An explanation of visual perception is presented using physiological facts, analogies to digital computers, and analogies to the structure of written languages. According to the explanation, visual input is discontinuous, with the discontinuities mediated by and correlated with the jumps of the eye. This is analogous to the gated and buffer-stored…

Gaarder, Kenneth

348

Eye Disease Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

... it might be viewed by someone with normal vision Age-Related Macular Degeneration Age-Related Macular Degeneration information page Back to top Cataract Cataract information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top ...

349

GeoEye Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GeoEye Gallery provides high-resolution satellite images from around the world. Images include islands, ancient ruins, natural disasters, global security, manmade features, and more. A featured Image of the Week is also provided along with the annual Top 10 images.

2008-03-25

350

An integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults.  

PubMed

Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. PMID:21053789

Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie

2010-12-01

351

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know  

E-print Network

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know Holly B. Hindman, MDHolly B of Ophthalmology Flaum Eye InstituteFlaum Eye Institute University of RochesterUniversity of Rochester #12;THE FLAUM EYE INSTITUTE #12;Keeping Your Eyes Healthy · Know about how your eyes work · Most Eye Diseases

Goldman, Steven A.

352

Simple Solutions for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

353

Acculturation, stress, and depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in the United States.  

PubMed

A sample of 157 Korean immigrants responded to measures of acculturation level, stress from acculturation, and depressive symptoms. The authors hypothesized that adaptive acculturation would depend on assimilation regarding social interactions and the host culture's language as well as on retention of a core identity, including values and traditions of the culture of origin. Consistent with the mediation hypothesis, acculturation, based on a factor representing language use and social relationships, was related to lower acculturative stress and, in turn, lower depression. However, there was no direct support for the integrative, or bicultural, strategy of acculturation. Stress did not mediate the effect of a 2nd acculturation factor, identity and tradition-based acculturation. Rather, this measure of acculturation was directly related to higher depression (i.e., immigrants reporting abandonment of Korean identity, traditions, and values scored higher for depression). PMID:12153126

Oh, Yunjin; Koeske, Gary F; Sales, Esther

2002-08-01

354

The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort  

PubMed Central

The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) is a population-based longitudinal study of health determinants among elderly Koreans. The target population of the KSHAP are people aged 60 years or older and their spouses living in a rural community of Korea. A complete enumeration survey was conducted in the first wave of the KSHAP on 94.7% (814 of 860) of the target population between December 2011 and July 2012. The KSHAP-Health Examination (KSHAP-HE) cohort consists of 698 people who completed additional health examinations at a public health center (n=533) or at their home (n=165). Face-to-face questionnaires were used to interview participants on their demographics, social network characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, cognitive function, and depression symptoms. Health center examinations included anthropometric measures, body impedance analysis, resting blood pressure measurement, radial artery tonometry, bone densitometry, the timed up-and-go test, and fasting blood analysis. However, only anthropometric measures, blood pressure measurement, and non-fasting blood analysis were available for home health examinations. Collaboration is encouraged and access to the KSHAP baseline data will be available via the website of the Korean Social Science Data Archive (http://www.kossda.or.kr). PMID:24876995

Lee, Ju-Mi; Lee, Won Joon; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Choi, Wungrak; Lee, Jina; Sung, Kiho; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik

2014-01-01

355

The Diversity of Eye Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter starts with a description of the optics of camera-type eyes, in which an image is projected upon a retina with\\u000a cornea and lens as refracting elements. Ray tracing is explained with the human eye as an example of a terrestrial vertebrate’s\\u000a eye. Then the comparison is made to camera eyes of aquatic and amphibious animals, with an explanation

Lars Olof Björn

356

Characteristics of microseismicity in the southeastern area of the Korean Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of microseismicity occurred in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula are investigated. High-resolution data obtained from a dense temporary seismic network were analyzed with aid of data from the permanent seismograph networks which are administered by several organizations. A hundred of events with magnitude below 3.0 have been observed in the region during about one-year observation. Many of events are clustered in several localized regions and almost all of those events are observed at day time. This implies that those events might be related to the human activity at a limited location such as stone-mining site although we could not confirm our conjecture with eye investigations. The rest of events can be classified into natural earthquakes. Although they show a scattered pattern apparently, some of events are suspected to be related to the neotectonic geological features in the region based on distribution of both the hypocenter and origin time. Focal mechanisms of these events reflect an influence of the regional stress with no noticeable discrepancy from the rest of the Korean Peninsula. The longer observation using the dense temporary seismic network would be highly informative to confirm the relationship between the present seismicity and the neotectonic surface faults of the region. Thus the long-time seismic observations in a region is imperative to reduce uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment in the region.

Park, J.; Kang, T.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, W.; Jo, B.; Chung, T.

2012-12-01

357

The Role of Culture, Family Processes, and Anger Regulation in Korean American Adolescents' Adjustment Problems  

PubMed Central

Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11-15 (M = 13.0; SD = 1.2) years old. Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific vs. common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye towards prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519

Park, Irene J. K.; Kim, Paul Youngbin; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Kim, May

2010-01-01

358

Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

2008-01-01

359

An Introduction to Korean Culture for Rehabilitation Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] The purpose of this monograph is to provide recommendations to busy rehabilitation service providers in the U.S. for effectively working with persons who hold traditional Korean values. The topics of Korean history, immigration, culture, language, religion, food, views on disabilities and rehabilitation services typically available in Korea are covered briefly to provide the reader with a quick overview and

Weol Soon Kim-Rupnow

2001-01-01

360

Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

361

Emotional adjustment and concerns of Korean mothers of premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the emotional adjustment and concerns of 50 Korean mothers of premature infants from hospitalization through six weeks after discharge. Five themes emerged: self-blame, concern about the infant, reluctance to express negatives, fear of stigmatizing responses to the infant by others, and delayed joy in mothering. Three Korean cultural beliefs influenced mothers’ responses to premature birth: maternal responsibility

Inhae Lee; Kathleen F. Norr; Kasil Oh

2005-01-01

362

Are Korean Secondary School Girls Physically Active During Leisure Time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aims in this study were to identify the types of physical activity during leisure time and to determine if Korean secondary school girls participate in enough physical activity during leisure time to promote health. Of the 1,088 girls randomly selected by a multistaged cluster sampling technique, 705 girls completed questionnaires. Seventy-five percent of Korean secondary school girls spent time

Minhaeng Cho; Wook-Dong Kwon; Yong-Bae Jeon

2010-01-01

363

CHINESE PERSPECTIVES ON THE NORTH KOREAN NUCLEAR ISSUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current North Korean nuclear crisis poses a great challenge to the region security and the global non-proliferation regime. China has been playing a remarkably proactive role in the effort to resolve the nuclear crisis. China's approach trying to settle the North Korean nuclear issue would have an important impact on overcoming the current nuclear impasse. In this paper, I

Hui Zhang

364

Korean Science Teachers' Understanding of Creativity in Gifted Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the passing of Korea's Gifted Education Act, creativity has come to the forefront in considering the future of Korea's economic prosperity in the global economy (Korean Educational Development Institute, 2003). The purpose of this study was to examine the understanding of creativity among Korean science teachers of gifted students. Sixty…

Seo, Hae-Ae; Lee, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee

2005-01-01

365

Difficulties in Quality Doctoral Academic Advising: Experiences of Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines difficulties encountered by international students in establishing strong and supportive academic advising relationships, with a special focus on Korean doctoral students in the USA. Interviews about barriers, experienced and perceived, to quality advising interactions were conducted with eight Korean international students…

Kim, Youngjoo

2007-01-01

366

Korean practitioners and journalists: Relational influences in news selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how source–media relationships influence perceptions toward news selection from the public relations practitioners’ viewpoint in Korea. The results show that Korean public relations practitioners who perform formal media relations believed that journalists would select news stories based on journalists’ media routine principles, such as using government sources. In contrast, Korean public relations practitioners who perform informal or

Yungwook Kim; Jiyang Bae

2006-01-01

367

Community-based colorectal cancer intervention in underserved Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information

Grace X. Ma; Steve Shive; Yin Tan; Wanzhen Gao; Joanne Rhee; Micah Park; Jaesool Kim; Jamil I. Toubbeh

2009-01-01

368

Cultural Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the MBI-SS in Korean students. Specifically, we investigated whether the original three-factor structure of the MBI-SS was appropriate for use with Korean students. In addition, by running multi-group structural equation model analyses with factorial invariance tests simultaneously…

Shin, Hyojung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Lee, Sang Min

2011-01-01

369

Automatic Voltage Controllers for South Korean Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes two automatic voltage controllers for the South Korean power system. Simulation results from detailed Korean power-flow models show that the controllers can provide significant improvements in security, quality and efficiency of power system voltage monitoring and control. Operating within a time scale ranging from tens of seconds to a few minutes, the controllers can act upon voltage

Xing Liu; Vaithianathan Venkatasubramanian; Tae-kyun Kim

2009-01-01

370

Accounting for Korean-Speaking Students. Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for limited-English speaking, Korean-speaking adult students, this manual contains a 12-chapter course in accounting. It is written in Korean with key terms/concepts and limited amounts of other information (such as proper names and occupation-related vocabulary) in English. Examples are provided in English only. Information provided in…

Chicago City Colleges, IL. Truman Coll. UF-Truman Coll., Chicago, IL.

371

Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

2008-01-01

372

Motivation and Foreign Language Learning in Korean EFL Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that understanding the source and development of student motivation for learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is very important for educational purposes. The purpose of this study of 234 Korean 9th graders was to identify the following: (1) Korean students' orientations and motivations for learning English; (2) what kinds…

Kang, Dong-Ho

373

A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

2012-01-01

374

Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational…

Oh, Yun Suk

2011-01-01

375

Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

2004-01-01

376

Culture Conflict And Crime In The Korean-American Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other immigrant groups, Korean-American offenders victimize their own people. These criminals have operated with near impunity since their victims have been afraid to report crimes to the police. Due to the lack of knowledge of American criminal law and the operations of the justice system in general, Korean immigrants attempt to avoid those institutions in their new homeland that

Mark. A. Pogrebin; Eric D. Poole

1990-01-01

377

History and theology of Korean pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (pure gospel) Pentecostalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this study is to investigate the context and texture of Korean Pentecostalism - Sunbogeum (pure Gospel) Pentecostalism. This study shows that Sunbogeum Pentecostalism is the complex product of four factors: first, Korean religio-social circumstances; second, the doctrine of classical Pentecostalism; third, the influence of the American Assemblies of God; and fourth, the person Yonggi Cho. Accordingly, it

Ig-Jin Kim

2003-01-01

378

Bilingual Parsing with Factored Estimation: Using English to Parse Korean  

E-print Network

Bilingual Parsing with Factored Estimation: Using English to Parse Korean David A. Smith and Noah A that jointly searches for the best En- glish parse, Korean parse, and word alignment, where these hidden structures all constrain each other. The model used for parsing is completely factored into the two parsers

Smith, David A.

379

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

380

Evidentials and Interrogatives: A Case Study from Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My aims in this thesis are to establish how evidentiality is grammatically encoded in Korean, and to investigate the semantic nature of evidential morphemes in Korean, which helps us to explain the semantic and pragmatic behavior of evidential markers in non-declarative sentences, such as interrogatives. By doing so, this thesis also shows the…

Lim, Dong Sik

2010-01-01

381

Gender Differences in Correlates of Mental Health Among Elderly Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study examined the differential impact of social roles and socioeconomic resources on the mental health of Korean men and women aged 65 years or older. Methods. The study sample was a weighted population of 930 people (905 survey samples) aged 65 years or older who had responded to the health behavior survey of the 2001 Korean National Health

Gyeong-Suk Jeon; Soong-Nang Jang; Seon-Ja Rhee; Ichiro Kawachi; Sung-Il Cho

2007-01-01

382

Psychological and physiological responses to the rustling sounds of Korean traditional silk fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to investigate physiological and psychological responses to the rustling sound of Korean\\u000a traditional silk fabrics and to figure out objective measurements such as sound parameters and mechanical properties determining\\u000a the human responses. Five different traditional silk fabrics were selected by cluster analysis and their sound characteristics\\u000a were observed in terms of FFT spectra and

Soomin Cho; Eunjou Yi; Gilsoo Cho

2006-01-01

383

Carotid Artery and the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Help The Carotid Artery and the Eye Share with a friend The Carotid Artery and the Eye A link to this article will be included ... Give Us Feedback The Carotid Artery and the Eye Your name First Name MI Laast Name Your ...

384

Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

2001-01-01

385

Combining EEG and eye tracking: identification, characterization, and correction of eye movement artifacts in electroencephalographic data  

PubMed Central

Eye movements introduce large artifacts to electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) and thus render data analysis difficult or even impossible. Trials contaminated by eye movement and blink artifacts have to be discarded, hence in standard EEG-paradigms subjects are required to fixate on the screen. To overcome this restriction, several correction methods including regression and blind source separation have been proposed. Yet, there is no automated standard procedure established. By simultaneously recording eye movements and 64-channel-EEG during a guided eye movement paradigm, we investigate and review the properties of eye movement artifacts, including corneo-retinal dipole changes, saccadic spike potentials and eyelid artifacts, and study their interrelations during different types of eye- and eyelid movements. In concordance with earlier studies our results confirm that these artifacts arise from different independent sources and that depending on electrode site, gaze direction, and choice of reference these sources contribute differently to the measured signal. We assess the respective implications for artifact correction methods and therefore compare the performance of two prominent approaches, namely linear regression and independent component analysis (ICA). We show and discuss that due to the independence of eye artifact sources, regression-based correction methods inevitably over- or under-correct individual artifact components, while ICA is in principle suited to address such mixtures of different types of artifacts. Finally, we propose an algorithm, which uses eye tracker information to objectively identify eye-artifact related ICA-components (ICs) in an automated manner. In the data presented here, the algorithm performed very similar to human experts when those were given both, the topographies of the ICs and their respective activations in a large amount of trials. Moreover it performed more reliable and almost twice as effective than human experts when those had to base their decision on IC topographies only. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated an optimal balance of false positive and false negative at an area under curve (AUC) of more than 0.99. Removing the automatically detected ICs from the data resulted in removal or substantial suppression of ocular artifacts including microsaccadic spike potentials, while the relevant neural signal remained unaffected. In conclusion the present work aims at a better understanding of individual eye movement artifacts, their interrelations and the respective implications for eye artifact correction. Additionally, the proposed ICA-procedure provides a tool for optimized detection and correction of eye movement-related artifact components. PMID:23087632

Plochl, Michael; Ossandon, Jose P.; Konig, Peter

2012-01-01

386

What's on TV? Detecting age-related neurodegenerative eye disease using eye movement scanpaths  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We test the hypothesis that age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be detected by examining patterns of eye movement recorded whilst a person naturally watches a movie. Methods: Thirty-two elderly people with healthy vision (median age: 70, interquartile range [IQR] 64–75 years) and 44 patients with a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma (median age: 69, IQR 63–77 years) had standard vision examinations including automated perimetry. Disease severity was measured using a standard clinical measure (visual field mean deviation; MD). All study participants viewed three unmodified TV and film clips on a computer set up incorporating the Eyelink 1000 eyetracker (SR Research, Ontario, Canada). Eye movement scanpaths were plotted using novel methods that first filtered the data and then generated saccade density maps. Maps were then subjected to a feature extraction analysis using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Features from the KPCA were then classified using a standard machine based classifier trained and tested by a 10-fold cross validation which was repeated 100 times to estimate the confidence interval (CI) of classification sensitivity and specificity. Results: Patients had a range of disease severity from early to advanced (median [IQR] right eye and left eye MD was ?7 [?13 to ?5] dB and ?9 [?15 to ?4] dB, respectively). Average sensitivity for correctly identifying a glaucoma patient at a fixed specificity of 90% was 79% (95% CI: 58–86%). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82–0.87). Conclusions: Huge data from scanpaths of eye movements recorded whilst people freely watch TV type films can be processed into maps that contain a signature of vision loss. In this proof of principle study we have demonstrated that a group of patients with age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be reasonably well separated from a group of healthy peers by considering these eye movement signatures alone.

Crabb, David P.; Smith, Nicholas D.; Zhu, Haogang

2014-01-01

387

A Construct-Related Validity Study on a Korean Version of the Perceptual Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of a Korean version of the Perceptual Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire. The instrument was developed to measure the learning-style preferences of students of English as a second language and English as a foreign language and has gained wide currency as a classroom diagnostic tool and survey…

Isemonger, Ian; Sheppard, Chris

2007-01-01

388

Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined…

Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

2014-01-01

389

Thyroid dimensions of Korean adults on routine neck computed tomography and its relationship to age, sex, and body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to establish a “normal” range of dimensions of the thyroid gland on routine neck computed tomography in the Korean population and to investigate the possible influence of some physiological factors on the thyroid dimension. Neck computed tomography scans of 100 adults (57 males, 43 females; mean age=55.2 years) were reviewed retrospectively to measure the size

Dong-Hee Lee; Kwang-Jae Cho; Dong-Il Sun; Sung-Jae Hwang; Dong-Kee Kim; Min-Sik Kim; Seung-Ho Cho

2006-01-01

390

What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?  

MedlinePLUS

... función de Escuchar . What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ... seeing your best. What does a comprehensive dilated eye exam include? A comprehensive eye examination includes: dilation , ...

391

Migration and the Korean Diaspora: A Comparative Description of Five Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international migration and settlement of Koreans began in 1860 and there are now about 6.8 million overseas Koreans in 170 countries. Each wave of Korean migration was driven by different historical factors in the homeland and the host countries, and hence the motivations and characteristics of Korean immigrants in each period were different. The diverse conditions in and government

In-Jin Yoon

2012-01-01

392

"My Heart Beats in Two Places": Immigration Stories in Korean-American Picture Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of immigration on Korean children through a content and literary analysis of 14 children's picture books. A majority of published children's literature dealing with the subject of Korean Americans or Korean immigration contains culturally specific themes common to the Korean immigration experience. These…

Yi, Joanne H.

2014-01-01

393

Security Environment on the Korean Peninsula and the Desirable Roles of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the end of the Korean War, the Korean question has been a difficult global issue in the context of a complicated regional balance of power. Soviet-North Korean military ties have increased, and the North-South Korean military imbalance continues. Th...

P. H. Kim

1989-01-01

394

Age at menarche and its influencing factors in North Korean female refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Age at menarche is known to be regulated by genetic and environmental factors. To date, no menarcheal data are available on North Korean women. In this cross-sectional survey, we investigated age at menarche and its possible influencing factors in North Korean refugees. METHODS: Four hundred and eleven North Korean refu- gees were surveyed at a North Korean female refugee

Seung-Yup Ku; Jong Won Kang; Heon Kim; Yong Dae Kim; Byung Chul Jee; Chang Suk Suh; Young Min Choi; Jung Gu Kim; Shin Yong Moon; Seok Hyun Kim

395

Needed: Instruments as Good as Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators use their eyes to see what is there, whether it is intended or not. But they use their test instruments to measure what is intended, whether it is there or not. Evaluators have been broadening their repertoire of instruments for years: curriculum-embedded tests, observer checklists, audiotape recorders, videotape recorders, unobtrusive…

Brickell, Henry M.

2011-01-01

396

Assessment of the Pascal dynamic contour tonometer in monitoring intraocular pressure in unoperated eyes and eyes after LASIK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the performance of the Pascal dynamic contour tonometer (PDCT) (Swiss Microtechnology AG) by comparing it to Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and noncontact air tonometry (NCT) before and after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).Setting: Vlemma Eye Institute, Athens, Greece.Methods: Intraocular pressure was measured in 118 eyes before and 1 and 4 weeks after LASIK using GAT, NCT, and

Dimitrios S Siganos; Georgios I Papastergiou; Carlos Moedas

2004-01-01

397

Geometric adjustments to account for eye eccentricity in processing horizontal and vertical eye and head movement data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neglecting the eccentric position of the eyes in the head can lead to erroneous interpretation of ocular motor data, particularly for near targets. We discuss the geometric effects that eye eccentricity has on the processing of target-directed eye and head movement data, and we highlight two approaches to processing and interpreting such data. The first approach involves determining the true position of the target with respect to the location of the eyes in space for evaluating the efficacy of gaze, and it allows calculation of retinal error directly from measured eye, head, and target data. The second approach effectively eliminates eye eccentricity effects by adjusting measured eye movement data to yield equivalent responses relative to a specified reference location (such as the center of head rotation). This latter technique can be used to standardize measured eye movement signals, enabling waveforms collected under different experimental conditions to be directly compared, both with the measured target signals and with each other. Mathematical relationships describing these approaches are presented for horizontal and vertical rotations, for both tangential and circumferential display screens, and efforts are made to describe the sensitivity of parameter variations on the calculated results.

Huebner, W. P.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.

1995-01-01

398

The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking…

Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

2014-01-01

399

Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

2009-01-01

400

Occupational radiation dose to eyes from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in light of the revised eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection  

PubMed Central

Objective: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure that combines the use of X-ray fluoroscopy and endoscopy for examination of the bile duct. Published data on ERCP doses are limited, including staff eye dose from ERCP. Occupational eye doses are of particular interest now as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended a reduction in the dose limit to the lens of the eye. The aim of this study was to measure occupational eye doses obtained from ERCP procedures. Methods: A new eye lens dosemeter (EYE-D™, Radcard, Krakow, Poland) was used to measure the ERCP eye dose, Hp(3), at two endoscopy departments in Ireland. A review of radiation protection practice at the two facilities was also carried out. Results: The mean equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of a gastroenterologist is 0.01?mSv per ERCP procedure with an undercouch X-ray tube and 0.09?mSv per ERCP procedure with an overcouch X-ray tube. Staff eye dose normalised to patient kerma area product is also presented. Conclusion: Staff eye doses in ERCP have the potential to exceed the revised ICRP limit of 20?mSv per annum when an overcouch X-ray tube is used. The EYE-D dosemeter was found to be a convenient method for measuring lens dose. Eye doses in areas outside of radiology departments should be kept under review, particularly in light of the new ICRP eye dose limit. Advances in knowledge: Occupational eye lens doses from ERCP procedures have been established using a new commercially available dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. PMID:23385992

Gallagher, A; Malone, L; O'Reilly, G

2013-01-01

401

Cortexin diffusion in human eye sclera  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the diffusion of cytamines, a typical representative of which is cortexin, is important for evaluating the drug dose, necessary to provide sufficient concentration of the preparation in the inner tissues of the eye. In the present paper, the cortexin diffusion rate in the eye sclera is measured using the methods of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance spectroscopy. The technique for determining the diffusion coefficient is based on the registration of temporal dependence of the eye sclera scattering parameters caused by partial replacement of interstitial fluid with the aqueous cortexin solution, which reduces the level of the OCT signal and decreases the reflectance of the sclera. The values of the cortexin diffusion coefficient obtained using two independent optical methods are in good agreement. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, Valerii V; Ghosn, M G; Larin, Kirill V; Kamenskikh, T G

2011-05-31

402

Cortexin diffusion in human eye sclera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of the diffusion of cytamines, a typical representative of which is cortexin, is important for evaluating the drug dose, necessary to provide sufficient concentration of the preparation in the inner tissues of the eye. In the present paper, the cortexin diffusion rate in the eye sclera is measured using the methods of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance spectroscopy. The technique for determining the diffusion coefficient is based on the registration of temporal dependence of the eye sclera scattering parameters caused by partial replacement of interstitial fluid with the aqueous cortexin solution, which reduces the level of the OCT signal and decreases the reflectance of the sclera. The values of the cortexin diffusion coefficient obtained using two independent optical methods are in good agreement.

Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Ghosn, M. G.; Larin, Kirill V.; Kamenskikh, T. G.

2011-05-01

403

Korean Born, Korean-American High School Students' Entry into Understanding Race and Racism through Social Interactions and Conversations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how a group of Korean born, Korean-American high school students came to understand race and racism in the US through social interactions and conversations, with particular attention paid to the locality of time, space and people engaged. Therefore, we explore not only how race and racism are socially constructed in the lives…

Palmer, John D.; Jang, Eun-Young

2005-01-01

404

Korean born, Korean?American high school students' entry into understanding race and racism through social interactions and conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how a group of Korean born, Korean?American high school students came to understand race and racism in the US through social interactions and conversations, with particular attention paid to the locality of time, space and people engaged. Therefore, we explore not only how race and racism are socially constructed in the lives of the participants, but also

John D. Palmer

2005-01-01

405

“Seoul—America” on America's “Soul”: South Koreans and Korean Immigrants Navigate Global White Racial Ideology1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although students of race have produced impressive works on global Western racism, their mostly macro-level focus has not addressed how marginal groups respond to Western racial ideology and do so based on state and cultural influences. To capture Asians' localized responses to white-American superiority specifically, the author conducts a comparative case study of South Koreans and Korean American immigrants, fitting

Nadia Y. Kim

2006-01-01

406

The Korean Catholic Church and feminism: A study of four Korean Catholic feminist groups and their members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the early 1990s, feminist issues had been rarely discussed in the Korean Catholic Church. However, during the 1990s, four Catholic feminist groups emerged; they are The Korean Catholic Women's Community for a New World (KCWC), The Women's Community in the Sisters Association in Korea, The Catholic Women's Research Institute of Korea (CWRIK), and The Association of Catholic Feminist Theologians

Jung Woo Park

2004-01-01

407

Sub-Syllabic Processing in Young Korean-English Bilinguals: Semivowel Placement Differences between Korean and English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the…

Baek, Seunghyun

2014-01-01

408

Partial Coherence Laser Interferometry in Highly Myopic versus Emmetropic Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the reliability of partial coherence laser interferometry for optical biometry in highly myopic eyes. Methods Axial length measurements by the IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ?2 were performed in 52 consecutive myopic subjects with axial length ?26.5 mm and 45 emmetropic patients before cataract surgery. Axial length measurements and SNR were analyzed and compared among the two study groups. Results Axial length measurements were feasible in 46 of 52 (88.5%) highly myopic eyes and in 41 of 45 (91.1%) eyes with normal axial length. To achieve two reliable axial length values with SNR ?2, a mean number of 2.06±0.25 measurements was necessary in myopic eyes and 2.10±0.37 in emmetropic counterparts. Mean SNR after two measurements was 4.98±2.44 in myopic eyes versus 5.56±2.32 in control eyes. Even though successful measurement was independent of preoperative visual acuity, patients with visual acuity better than 20/63 showed significantly higher SNR values. Conclusions Partial coherence laser interferometry shows satisfying feasibility and good signal quality for axial length determination in highly myopic eyes with stable retinal condition and clear media.

Roessler, Gernot F.; Talab, Yassin Djalali; Dietlein, Thomas S.; Dinslage, Sven; Plange, Niklas; Walter, Peter; Mazinani, Babac AE

2014-01-01

409

Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared experimental wave aberrations in pseudophakic eyes with aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) to simulate aberrations from numerical ray tracing on customized computer eye models using corneal topography, angle ?, ocular biometry, IOL geometry, and IOL tilt and decentration measured on the same eyes. We found high correlations between real and simulated aberrations even for the eye with only the cornea, and these increased on average when the IOL geometry and position were included. Relevant individual aberrations were well predicted by the complete eye model. Corneal spherical aberration and horizontal coma were compensated by the IOL, and in 58.3% of the cases IOL tilt and decentration contributed to compensation of horizontal coma. We conclude that customized computer eye models are a good representation of real eyes with IOLs and allow understanding of the relative contribution of optical, geometrical and surgically-related factors to image quality. Corneal spherical aberration is reduced by aspheric IOLs, although other corneal high order aberrations are still a major contributor to total aberrations in pseudophakic eyes. Tilt and decentration of the IOLs represent a relatively minor contribution of the overall optical quality of the eye.

Rosales, P.; Marcos, S.

2007-03-01

410

The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.  

PubMed

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further. PMID:23639994

Choi, Hansook

2014-06-01

411

Association of Total Marine Fatty Acids, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids, With Aortic Stiffness in Koreans, Whites, and Japanese Americans  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Few previous studies have reported the association of aortic stiffness with marine n-3 fatty acids (Fas) in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the combined and independent associations of 2 major marine n-3 FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with aortic stiffness evaluated using carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in Korean, white, and Japanese American men. METHODS A population-based sample of 851 middle-aged men (299 Koreans, 266 whites, and 286 Japanese Americans) was examined for cfPWV during 2002–2006. Serum FAs, including EPA and DHA, were measured as a percentage of total FAs using gas chromatography. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of EPA and DHA with cfPWV after adjusting for blood pressure and other confounders. RESULTS Mean EPA and DHA levels were 1.9 (SD = 1.0) and 4.8 (SD = 1.4) for Koreans, 0.8 (SD = 0.6) and 2.4 (SD = 1.2) for whites, and 1.0 (SD = 1.0) and 3.2 (SD = 1.4) for Japanese Americans. Both EPA and DHA were significantly higher in Koreans than in the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses in Koreans showed that cfPWV had a significant inverse association with total marine n-3 FAs and with EPA alone after adjusting for blood pressure and other potential confounders. In contrast, there was no significant association of cfPWV with DHA. Whites and Japanese Americans did not show any significant associations of cfPWV with total marine n-3 FAs, EPA, or DHA. CONCLUSIONS High levels of EPA observed in Koreans have an inverse association with aortic stiffness. PMID:23820020

2013-01-01

412

Tropical Cyclone Eye Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intense tropical cyclones, sea level pressures at the center are 50-100 hPa lower than outside the vortex, but only 10-30 hPa of the total pressure fall occurs inside the eye between the eyewall and the center. Warming by dry subsidence accounts for this fraction of the total hydrostatic pressure fall. Convection in the eyewall causes the warming by doing

H. E. Willoughby

1998-01-01

413

Dry Eye Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications. PMID:22454735

Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr

2011-01-01

414

Michelangelo's eye disease.  

PubMed

Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

2012-06-01

415

Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship of Internet addiction to depression and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. The participants were 1573 high-school students living in a city who completed the self-reported measures of the Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Major Depression Disorder-Simple Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior. A correlational survey design was employed. Among the samples, 1.6% was diagnosed as Internet addicts, while 38.0% was classified as possible Internet addicts. The prevalence of Internet addiction did not vary with gender. The levels of depression and suicide ideation were highest in the Internet-addicts group. Future studies should investigate the direct relationship between psychological health problems and Internet dependency. PMID:16427966

Kim, Kyunghee; Ryu, Eunjung; Chon, Mi-Young; Yeun, Eun-Ja; Choi, So-Young; Seo, Jeong-Seok; Nam, Bum-Woo

2006-02-01

416

The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version  

PubMed Central

Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673

Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho

2013-01-01

417

Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

418

It's Others, Not the Police: Smoking, Reprimand, and Fines among Adults of Korean Descent in California  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assesses the association of immediate social and legal reprimand and current smoking status among Californians of Korean descent. Design Data were drawn from a population-based probability sample using a telephone survey conducted by bilingual, professional interviewers (N=2085). About 85.0% of eligible respondents completed interviews and 86.3% of participants preferred to be interviewed in Korean. Main Outcome Measure Smoking status was measured using CDC criteria, ever smoked 100 cigarettes and currently smoke every day or some days. Results and Conclusion Reports of immediate criticism by others in several settings was associated with non-smoking, but likelihood of immediate legal penalties was unrelated. Participants were far less likely to expect legal than social sanction. Results were replicated after controlling for reinforcers of smoking and ecologically relevant variables including models of smoking, primary group social support for smoking, acculturation, gender, acculturation by gender (male) interaction, age, and education. It may be efficacious to target public health interventions encouraging appropriate social sanctions of smoking in public among persons of Korean descent, and to encourage strict enforcement of legal penalties for smoking in public places. PMID:20496979

Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne; Kang, Sunny

2009-01-01

419

The Temperament and Character of Korean Male Conscripts with Military Maladjustment-A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Recently, an increasing number of Korean male conscripts have been retiring because of military maladjustment despite the presence of qualifying medical and psychological screening tests in the Korean army. These problems suggest the presence of a common personality problem. To further examine this possibility, the present study used Cloninger's psychobiological model to investigate the temperament and character of soldiers suffering from military maladjustment. Methods Seventy-nine maladjusted male conscripts and eighty-seven controls enrolled at the 1596th unit from April 2011 to June 2012 participated in the present study. To measure participant personality, we used the Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory, Revised-Short. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the association between TCI-RS scores and risk of military maladjustment. Results The maladjustment group had a lower rank, socioeconomic status, education level, and a shorter duration of military service than the control group. The harm avoidance and self-transcendence scores were significantly higher in the maladjustment group, with lower scores for reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness scores. However, of these measures, only low cooperativeness was associated with an increased risk of military maladjustment. Conclusion These results suggest that a low level of cooperativeness can predict military inadequacy. Maladjusted male conscripts may have different personality characteristics from normals. To validate our results, further follow-up or cohort studies with a larger sample will be required. PMID:23798960

Lee, Sung-Bu

2013-01-01

420

Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.  

PubMed

In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sřrensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Břrsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

2013-09-01

421

Validation of the Korean version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.  

PubMed

We evaluated the reliability and validity of an adapted Korean version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Translation/retranslation of the English version of RMDQ was conducted, and all steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were performed. The Korean version of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) measure of pain, RMDQ, and the previously validated Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were mailed to 100 consecutive patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP) of at least 3 months. Eighty-one patients responded to the first mailing of questionnaires and 63 of the first-time responder returned their second survey. The average age of the 63 patients (45 female, 18 male) was 47.8 years. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating kappa statistics of agreement for each item, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach's ?. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing the responses of RMDQ with the results of VAS and responses of ODI by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The constructed Bland-Altman plot showed a good reliability. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement greater than 0.6. The RMDQ showed excellent test/re-test reliability as evidenced by the high ICC for 2 test occasions (ICC = 0.932, P < 0.001). Internal consistency was found to be very good at both assessments with Cronbach's ? (0.942 and 0.951 at first and second assessments, respectively). The RMDQ was correlated with the VAS (r = 0.692; P = 0.000 and r = 0.668; P = 0.000 at first and second assessments, respectively), and with the ODI (r = 0.789; P = 0.000 and r = 0.802; P = 0.000, respectively). The adapted Korean version of the RMDQ was successfully translated and showed acceptable measurement properties, and as such, is considered suitable for outcome assessments in the Korean speaking patients with LBP. PMID:21479853

Lee, Jung Sub; Lee, Dong Ho; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Lim, Jong Min; Goh, Tae Sik

2011-12-01

422

Language Ideology and Identity in Transnational Space: Globalization, Migration, and Bilingualism among Korean Families in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing transnational migration trend among (South) Korean families brings heterogeneity to the Korean-American communities in the US in terms of educational practices and identity. Based on interviews with Korean mothers, this study discusses how two groups of Koreans, Korean immigrants and early study abroad sojourners, enacted and adopted…

Song, Juyoung

2010-01-01

423

Dynamic Eye Movement Datasets an Learnt Saliency Models for Visual Action Recognition,ECCV 2012  

E-print Network

evaluation measures adapted for video. · Trainable computer vision systems based on human eye movementsDynamic Eye Movement Datasets an Learnt Saliency Models for Visual Action Recognition,ECCV 2012 contributions are presented related with this issue. Image from http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Eye_movements

Erdem, Erkut

424

Tracing Eye Movement Protocols with Cognitive Process Models Dario D. Salvucci (dario+@cs.cmu.edu)  

E-print Network

1 Tracing Eye Movement Protocols with Cognitive Process Models Dario D. Salvucci (dario+@cmu.edu) Department of Psychology; Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract In using eye movements to develop cognitive models, researchers typically analyze eye movement protocols with aggregate measures

Salvucci, Dario D.

425

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye Movements Till S across eye movements. We first tested the hypothesis that motion signals are integrated by neurons whose receptive fields (RFs) do not move with the eye but stay fixed in the world. Specifically, we measured

Krekelberg, Bart

426

Genetic Architecture of Skin and Eye Color in an African-European Admixed Population  

E-print Network

Genetic Architecture of Skin and Eye Color in an African- European Admixed Population Sandra Beleza and eye color is substantial and especially apparent in admixed populations, yet the underlying genetic and apply a new approach for measuring eye color, and identify two major loci (HERC2[OCA2] P = 2

Tang, Hua

427

An Improved Method for Locating and Extracting the Eye in Human Face Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the head boundary is first located in a head-and-shoulders image. The approximate positions of the eyes are estimated by means of average anthropometric measures. Corners, the salient features of the eyes, are detected. The corner detection scheme introduced in this paper can provide accurate information about the corners. The shape of the eye is then extracted by

Kin-Man Lam; Hong Yan

1996-01-01

428

Reconstruction of the Optical System of the Human Eye with Reverse Ray-Tracing  

E-print Network

Reconstruction of the Optical System of the Human Eye with Reverse Ray-Tracing Alexander V the optical system of the human eye from off-axis wavefront measurements. A retinal beacon formed at different aberrations of the human eye with use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949

Dainty, Chris

429

Tracking and Optimal Control Problems in Human Head/Eye Coordination  

E-print Network

Tracking and Optimal Control Problems in Human Head/Eye Coordination Indika Wijayasinghe1, Eugenio Aulisa1, Bijoy K. Ghosh1, Stefan Glasauer2,3 and Olympia Kremmyda4 Abstract-- Human head and eye rotate and compares simulation results with experimentally measured data on human head/eye movement. Index Terms

Ghosh, Bijoy K.

430

Epinephrine distribution after topical administration to phakic and aphakic eyes.  

PubMed Central

Not infrequently an important clinical drug is found to have side-effects far beyond those initially anticipated. Epinephrine, administered topically in the management of open-angle glaucoma, effectively lowers intraocular pressure, but it has side-effects which may be both local and systemic. As a first approach to the understanding of these widespread effects, the present studies report the specific distribution of radioactivity labeled epinephrine--after it is applied topically to one eye--in the same eye, the opposite eye, and in other certain nonocular tissues. Further, because of the existence of the clinical syndrome known as "aphakic epinephrine maculopathy," similar measurements of distribution of labeled epinephrine after topical administration are reported for aphakic eyes. Autoradiography is used to localize radioactive epinephrine specifically within tissues histologically, and radiochromatography is used to confirm specific association of radioactivity with chemically authentic epinephrine. In general, after topical administration, the exogenously administered epinephrine is taken up and stored substantially in the iris and ciliary body and to a lesser extent in the choroid in the treated eye. If the treated eye is aphakic, significantly more labeled epinephrine appears in the choroid. Far less epinephrine is found in the retina and still less in the optic nerve of the treated eye, but uptake and storage in these tissues also increases substantially in the treated eye if the eye is aphakic. Very small but definitely measurable and identifiable amounts of epinephrine also appear in the tissues of the opposite eye, again in similar proportions. There is no difference in the amount of epinephrine which appears in the opposite eye if either or both eyes are aphakic. Significant amounts of epinephrine are also seen in nonocular tissues such as those of the heart and spleen following topical administration. While these findings do not speak to the mechanism of epinephrine side-effects on the anterior eye, the posterior eye, the opposite eye, or on systemic tissues and organs, they do address the possibility that epinephrine can cause side-effects in these areas by demonstrating its localization there following topical administration. These findings have clinical implications relevant to glaucoma management, to toxic ocular syndromes such as epinephrine maculopathy in aphakia, and to toxic systemic effects of epinephrine. Images FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 PMID:7257075

Kramer, S G

1980-01-01

431

ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

Harriet, E Hollander

2009-10-01

432

More Than Meets the Eye The Genetics of Eye Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The genetics of eye color are more complex than commonly believed. This interrupted case study uses the story of a blue-eyed couple with a brown-eyed child to explore the possible scenarios that could result in this outcome. The case emphasizes the link between Mendelian genetics and the underlying molecular basis of the phenotype. It is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate biology majors with a good understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation and Mendelian genetics.

Genereux, Annie P.

2011-01-01

433

A novel functional magnetic resonance imaging compatible search-coil eye-tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring eye movements (EMs) using the search-coil eye-tracking technique is superior to video-based infrared methods [Collewijn H, van der Mark F, Jansen TC. Precise recording of human eye movements. Vision Res 1975;15(3):447-50], which suffer from the instability of pupil size, blinking behavior and lower temporal resolution. However, no conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-compatible search-coil eye tracker exists. The main

Axel Oeltermann; Shih-Pi Ku; Nikos K. Logothetis

2007-01-01

434

Eyes in Various Species Can Shorten to Compensate for Myopic Defocus  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We demonstrated that eyes of young animals of various species (chick, tree shrew, marmoset, and rhesus macaque) can shorten in the axial dimension in response to myopic defocus. Methods. Chicks wore positive or negative lenses over one eye for 3 days. Tree shrews were measured during recovery from induced myopia after 5 days of monocular deprivation for 1 to 9 days. Marmosets were measured during recovery from induced myopia after monocular deprivation, or wearing negative lenses over one or both eyes, or from wearing positive lenses over one or both eyes. Rhesus macaques were measured after recovery from induced myopia after monocular deprivation, or wearing negative lenses over one or both eyes. Axial length was measured with ultrasound biometry in all species. Results. Tree shrew eyes showed a strong trend to shorten axially to compensate for myopic defocus. Of 34 eyes that recovered from deprivation-induced myopia for various durations, 30 eyes (88%) shortened, whereas only 7 fellow eyes shortened. In chicks, eyes wearing positive lenses reduced their rate of ocular elongation by two-thirds, including 38.5% of eyes in which the axial length became shorter than before. Evidence of axial shortening in rhesus macaque (40%) and marmoset (6%) eyes also occurred when exposed to myopic defocus, although much less frequently than that in eyes of tree shrews. The axial shortening was caused mostly by the reduction in vitreous chamber depth. Conclusions. Eyes of chick, tree shrew, marmoset, and rhesus macaque can shorten axially when presented with myopic defocus, whether the myopic defocus is created by wearing positive lenses, or is the result of axial elongation of the eye produced by prior negative lens wear or deprivation. This eye shortening facilitates compensation for the imposed myopia. Implications for human myopia control are significant. PMID:23493295

Zhu, Xiaoying; McBrien, Neville A.; Smith, Earl L.; Troilo, David; Wallman, Josh

2013-01-01

435

Acculturation and dietary habits of Korean Americans.  

PubMed

This is the first study to investigate how food and nutrient intakes vary with the levels of acculturation of Korean Americans using a dietary assessment tool tested for validity and reliability. The respondents were Korean Americans (n 486) resident in the Greater New York metropolitan area, USA. They were divided into two groups according to the total score of acculturation: low- and high-acculturated groups. Using a food-frequency questionnaire and a modified Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale, differences in the frequencies of food items, food groups and nutrient intakes consumed were analysed by level of acculturation. The low-acculturated group tended to consume significantly more rice, mixed rice, soyabean paste chigae (pot stew), saengsun (fish) chigae, kimchi chigae, other fish broiled or baked, eggs, kimchi, spinach, persimmons, and white or brown sugar in coffee or tea. The high-acculturated group demonstrated a statistically greater tendency to consume bread, cereal, spaghetti, ham, green salad, sweetcorn, chocolate, candies and diet soft drinks. The more acculturated an individual, the more significant was the tendency to consume sweets. The more acculturated group had significantly (P<0.05) higher intakes of % energy from total fat, thiamin, vitamin E and folate, while the low-acculturated group consumed greater amounts of Na, niacin and dietary fibre. The information from the present study can be used to describe dietary habits according to various aspects of acculturation, and allows a better understanding of the dynamics of acculturation and dietary habits. PMID:15005833

Kim, Jeongseon; Chan, Mabel M

2004-03-01

436

A hypothesized model of Korean women's responses to abuse.  

PubMed

Many abused married Korean women have a strong desire to leave their abusive husbands but remain in the abusive situations because of the strong influence of their sociocultural context. The article discusses Korean women's responses to spousal abuse in the context of patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theory. Age, education, and income as component elements share common effects on the emergent variable, sociostructural power. Gender role attitudes, traditional family ideology, individualism/collectivism, marital satisfaction, and marital conflict predict psychological-relational power as a latent variable. Sociostructural, patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theories are reconceptualized to generate the model of Korean women's responses to abuse. PMID:15189642

Choi, Myunghan; Harwood, Jake

2004-07-01

437

Chick eyes compensate for chromatic simulations of hyperopic and myopic defocus: Evidence that the eye uses longitudinal chromatic aberration to guide eye-growth  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) causes short wavelengths to be focused in front of long wavelengths. This chromatic signal is evidently used to guide ocular accommodation. We asked whether chick eyes exposed to static gratings simulating the chromatic effects of myopic or hyperopic defocus would “compensate” for the simulated defocus. We alternately exposed one eye of each chick to a sine-wave grating (5 or 2 cycle/deg) simulating myopic defocus (“MY defocus”: image focused in front of retina; hence, red contrast higher than blue) and the other eye to a grating of the same spatial frequency simulating hyperopic defocus (“HY defocus”: blue contrast higher than red). The chicks were placed in a drum with one eye covered, with one grating, and then switched to another drum with the other eye covered, with the other grating. To minimize the effects of altered eye-growth on image contrast, we studied only the earliest responses: first, we measured changes in choroidal thickness 45 min to 1 hour after one 15-min episode in the drum, then we measured glycosaminoglycans (GAG) synthesis in sclera and choroid (by the incorporation of labeled sulfate in tissue culture) after a day of four 30-min episodes in the drum. The eyes compensated in the appropriate directions: The choroids of the eyes exposed to the HY simulation showed significantly more thinning (less thickening) over the course of the experiment than the choroids of the eyes exposed to the MY simulation (all groups mean: ?17 ?m; 5 c/d groups: ?24 ?m; paired t-test (one-tailed): p=0.0006). The rate of scleral GAG synthesis in the eye exposed to the HY simulation was significantly greater than in the eye exposed to the MY simulation (HY/MY ratio = 1.20; one sample t-test (one-tailed): p=0.015). There was no significant interaction between the sign of the simulated defocus and either the spatial frequency or the presence of a +3 D lens used to compensate for the 33 cm distance of the drum. Although previous work has shown that chromatic cues to defocus are not essential for lens-compensation, in that chicks can compensate in monochromatic light, our evidence implies that the eye may be able to infer whether the eye is myopic or hyperopic from the different chromatic contrasts that result from different signs of defocus. PMID:19383509

Wallman, Josh

2009-01-01

438

Scanning technique for tracking small eye-movements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanning technique images spot of blue light on fundus, measures variations in reflectance of spot and compares reflectance pattern with a stored reference pattern. Method then converts the difference from stored pattern into infrared eye motion.

Kelly, D. H.; Crane, H. D.

1972-01-01

439

Emmetropization and Eye Growth in Young Aphakic Chickens  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish a chick model to investigate the trends of eye growth and emmetropization after early lensectomy for congenital cataract. Methods Four monocular treatments were applied: lens extraction (LX); sham surgery/-30 D lens; LX/+20 D lens; and LX/+30-D lens (nine per group). Lens powers were selected to slightly undercorrect or overcorrect the induced hyperopia in LX eyes and to induce comparable hyperopia in sham-surgery eyes. Refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured over a 28-day period. External ocular dimensions were obtained when the eyes were enucleated on the last day. Results The growth patterns of experimental (Exp) eyes varied with the type of manipulation. All eyes experiencing hyperopia initially grew more than their fellow eyes and exhibited myopic shifts in refraction. The sham/-30 D lens group showed the greatest increase in optical axial length, followed by the LX group, and then the LX/+20 D lens group. The Exp eyes of the LX/+30 D lens group, which were initially slightly myopic, grew least, and showed a small hyperopic shift. Lensectomized eyes enlarged more equatorially than axially (i.e., oblate), irrespective of the optical treatment applied. Conclusions The refractive changes observed in young, aphakic eyes are consistent with compensation for the defocus experienced, and thus emmetropization. However, differences in the effects of lensectomy compared to those of sham surgery raise the possibility that the lens is a source of essential growth factors. Alterative optical and mechanical explanations are offered for the oblate shapes of aphakic eyes. PMID:18719085

Ai, Likun; Li, Jing; Guan, Huan; Wildsoet, Christine F.

2009-01-01

440

The effects of cognitive training on community-dwelling elderly Koreans.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to apply and test the effects of cognitive training on community-dwelling, elderly Koreans. The cognitive training was applied for 24 weeks to 129 elderly participants. The participants were divided into two groups to receive either cognitive training followed by observational period, or observational period followed by cognitive training. The primary outcome measures were the geriatric depression scale (Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form-Korean, GDS-SF-K) and mini-mental status examination (Mini-Mental State Examination in the Korean version, MMSE-KC) scores. There were no differences between the average GDS-SF-K and MMSE-KC scores of the two groups. However, the participants with cognitive dysfunction (defined as baseline MMSE below the 16th percentile according to age, sex and educational level) who received cognitive training initially had significantly improved MMSE-KC score on weeks 8 and 16, compared with the participants with cognitive dysfunction who were observed first. However, the participants who received cognitive training later did in fact catch up with the other group in terms of MMSE-KC score. Cognitive training by visiting nursing services was more effective in the elderly with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:19930364

Park, M H; Kwon, D Y; Seo, W K; Lim, K S; Song, M S

2009-12-01

441

Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ). A Korean version of the SASRQ was produced through forward translation, reconciliation, and back translation. A total of 100 healthy, non-clinical participants were selected through screening and clinical interview, and they each were given a set of questionnaires including SASRQ. Psychometric properties of SASRQ were then examined through statistical analyses. Full-scale and subscales of SASRQ yielded excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.98 and 0.78-0.95, respectively). Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was satisfactory, with coefficient r ranging between 0.47 and 0.71. Convergent validity was also demonstrated by strong correlations between SASRQ and other trauma-related questionnaires. Correlation with Social Desirability Scale, however, was not found to be significant; thus evidenced divergent validity. The Korean version of SASRQ appears to be a reliable and valid measurement tool for assessing symptoms of acute stress disorder. Including clinical samples for comparison with controls would be necessary in future studies. PMID:24265534

Kweon, Yong-Sil; Jung, Na Young; Wang, Sheng-Min; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Chae, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Chung Tai

2013-01-01

442

A general framework for robot hand-eye coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general framework for robot hand-eye coordination is proposed, including: dynamic, real time, adaptive hand-eye calibration; full cooperation and mutual coordination of a vision system and a robot manipulator; and three stages in motion control, namely, global motion control, precise measurement of object-in-hand, and fine-motion control. In measurement of object-in-hand, an iterative method based on null motion observation is used.

Ping Liang; J. Feng; Susan Hackwood

1988-01-01

443

Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye?  

MedlinePLUS

... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology medical disclaimer privacy policy sponsorship & advertising policies about us Educational Resources ...

444

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Geographic magazine, long known for its educational maps and writing that is easily understood by a variety of readers, has added a feature to its Website. The new online resource from National Geographic, sponsored by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), is called Eye in the Sky, and it showcases what we can learn about our planet using satellites. Here, users can read about the history of satellites and remote-sensing technology and choose from a menu of brief lessons on natural disasters, human impacts on Earth, human conflicts, and exploration of Mars. Each lesson page gives photographs, facts, and short movies (RealPlayer or Windows Media Player). The title "Eye in the Sky" is slightly misleading because most of the images featured are taken at ground-level, and it isn't always clear how some of the lessons fit with the idea of remote sensing. Nevertheless, the site is worth a look, and a few satellite images (of floodplains and the ozone hole, for example) pepper the material here.

2001-01-01

445

Obesity and Eye Diseases  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of these associations, particularly with the different cataract subtypes, remains to be determined. There is strong evidence that obesity is associated with elevated intraocular pressure, but there is no convincing data to support a more direct association between obesity and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Studies to date have not found a consistent pattern of association between obesity and risk of age-related maculopathy or diabetic retinopathy. Thus, while obesity may be a risk factor for many ocular conditions, the present literature is inadequate to establish any convincing associations. Furthermore, whether weight loss reduces the risk of eye diseases remains unresolved. Because of the potential public health impact of obesity, there is a greater need to understand its ocular effects. PMID:17355856

Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.

2009-01-01

446

The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.  

PubMed

This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul. Kong's fame as a successful practitioner gradually made him express his opinion on various social issues. Kong did not hesitate to utilize his influence to advocate the new "modern" way of living, with special emphasis on speed and efficiency. His engagement in typewriter business since 1949 may also be attributed to his firm belief in the value of speed and efficiency. Although he could not fulfill his dream of being an academic, Kong still remains as an important figure in the history of medicine in modern Korea, not only for his publicity. By closely analyzing Kong's personal story, one can see various aspects of opportunities, personal networks, social norms, and limitations within the colonial setting. PMID:24503921

Kim, Tae-Ho

2013-12-01

447

Ionospheric disturbances locate the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric disturbances from the North Korean underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 were detected using the total electron content (TEC) measurements from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The TEC measurements were derived from the ionospheric delay of the GNSS signals and identified traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that can be attributed to the UNE. Taking three point numerical derivatives of the TEC measurements isolated the TIDs with propagation speeds of roughly 150 - 400 m/s at stations located about 365 km to 1330 km from the UNE. TIDs were detected at eleven stations where the statistical probability for these TIDs to have occurred randomly across the GNSS array was found to be less than one chance in 1033 chances. Nearly 1300 TID samples from these GNSS stations were tested to confirm the strong statistical uniqueness of the array signature. Furthermore, the GNSS observations mapped ionospheric winds for adjusting the TID velocities to locate the UNE to within about 2.7 km of its seismically determined epicenter.

Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.; Gaya-Pique, L. R.

2011-12-01

448

Four Fantastic Foods to Keep Your Eyes Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Four Fantastic Foods to Keep Your Eyes Healthy Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Blood Sugar and Eye Exams Control your blood sugar for several days ...

449

Binocular retinal image differences influence eye-position signals for perceived visual direction.  

PubMed

Correctly perceiving the direction of a visible object with respect to one's self (egocentric visual direction) requires that information about the location of the image on the retina (oculocentric visual direction) be combined with signals about the position of the eyes in the head. The Wells-Hering laws that govern the perception of visual direction and modern restatements of these laws assume implicitly that retinal and eye-position information are independent of one another. By measuring observers' manual pointing responses to targets in different horizontal locations, we show that retinal and eye-position information are not treated independently in the brain. In particular, decreasing the relative visibility of one eye's retinal image reduces the strength of the eye-position signal associated with that eye. The results can be accounted for by interactions between eye-specific retinal and eye-position signals at a common neural location. PMID:22560955

Sridhar, Deepika; Bedell, Harold E

2012-06-01

450

Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

451

A study of Korean shipbuilders' strategy for sustainable growth  

E-print Network

This paper aims to develop potential strategies for Korean shipbuilders for sustainable growth by understanding the characteristics of the shipbuilding industry and the current market situation. Before the financial meltdown ...

Won, Duck Hee

2010-01-01

452

Phylogenetic analysis of astrovirus and kobuvirus in korean dogs.  

PubMed

Astroviruses and kobuviruses are frequently found in mammalian feces, including that of humans. The present study examined fecal samples from 91 Korean dogs suffering from diarrhea. Canine astroviruses (CAstVs) and canine kobuviruses (CKoVs) were identified in 2 (2.1%) and 46 (50.6%) dogs, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis coupled with phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method showed that CAstVs clustered into four genetically diverse groups. Two Korean CAstVs belonged to group 2 alongside strains isolated in Italy and France. Twelve of the Korean CKoVs belonged to a single clade, along with strain UK003 identified in the UK and six CKoVs identified in the USA. Thus, the results suggest that the Korean strain of CAstV is closely related to strains isolated in Europe. Surely, CKoV in South Korea could identify the circulation among dogs population. PMID:24784439

Choi, Sarah; Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Yong Kwan; Cho, Yoon-Young; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

2014-09-01

453

Metalinguistic Awareness Contributions: Evidence from Spelling in Korean and English  

E-print Network

been acknowledged, little research has been conducted on the simultaneous investigation of these three metalinguistic skills, and it is especially true for Korean Hangul. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously examine these three inter...

Yeon, Sookkyung

2012-11-26

454

Korean Pop Culture: A Decade of Ups and Downs 1  

E-print Network

Korean pop culture or hallyu (the Korean Wave) refers to the phenomenon of Korean entertainment and popular culture causing a great sensation in the world with pop music, TV dramas, and movies. Over the last decade, Korea emerged as a new center for the production of transnational pop culture. However, an anti-hallyu movement is often rising in some parts of the world. In this regard, this study suggests that we should look back on the decade by analyzing the backlashes and achievement of hallyu to develop concrete ideas on how to consistently develop it. In order to do so, it is essential for the government to contribute to the progress of cultural exchange with countries where Korean pop culture is making inroads.

Jin-young Kim; Jong Oh Lee

455

Psychometric validation of a short acculturation scale for Korean immigrants.  

E-print Network

SAS in Korean. Age of Arrival Factor 1 “Language” Length ofsubscales (language, media, and social relations). Older agelanguage proficiency scale. In addition to typical demographic questions such as age,

Choi, Sarah E; Reed, Preston L

2011-01-01

456

Semantic Features as a Cause of Tensification in Korean  

E-print Network

Nominal compounds of `NI + N2" in Korean can be classified into the following three major categories: co-compound, subcompound, and fusion. Among these three major categories, insertion of /t/' in the compounding process and subsequent tensification...

Khym, Hangyoo

1998-01-01

457

Segmental properties of input to infants: a study of Korean.  

PubMed

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more use of mid and low central vowels in IDS as well as more use of language-specific Korean phonemes. Mothers produced significantly more fortis and geminate and less lenis consonant phonemes in IDS than in ADS. Findings suggest that Korean mothers speaking to infants in the IDS speech style use sounds that more closely match infant production propensities as well as highlighting perceptually salient properties. IDS may serve to facilitate infant learning of ambient language phonological regularities. PMID:18588716

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L; Macneilage, Peter F

2008-08-01

458

Confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: A conceptual development for the cooperative monitoring of limited-force deployment zones  

SciTech Connect

Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of North and South Korea could decrease the risk of conflict on the Korean Peninsula and help create an environment in which to negotiate a peace regime. The Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) and the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to identify potential CBMs and define associated monitoring. The project is a conceptual analysis of political and technical options for confidence building that might be feasible in Korea at some future time. KIDA first analyzed current security conditions and options for CBMs. Their conclusions are presented as a hypothetical agreement to strengthen the Armistice Agreement by establishing Limited Force Deployment Zones along the Military Demarcation Line. The goal of the hypothetical agreement is to increase mutual security and build confidence. The CMC then used KIDA`s scenario to develop a strategy for cooperative monitoring the agreement. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing and sharing of agreed information among parties to an agreement and typically relies on the use of commercially available technology. A cooperative monitoring regime must be consistent with the agreement`s terms; the geographic, logistic, military, and political factors in the Korean setting; and the capabilities of monitoring technologies. This report describes the security situation on the Korean peninsula, relevant precedents from other regions, the hypothetical agreement for reducing military tensions, a monitoring strategy for the hypothetical