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1

Eye Movements and Parafoveal Processing during Reading in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parafoveal word processing was examined during Korean reading. Twenty-four native speakers of Korean read sentences in two conditions while their eye movements were being monitored. The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to create a mismatch between characters displayed before and after an eye movement contingent display change. In the…

Kim, Young-Suk; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian

2012-01-01

2

Linguistic Complexity and Information Structure in Korean: Evidence from Eye-Tracking during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded…

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

2007-01-01

3

Korean Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Dry Eye: Development and Validation of Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy of newly developed guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye. Methods This retrospective, multi-center, non-randomized, observational study included a total of 1,612 patients with dry eye disease who initially visited the clinics from March 2010 to August 2010. Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye were newly developed from concise, expert-consensus recommendations. Severity levels at initial and final visits were determined using the guidelines in patients with 90 ± 7 days of follow-up visits (n = 526). Groups with different clinical outcomes were compared with respect to clinical parameters, treatment modalities, and guideline compliance. Main outcome measures were ocular and visual symptoms, ocular surface disease index, global assessment by patient and physician, tear film break-up time, Schirmer-1 test score, ocular surface staining score at initial and final visits, clinical outcome after three months of treatment, and guideline compliance. Results Severity level was reduced in 47.37% of patients treated as recommended by the guidelines. Younger age (odd ratio [OR], 0.984; p = 0.044), higher severity level at initial visit, compliance to treatment recommendation (OR, 1.832; p = 0.047), and use of topical cyclosporine (OR, 1.838; p = 0.011) were significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes. Conclusions Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dry eye can be used as a valid and effective tool for the treatment of dry eye disease. PMID:24882952

Hyon, Joon Young; Lee, Doh; Chung, Eui-Sang; Song, Jong-Suk; Choi, Chul Young; Lee, Jungbok

2014-01-01

4

Driver eye height measurement  

E-print Network

and Cumulative Distribution of Driver Eye Heights. 24 TABLE 5, ? Passenger Vehicles: Frequency of Driver Eye Heights. 25 TABLE 6. ? Passenger Vehicles: Cumulative Distributions of Driver Eye Heights 26 TABLE 7. ? Summary Results f rom Analysis of Variance... the driver eye height and the height of an assumed object are required in these computations. Format and style based cn the Transportation En ineering Journal of hg A + ' S ~fC~1 Guaranteeing drivers a safe stopping distance on horizontal curves requires...

Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

1978-01-01

5

Linguistic complexity and information structure in Korean: evidence from eye-tracking during reading.  

PubMed

The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded complement sentences; the third experiment additionally examined reading of sentences with object-modifying, object-extracted relative clauses. In Korean, both of these structures place two NPs with nominative case marking early in the sentence, with the embedded and matrix verbs following later. The type (pronoun, name or description) of these two critical NPs was varied in the experiments. When the initial NPs were of the same type, comprehension was slowed after participants had read the sentence-final verbs, a finding that supports the view that working memory in language comprehension is constrained by similarity-based interference during the retrieval of information necessary to determine the syntactic or semantic relations between noun phrases and verb phrases. Ease of comprehension was also influenced by the association between type of NP and syntactic position, with the best performance being observed when more definite NPs (pronouns and names) were in a prominent syntactic position (e.g., matrix subject) and less definite NPs (descriptions) were in a non-prominent syntactic position (embedded subject). This pattern provides evidence that the interpretation of sentences is facilitated by consistent packaging of information in different linguistic elements. PMID:16970936

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C

2007-09-01

6

Linguistic complexity and information structure in Korean: Evidence from eye-tracking during reading  

PubMed Central

The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded complement sentences; the third experiment additionally examined reading of sentences with object-modifying, object-extracted relative clauses. In Korean, both of these structures place two NPs with nominative case marking early in the sentence, with the embedded and matrix verbs following later. The type (pronoun, name or description) of these two critical NPs was varied in the experiments. When the initial NPs were of the same type, comprehension was slowed after participants had read the sentence-final verbs, a finding that supports the view that working memory in language comprehension is constrained by similarity-based interference during the retrieval of information necessary to determine the syntactic or semantic relations between noun phrases and verb phrases. Ease of comprehension was also influenced by the association between type of NP and syntactic position, with the best performance being observed when more definite NPs (pronouns and names) were in a prominent syntactic position (e.g., matrix subject) and less definite NPs (descriptions) were in a non-prominent syntactic position (embedded subject). This pattern provides evidence that the interpretation of sentences is facilitated by consistent packaging of information in different linguistic elements. PMID:16970936

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

2006-01-01

7

Effect of Korean Red Ginseng supplementation on dry eye syndrome in glaucoma patients – A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Many patients with glaucoma have difficulty using antiglaucoma eye drops because of dry eye symptom. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of Korean Red Ginseng on dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma treated with antiglaucoma eye drops. Methods Forty-nine participants were allocated to the Korean Red Ginseng (3 g/day; n = 24) or placebo (n = 25) groups for 8 weeks. Tear film stability, fluorescein corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, tear production, grade of meibomian gland dysfunction, and dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were evaluated at baseline and on completion of the treatment. Results Almost all patients displayed dry eye symptoms and signs at baseline. After the 8-week intervention, Korean Red Ginseng supplementation significantly improved the tear film stability and total Ocular Surface Disease Index score, as compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Conclusion Korean Red Ginseng supplementation may provide an additional treatment option for dry eye and patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops.

Bae, Hyoung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Minkyo; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

2014-01-01

8

Understanding mechanisms in transitive inferences: an eye-tracking study in Korean reading.  

PubMed

The current experiment examined the mechanism of relational information processing by assessing transitive inferences in different syntactic structures. More specifically, the current experiment focused on whether the demands of conscious inference processing interact with the difficulty of syntactic processing. This research used the eye-tracking method to investigate online processing mechanisms in complex sentences with transitive inference. Overall sentence reading times, accuracy rates of comprehension questions, and the two eye-movement measures of gaze duration and re-reading times were examined in 32 participants. The results showed that inference processing demands affected overall reading times and accuracy rates, while syntactic processing demands did not have an effect on overall reading times or accuracy rates. The results of the eye-tracking measures showed that syntactic processing demands affected gaze duration, while the inference processing demand affected re-reading times. Apparently, the difficulty of inference processing was not affected by the surface form of a sentence. The results of this study suggested that basic processes of sentence interpretation share resources with other cognitive processes such as inference. PMID:24665796

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan

2013-12-01

9

U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

2014-01-01

10

Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula  

SciTech Connect

As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base case scenario (a one-day surprise attach by North Korea) whether arms control measures will stabilize or destabilize the military status quo on the Peninsula in terms of North Korea's extent of penetration in the actual war situations. Four alternative measures are derived from the analysis: (1) Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs); (2) Establishment of Asymmetric Non-Deployment Zone (NDZ); (3) Reduction of the joint US-South Korean Team Spirit' exercises and North Korea's Forward Deployed Forces; and, (4) Reduction of South Korean and US forces and North Korean Forces. Findings indicate that establishment of the NDZ and a North Korean unilateral reduction are estimated to best achieve the goal of South Korean arms control.

Han Yongsup.

1991-01-01

11

Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

2011-01-01

12

Preservation and Modification of Culture in Family Socialization: Development of Parenting Measures for Korean Immigrant Families  

PubMed Central

This study aims to describe the family socialization beliefs and practices of Korean immigrant parents through testing psychometric properties of several newly developed items and scales to assess the major components of the Korean traditional concept of family socialization, ga-jung-kyo-yuk. These new measures were examined for validity and reliability. The findings show that Korean immigrant parents largely preserve their traditional and core parenting values, while also showing meaningful, yet not very dramatic, signs of adopting new cultural traits. The results also suggest that the acculturative process may not be simply bilinear but may generate a new, unique and blended value and behavior set from the two (or more) cultures involved. Culturally appropriate practice requires not only further validation of existing knowledge with minority groups, but the development of a theoretical framework of family socialization that recognizes the cultural uniqueness of immigrant families. PMID:24765236

Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Drankus, Dina; Kim, Hyun Jee

2012-01-01

13

Clinical application of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in a korean population.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologic mediator of various physiologic functions. Recent evidence suggests the clinical utility of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) as a biomarker for assessing asthma and other respiratory diseases. FeNO methodologies have been recently standardized by international research groups and subsequently validated in several Korean population studies. Normal ranges for FeNO have been reported for various ethnic groups, and the clinical utility has been widely evaluated in asthma and various respiratory diseases. Based on current evidence including most of Korean population data, this position paper aims to introduce the methodological considerations, and provide the guidance for the proper clinical application of FeNO measurements in Korean populations. PMID:25553257

Song, Woo-Jung; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Woo Kyung; Shim, Jung Yeon; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo Bin; Song, Dae Jin; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Lee, Joo-Shil; Cho, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soo-Jong

2015-01-01

14

Clinical Application of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurements in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologic mediator of various physiologic functions. Recent evidence suggests the clinical utility of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) as a biomarker for assessing asthma and other respiratory diseases. FeNO methodologies have been recently standardized by international research groups and subsequently validated in several Korean population studies. Normal ranges for FeNO have been reported for various ethnic groups, and the clinical utility has been widely evaluated in asthma and various respiratory diseases. Based on current evidence including most of Korean population data, this position paper aims to introduce the methodological considerations, and provide the guidance for the proper clinical application of FeNO measurements in Korean populations. PMID:25553257

Song, Woo-Jung; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Shim, Jung Yeon; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo Bin; Song, Dae Jin; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Lee, Joo-Shil

2015-01-01

15

High frequency eye tremor: reliability of measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports suggest that high frequency eye tremor or ocular microtremor (OMT) may be a useful indicator of brainstem function. The method of record analysis, and in particular the amount of record subjected to such analysis, has varied widely. The authors have recorded OMT from 10 normal subjects. Using these records they have performed 42 distinct replication reliability studies. They

C. Bolger; N. Sheahan; D. Coakley; J. Malone

1992-01-01

16

Axial length measurement techniques in pediatric eyes with cataract  

PubMed Central

Globe axial length (AL) in children is commonly measured using either contact or immersion technique. Office measurement of AL can be difficult in young children and infants and must often be done under anesthesia in an eye that is unable to cooperate with precise fixation and centration. Contact A-scan measurements yield shorter AL, on average, than immersion A-scan measurements in pediatric eyes. This difference is mainly the result of the anterior chamber depth rather than the lens thickness value. During intraocular lens power calculation, if globe axial length is measured by the contact technique, it will result in the use of an average 1-D stronger IOL power than is actually required. This can lead to induced myopia in the postoperative refraction. In our studied patients, there was a significant difference in prediction error between contact A-scan biometry and immersion A-scan biometry. The immersion A-scan technique is recommended for pediatric IOL power calculation. We also provide a review of biometry in pediatric eyes. The overall mean AL of pediatric cataractous eyes is significantly different than the mean AL of non cataractous eyes. More importantly, the standard deviation is higher in eyes with cataract than in those without. Three phases of eye growth in children have been documented: A rapid, postnatal phase from birth to 6 months of age, followed by a slower, infantile phase from 6 to 18 months of age, and finally a slow, juvenile phase from 18 months forward. In our study, girls had shorter ALs than boys and African-American subjects had longer ALs than Caucasians. Eyes with unilateral cataract had shorter ALs than eyes with bilateral cataract during the earlier years, but had longer ALs during later childhood. PMID:23960963

Wilson, M. Edward; Trivedi, Rupal H.

2011-01-01

17

Influences of reference plane and direction of measurement on eye aberration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explored effects of measurement conditions on wave aberration estimates for uncorrected, axially myopic model eyes. Wave aberrations were initially referenced to either the anterior corneal pole or the natural entrance pupil of symmetrical eye models, with rays traced into the eye from infinity (into the eye) to simulate normal vision, into the eye from infinity and then back out of the eye from the retinal intercepts (into/out of the eye), or out of the eye from the retinal fovea (out of the eye). The into-the-eye and out-of-the-eye ray traces gave increases in spherical aberration as myopia increased, but the into/out-of-the-eye ray trace showed little variation in spherical aberration. Reference plane choice also affected spherical aberration. Corresponding residual aberrations were calculated after the models had been optically corrected, either by placing the object or image plane at the paraxial far point or by modifying corneas to simulate laser ablation corrections. Correcting aberrations by ablation was more complete if the original aberrations were referenced to the cornea rather than to the entrance pupil. For eyes corrected by spectacle lenses, failure to allow for effects of pupil magnification on apparent entrance pupil diameter produced larger changes in measured aberrations. The general findings regarding choice of reference plane and direction of measurement were found to be equally applicable to eyes that lacked rotational symmetry.

Atchison, David A.; Charman, W. Neil

2005-12-01

18

High frequency eye tremor: reliability of measurement.  

PubMed

Recent reports suggest that high frequency eye tremor or ocular microtremor (OMT) may be a useful indicator of brainstem function. The method of record analysis, and in particular the amount of record subjected to such analysis, has varied widely. We have recorded OMT from 10 normal subjects. Using these records we have performed 42 distinct replication reliability studies. We suggest seven parameters of OMT (including overall frequency of tremor) which may be of value in comparing abnormal with normal records. For each parameter we have determined the optimal duration of the record to analyse and the reliability of such analysis. Our results suggest that at least 5 s of OMT should be analysed to yield an acceptable estimate of all seven parameters. PMID:1499258

Bolger, C; Sheahan, N; Coakley, D; Malone, J

1992-05-01

19

Retinal layers measurements in healthy eyes and in eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the concordance/symmetry of each retinal layers in individuals without macular pathology and to further characterize the localization of inner retinal thinning in eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade. Methods Retinal layers of one hundred eyes of 50 individuals without macular pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and manually segmented using ImageJ software (developed by Wayne Rasband, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). In the second part of the study, retrospective analysis of 3028 cases of pars plana vitrectomy in University Eye Hospital Cologne, Germany, was conducted, retrieving nine patients with silicone oil-based endotamponade with no macular condition interfering retinal layers measurements. These patients had retinal detachment not involving the macula due to various conditions. In these patients, retinal layer segmentation was performed and compared with the fellow eye. Results There is a moderate-to-high concordance for all retinal layers between the right and the left eye of the same individual. In eyes receiving silicone oil-based endotamponade, the inner retinal layers become subsequently thinner. Ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers contribute most to this thinning, that is, 0.537 ± 0.096 mm3 compared with 0.742 ± 0.117 mm3; p = 0.006. Outer retinal layers were not affected by silicone oil-based endotamponade (p = 0.439 for the differences of calculated outer retinal layers). Conclusion Ganglion cell and inner retinal layers become subsequently thinner after the use of silicone oil-based endotamponade. This study advocates the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography for patient management with silicone oil endotamponade to early detect subsequent retinal thinning. PMID:24238324

Caramoy, Albert; Droege, Katharina M; Kirchhof, Bernd; Fauser, Sascha

2014-01-01

20

Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures  

PubMed Central

Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415

Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

2013-01-01

21

Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.  

PubMed

Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye height (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the height of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between height of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye height estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in height estimates in cases with height measurements based on time of the gait cycle and based on the degree of head tilt from video material. Our data also provide descriptive statistics which may be helpful when comparing eye height measurements of a perpetrator with one or more suspects. PMID:24503163

Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

2014-03-01

22

EEG and eye-tracking based measures for enhanced training.  

PubMed

This paper describes a project whose goal was to establish the feasibility of using unobtrusive cognitive assessment methodologies in order to optimize efficiency and expediency of training. QUASAR, EyeTracking, Inc. (ETI), and Safe Passage International (SPI), teamed to demonstrate correlation between EEG and eye-tracking based cognitive workload, performance assessment and subject expertise on X-Ray screening tasks. Results indicate significant correlation between cognitive workload metrics based on EEG and eye-tracking measurements recorded during a simulated baggage screening task and subject expertise and error rates in that same task. These results suggest that cognitive monitoring could be useful in improving training efficiency by enabling training paradigms that adapts to increasing expertise. PMID:23366217

Soussou, Walid; Rooksby, Michael; Forty, Charles; Weatherhead, James; Marshall, Sandra

2012-01-01

23

Interpretation of measurements of dynamic fluorescence of the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First pathological alterations occur at cellular level, most in metabolism. An indirect estimation of metabolic activity in cells is measurement of microcirculation. Measurements of tissue autofluorescence are potentially suited for direct investigation of cellular metabolism. Besides redox pairs of co-enzymes (NADH-NAD, FADH2-FAD) several other fluorophores are excited in tissue. In addition, a number of anatomical structures are simultaneously excited, when investigating the eye-ground. In this study, spectral and time resolved comparison was performed between purified substances, single ocular structures and in vivo measurements of the time-resolved autofluorescence at the human eye. In human eyes, the ageing pigment lipofuscin covers other fluorophores at the fundus in long - wave visible range. Applying lifetime measurements, weakly emitting fluorophores can be detected, when the lifetimes are different from the strongly emitting fluorophore. For this, the autofluorescence was excited at 468 nm and detected in two spectral ranges (500 nm-560 nm, 560 nm-700 nm). In tri-exponential fitting, the short lifetime corresponds to retinal pigment epithelium, the mean lifetime corresponds probably to neural retina and the long lifetime is caused by fluorescence of connective tissue.

Schweitzer, Dietrich; Hammer, Martin; Jentsch, Susanne; Schenke, Stefan

2007-09-01

24

A Preformed Scleral Search Coil for Measuring Mouse Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Mice are excellent subjects for use of genetic-manipulation techniques to study the basis of pathological and normal physiology and behavior; however behavioral analyses of associated phenotypes is often limited. To improve the accuracy and specificity of repeated measurements of vestibular function, we developed a miniaturized, contact-lens scleral search coil to measure mouse eye movements. We describe the physical attributes and document its functionality by measuring vestibulo-ocular responses in normal mice. This coil should greatly improve the sensitivity and documentation of vestibular dysfunction in mouse models of pathology and dysfunction while allowing screening of significant numbers of subjects. PMID:20817027

Kaneko, Chris R. S.; Rosenfeld, Sam; Fontaine, Ethan; Markov, Alex; Phillips, James O.; Yarno, John

2010-01-01

25

Axial and peripheral eye length measured with optical low coherence reflectometry.  

PubMed

An optical low-coherence reflectometer (OLCR device) is described that allows the precise and noncontact measurement of eye length. The device measures eye length both on-axis and off-axis, thus enabling the determination of eye shape, an ocular parameter thought to be important in the development of refractive error. It is essential for several applications in ophthalmology and vision science. This improved OLCR device operates using a single-beam interferometer with a beam deflection mechanism that allows the precise measurement of eye length along the visual axis and within 15 deg horizontally and vertically from the fovea. The validity of this instrument and its revised software is evaluated by measuring the reproducibility of axial length results in an adult eye and an artificial eye, and by correlating axial eye length measured in a group of ten adult eyes with axial eye length obtained with A-scan ultrasound in the same eyes. The precision obtained with adult subjects is compared with that obtained with children. PMID:14563204

Schmid, Gregor F

2003-10-01

26

Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.  

PubMed

Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

2015-01-01

27

What the Eyes Already "Know": Using Eye Movement Measurement to Tap into Children's Implicit Numerical Magnitude Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's "implicit" and "explicit" knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to investigate the…

Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Tamm, Sascha; Hawelka, Stefan; Schneider, Michael; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Stern, Elsbeth; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2010-01-01

28

Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber  

PubMed Central

Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79?±?1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63?±?0.06 to 1.15?±?0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

2013-01-01

29

Applying SLODAR to measure aberrations in the eye.  

PubMed

As a proof of concept we apply a technique called SLODAR as implemented in astronomy to the human eye. The technique uses single exposures of angularly separated "stars" on a Hartmann-Shack sensor to determine a profile of aberration strength localised in altitude in astronomy, or path length into the eye in our application. We report on the success of this process with both model and real human eyes. There are similarities and significant differences between the astronomy and vision applications. PMID:18545436

Lambert, Andrew; Birt, Benjamin J; Atchison, David A; Guo, Huanqing

2008-05-12

30

Retinal nerve fibre layer imaging compared with histological measurements in a human eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeA feasibility study comparing retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness values obtained with imaging devices against RNFL thickness measurements obtained histologically in a human eye.DesignA single patient scheduled for orbital exenteration, who still possessed a healthy functioning eye.MethodsBefore surgery, the eye was imaged using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). After orbital exenteration, the globe was sectioned,

E Z Blumenthal; R S Parikh; J Pe'er; M Naik; E Kaliner; M J Cohen; S Prabakaran; M Kogan; R Thomas

2009-01-01

31

Eye movements - On-line measurement, analysis, and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper outlines the plans and progress related to the development of a Programmed Eye-track Recording System and Eye-coupled Ubiquitous Scene-generator known by the acronym PERSEUS. Particular attention is given to the design and implementation of a computer-based real-time eye-tracking system with associated digital scenic display capability. The accurate eye-tracker developed by Cornsweet and Crane (1973) is selected for this purpose. The discussion covers automatic detection of fixations and saccades, automatic scanpath analysis, fixation-conditional stimulation, and digital scene generation. The all-digital approach to scenic simulation not only eliminates the camera optics and electromechanical servomechanisms of TV-model systems of simulation but also opens the way to the virtually unlimited sequencing of data-base contents and perspectives thereof.

Anliker, J.

1976-01-01

32

Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era. PMID:16192857

Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

2005-09-01

33

Assessment of Eye Fatigue Caused by 3D Displays Based on Multimodal Measurements  

PubMed Central

With the development of 3D displays, user's eye fatigue has been an important issue when viewing these displays. There have been previous studies conducted on eye fatigue related to 3D display use, however, most of these have employed a limited number of modalities for measurements, such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses. In this paper, we propose a new assessment of eye fatigue related to 3D display use based on multimodal measurements. compared to previous works Our research is novel in the following four ways: first, to enhance the accuracy of assessment of eye fatigue, we measure EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and a subjective evaluation (SE) score before and after a user watches a 3D display; second, in order to accurately measure BR in a manner that is convenient for the user, we implement a remote gaze-tracking system using a high speed (mega-pixel) camera that measures eye blinks of both eyes; thirdly, changes in the FT are measured using a remote thermal camera, which can enhance the measurement of eye fatigue, and fourth, we perform various statistical analyses to evaluate the correlation between the EEG signal, eye BR, FT, and the SE score based on the T-test, correlation matrix, and effect size. Results show that the correlation of the SE with other data (FT, BR, and EEG) is the highest, while those of the FT, BR, and EEG with other data are second, third, and fourth highest, respectively. PMID:25192315

Bang, Jae Won; Heo, Hwan; Choi, Jong-Suk; Park, Kang Ryoung

2014-01-01

34

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four  

E-print Network

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America Abstract Pigmentation using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek

Tang, Hua

35

Contact-flatted measurement of eye stiffness based on force-displacement relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a noninvasive approach in vivo measurement of eye stiffness based on a force-displacement relationship, which is based on a new contact-probe method of simultaneously measuring the static force and displacement. First, a simple spherical eye model is introduced for deriving analytical eye stiffness when a static force is applied to an eye. Next, a measurement system for simultaneously measuring force and displacement when a probe is pressed onto the eye is presented. Static eye stiffness is defined which based on the measured force-displacement relationship. A photoelectric probe transducer acts as displacement detector. A 16-bit single-chip microprocessor with E2PROM in the electronic circuit played the role of a nucleus, which stored the program instructions and the interrelated data. Laboratory experiments were carried out on a simulated eyeball connected to a hydraulic manometer to obtain intraocular pressure at different levels. The experimental results show that the measured eye stiffness nicely matches the analytical result.

Zhang, Jin; Ma, Jianguo; Zhang, Xueyong

2011-12-01

36

29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 00, 101-104 Comparison of UHE Composition Measurements by Fly's Eye,  

E-print Network

Measurements by Fly's Eye, HiRes-prototype/MIA and Stereo HiRes Experiments P. Sokolskya , John Belza-fluorescence experiments: Stereo Fly's Eye, HiRes/MIA, and HiRes. A shift of 13 gm/cm2 of the stereo Fly's Eye data , well. These are the Stereo Fly's Eye [1], the HiRes Prototype/MIA[2] and the HiRes[3] experiments. The Fly's Eye

37

Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal Japanese eyes measured with optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy Japanese individuals using optical coherence\\u000a tomography (OCT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  OCT was used to measure the eyes of 460 healthy Japanese volunteers aged 20 to 84. One eye of each individual was selected\\u000a for the statistical analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results|The average circumpapillary (cp) RNFL thickness of all eyes was 111.8 ± 10.0 ?m. A

Makoto Kanno; Michi Nagasawa; Michiro Suzuki; Hidetoshi Yamashita

2010-01-01

38

Macular Pigment Measurement by Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Older Subjects: The Carotenoids and Age-Related Eye Disease Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS. MPOD in eyes of 54 women, age 50 and 79 years (mean, 66), was studied. The spatial profile of MPOD was measured in the right eye, and two spatial points were also measured in the left eye. Forty-eight of these inexperienced subjects completed the protocol on two separate visits. For a subset of the group, the MPOD at two

D. Max Snodderly; Julie A. Mares; Billy R. Wooten; Lisa Oxton; Michael Gruber

2004-01-01

39

Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

2005-10-01

40

Measuring Cognitive Load with Electroencephalography and Self-Report: Focus on the Effect of English-Medium Learning for Korean Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated a reliable and valid method for measuring cognitive load during learning through comparing various types of cognitive load measurements: electroencephalography (EEG), self-reporting, and learning outcome. A total of 43 college-level students underwent watching a documentary delivered in English or in Korean. EEG was…

Lee, Hyunjeong

2014-01-01

41

A Review of Quality of Life Measures in Dry Eye Questionnaires  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dry eye disease (DED) is an ocular disease that affects 5% to 17% of the US population. Because of the negative effects of DED on patients’ quality of life (QOL), disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL in patients with dry eyes are essential in the monitoring and management of this chronic ocular condition. This review provides clinicians and researchers with a summary of the current questionnaires available for assessing QOL in patients with dry eyes. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed in March 2013. Results There are only 2 validated, reliable dry eye questionnaires with QOL measures currently available for clinic use: the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life questionnaire (IDEEL). Multiple other dry eye questionnaires assess some degree of QOL, but they have either not been tested for validity and reliability or are limited in QOL measures they assess. Conclusions The OSDI and IDEEL are validated, reliable disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL measures in patients with DED. Because of its extensive development process and multiple QOL measures, the IDEEL offers a more thorough assessment of the effect of DED on QOL for clinical trials, whereas the OSDI may be the more convenient option for clinical use as a result of its shorter completion time. Other questionnaires used to assess QOL in DED (eg, 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire and Texas Eye Research and Technology Center DEQ) are fairly limited in this assessment. Finally, because of the negative effects of DED on QOL, this review emphasizes the importance of including QOL measures in future questionnaires for the monitoring and management of DED. PMID:24326332

Grubbs, Joseph R.; Tolleson-Rinehart, Sue; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M.

2014-01-01

42

Assessing the Cultural Appropriateness of the Finding Meaning Through Caregiving Scale for Korean Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Before psychometric instruments can be used for populations other than those for whom they were originally developed, validation of cultural appropriateness is essential. This article describes the assessment of the cultural appropriateness of the Finding Meaning Through Caregiving Scale (FMTCS) with Korean female family caregivers. The FMTCS measures finding meaning among caregivers from an existential perspective and has three subscales: Loss/Powerlessness, Provisional Meaning, and Ultimate Meaning. The instrument’s cultural appropriateness was examined through semistructured interviews with ten Korean-born female family caregivers, five caregivers living in Korea, and five living in the United States, The interview data are reported according to the three dimensions described by Flaherty and colleagues (1988): content, semantic, and conceptual equivalence. Although the majority of items of the FMTCS appeared applicable to Korean caregivers, items on the Loss/Powerlessness and Provisional Meaning subscales asking caregivers about feelings related to missing their past relationships or communications appeared inappropriate for many Korean daughters-in-law. Of equal importance, a unique source of meaning among Korean caregivers that is not assessed in the FMTCS is an interpersonal context, including the importance caregivers place on teaching children and feeling proud of one’s caregiving accomplishments in the eyes of other relatives. The addition of new items that address the interpersonal context is warranted to improve the instrument’s cultural appropriateness for Korean caregivers. PMID:15132009

Lee, Eunice E.; Farran, Carol J.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Sadler, Georgia Robins

2011-01-01

43

Human Eye Aberration Measurement and Correction Based on Micro Adaptive Optics System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the characteristics of human eye aberrations, a set of adaptive optics system for real-time wavefront measurement and correction is designed. The system realizes wave-front reconstruction based on the model reconstruction algorithm of Zernike polynomials by obtaining the spot pattern of human eye wave-front aberrations with the aid of Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor and accessing to high precision centroid

Saisai Niu; Jianxin Shen; Chun Liang; Bangming Li

2009-01-01

44

Comparison of a ray-tracing refractometer, autorefractor, and computerized videokeratography in measuring pseudophakic eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To test the accuracy and reliability of the first-generation prototype of Tracey-1, a ray-tracing refractometer.Setting: Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.Methods: The refractive spherical equivalent (SE) and astigmatism measured by Tracey-1, subjective manifest refraction (MR), and autorefraction (AR) (Nidek AR-3300) were compared in 58 pseudophakic eyes of 44 patients with a mean age of 69.95

Li Wang; Manjula Misra; Ioannis G Pallikaris; Douglas D Koch

2002-01-01

45

Refractive State of Tree Shrew Eyes Measured with Cortical Visual Evoked Potentials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the refractive state of tree shrew eyes using visual evoked potentials (VEP's) recorded from primary visual cortex and compare the values with those obtained with streak retinoscopy and with an autorefractor. Methods VEP's were recorded in seven normal tree shrews and three animals in which ?5 D of myopia (relative to control eye) was induced by monocular ?5 D lens wear. While the animals were awake, refractive correction was measured with an autorefractor before and after cycloplegia (1% atropine and 2.5% phenylepherine). When anesthetized, cycloplegic refractive correction was measured with streak retinoscopy. Then VEP's were produced with square-wave counterphased (1 Hz) high-contrast checkerboard patterns near the animals' high spatial frequency cutoff. Spherical lenses (2 D steps) were placed before the eye, and the VEP (average of 128 sweeps) was measured to determine the lens that produced the largest first positive peak (P1). Results VEP's were obtained over a broad range of trial lenses. Tuning was narrower when check sizes were small. In normal and control eyes, the P1 amplitude was largest, on average, for a trial lens of (mean ± SD) ?0.6 ± 1.6 D (corrected for working distance but not vertex distance). The mean streak retinoscopy value (spherical equivalent at the corneal plane) was 7.0 ± 0.8 D, and mean autorefractor values were 4.0 ± 1.1 D (cycloplegic) and 3.7 ± 1.2 D (noncycloplegic). In the eyes that compensated for a ?5 D lens, the largest P1 values occurred with lenses with a power of ?6.3 ± 3.2 D. Thus, the VEP measure showed a similar treated vs. control eye difference as did streak retinoscopy (treated eyes, 4.7 ± 0.4 D myopic) and the autorefractor (treated eyes, 4.8 ± 0.5 D myopic). Conclusions Normal tree shrew eyes are approximately emmetropic. The hyperopic values obtained with streak retinoscopy and the autorefractor are consistent with the presence of a “small-eye artifact” in tree shrews. Eyes that have compensated for a ?5 D lens are myopic by approximately the value of the lens. PMID:14502042

NORTON, THOMAS T.; WU, WENDE W.; SIEGWART, JOHN T.

2007-01-01

46

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

2007-01-01

47

Modeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of theModeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of the Human EyeHuman Eye  

E-print Network

of the Human EyeHuman Eye Introduction The eye as an optical system suffers from both longitudinal chromatic.Software modeling of the eye and LCA corrector We designed a two-triplet air-spaced system, using glasses, WA, USA). The chromatic eye model was added to the simulation, and optimization was performed

Ribak, Erez

48

A Model-Based Approach for the Measurement of Eye Movements Using Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a video eye-tracking algorithm which searches for the best fit of the pupil modeled as a circular disk. The algorithm is robust to common image artifacts such as the droopy eyelids and light reflections while maintaining the measurement resolution available by the centroid algorithm. The presented algorithm is used to derive the pupil size and center coordinates, and can be combined with iris-tracking techniques to measure ocular torsion. A comparison search method of pupil candidates using pixel coordinate reference lookup tables optimizes the processing requirements for a least square fit of the circular disk model. This paper includes quantitative analyses and simulation results for the resolution and the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm presented in this paper provides a platform for a noninvasive, multidimensional eye measurement system which can be used for clinical and research applications requiring the precise recording of eye movements in three-dimensional space.

Sung, Kwangjae; Reschke, Millard F.

1997-01-01

49

Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.  

PubMed

Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ? 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (? 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings. PMID:24290729

Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

2014-02-01

50

Measurement of human eye irritation using a CO{sub 2} reference scale  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a combined system for human eye exposure and sensory evaluation. The system was developed as part of a research program which is focused on development of biological response models to be used for prediction of the potential of emissions from building materials to cause sensory irritation in the indoor environment. The method describes in this paper measures air pollutants potential to cause sensory eye irritation using a master scale (the sensory irritation caused by the emissions ar measured in terms of concentration of a reference irritant.). The purpose of this study was to test the exposure equipment, the exposure procedure, the evaluation procedure, and the statistical method. The principle of the combined system is that subjects compare the intensity of sensory irritation in one eye which is exposed to polluted air with the intensity of sensory irritation in the other eye, which is exposed to a reference gas. This left-right eye comparison was chosen because it is quicker to perform than having subjects first exposed to the pollutant gas bilaterally and afterwards exposed to the reference gas bilaterally. Moreover, by making the comparison simultaneously, the subject does not have to remember the impression of the previous exposure. In this study, CO{sub 2} was used both as a simulation of the air pollution and as the reference gas.

Hempel-Joergensen, A.; Kjaergaard, S.K.; Moelhave, L. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. for Environmental and Occupational Medicine

1996-12-31

51

Korean Confusion  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: American educators, take heart: US students are not the only ones in the world with a shaky grasp of their own country's history. Students in South Korea are alarmingly in the dark about circumstances of the Korean War. A poll...

Hacker, Randi; Greene, Megan

2008-08-27

52

Central and Peripheral Corneal Thickness Measurement in Normal and Keratoconic Eyes Using Three Corneal Pachymeters  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the agreement among ultrasonic pachymetry, the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer, and Orbscan II for central and peripheral (Galilei vs. Orbscan) corneal thickness (CCT and PCT) measurement in normal and keratoconic eyes. Methods: In this prospective study, CCT and PCT were measured in 88 eyes of 88 refractive surgery candidates and 128 eyes of 69 keratoconic patients with ultrasonic pachymetry, the Galilei, and Orbscan II. The readings by the three instruments were compared using one-way analysis of normal variance. Agreement among the three devices was assessed using Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland–Altman plots. The same analyses were employed to evaluate agreement between Galilei and Orbscan II for PCT measurement. Results: In the normal group, mean CCT was 551.0±39.4, 566.9±33.5, and 565.5±40.9 ?m measured by ultrasonic pachymetry, the Galilei, and Orbscan II, respectively (P<0.001). The corresponding figures in the keratoconus group were 492.0±61.7, 502.0±42.1, and 470.6±56.9 ?m, respectively (P<0.001). Mean PCT was 612.5±35.3 and 640.9±38.0 ?m in the normal group (P<0.001) and 567.6±35.2 and 595.1±41.4 ?m in the keratoconus group (P<0.001) by the Galilei and Orbscan II, respectively. CCT and PCT measurements obtained by different devices were significantly correlated in both groups. Conclusion: To measure CCT, the Galilei and Orbscan II can be used interchangeably in normal eyes, but not in keratoconic eyes. For PCT, there is a systematic error between measurements obtained by the Galilei and Orbscan II. However, it is possible to change optical pachymeter readings into those obtained by ultrasonic pachymetry using a constant.

Feizi, Sepehr; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Karimian, Farid; Hasanpour, Hosein; Masudi, Ali

2014-01-01

53

Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases  

PubMed Central

The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades. PMID:19885331

2009-01-01

54

Application of eye movement measuring system OBER 2 to medicine and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OBER 2 is an infrared light eye movement measuring system and it works with IBM PC compatible computers. As one of the safest systems for measuring of eye movement it uses a very short period of infrared light flashing time (80 microsecond for each measure point). System has an advanced analog-digital controller, which includes background suppression and prediction mechanisms guaranteeing elimination of slow changes and fluctuations of external illumination frequency up to 100 Hz, with effectiveness better than 40 dB. Setting from PC the active measure axis, sampling rate (25 - 4000 Hz) and making start and stop the measure, make it possible to control the outside environment in real-time. By proper controlling of gain it is possible to get high time and position resolution of 0.5 minute of arc even for big amplitude of eye movement (plus or minus 20 degree of visual angle). The whole communication system can also be driven directly by eye movement in real time. The possibility of automatic selection of the most essential elements of eye movement, individual for each person and those that take place for each person in determined situations of life independently from personal features, is a key to practical application. Hence one of conducted research topic is a personal identification based on personal features. Another task is a research project of falling asleep detection, which can be applied to warn the drivers before falling asleep while driving. This measuring system with a proper expert system can also be used to detect a dyslexia and other disabilities of the optic system.

Ober, Jozef; Hajda, Janusz; Loska, Jacek; Jamicki, Michal

1997-08-01

55

Length measurement of the eye using a swept-source interferometer.  

PubMed

In this article, a swept-source setup based on a semiconductor optical amplifier at the central wavelength of 1050 nm for measurements of the axial length inside the eye is presented. The large coherence length is achieved using a tunable optical filter, consisting of a reflective diffraction grating, two Littrow prisms, and a scanner. It was possible to achieve a coherence length of 40 mm, which allowed interference measurements in this range to be made. Measurements of the biomedical data of a human model eye are presented. To realize faster measurements, the data acquisition must be increased to more than 2 MS/s. In further studies, the usage of a field-programmable gate array, to achieve faster measurements, will be considered. PMID:24096435

Al-Mohamedi, Haroun; Prinz, Andreas; Mieskes, Guido; Oltrup, Theo; Bende, Thomas

2014-02-01

56

Lyin’ Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

2013-01-01

57

[Non-contact measurement of eye movements in the detection of deception].  

PubMed

The effectiveness of detecting deception by measuring eye movements without making contact was investigated. A deception-detection protocol was used with two conditions based on the stimulus similarity to the critical image. Volunteer participants (N = 63) were randomly assigned to either the high or the low-similarity condition. They were randomly presented with critical and non-critical images and their eye movements were measured without contact. High-similarity images were presented in the high-similarity condition and low-similarity images were presented in the low-similarity condition. The results showed no significant differences in eye movements between the critical and non-critical images in the high-similarity condition. In contrast, in the low-similarity condition, the frequency and total length of time for glancing at critical images were significantly lower than for glancing at non-critical images. These results are suggestive of the effectiveness of the non-contact measurement of eye movements for the detection of deception. PMID:23705229

Taniguchi, Yasutomi; Ono, Yohei

2013-04-01

58

Axial length measurement acquisition rates of two optical biometers in cataractous eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the ability of two optical biometers to acquire the axial length (AL) measurement in cataractous eyes. Methods This prospective, comparative, single-center study comprised 105 eyes (63 patients). AL was acquired by the composite mean value of 20 measurements (composite-20 IM) and five measurements (composite-5 IM) (IOLMaster® 500 version 7.1 software), and the standard mean value of the first five measurements (standard-5 LS, Lenstar LS 900®). Anterior chamber depth (ACD) and average keratometry (K) readings were acquired. Results AL was acquired in 83.8%, 92.4%, and 84.8% of eyes for the composite-5 IM, composite-20 IM, and standard-5 LS, respectively. Standard-5 LS AL measurements were significantly shorter (P<0.001). IOLMaster® 500-acquired ACD (corneal epithelium to lens) measurements were significantly shorter (P<0.001). IOLMaster® 500 average K measurements were significantly steeper (P<0.001). Conclusion The composite-20 IM had the highest AL acquisition success rate of the three versions evaluated. AL, ACD, and average Ks were statistically different between the two biometers, although the differences were clinically insignificant. PMID:25092960

Epitropoulos, Alice

2014-01-01

59

New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and ice sheets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mapping and measurement of glaciers and their changes are useful in predicting sea-level and regional water supply, studying hazards and climate change [Haeberli et al., 1998],and in the hydropower industry Existing inventories cover only about 67,000 of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers and are based on data collected over 50 years or more [e.g.,Haeberli et al., 1998]. The data available have proven that small ice bodies are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the Antarctic ice sheet and its fringing ice shelves are undergoing unexpected, rapid change. According to many glaciologists, much larger fluctuations in land ice—with vast implications for society—are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change [Oppenheimer, 1998].

Kieffer, Hugh; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Barry, Roger; Bindschadler, Robert; Bishop, Michael; MacKinnon, David; Ohmura, Atsumu; Raup, Bruce; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bamber, Jonathan; Braun, Mattias; Brown, Ian; Cohen, Denis; Copland, Luke; DueHagen, Jon; Engeset, Rune V.; Fitzharris, Blair; Fujita, Koji; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hagen, Jon Oue; Hall, Dorothy; Hoelzle, Martin; Johansson, Maria; Kaab, Andi; Koenig, Max; Konovalov, Vladimir; Maisch, Max; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Reeh, Niels; Rignot, Eric; Rivera, Andres; De Ruyter de Wildt, Martiyn; Scambos, Ted; Schaper, Jesko; Scharfen, Greg; Shroder, Jack; Solomina, Olga; Thompson, David; van der Veen, Kees; Wohlleben, Trudy; Young, Neal

2000-01-01

60

Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

2012-01-01

61

Eye Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that ... spread from person to person. What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms What Causes Eye Allergies? Eye ...

62

Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea.

Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

2015-01-01

63

Dosimetry of Strontium eye applicator: Comparison of Monte Carlo calculations and radiochromic film measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strontium-90 eye applicators are a beta-ray emitter with a relatively high-energy (maximum energy about 2.28 MeV and average energy about 0.9 MeV). These applicators come in different shapes and dimensions; they are used for the treatment of eye diseases. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The main aim of our study is to simulate the dosimetry of the SIA.20 eye applicator with Monte Carlo GATE 6.1 platform and to compare the calculated results with those measured with EBT2 films. This means that GATE and EBT2 were used to quantify the surface and depths dose- rate, the relative dose profile and the dosimetric parameters in according to international recommendations. Calculated and measured results are in good agreement and they are consistent with the ICRU and NCS recommendations.

Laoues, M.; Khelifi, R.; Moussa, A. S.

2015-01-01

64

HotEye (tm) Based Coordinate Measuring Machine for Forging Industry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a 3 dimensional measurement system for the domestic forging industry based on HotEye{trademark}. This technology will allow high definition camera to accurately image a red hot object. The project marries conventional Coordinate Measurement Machine ''CMM'' technology to HotEye{trademark} technology to permit the accurate measurement of forged parts while they are at high temperature. Being able to take such measurements will dramatically reduce the amount of scrap produced by the domestic forging industry. This industry wastes a significant amount of energy because of the high rate of scrap it produces. OGT will: (1) Develop a 3D measurement sensor head that will work on a part at a temperature up to 1,450 C with an accuracy of 0.1mm or better and with a scanning speed of less than 10 seconds for an area of 100mm x 100mm. (2) Develop a Virtual-Fixturing software package to alleviate the need of precise hard fixturing. (3) Integrate the 3D measurement sensor head and the Virtual-Fixturing software into a standard CMM, both hardware (replacing the probes) and software (data format and user interface match) so that the system can automatically perform a complete preprogrammed measurement of a hot product. (4) Test and evaluate the system in a forging facility.

OG Technologies

2003-06-09

65

Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans  

PubMed Central

Previous Korean total diet studies (KTDSs) have estimated dietary exposure to toxic chemicals based on 110-120 representative foods selected from over 500 foods appeared in the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which would result in a possible underestimation. In order to find measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to heavy metals, this study examined the feasibility of mapping foods to the representative foods in the KTDS by comparing estimates. In mapping, those foods not analyzed in the 2009 KTDS (443 out of 559 foods appeared in the 2007 KNHANES) were mapped to the 114 representative foods used in the 2009 KTDS based on the closeness in regards to biological systematics and morphological similarity. Dietary exposures to total mercury and lead were re-estimated using the content of total mercury and lead in 114 foods analyzed in the 2009 KTDS, food intake, and individual's own body weight for respondents in the 2007 KNHANES instead of mean body weight of Koreans used in the 2009 KTDS. The re-estimates of exposure with mapping were approximately 50% higher than the original estimates reported in the 2009 KTDS. In addition, mapping enabled the comparison of percentile distribution of the exposure among populations of different age groups. In conclusion, estimates via mapping resulted in a more comprehensive estimation of dietary exposure to heavy metals present in foods that Koreans consume. PMID:23198023

Koh, Eunmi; Shin, Hyehyung; Yon, Miyong; Nam, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Dohee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Choi, Hoon

2012-01-01

66

Optical properties of in situ eye lenses measured with X-ray Talbot interferometry: a novel measure of growth processes.  

PubMed

The lens, a major optical component of the eye, has a gradient refractive index, which is required to provide sufficient refractive power and image quality. The refractive index variations across the lens are dependent on the distributions and concentrations of the varying protein classes. In this study, we present the first measurements of the refractive index in the in situ eye lens from five species using a specially constructed X-ray Talbot grating interferometer. The measurements have been conducted in two planes: the one containing the optic axis (the sagittal plane) and the plane orthogonal to this (the equatorial plane). The results show previously undetected discontinuities and fluctuations in the refractive index profile that vary in different species. These may be linked to growth processes and may be the first optical evidence of discrete developmental stages. PMID:21949870

Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Mohri, Satoshi; Regini, Justyn; Pierscionek, Barbara

2011-01-01

67

Optical Properties of In Situ Eye Lenses Measured with X-Ray Talbot Interferometry: A Novel Measure of Growth Processes  

PubMed Central

The lens, a major optical component of the eye, has a gradient refractive index, which is required to provide sufficient refractive power and image quality. The refractive index variations across the lens are dependent on the distributions and concentrations of the varying protein classes. In this study, we present the first measurements of the refractive index in the in situ eye lens from five species using a specially constructed X-ray Talbot grating interferometer. The measurements have been conducted in two planes: the one containing the optic axis (the sagittal plane) and the plane orthogonal to this (the equatorial plane). The results show previously undetected discontinuities and fluctuations in the refractive index profile that vary in different species. These may be linked to growth processes and may be the first optical evidence of discrete developmental stages. PMID:21949870

Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Mohri, Satoshi; Regini, Justyn; Pierscionek, Barbara

2011-01-01

68

Measuring and tracking eye movements of a behaving archer fish by real-time stereo vision.  

PubMed

The archer fish (Toxotes chatareus) exhibits unique visual behavior in that it is able to aim at and shoot down with a squirt of water insects resting on the foliage above water level and then feed on them. This extreme behavior requires excellent visual acuity, learning, and tight synchronization between the visual system and body motion. This behavior also raises many important questions, such as the fish's ability to compensate for air-water refraction and the neural mechanisms underlying target acquisition. While many such questions remain open, significant insights towards solving them can be obtained by tracking the eye and body movements of freely behaving fish. Unfortunately, existing tracking methods suffer from either a high level of invasiveness or low resolution. Here, we present a video-based eye tracking method for accurately and remotely measuring the eye and body movements of a freely moving behaving fish. Based on a stereo vision system and a unique triangulation method that corrects for air-glass-water refraction, we are able to measure a full three-dimensional pose of the fish eye and body with high temporal and spatial resolution. Our method, being generic, can be applied to studying the behavior of marine animals in general. We demonstrate how data collected by our method may be used to show that the hunting behavior of the archer fish is composed of surfacing concomitant with rotating the body around the direction of the fish's fixed gaze towards the target, until the snout reaches in the correct shooting position at water level. PMID:19698749

Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Segev, Ronen

2009-11-15

69

Reproducibility analysis of measurements with a mechanical semiautomatic eye model for evaluation of intraocular lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical eye models are used to validate ex vivo the optical quality of intraocular lenses (IOLs). The quality measurement and test instructions for IOLs are defined in the ISO 11979-2. However, it was mentioned in literature that these test instructions could lead to inaccurate measurements in case of some modern IOL designs. Reproducibility of alignment and measurement processes are presented, performed with a semiautomatic mechanical ex vivo eye model based on optical properties published by Liou and Brennan in the scale 1:1. The cornea, the iris aperture and the IOL itself are separately changeable within the eye model. The adjustment of the IOL can be manipulated by automatic decentration and tilt of the IOL in reference to the optical axis of the whole system, which is defined by the connection line of the central point of the artificial cornea and the iris aperture. With the presented measurement setup two quality criteria are measurable: the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the Strehl ratio. First the reproducibility of the alignment process for definition of initial conditions of the lateral position and tilt in reference to the optical axis of the system is investigated. Furthermore, different IOL holders are tested related to the stable holding of the IOL. The measurement is performed by a before-after comparison of the lens position using a typical decentration and tilt tolerance analysis path. Modulation transfer function MTF and Strehl ratio S before and after this tolerance analysis are compared and requirements for lens holder construction are deduced from the presented results.

Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Reutterer, Bernd; Lux, Kirsten; Drauschke, Andreas

2014-03-01

70

Measurement and correction of transverse chromatic offsets for multi-wavelength retinal microscopy in the living eye  

PubMed Central

A special challenge arises when pursuing multi-wavelength imaging of retinal tissue in vivo, because the eye’s optics must be used as the main focusing elements, and they introduce significant chromatic dispersion. Here we present an image-based method to measure and correct for the eye’s transverse chromatic aberrations rapidly, non-invasively, and with high precision. We validate the technique against hyperacute psychophysical performance and the standard chromatic human eye model. In vivo correction of chromatic dispersion will enable confocal multi-wavelength images of the living retina to be aligned, and allow targeted chromatic stimulation of the photoreceptor mosaic to be performed accurately with sub-cellular resolution. PMID:23024901

Harmening, Wolf M.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin; Sincich, Lawrence C.

2012-01-01

71

Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper relates to the ocular optical design and vision analysis of refractive correction of the eye. After the purpose statement and the assumption list, the concept of the schematic eye matching a particular (measured) wavefront is introduced. This concept is based on the fact that the ocular wavefront, together with the corneal topography, can be seen as the mathematical global representation of the eye working in monochromatic light and having a foveal vision. The discussed design technique, including an iterative optimization method, could be applied in any ocular correction that utilizes cornea topography and/or ocular wavefront, e.g. contact lens or intra-corneal implant. However, the application this paper refers to is the ocular refractive correction by a procedure using the LADARVISION. It consists of surgical removal and subsequent replacement of a corneal flap on a stromal surface whose shape has been changed by laser ablation of the tissue. Subsequent sections of this paper are dedicated to establishing the limits of possible refractive correction, the influences of the flap and corneal topography into the refractive correction calculation. Finally a realistic evaluation of the results and a list of possible developments of this new optical design method are discussed.

Curatu, Eugene O.; Pettit, George H.; Campin, John A.

2002-06-01

72

Psychometric Properties of a Korean Measure of Person-Directed Care in Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the validity and reliability of a person-directed care (PDC) measure for nursing homes in Korea. Method: Managerial personnel from 223 nursing homes in 2010 and 239 in 2012 were surveyed. Results: Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis for the first sample generated a 33-item PDC measure with eight factors.…

Choi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Minhong

2014-01-01

73

Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ?49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ?80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ?13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

2014-01-01

74

Keratoscope: a device for noncontact measuring the shape of the anterior corneal surface of the human eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To treat for some eye diseases by means of the modern methods of sight correction (microsurgical operation of keratotomy, contact lens fitting, etc.) it is necessary to know the exact shape of the anterior surface of a cornea (or the corneal topography). In order to use these methods successfully it is required that the optical power distribution be determined with the precision of 0.25 diopter. For this purpose at present special devices, keratoscopes, are usually used. A main disadvantage of these devices is a great sensitivity of measurement precision from displacements of eye relative to device. Therefore, in these keratoscopes the eye should be located relative to the apparatus very accurately, with the error less than 0.25 mm. This disadvantage decreases the possibilities of the keratoscopes. That is why the main problem of keratoscope designing is to eliminate the influence of eye alignment on the measurement precision.

Puryayev, Daniil T.; Laskin, Alexander V.

1993-06-01

75

Early Korean War Coverage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

Lee, Raymond S. H.

1978-01-01

76

Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test as a Measure of Postflight Ataxia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Astronauts returning from space flight universally exhibit impaired posture and locomotion. Measurement of this impairment is an evolving process. The walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing NASA interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance. METHODS: Seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. RESULTS/ CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular ataxia, as well as providing instant feedback of postural ataxia without the use of complex test equipment.

Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D.L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2010-01-01

77

HPLC Measurement of Ocular Carotenoid Levels in Human Donor Eyes in the Lutein Supplementation Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

ulation. METHODS. Lenses and circular punches of macula (4-mm diam- eter) and equatorial peripheral retina (8-mm diameter) were dissected from donor eyes free of ocular disease procured from the local eye bank. The amounts of lutein, zeaxanthin, meso- zeaxanthin, and 3-oxolutein were determined by HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectral detection. RESULTS. Eighteen percent of eyes from donors age

Prakash Bhosale; Paul S. Bernstein

78

Eye redness  

MedlinePLUS

Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many possible causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are cause for concern; some are medical emergencies. Others are nothing to worry about. How red the eye appears ...

79

Design and validation of a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer for measurements of the eye over a wide field of view  

PubMed Central

Peripheral vision and off-axis aberrations not only play an important role in daily visual tasks but may also influence eye growth and refractive development. Thus it is important to measure off-axis wavefront aberrations of human eyes objectively. To achieve efficient measurement, we incorporated a double-pass scanning system with a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) to develop a scanning Shack Hartmann aberrometer (SSHA). The prototype SSHA successfully measured the off-axis wavefront aberrations over +/? 15 degree visual field within 7 seconds. In two validation experiments with a wide angle model eye, it measured change in defocus aberration accurately (<0.02?m, 4mm pupil) and precisely (<0.03?m, 4mm pupil). A preliminary experiment with a human subject suggests its feasibility in clinical applications. PMID:20173936

Wei, Xin; Thibos, Larry

2010-01-01

80

Productivity of SCI Korean medical papers: 1996-1997.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the extent and growth of SCI publication activity of Korean medicine, DIALOG's SCISearch database was searched and the number of SCI Korean medical papers in each medical specialty was measured by publication year and by document type for 1996 and 1997. The percentage contribution of Korean medical papers to SCI database and the SCI publication productivity ratio were analyzed for each of 57 medical specialties. The data obtained in this study was compared with the data representing the 1980s and the data for the first half of the 1990s. The absolute productivity of SCI Korean medical papers as measured by the number of SCI Korean papers has increased about ten times from 306 papers in 1990 to 3,261 papers in 1997. More than 15% of SCI Korean publication output has resulted from six Korean medical journals indexed in SCI from 1995. The relative productivity of SCI Korean medical papers as measured by the percentage contribution from Korea to SCI and by its corresponding productivity ratio is not as impressive as the absolute productivity and its growth rate. It has increased three times from 0.245% to 0.642% during the same period. The relative productivity of SCI Korean medical publication output is not as great as the SCI Korean publication output of all sciences combined (1.02%). PMID:10485612

Lee, C S

1999-08-01

81

Accuracy of axial length measurements from immersion B-scan ultrasonography in highly myopic eyes  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the accuracy of axial length (AL) measurements obtained from immersion B-scan ultrasonography (immersion B-scan) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in patients with high myopia and cataracts. METHODS Immersion B-scan, contact A-scan ultrasonography (contact A-scan), and the IOLMaster were used to preoperatively measure the AL in 102 eyes from 102 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the AL: one containing patients with 22 mm?AL<26 mm(group A) and the other containing patients with AL?26 mm (group B). The mean error (ME) was calculated from the difference between the AL measurement methods predicted refractive error and the actual postoperative refractive error. RESULTS In group A, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (23.48±1.15) didn't differ significantly from those measured by the IOLMaster (23.52±1.17) or from those by contact A-scan (23.38±1.20). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.090±0.397 D) didn't differ significantly from those of IOLMaster (-0.095±0.411 D) and contact A-scan (-0.099±0.425 D). In group B, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (27.97±2.21 mm) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (27.86±2.18 mm), but longer than those measured by Contact A-scan (27.75±2.23 mm, P=0.009). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.635±0.157 D) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (-0.679±0.359 D), but differed significantly from those of contact A-scan (-0.953±1.713 D, P=0.028). CONCLUSION Immersion B-scan exhibits measurement accuracy comparable to that of the IOLMaster, and is thus a good alternative in measuring AL in eyes with high myopia when the IOLMaster can't be used, and it is more accurate than the contact A-scan. PMID:24967188

Yang, Qing-Hua; Chen, Bing; Peng, Guang-Hua; Li, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Yi-Fei

2014-01-01

82

Dilating Eye Drops  

MedlinePLUS

... the eye allows for a more accurate measurementof refractive error (need for glasses) in children. Finally, dilating eye ... lasting drops than do adults to accurately measure refractive error. Weaker drops are used for premature babies and ...

83

Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging polarimeter using liquid-crystal variable retarders (Bueno, J. M., Artal, P. (1999). Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye. Optics Letters, 24, 64-66) has been used to study the parameters of polarization in the living human eye. Retardation introduced by birefringent structures of the eye has been calculated by using a spatially resolved collection of Mueller matrices obtained from

Juan M. Bueno

2000-01-01

84

Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements Obtained by Three Different Devices in Healthy Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the normal values and the repeatability of the Galilei Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer (GDSA), the biometer IOL Master, and the autokerato/refractometer WAM 5500 in anterior segment examinations. Methods. Eighty-eight eyes from 88 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. The repeatability was assessed, calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The correlations among the repeated measurements showed nearly perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81) for all of the parameters, except corneal astigmatism Galilei (0.79) and WAM (0.68). There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) between the values of the flat simulated keratometry (SimK) and the steep SimK measured by GDSA and the other methods; however, there were no statistically significant differences for the values obtained with the IOL Master and WAM 5500 (P = 0.302 and P = 0.172, resp.) or between the values of the ACD (P < 0.001) and WTW (P = 0.007) measured by the IOL Master and GDSA. Conclusions. The anterior segment measurements from the IOL Master and WAM 5500 were highly repeatable, comparable, and well correlated. In healthy young persons, the evaluated parameters had very good repeatability, although significant differences were found between the GDSA and IOL Master and between the GDSA and WAM 5500. PMID:24987687

Lopez de la Fuente, Carmen; Sanchez-Cano, Ana

2014-01-01

85

Evidence of diachronic sound change: A comparative acoustic study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean  

E-print Network

Korean, and comparison of the phonetics between Kyungsang and Seoul Korean addressed how a prestigious national standard language affects dialect re–formation. In the acoustic study of vowels (Chapter 2), measures of formant frequencies showed...

Lee, Hyunjung

2013-05-31

86

Repeatability of Ocular Measurements with a Dual-Scheimpflug Analyzer in Healthy Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the repeatability of the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer (GDSA) in anterior segment examination. Methods. Fifty-two eyes from 52 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Anatomic, axial, refractive, and instantaneous parameters were measured with GDSA to provide a complete characterization of the anterior segment. Repeatability was assessed calculating intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of variation (COV). Results. Correlation among repeated measurements showed almost perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81) for all parameters except thinnest central corneal thickness (CCT) (0.78), corneal thickness average out (0.79), and posterior axial curvature average out (0.60). Repeatability was excellent (COV < 10%) for all parameters except anterior chamber volume and, superior iridocorneal angle and eccentricities. In these last three parameters, repeatability limits were excessively high compared to the mean. Conclusions. GDSA in healthy young persons had an almost perfect correlation in measuring anatomic, axial, instantaneous, and refractive parameters with greater variability for peripheral terms. Repeatability of anatomical parameters like pachymetry, anterior chamber, or iridocorneal angle and eccentricity were limited. In healthy young persons, the other evaluated parameters had very good repeatability and their limits of agreement showed excellent clinical results for this device. PMID:24868548

Lopez de la Fuente, Carmen; Sanchez-Cano, Ana; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena

2014-01-01

87

Healthy Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Listen Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

88

Healthy Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

89

Quantitative measurement of pseudoexfoliation in the anterior segment of the eye performed in visible light  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is a systemic disease involving the accumulation of pathological material deposits in the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. The problem of modern ophthalmology is a quantitative assessment of the severity of PEX in the diagnosis and evaluation of the treatment progress in patients. Material and method For the purposes of this study, 52 images of the anterior segment of the eye with the resolution of M?×?N?=?1280?×?960 pixels were obtained in jpg format using the slit lamp CSO 450-SL. The patients were aged 50–80 and were recruited from Poland. All patients who participated in the study provided written informed consent after explanation of the nature and possible consequences of the study. The image analysis method proposed by the authors contains the calculation of the direction field, setting a straight perpendicular line passing through each pixel of the edge of the pupil, the calculation of the intersection of straight lines in order to determine the central point of the pupil position, the detection of the contour of PEX and the outer border of the iris with the use of the polar coordinate system. All analyzed parameters were set automatically with one exception parameter chosen manually depending on the slit lamp type. Results A fully automatic measurement of PEX was carried out with the proposed method. Quantitative results enable to perform reproducible tests independently of the research centre. Owing to the image analysis method proposed by the authors, it is possible to obtain results in no more than 1 second on the Intel Core 2 Quad CPU 2.50 GHz with a measurement error below 3%. Other known methods of image analysis and processing that are compared in this paper give results with a greater error (4-35%) which depends on the degree of magnification (×6, ×16, ×20) and are not fully automatic. Conclusions The methods of image analysis and processing enable a quantitative, repeatable and automatic measurement of the severity and progress of PEX syndrome. They support medical diagnosis and automatic archiving of results. PMID:23879837

2013-01-01

90

Blood velocity measurement in the posterior segment of the rabbit eye using combined spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It is challenging for the current Doppler imaging to detect blood flow in small retinal vessels. Power Doppler, with its high\\u000a sensitivity to detect minimal blood flow, can be used with spectral Doppler to measure blood velocity in small vessels of\\u000a the eye and orbit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixteen eyes of twelve normal pigmented rabbits were studied, using a dedicated small animal, high-resolution

Walid Abdallah; Amani Fawzi; Hitenkumar Patel; Grant Dagliyan; Naoki Matsuoka; Edward Grant; Mark Humayun

2010-01-01

91

Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study

1991-01-01

92

Quantitative Measurement of Eyestrain on 3D Stereoscopic Display Considering the Eye Foveation Model and Edge Information  

PubMed Central

We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user's gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD), stereoscopic disparity (SD), frame cancellation effect (FCE), and edge component (EC) of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors. PMID:24834910

Heo, Hwan; Lee, Won Oh; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

2014-01-01

93

Evaluating eye fixation and color contrast effects in the measurement of visual lobe sizes: comment on tsang, et Al. (2013).  

PubMed

Summary.-The visual lobe refers to the useful field of view, functional visual field, or conspicuity area in single eye fixation, and the visual lobe size is determined by the conspicuity of target presented amongst background characters. This comment discusses a study by Tsang, Chan, and Yu (2013) that investigated the effect of color contrast on the visual lobe. First, this comment suggests a way to improve the precision of their method for measuring a visual lobe. Measuring positions of the participants' eyes during visual search with an eye tracker would allow checking the eyes' fixation on the center of the search field, improving the precision of visual lobe measurement. This comment also suggests a more optimal experimental design to investigate the effect of color contrast on visual lobe size. Tsang, et al. used colors for target and background that had similar contrast (i.e., differences in chromaticity) for the experiments. If the color-contrast ratio in each experiment condition had differed enough, the color contrast effect on the visual lobe could have been investigated more effectively. PMID:25375825

Hong, Seung-Kweon

2014-12-01

94

Biomechanical parameters of the cornea measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer in normal eyes  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the relationships between Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) parameters corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal response factor (CRF) and ocular dimensions, age and intraocular pressure. Methods Two hundred and twelve eyes of 212 participants with no ocular pathology had CH and CRF measured with the ORA. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the Dynamic Contour tonometer and central corneal thickness (CCT) was also evaluated. Partial least squares linear regression (PLSLR) analyses were performed to examine the relationships between each response variable, CH and CRF, and the predictor variables age, corneal curvature (CC), axial length (AL), CCT and IOP. Results CH was positively associated with CCT and negatively associated with age (scaled coefficients: CCT 0.62, p?measured variation in CH and CRF, respectively, suggesting other factors also affect the values of these measurements. PMID:24479520

2014-01-01

95

Fiber optic point-source for in-vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering in the eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber optic point-source was designed for in vivo measurement of light transmission and scattering. The point-source consists of an optical fiber, with a core diameter of about 8 micrometers , mounted in a stainless steel cannula. At the tip of the cannula the entrance face of a 1-mm micro prism is fixed. The hypotenuse face of the prism is coated with aluminum and acts as a mirror reflecting the light out through the exit face. The arrangement allows light fed into the optical fiber to be emitted in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the cannula. The cannula is bent to allow its in vivo introduction into the eye at the posterior pole. The prism is positioned close to the retina along the optical axis of the eye. The light is transmitted through the eye in a reversed beam path (from vitreaous towards cornea). In the vitreous, the light source emits within a numerical aperture of about 0.1 allowing the exiting light to be well confined through the dilated pupil. After careful calibration of the light source, accurate measurements can easily be performed by positioning detector equipment outside the eye. The small size of the point-source (in the range of the eye's resolution) allows measurement of light scatter at both wide and narrow angles. With this intraocular fiber optic technique, it is possible to perform several types of experiments, including measurements of light transmission and scattering, and also studies of fluorescence phenomena in different parts of the ocular media.

Soederberg, Per G.; Torstensson, Per-Arne; Beckman, Claes M. E.; Ren, Jianming; Algvere, Peep; Tengroth, Bjorn M.

1994-06-01

96

Gender Effect on Reading Comprehension with Korean EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of gender on English reading comprehension for Korean EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners. The gender effect was measured using a DIF (Differential Item Functioning) methodology. Specifically, gender DIF was investigated for a random sample of 14,000 Korean examinees (7,000 males and 7,000 females) who took…

Pae, Tae-Il

2004-01-01

97

Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

2008-01-01

98

Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The findings of these three studies indicate that temperature of the eye, measured using DITI, can be used as an indicator of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle as an alternative to using vaginal or rectal temperature. PMID:25253816

George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

2014-11-01

99

High quality optical microangiography of ocular microcirculation and measurement of total retinal blood flow in mouse eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization and measurement of retinal blood flow (RBF) is important to the diagnosis and management of different eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is developed for generating 3D dynamic microcirculation image and later refined into ultra-high sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG) for true capillary vessels imaging. Here, we present the application of OMAG imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image mouse posterior eye. By applying UHS-OMAG scanning protocol and processing algorithm, we achieved true capillary level imaging of retina and choroid vasculature in mouse eye. The vascular pattern within different retinal layers and choroid was presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [1] without knowing Doppler angle was adopted for the measurement of total retinal blood flow. The axial blood flow velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area of the central retinal artery.

Zhi, Zhongwei; Yin, Xin; Dziennis, Suzan; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

2013-03-01

100

Retinal Thickness in Eyes With Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Comparison of Measurements Obtained by Retinal Thickness Analysis and Optical Coherence Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare measurements of retinal thick- ness in eyes with mild nonproliferative retinopathy in pa- tients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using 2 different tech- niques: the retinal thickness analyzer (RTA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Twenty-eight eyes from 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mild nonproliferative retinopa- thy were classified according to the Wisconsin grading

Isabel Pires; Rui C. Bernardes; Conceicao L. Lobo; Mario A. Soares; Jose G. Cunha-Vaz

2002-01-01

101

Morphometric measurement of Schlemm's canal in normal human eye using anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography to measure Schlemm's canal (SC) morphometric values in the living human eye. Fifty healthy volunteers with 100 normal eyes were measured in the nasal and temporal side. Comparison with the published SC morphometric values of histologic sections proves the reliability of our results. The statistical results show that there are no significant differences between nasal and temporal SC with respect to their diameter, perimeter, and area in our study (diameter: t=0.122, p=0.903; perimeter: t=-0.003, p=0.998; area: t=-1.169, p=0.244); further, no significant differences in SC morphometric values are found between oculus sinister and oculus dexter (diameter: t=0.943, p=0.35; perimeter: t=1.346, p=0.18; area: t=1.501, p=0.135).

Shi, Guohua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

2012-01-01

102

Reproducibility of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Pseudophakic Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the reproducibility of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurement (measurement agreement) and its color-coded classification (classification agreement) by Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in pseudophakic eyes. Methods Two-hundred five participants having glaucoma or glaucoma suspected eyes underwent two repeated Cirrus OCT scans to measure cpRNFL thickness (optic disc cube 200 × 200). After classifying participants into three different groups according to their lens status (clear media, cataract, and pseudophakic), values of intra-class coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variance, and test-retest variability were compared between groups for average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses and that corresponding to four quadrant maps. Linear weighted kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of agreement of color code classification in each group. Results ICC values were all excellent (generally defined as 0.75 to 1.00) for the average and quadrant RNFL thicknesses in all three groups. ICC values of the clear media group tended to be higher than those in the cataract and pseudophakic groups for all quadrants and average thickness. Especially in the superior and nasal quadrants, the ICC value of the cataract group was significantly lower than that of the clear media and pseudophakic groups. For average RNFL thickness, classification agreement (kappa) in three groups did not show a statistically significant difference. For quadrant maps, classification agreement (kappa) in the clear media group was higher than those in the other two groups. Conclusions Agreement of cpRNFL measurement and its color code classification between two repeated Cirrus OCT scans in pseudophakic eyes was as good as that in eyes with clear crystalline lens. More studies are required to ascertain the effect of lens status on the reproducibility of Cirrus OCT according to different stages of glaucoma patients. PMID:24688256

Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Jun Mo; Park, Kyoung Soo

2014-01-01

103

Eye Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

104

Rapid, Accurate, and Non-Invasive Measurement of Zebrafish Axial Length and Other Eye Dimensions Using SD-OCT Allows Longitudinal Analysis of Myopia and Emmetropization  

PubMed Central

Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2?=?0.9548, R2?=?0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of ?0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of ?0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors. PMID:25334040

Collery, Ross F.; Veth, Kerry N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A.

2014-01-01

105

Changes in eye blink frequency as a measure of trigeminal stimulation by exposure to limonene oxidation products, isoprene oxidation products and nitrate radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo measure eye blink frequency as a measure of trigeminal stimulation of the eye. Human subjects were exposed to oxidation mixtures representative of reactive indoor pollutants and clean air, from which relative changes in blink frequencies were measured.MethodMale subjects ( n=8) were exposed for 20 min to limonene oxidation products (LOPs), isoprene oxidation products (IOPs), nitrate radicals (NO 3), their residual

Jacob Klenø; Peder Wolkoff

2004-01-01

106

Korean History: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Kenneth Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, this comprehensive bibliography is offered as an update and supplement to the 1980 annotated bibliography Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide. Robinson's bibliography includes his earlier Korean War bibliography (see the November 5, 1999 Scout Report), as well as covering early modern Korean history, the nineteenth century, modern history of the North and South into the 1960s, economics, literature, the Korean diaspora, law, women, demography, education, and music, among others. An excellent resource for students and scholars alike, the bibliography is easily navigated via a table of contents or menu buttons on the left-hand side of the browser window.

107

A Validation of Eye Movements as a Measure of Elementary School Children's Developing Number Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number line estimation task captures central aspects of children's developing number sense, that is, their intuitions for numbers and their interrelations. Previous research used children's answer patterns and verbal reports as evidence of how they solve this task. In the present study we investigated to what extent eye movements recorded…

Schneider, Michael; Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Stern, Elsbeth

2008-01-01

108

Measurement of Eye Diagrams and Constellation Diagrams of Optical Sources Using Linear Optics and Waveguide Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the characterization of optical sources with high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, and phase sensitivity using linear optical sampling. Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams are reconstructed using the interference of the source under test with a train of sampling pulses. This concept is implemented using a waveguide optical hybrid, which splits and recombines the sources and adjusts the phase

C. Dorrer; Christopher Richard Doerr; I. Kang; Roland Ryf; J. Leuthold; P. J. Winzer

2005-01-01

109

Eye to Eye (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data about the eye color of their classmates. On day one, students display the eye color data in a pictograph and discuss what questions can and cannot be answered using this graph. On the second day of the lesson, data from a partner class is used to create a second pictograph. Students then compare these graphs and determine what questions can and cannot be answered using these two graphs. Questions and extension suggestions (including making a circle graph to represent data) are also included in the lesson plan.

2008-01-01

110

Refractive errors in a rural Korean adult population: the Namil Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the prevalence of refractive errors, including myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia, in rural adult Koreans. Methods We identified 2027 residents aged 40 years or older in Namil-myeon, a rural town in central South Korea. Of 1928 eligible residents, 1532 subjects (79.5%) participated. Each subject underwent screening examinations including autorefractometry, corneal curvature measurement, and best-corrected visual acuity. Results Data from 1215 phakic right eyes were analyzed. The prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent (SE) +0.5 D) was 41.8% (95% CI: 38.9?44.4%), of astigmatism (cylinder eyes >1.0 D) was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.9?15.8%). Myopia prevalence decreased with age and tended to transition into hyperopia with age up to 60?69 years. In subjects older than this, the trend in SE refractive errors reversed with age. The prevalence of astigmatism and anisometropia increased consistently with age. The refractive status was not significantly different between males and females. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia in rural adult Koreans was similar to that of rural Chinese. The prevalence of high myopia was lower in this Korean sample than in other East Asian populations, and astigmatism was the most frequently occurring refractive error. PMID:24037232

Yoo, Y C; Kim, J M; Park, K H; Kim, C Y; Kim, T-W

2013-01-01

111

Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

1992-01-01

112

Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning  

PubMed Central

Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

2014-01-01

113

Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload  

PubMed Central

While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 min segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz. PMID:25352774

Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Erp, Jan B. F.

2014-01-01

114

Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.  

PubMed

Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. Practitioner Summary: A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems. PMID:25529468

Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

2015-03-01

115

The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

2010-01-01

116

Processing of the Korean Eojoel ambiguity.  

PubMed

Korean writing is a syllabary where spaces occur between phrases rather than between words. This characteristic of Korean allows different types of information in Korean sentences to be dissociated in ways that are not possible in the languages that have been the focus of most psycholinguistic research, thereby providing new opportunities to investigate mechanisms of ambiguity resolution during sentence comprehension. In experiments using eye-tracking and self-paced reading, we examined how readers resolve the Eojoel ambiguity, where the grouping of syllables is ambiguous with respect to whether a phrase-final syllable is a case marker or a part of a word. This Eojoel ambiguity offers an opportunity to test how relative frequency of the lexical entries and complexity of morphological decomposition affect ambiguity resolution. Overall, the results of the experiments presented here showed that readers noticed and processed the Eojoel ambiguity very rapidly using information about the relative frequency of alternative interpretations, while the complexity of the morphological decomposition had little effect. These results are discussed in terms of constraint-based accounts (MacDonald et al. Psychol Rev 101:676-703, 1994) of ambiguity resolution. PMID:19052871

Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun; Gordon, Peter C

2009-08-01

117

Learning-Induced Changes in Attentional Allocation during Categorization: A Sizable Catalog of Attention Change as Measured by Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning. PMID:24497915

McColeman, Caitlyn M.; Barnes, Jordan I.; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M.; Walshe, R. Calen; Blair, Mark R.

2014-01-01

118

Korean Teachers' Attitudes toward Academic Brilliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a replication of a study designed by Tannenbaum (1962) and repeated by Cramond and Martin (1987) measuring U.S. attitudes toward intelligence by having respondents rate 8 hypothetical students who varied in their combinations of athleticism, effort, and academic ability. This study investigated 132 Korean preservice and in-service…

Lee, Seon-Young; Cramond, Bonnie; Lee, Jongyeun

2004-01-01

119

Experiments on a Model Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

1978-01-01

120

Eye Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... infants are treated with antibiotic eye ointment or drops in the delivery room. Such infections must be ... Eye infections are very contagious. Except to administer drops or ointment, you should avoid direct contact with ...

121

Eye Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

122

Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... lipid or oily part of tears that slows evaporation and keeps the tears stable. Dry eye can ... that have side shields can help slow tear evaporation from the eye surfaces. Indoors, an air cleaner ...

123

Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean

Jeon, Mihyon

2008-01-01

124

LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Opening Champagne Bottles ...

125

Night Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, night-time activity, learners discover how to spot eye-shine (reflection of light from an animal's eyes) by using a flashlight to play a simulation game. Using the spotting technique they learn in the game, learners locate mysterious eyes, stalk the creatures, and observe the animal's behavior.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

126

Pterygotus eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many modern and fossil arthropods, eurypterids had compound eyes and other sensory devices. Many eurypterids display small, bean-shaped eyes which are oriented for side viewing. The large bulbous eyes of Pterygotus are located on the edge of the head and were probably useful for looking both laterally and vertically.

2001-03-01

127

Korean Geodetic VLBI Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by

T. Kondo; T. Kim; S. Han; Y. Kwak; H. Oh; S. Yi; M. Bae; K. Kim; J. Moon

2009-01-01

128

The Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Cross cultural adaptation, reliability, validity and responsiveness.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire to produce an equivalent Korean version. A total of 53 patients completed the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months after open carpal tunnel release. All 53 also completed the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively. Reliability was measured by determining the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and paired t-tests, and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Pearson correlation analysis was carried out on the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores and the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores to assess construct validity. Responsiveness was evaluated using effect sizes and standardized response means. The reliability of the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was good. The scores in the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand strongly correlated with the scores in the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Standardized response mean and effect size were both large for the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. The study shows that the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is a reliable, valid and responsive instrument for measuring outcomes in carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:25005562

Kim, J K; Lim, H M

2015-02-01

129

Non-invasive measurement of transparency, arcus senilis, and scleral rim diameter of corneas during eye banking.  

PubMed

We developed a non-invasive device to quantify transparency (T), clear corneal diameter (CCD) excluding arcus senilis, and scleral rim diameter (SRD) of stored corneas. The T value (expressed in % on a relative scale), based on the modulation transfer function principle, referred to the ratio of local contrasts of a special LED backlit chart measured with and without cornea. CCD and SRD (in mm) were automatically calculated by morphologic operations. Firstly, we assessed measurement reproducibility. We then determined the agreement of T and CCD values with 3-level scores given independently by three experts on 179 scientific corneas. Thirdly, an eye bank was equipped with the device, and 358 consecutive organ-cultured (OC) corneas were tested for donor- and storage- related factors possibly influencing T and CCD. Reproducibility of T, CCD and SRD measurements was high, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.982, 0.886, and 0.999 respectively. Capacity to discriminate the three levels of transparency and arcus senilis was good, with T of 20.0 (10.0-33.6), 38.3 (24.3-75.4) and 57.9 (33.9-90.0) % respectively for T deemed poor, average, and good (P < 0.001), and CCD of 9.8 (7.3-10.6), 10.5 (8.2-11.5), and 11.1 (9.9-12.0) mm respectively for arcus senilis deemed prominent, moderate or absent (P < 0.001). T was correlated with neither donor age nor endothelial cell density nor storage time, but slightly worsened during OC for corneas assessed twice. In conclusion, the device, which can be easily integrated in the facilities of an eye bank, provides reliable objective measurement of T, CCD, and SRD. This could be a useful tool for standardizing quality assessment of stored corneas and consequently optimizing their selection for penetrating, endothelial or anterior lamellar keratoplasty. PMID:24306057

Acquart, Sophie; Campolmi, Nelly; He, Zhiguo; Pataia, Giacomo; Jullienne, Rémy; Garraud, Olivier; Nguyen, Frédéric; Péoc'h, Michel; Lépine, Thierry; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe

2014-09-01

130

Grand Strategies on the Korean Peninsula  

E-print Network

that lived through the Korean War, and whose views of theKorean grand strategy is still struggling with the collapse of the Cold WarWar order in Europe, it took nearly a decade before an op- South Korean

HAGGARD, Stephen

2012-01-01

131

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... SARS)??????? - ??? (Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CT Scans CT (Computerized Tomography) Scan CT ?? (??? ????) - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations D ... Diabetes 4 Steps to Control Your Diabetes for Life ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF ...

132

Relative Eye Size in Elasmobranchs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in relative eye size was investigated in a sample of 46 species of elasmobranch, 32 species of sharks and 14 species of batoids (skates and rays). To get a measure of eye size relative to body size, eye axial diameter was scaled with body mass using least-squares linear regression, using both raw species data, where species are treated as

Thomas J. Lisney; Shaun P. Collin

2007-01-01

133

Blood velocity measurement in the posterior segment of the rabbit eye using combined spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background It is challenging for the current Doppler imaging to detect blood flow in small retinal vessels. Power Doppler, with its high sensitivity to detect minimal blood flow, can be used with spectral Doppler to measure blood velocity in small vessels of the eye and orbit. Methods Sixteen eyes of twelve normal pigmented rabbits were studied, using a dedicated small animal, high-resolution imaging unit (Vevo 770) and 17.6 MHz ultrasound probe. Spectral Doppler (ISPPA=67.1 W/cm2, ISPTA=483.7 mW/cm2, MI=0.5) was combined with power Doppler (ISPPA=137.7 W/cm2, ISPTA=83.1 mW/cm2, MI=0.77) to measure the blood velocity over each identified vessel, including the central retinal artery and vein, branch retinal artery and vein, choroidal vein, and the long and short posterior ciliary artery. Three readings from each vessel were averaged to reduce measurement error. Three indices were calculated from the arterial blood velocity readings: the resistive index, the pulsatility index and the A/B ratio. Results The highest arterial blood velocity was measured over the long posterior ciliary artery; peak systolic velocity was 18.29 cm/s and end diastolic velocity was 16.63 cm/s, while the lowest arterial blood velocity was measured over the branch retinal artery; peak systolic velocity was 5.08 cm/s and end diastolic velocity was 3.25 cm/s. On the other hand, the highest venous blood velocity was measured over the choroidal veins (7.0 cm/s), and the lowest venous blood velocity was measured over the branch retinal vein (2.88 cm/s). No statistically significant difference was observed between the nasal and temporal retinal arterial blood velocity. Combining power Doppler with spectral Doppler imaging caused no damage and is a safe technique to measure blood velocity. Conclusion A combination of spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound can be used as a noninvasive and efficient tool for reproducible measurement of the blood velocity in the posterior segment. PMID:19802630

Abdallah, Walid; Fawzi, Amani; Patel, Hitenkumar; Dagliyan, Grant; Matsuoka, Naoki; Grant, Edward

2010-01-01

134

Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method. PMID:23541790

Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

2013-11-01

135

Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles ?1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

2012-01-01

136

Eye development.  

PubMed

The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

2014-06-15

137

Two Causative Constructions in Korean  

E-print Network

Two types of causative constructions in Korean behave differently both syntactically and semantically. This paper presents the syntactic differences between syntactic causative constructions and morphological causative ...

Choi, Dong-Ik

1993-01-01

138

Using Eye Makeup  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Using Eye Makeup Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

139

Smoking and Eye Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

140

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus ... Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus ...

141

The Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean College Stress Inventory (KCSI), which is designed to measure Korean college students' experiences and symptoms of career stress. Even though there have been numerous scales related to career issues, few scales measure the career stress construct and its dimensions. Factor structure, internal…

Choi, Bo Young; Park, Heerak; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

2011-01-01

142

Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL) in 2010: instrument status and two-component wind measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper and corresponding seminar given on 20 September 2010 at the 16th International School for Quantum Electronics in Nesebar, Bulgaria, will describe the key hardware aspects of the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and recent advances in extracting two-component wind vector fields from the images it produces. The REAL is an eye-safe, ground-based, scanning, elastic aerosol backscatter lidar operating at 1.54 microns wavelength. Operation at this wavelength offers several advantages compared to other laser wavelengths including: (1) maximum eye-safety, (2) invisible beam, (3) superior performance photodetectors compared with those used at longer wavelengths, (4) low atmospheric molecular scattering when compared with operation at shorter wavelengths, (5) good aerosol backscattering, (6) atmospheric transparency, and (7) availability of optical and photonic components used in the modern telecommunations industry. A key issue for creating a high-performance direct-detection lidar at 1.5 microns is the use of InGaAs avalanche photodetectors that have active areas of at most 200 microns in diameter. The small active area imposes a maximum limitation on the field-of-view of the receiver (about 0.54 mrad full-angle for REAL). As a result, a key requirement is a transmitter that can produce a pulsed (>10 Hz) beam with low divergence (<0.25 mrad full-angle), high pulse-energy (>150 mJ), and short pulse-duration (<10 ns). The REAL achieves this by use of a commercially-available flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a custom high-pressure methane gas cell for wavelength shifting via stimulated Raman scattering. The atmospheric aerosol features in the images that REAL produces can be tracked to infer horizontal wind vectors. The method of tracking macroscopic aerosol features has an advantage over Doppler lidars in that two components of motion can be sensed. (Doppler lidars can sense only the radial component of flow.) Two-component velocity estimation is done by computing two-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and noting the displacement of the peak of the CCF with respect to the origin. Motion vectors derived from this method are compared with coincident sonic anemometer measurements at 1.6 km range. Preliminary results indicate the method performs best when the atmosphere is stable with light winds.

Mayor, Shane D.

2010-10-01

143

Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.

2013-03-01

144

An exploration of through-the-eye intraocular pressure measurement device  

E-print Network

Glaucoma, caused by an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the leading causes of blindness. As constant monitoring of IOP is essential in the treatment of glaucoma, the IOP measurement techniques described in ...

Chiu, Flora T. (Flora Tze Kwan)

2005-01-01

145

Watery eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... vision You have a severe injury to the eye Also, contact your health care provider if you have: A ... often does it happen? Does it affect both eyes? Do you have vision problems? Do you wear contacts or glasses? Does the tearing happen after an ...

146

The Korean War: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

Robinson, Ken.

147

Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

2013-01-01

148

Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

149

Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

150

There's More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: Measuring Tangible and Intangible Capital in Two Marginal Communities in Rural Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A missing link in economics has been what Veblen in 1908 termed intangible capital. This includes common norms, trust and high levels of cooperative performance. Intangibles are invisible to the eye and not easily measured in quantitative terms. They nevertheless involve visible, socioeconomic outcomes and should therefore rightly be seen as…

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sorensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

2007-01-01

151

Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that high levels of the macular xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may be protective against visual loss from age-related macular degeneration. To study this protective effect further, it is important to measure macular carotenoid levels noninvasively in a wide variety of subjects. We have developed and validated resonance Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive and specific objective

Paul S. Bernstein; Da-You Zhao; Mohsen Sharifzadeh; Igor V. Ermakov; Werner Gellermann

2004-01-01

152

Measurement of in-vivo fundus pulsations on the eye by laser interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-vivo measurements of nonstationary blood flows in Dannio Rerio fish embryo have been performed using laser Doppler microscopy technique. Time-dependences of the velocity of pulsatile blood flow in arteria and veina of the embryo have been registered by monitoring the heterodyne energy spectra of the Laser Doppler Microscope signal, generated by light scattered by moving erythrocytes. The spectral characteristics of the registered signal are discussed.

Schmetterer, Leopold F.

1993-06-01

153

Eye dilation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the iris. The iris causes the pupil to expand or contract depending on the amount of light in a given area. Once light passes through the pupil, a structure called the lens that is directly behind the pupil focuses the light at the back of the eye. The optic nerve, located at the back of the eye, takes the focused message and relays it to the brain where it is processed into an image.

Greyson Orlando (None; )

2006-12-11

154

The Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ): A Validation Study in a Korean Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement scores of the learning organization culture, the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ), in a Korean context. A total of 1,529 cases from 11 firms in two major Korean conglomerates were analyzed. Rigorous translation procedures, including both…

Song, Ji Hoon; Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Chermack, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

155

Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop marks were clearly visible following a dry season in spring 2011. These patterns are in coincidence with higher conductivity patterns caused by a higher amount of silt and clay. Good correlations were found for LAI measurements taken during a growing season with underlying sediments especially in the early stages of plant development. Finally, ECa measurements of two heterogeneous fields were used for a 3D layer inversion which will be further implemented into landscape models. This study shows that multiple EMI measurements can be successfully used to recover buried river systems, highlight possible sample locations and support farmers to manage their fields more precisely.

Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2013-04-01

156

Welder eye injuries.  

PubMed

During 1985, welders submitted 21% of all claims for eye injuries received by the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta. Since then the proportion of similar claims has remained high. A descriptive study of welder eye injury claims reveals that, although most injuries are reversible (55% of workers return to work in less than 2 days and 95% in less than 7 days), some workers sustain permanent visual impairment. Eye injuries occur most frequently in metal-work industries, and cold particles, most often metal, are the most common source of injury. Preventive measures should stress the importance of wearing eye protection constantly while working with metal pieces and in metal industries. Goggles probably should not be removed upon extinguishing the welding torch. PMID:2533251

Reesal, M R; Dufresne, R M; Suggett, D; Alleyne, B C

1989-12-01

157

Eyes - bulging  

MedlinePLUS

... sign. It should be checked immediately. Hyperthyroidism (particularly Graves disease ) is the most common cause of bulging eyes. ... Glaucoma Graves disease Hemangioma Histiocytosis Hyperthyroidism ... Neuroblastoma Orbital cellulitis or periorbital cellulitis ...

158

Dry eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... dry eyes include: Aging Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... Don't smoke. Avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

159

An eye for accuracy: Coordinate measuring in an R and D environment  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is a high energy physics research facility. Its purpose is to explore the basic composition of matter. Fermilab does not produce a product nor does it produce electrical power. Funded by the Department of Energy, the main tool for its study is the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting particle accelerator. Fermilab fabricates and assembles the majority of magnets and other components for the accelerator rings of the atom smasher. The magnet is the key to accelerating subatomic particle (i.e., protons, anti-protons, etc.) which the particle accelerator uses to collide into other beams or fixed targets. The production of a magnet assembly requires stacking steel laminations precisely the proper size and shape necessary to create the required magnetic field. In this paper, it will be discussed how coordinate measuring is accomplished at Fermilab, and how such things as tight budgets, and lack of product line can lead to some interesting and useful techniques. 6 figs.

Kobliska, G.R.

1988-06-01

160

Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

2003-08-01

161

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in korean.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Sang Pyung

2014-06-01

162

Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in Korean  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo

2014-01-01

163

Korean "Tense" Consonants as Geminates  

E-print Network

In this paper, I argue that Korean "tense" consonants are geminates which occupy two C positions in a CV-tier. This argument is supported by phonetic evidence such as a longer closure duration of the tense consonants and ...

Choi, Dong-Ik

1995-01-01

164

Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within

Ashley A. Weaver; Kathryn L. Loftis; Stefan M. Duma; Joel D. Stitzel

2011-01-01

165

Adaptation of vertical eye alignment in relation to head tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binocular visual feedback is used to continually calibrate binocular eye alignment so that the retinal images of the two eyes remain in correspondence. Past experiments have shown that vertical eye alignment (measured as vertical phoria) can be altered by training to disparities that vary as a function of orbital eye position. The present experiments demonstrate that vertical eye alignment can

James S. Maxwell; Clifton M. Schor

1996-01-01

166

Animals Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

167

Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. Main results We identified four eligible RCTs in which AS was compared with artificial tear treatment or saline in individuals (n = 72 participants) with dry eye of various etiologies (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). The quality of the evidence provided by these trials was variable. A majority of the risk of bias domains were judged to have an unclear risk of bias in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics. One trial was considered to have a low risk of bias for most domains while another was considered to have a high risk of bias for most domains. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity in the participant populations and follow-up periods prevented the inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. For the primary outcome, improvement in participant-reported symptoms at one month, one trial (12 participants) showed no difference in participant-reported symptoms between 20% AS and artificial tears. Based on the results of two trials in 32 participants, 20% AS may provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared to traditional artificial tears after two weeks of treatment. One trial also showed positive results with a mean difference in tear breakup time (TBUT) of 2.00 seconds (95% CI 0.99 to 3.01 seconds) between 20% AS and artificial tears after two weeks, which were not similar to findings from the other trials. Based on all other objective clinical assessments included in this review, AS was not associated with improvements in aqueous tear production measured by Schirmer’s test (two trials, 33 participants), ocular surface condition with fluorescein (four trials, 72 participants) or Rose Bengal staining (three trials, 60 participants), and epithelial metaplasia by impression cytology compared to artificial tea

Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

2014-01-01

168

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Eleven keratoconic (KC) patients (13 eyes) and one normal eye  

E-print Network

(13 eyes) and one normal eye were recruited in this study. · Conventional scleral lenses were fitted to individual eyes and aberration measurements were performed on each eye with the scleral lens on using a Shack, Perry Rosenthal2 1Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY; 2Boston Foundation

Yoon, Geunyoung

169

Korean and American Music Reduces Pain in Korean Women After Gynecologic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women

Marion Good; Sukhee Ahn

2008-01-01

170

Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

Kim, Eunhyun

2014-01-01

171

Googly Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

Boss, Susan

2009-01-01

172

Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2013-01-01

173

Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.  

PubMed

The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

2013-12-01

174

Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations. PMID:25276479

Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2014-01-01

175

The injured eye  

PubMed Central

Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

Scott, Robert

2011-01-01

176

Eye Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

177

Select Bibliography of the Korean War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

Sandler, Stanley

2000-01-01

178

Korean Folk Music in Your Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koreans are a growing minority in the United States. Worldwide, it is believed that more than seventy million people speak Korean, approximately as many as who speak Italian. The music of Korea offers a delightful addition to the general music classroom. There are several reasons why Korean music is not readily accessible to most general music…

Bowman, Barbara G.

2008-01-01

179

Western Influences in Korean Preschool Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines Korean preschool education under Western influence. At the macrosystem level, we explore the historical and philosophical background of Korean preschool education. At the microsystem level, we examine how Western influence has affected preschool educators' perceptions, daily practice and the curriculum in preschool settings in Korea. This study shows that there were discrepancies between Korean teachers' practices and

Young-Ihm Kwon

2002-01-01

180

The current state of Korean paleoanthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hominid fossil and Paleolithic archaeology records from the Korean Peninsula are extensive, but relatively little is known about the Korean human evolutionary record outside this region. The Korean paleoanthropological record is reviewed here in light of major research issues, including the hominid fossil record, relative and chronometric dating, lithic analysis, hominid subsistence, and the presence of bone tools, art

Christopher J. Norton

2000-01-01

181

Clinical Features of Idiopathic Juxtafoveal Telangiectasis in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis (IJT) in Koreans. Methods Medical records of 16 patients with IJT were analyzed during the period from 1997 to 2009. Diagnosis was based on biomicrosopic and fluorescein angiographic findings and the group was determined according to the Gass and Blodi classification. Results We analyzed eight patients in group 1A (50%), two in group 1B (12.5%), and six in group 2A (37.5%). Diverse treatment modalities, such as macular laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, intravitreal antiangiogenic agent, and steroid injection, were applied for macular edema in nine eyes; however, only two eyes showed visual improvement. Conclusions In this case series, group 1A was the most common. For macular edema related to IJT, current treatment strategies had no consistent effect. PMID:21860567

Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Yun Taek

2011-01-01

182

Determination of representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints for knee joint implant design.  

PubMed

Knee joint implants developed by western companies have been imported to Korea and used for Korean patients. However, many clinical problems occur in knee joints of Korean patients after total knee joint replacement owing to the geometric mismatch between the western implants and Korean knee joint structures. To solve these problems, a method to determine the representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints is introduced to aid in the design of knee joint implants appropriate for Korean patients. Measurements of the dimension parameters of 88 male Korean knee joint subjects were carried out. The distribution of the subjects versus each measured parameter value was investigated. The measured dimension parameter values of each parameter were grouped by suitable intervals called the "size group," and average values of the size groups were calculated. The knee joint subjects were grouped as the "patient group" based on "size group numbers" of each parameter. From the iterative calculations to decrease the errors between the average dimension parameter values of each "patient group" and the dimension parameter values of the subjects, the average dimension parameter values that give less than the error criterion were determined to be the representative dimension parameter values for designing knee joint implants for Korean patients. PMID:22720389

Kwak, Dai Soon; Tao, Quang Bang; Todo, Mitsugu; Jeon, Insu

2012-05-01

183

Blitzkrieg or Sitzkrieg? Assessing a second Korean War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic measures, developed for conventional force balance assessment in Central Europe during the Cold War, are applied to the situation on the Korean Peninsula. Many of the Cold War analytical techniques in the context of the post?Cold War situation, are applied to one of the two major regional theaters that the US military is prepared to fight in.

1999-01-01

184

Eye contricks  

PubMed Central

Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

Wade, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

185

Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

Aslin, Richard N.

2012-01-01

186

Telephoto lens system of falconiform eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

VISUAL ACUITY in falconiform birds has been shown to be higher than man. For instance, vultures with eyes similar in size to those of man have a grating detectability of about twice the spatial frequency of man1. This is consistent with measured image quality in an eagle eye similar in size to the human eye2. Recently a falcon (Falco sparverius)

Allan W. Snyder; William H. Miller

1978-01-01

187

What is the value of incorporating tear osmolarity measurement in assessing patient response to therapy in dry eye disease?  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the correlation between changes in tear osmolarity, symptoms, and corneal fluorescein staining in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Design Retrospective, clinic-based cohort study. Methods In this single-institution study, we reviewed the charts of 186 patients with DED from whom we had data on tear osmolarity, symptoms, and corneal fluorescein staining from two separate visits. Main outcomes included the correlation of the changes between the two visits for tear osmolarity (TearLab® system), symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index© [OSDI]), and corneal fluorescein staining (modified Oxford scheme). For tear osmolarity and corneal fluorescein staining the scores from the eye with highest readings were analyzed. The correlations were repeated on subgroups based on proposed cutoffs for DED severity and on patients’ treatment. Results We found a modest, though statistically significant, correlation between changes in corneal fluorescein staining and symptoms of DED (R = .31; P < .001). However, there was no correlation between the recorded change in tear osmolarity and symptoms (R = ?.091; P = .38) or between changes in tear osmolarity and corneal fluorescein staining (R = ?.02; P = .80). This lack of correlation was consistent in all the subgroups studied. A multivariate analysis revealed that changes in corneal fluorescein staining had predictive value on symptom changes, while tear osmolarity changes did not. Conclusions Changes in tear osmolarity do not correlate significantly with changes in patient symptoms or corneal fluorescein staining in dry eye disease. PMID:24060433

Amparo, Francisco; Jin, Yiping; Hamrah, Pedram; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Dana, Reza

2013-01-01

188

Traumatic Experiences and Mental Health of North Korean Refugees in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted at Hanawon-a government sponsored educational facility for the settlement of North Korean refugees during their initial phase in South Korea-in 2004 to explore their mental health status and traumatic experiences in North Korea and during their escape period. Methods A survey was conducted in November 2004 with 62 North Korean refugees at Hanawon, and the Trauma Checklist was used to measure their traumatic experiences. To measure their psychological-mental health status, the Personality Assessment Inventory was administered. Results In comparison with the traumatic experiences of the North Korean refugees found in the study conducted in 2001 at Hanawon using the same methods, the current study showed a relatively lower frequency of traumatic experiences among the participants. The Personality Assessment Inventory results revealed that the study participants scored higher than average South Koreans in all clinical scales. Particularly, their mania (62.51) and schizophrenia (61.75) scores were above 60, a clinically meaningful score. In the gender comparison, the males exhibited meaningfully higher levels of alcohol problem, non-support, and warmth scale scores. Conclusion Compared to the 2001 study, the overall traumatic experiences among North Korean refugees participated in this study. But continous support is necessary for their successful adaptation to South Korean Society have declined. The North Korean refugees at Hanawon experienced difficulties maintaining their mental health and the men in particular requested more intensive care and support for this purpose. PMID:20046340

Yu, Shi-Eun; Cho, Young-A; Eom, Jin-Sup

2008-01-01

189

Allelic Frequencies of 20 Visible Phenotype Variants in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

The prediction of externally visible characteristics from DNA has been studied for forensic genetics over the last few years. Externally visible characteristics include hair, skin, and eye color, height, and facial morphology, which have high heritability. Recent studies using genome-wide association analysis have identified genes and variations that correlate with human visible phenotypes and developed phenotype prediction programs. However, most prediction models were constructed and validated based on genotype and phenotype information on Europeans. Therefore, we need to validate prediction models in diverse ethnic populations. In this study, we selected potentially useful variations for forensic science that are associated with hair and eye color, iris pattern, and facial morphology, based on previous studies, and analyzed their frequencies in 1,920 Koreans. Among 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 SNPs were polymorphic, 6 SNPs were very rare (minor allele frequency < 0.005), and 4 SNPs were monomorphic in the Korean population. Even though the usability of these SNPs should be verified by an association study in Koreans, this study provides 10 potential SNP markers for forensic science for externally visible characteristics in the Korean population. PMID:23843775

Lim, Ji Eun

2013-01-01

190

An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

2007-04-01

191

Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.  

PubMed

The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

2013-02-01

192

Rapid discrimination of Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng using an electronic nose coupled with chemometrics.  

PubMed

Red ginseng is a precious and widely used traditional Chinese medicine. At present, Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng are both commonly found on the market. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate between Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng, an electronic nose coupled with chemometrics was developed. Different red ginseng samples, including Chinese red ginseng (n=30) and Korean ginseng (South Korean red ginseng and North Korean red ginseng n=26), were collected. The metal oxide sensors on an electronic nose were used to measure the red ginseng samples. Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), were employed. All of the samples were analyzed by PCA. Most of the samples were used to set up DFA and SIMCA models, and then the remaining samples (Nos. 9, 10, 17, 18, 29, 30, 34, 43, 44, 50, and 51) were projected onto the DFA and SIMCA models in the form of black dots to validate the models. The results indicated that Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng were successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, DFA and SIMCA. The checking scores of the DFA and SIMCA models were 100. The samples projected onto the DFA and SIMCA models were all correctly discriminated. The DFA and SIMCA models were robust. Electronic nose technology is a rapid, accurate, sensitive and nondestructive method to discriminate between Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng. PMID:22742921

Li, Shan; Li, Xiang-ri; Wang, Gang-li; Nie, Li-xing; Yang, Yao-jun; Wu, Hao-zhong; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Ji; Tian, Jin-gai; Lin, Rui-chao

2012-11-01

193

Psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to adapt the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS) into the Korean language and culture and then to determine the reliability and validity of it by administering it to a sample of Korean nursing students and nurses. We conducted a psychometric evaluation that included a two-step item analysis (analysis and reanalysis), exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity. The ATAMHS was translated into Korean by bilingual nurses. Then, 429 participants (224 undergraduate nursing students and 205 nurses, all with psychiatric experience) completed the translated version of the ATAMHS. The item analysis revealed that nine items correlated poorly with the rest; thus, they were deleted from the scale. The final Korean version of the scale, which we refer to as the Korean version of the ATAMHS (ATAMHS-K), contains 24 items. The ATAMHS-K showed good internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors (professional perspective, semantic differentials and positive attitudes) that explained 39.5% of the variance. The ATAMHS-K had strong correlations with the Korean version of the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill Scale, thus confirming the concurrent validity. Therefore, the ATAMHS-K demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties as a measure of attitudes toward acute mental health in Korean nursing students and nurses. PMID:24842568

Gang, M; Song, Y; Park, S-Y; Yang, S

2014-12-01

194

Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

195

Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

196

Structural Case Assignment in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

Koak, Heeshin

2012-01-01

197

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

198

Cultural Identity in Korean English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

Chang, Bok-Myung

2010-01-01

199

A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE "UNIFIED SYSTEM" AND…

MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

200

Korean Basic Course: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

201

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by  

E-print Network

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

Ribak, Erez

202

Eye movements of second language learners when reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text.  

PubMed

The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text. Also, participants' native languages were different in terms of their basic characteristics: English and Korean are spaced, whereas the other two are unspaced; Japanese is character based whereas the other three are alphabetic. Thus, we assessed whether any spacing effects were modulated by native language characteristics. Eye movement measures showed least disruption to reading for word-spaced text and longer reading times for unspaced than character-spaced text, with nonword-spaced text yielding the most disruption. These effects were uninfluenced by native language (though reading times differed between groups as a result of Chinese reading experience). Demarcation of word boundaries through spacing reduces non-native readers' uncertainty about the characters that constitute a word, thereby speeding lexical identification, and in turn, reading. More generally, the results indicate that words have psychological reality for those who are learning to read Chinese as a second language, and that segmentation of text into words is more beneficial to successful comprehension than is separating individual Chinese characters with spaces. PMID:22545927

Shen, Deli; Liversedge, Simon P; Tian, Jin; Zang, Chuanli; Cui, Lei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Rayner, Keith

2012-06-01

203

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye ... It is not easy to recognize amblyopia (lazy eye) in children. A child may not be aware of having ...

204

General Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook  

PubMed Central

Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion. PMID:24570802

Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

2014-01-01

205

Reliability and validity of Leicester Cough Questionnaire Korean version.  

PubMed

The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in England and validated for reliability. We developed a Korean translation of this questionnaire by applying a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study is to validate the Korean version of the LCQ (LCQ-K) in Korean patients with chronic cough. A multicenter prospective study was undertaken with 100 chronic cough patients who consented to participate in the study. The LCQ-K includes eight physical items, seven psychological items, and four social items. Visual analog scale (VAS) of cough, Borg Cough Scale (BCS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as external comparators. Participants included 52 women and 48 men with ages ranging from 18 years to 69 years. The concurrent validity comparing LCQ-K to VAS, BCS, and SF-36 yielded statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients. The LCQ-K showed good reliability in three domains, with Cronbach's ? coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.87 (total: 0.91). Test-retest reliability was investigated with single measure intraclass correlation coefficients, which were found to be practically and statistically significant (p = 0.005). Responsiveness was validated by effective size ranging from 1.16 to 1.40 in each domain. LCQ-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and quality of life of Korean patients with chronic cough. PMID:24906688

Han, Jong-Min; Jung, In-Chul; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung-Su; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

2014-06-01

206

Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form for Korean American Nursing Home Residents.  

PubMed

The authors of the current article developed and investigated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF-K) to better understand cognitive functioning of Korean American nursing home residents. In Step I, normative values were established for the BCAT-SF-K based on a sample of Korean American community-dwelling older adults (n = 34). In Step II, the authors confirmed construct validity for the BCAT-SF-K in a sample of Korean American nursing home residents (n = 26), described cognitive levels, and reported key demographics. In the nursing home sample, 84.6% of individuals had severe cognitive impairment, 7.7% had mild impairment, and 7.7% had normal cognition. The BCAT-SF-K appears to be a reliable cognitive screening measure for Korean American nursing home residents. Based on the current study's findings, Korean American nursing home residents are both older and more cognitively impaired than their American-born nursing home counterparts. Study findings are discussed in relation to improving care for these vulnerable nursing home residents. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 20xx; x(x):xxx-xxx.]. PMID:25420181

Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A; Clark, Kristen M

2014-12-01

207

Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: A questionnaire survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of Internet addiction to depression and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. The participants were 1573 high-school students living in a city who completed the self-reported measures of the Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Major Depression Disorder-Simple Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior. A correlational survey design was employed.

Kyunghee Kim; Eunjung Ryu; Mi-Young Chon; Eun-Ja Yeun; So-Young Choi; Jeong-Seok Seo; Bum-Woo Nam

2006-01-01

208

Small-diameter Korean pines and their roles in natural Korean pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean pine population structure in natural Korean pine forest was studied through massive field investigation and indoor\\u000a analysis. Small-diameter Korean pines’ origination, growth character and their roles in stand were discussed from the view\\u000a of population origination and tree growth. The results show that small-diameter Korean pines’ origination and growth have\\u000a close relations to the overstory canopy structure dynamics and

Wang Shuli; Li Fengshan; Li Ying

1996-01-01

209

Attention to food and beverage advertisements as measured by eye-tracking technology and the food preferences and choices of youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (P<0.05). Associations were no longer significant after controlling for demographic characteristics. Attention to advertising was not significantly associated with food/beverage choices. Research with larger samples is needed to more fully understand the role of attention. Future research should also examine the association between attention to advertising and purchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice. PMID:24332473

Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E

2014-04-01

210

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Resection and recession - discharge; Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... eyes. The medical term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children usually receive general anesthesia for this surgery. ...

211

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...

212

Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... vision so they no longer need glasses or contact lenses. Laser eye surgery reshapes the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. This changes its focusing power. There are different types of laser eye surgery. ...

213

Start Position Strongly Influences Fixation Patterns during Face Processing: Difficulties with Eye Movements as a Measure of Information Use  

PubMed Central

Fixation patterns are thought to reflect cognitive processing and, thus, index the most informative stimulus features for task performance. During face recognition, initial fixations to the center of the nose have been taken to indicate this location is optimal for information extraction. However, the use of fixations as a marker for information use rests on the assumption that fixation patterns are predominantly determined by stimulus and task, despite the fact that fixations are also influenced by visuo-motor factors. Here, we tested the effect of starting position on fixation patterns during a face recognition task with upright and inverted faces. While we observed differences in fixations between upright and inverted faces, likely reflecting differences in cognitive processing, there was also a strong effect of start position. Over the first five saccades, fixation patterns across start positions were only coarsely similar, with most fixations around the eyes. Importantly, however, the precise fixation pattern was highly dependent on start position with a strong tendency toward facial features furthest from the start position. For example, the often-reported tendency toward the left over right eye was reversed for the left starting position. Further, delayed initial saccades for central versus peripheral start positions suggest greater information processing prior to the initial saccade, highlighting the experimental bias introduced by the commonly used center start position. Finally, the precise effect of face inversion on fixation patterns was also dependent on start position. These results demonstrate the importance of a non-stimulus, non-task factor in determining fixation patterns. The patterns observed likely reflect a complex combination of visuo-motor effects and simple sampling strategies as well as cognitive factors. These different factors are very difficult to tease apart and therefore great caution must be applied when interpreting absolute fixation locations as indicative of information use, particularly at a fine spatial scale. PMID:22319606

Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

2012-01-01

214

Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

Kang, Hyun-Sook

2013-01-01

215

Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

Gao, Fang

2010-01-01

216

The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling,Sturnus vulgaris, is a diurnal, ground feeding bird of the order Passeriformes. Aspects of its visual fields, eye movements and the optical structure of its eye are described.1.The magnitude of eye movements as a function of elevation in the median sagittal plane of the head was measured (Fig. 1). Maximum eye movement amplitude (32°) occurs in a plane

Graham R. Martin

1986-01-01

217

Geographic origins of Korean and Chinese kimchi determined by multiple elements.  

PubMed

An elemental analysis was performed on 30 Korean and Chinese kimchi samples in combination with strontium (Sr) isotope ratio measurements to develop a method for tracing the geographic origins of Korean and Chinese kimchi. We found a distinct difference between Korean and Chinese kimchi in such specific elements as K, Na, Ca, Ba, Sr, Zn, Li, and Sc, but no significant difference in the Sr isotope ratio. A comparative analysis was performed with washed kimchi (containing no submaterial) and unwashed kimchi to evaluate the effect of submaterials on the determination of geographic origin. A linear discriminant analysis provided a clear distinction between Korean and Chinese kimchi. The results indicate that combining multi-elemental and statistical analyses has the potential to determine the geographic origins of such processed food as kimchi. PMID:23132585

Bong, Yeon-Sik; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; LA, Mi-Ran; Lee, Kwang-Sik

2012-01-01

218

Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

219

Biologically Inspired Artificial Compound Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye.

Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P.

2006-04-01

220

Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

2013-01-01

221

Optical properties of the mouse eye  

PubMed Central

The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the mouse eye and found that it follows predictions of the water-filled schematic mouse eye. Results indicate that the optical quality of the mouse eye assessed by measurement of its aberrations is remarkably good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements predict that adaptive optics based on this method of wavefront sensing will provide improvements in retinal image quality and potentially two times higher lateral resolution than that in the human eye. PMID:21483598

Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

2011-01-01

222

Eye Injuries in Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... most eye injuries, followed by water sports and racquet sports. When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high ... baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ... eye injuries? Common types of eye injuries are blunt trauma, ...

223

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries ... It is not easy to recognize amblyopia. A child may not be aware of having one strong ...

224

Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries ... or treatment should begin as soon as possible so that the child’s visual system can develop properly. Amblyopia: What Is ...

225

A Comparative Study between an American and a Republic of Korean Textbook Series" Coverage of Measurement and Geometry Content in First through Eighth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the content of geometry and measurement appearing in first- through eighth-grade textbooks in the United States and the Republic of Korea. American textbooks devoted a greater number of pages to measurement and geometry content, introduced the content earlier, presented concepts and skills more independently of each other, and presented…

Kim, Hy

1993-01-01

226

Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

227

Rapid and precise in vivo measurement of human corneal thickness with optical low-coherence reflectometry in normal human eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical low-coherence reflectometer is used for rapid noncontact measurements of the human corneal thickness in vivo. Thickness measurements on ten volunteers show a standard deviation of 3.4 micrometers . The experiments reveal that the optical reflectometer benefits from a 2.5 fold enhancement of the measurement precision and a 2.8 fold reduction in measurement time compared to a standard clinical ultrasonic pachometer.

Waelti, Rudolf; Bohnke, Matthias; Gianotti, Ronald; Bonvin, Pascal; Ballif, Julien; Salathe, Rene-Paul

1998-07-01

228

Lack of association of the RTN4R genetic variations with risk of schizophrenia and SPEM abnormality in a Korean population.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of the reticulon 4 receptor (RTN4R) gene with schizophrenia and smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) abnormality in a Korean population. Although we failed to provide convincing evidence that RTN4R is associated with schizophrenia development and SPEM impairment, our findings may be useful for further genetic studies. PMID:21377214

Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Bae, Joon Seol; Park, Byung-Lae; Park, Chul Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Woo Hyuk; Shin, Tae-Min; Koh, In Song; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Woo, Sung-Ll; Shin, Hyoung Doo

2011-09-30

229

A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future. PMID:25652712

Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

2015-01-01

230

Metabolic Syndrome and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation in Korean. This study was based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A questionnaire was used to measure suicidal ideation and physical examination was performed to measure waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation among adults and adolescents. Subjects with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have suicidal ideation in adult. There would be essential needs to evaluate suicidal ideation in adult with metabolic syndrome and to follow up suicidal ideation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25110507

Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Boseok; Lee, So-Jin; Seo, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Jaemin

2014-01-01

231

Fantasy on the Korean Folk Song “Arirang”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fantasy on the Korean Folk Song “Arirang” is an original tone poem for orchestra of approximately nine minutes duration. It is based on the Korean folk song, Arirang. Arirang deals with the story of a woman who hopes for the return of her lover. The work divides into two sections, separated by an intense climax. While both sections exploit dramatic

Sue Jean Park

2012-01-01

232

Construction of Korean Astronomical Journal DB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korean Astronomical Data Center (KADC) in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has developed a database of astronomical journals published by the Korean Astronomical Society and the Korean Space Science Society. It consists of all bibliographic records of the Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society (JKAS), Publications of the Korean Astronomical Society (PKAS), and Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences (JASS). The KADC provides useful search functions in the search page such as search criterion of bibcode, publication date, author names, title words, or abstract words. The journal name is one of the search criterion in which more than one journal can be designated at the same time. The criterion of author name is provided bilingually: English or Korean. The abstract and full text can be downloaded as PDF files. It is also possible to search papers related to a specific research topic published in Korean astronomical journals, provided by the KADC, which often cannot be found in the worldwide Astrophysics Data System (ADS) services. The KADC will become basic infrastructure for the systematic construction of bibliographic records, and hence, make the society of Korean astronomers more interactive and collaborative.

Sung, Hyun-Il; Kim, Soon-Wook; Yim, In Sung; Sang, Jian

2006-12-01

233

The Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in Korean children aged from 6 to 12 years old and the suitability of and potential for clinical application of the CSBI in Korean population. Methods The participants consisted of 158 typically growing children and 122 sexually abused children. The subjects were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC). Internal consistency was examined as a measure of reliability. To investigate the concurrent validity, Pearson's correlations were calculated. One-way ANCOVA was used to demonstrate discriminant validity. Results The Cronbach's ? value was 0.84. The CSBI total score was moderately correlated with the CBCL subscales and mildly correlated with the sexual concern subscale of the TSCYC. The total score of the CSBI for the sexually abused children group was significantly higher than that of typically growing children group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the Child Sexual Abuse Inventory (CSBI) is a reliable and valid tool. It can be applied in the clinical field for assessing the sexual behavior of Korean children aged from 6 to 12 who are suspected to have been sexually abused. PMID:24474981

Jin, Yoonmi; Jeong, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Won Kee

2013-01-01

234

Feasibility of Translaminar Screw Placement in Korean Population: Morphometric Analysis of Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement in Koran population, and compare the acceptance rate using previously reported data in American population. Materials and Methods The translaminar lengths, thickness, heights, and sagittal-diagonal measurements were performed. The feasibility analysis was performed using unilateral and bilateral 3.5 mm cervical screw placement on the CT scans within 0.5 mm of safety margin. We also performed radiographic analysis of the morphometric dimensions and the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement at C3-C7. Results Korean population had similar or significantly shorter translaminar lengths and thickness (lengths and thickness in C7 among males; lengths in C6-C7 and thickness in C4 among females) than American population, but had similar or significantly longer translaminar heights and sagittal-diagonal measurements (heights in C3-C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C6 among males; heights in C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C7 among females). Unilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C4-C6 were significantly smaller between Korean and American female population. Bilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3 and C5-C6 were significantly larger between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American female population. Conclusion The feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement is different depending on different ethnics. Subaxial cervical unilateral translaminar screw placement among Korean male population and bilateral placement at C4-C7 among Korean female population are more acceptable than American population. PMID:25510760

Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kurniawan, Ferry; Lee, Junho; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Kim, Keung Nyun

2015-01-01

235

Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

Park, T.H.

1991-01-01

236

Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.

2004-11-01

237

Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

Kim, Jinhee

2011-01-01

238

Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.

2009-01-01

239

A coronary heart disease prediction model: the Korean Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of this study were to develop a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk model among the Korean Heart Study (KHS) population and compare it with the Framingham CHD risk score. Design A prospective cohort study within a national insurance system. Setting 18 health promotion centres nationwide between 1996 and 2001 in Korea. Participants 268?315 Koreans between the ages of 30 and 74?years without CHD at baseline. Outcome measure Non-fatal or fatal CHD events between 1997 and 2011. During an 11.6-year median follow-up, 2596 CHD events (1903 non-fatal and 693 fatal) occurred in the cohort. The optimal CHD model was created by adding high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides to the basic CHD model, evaluating using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and continuous net reclassification index (NRI). Results The optimal CHD models for men and women included HDL-cholesterol (NRI=0.284) and triglycerides (NRI=0.207) from the basic CHD model, respectively. The discrimination using the CHD model in the Korean cohort was high: the areas under ROC were 0.764 (95% CI 0.752 to 0.774) for men and 0.815 (95% CI 0.795 to 0.835) for women. The Framingham risk function predicted 3–6 times as many CHD events than observed. Recalibration of the Framingham function using the mean values of risk factors and mean CHD incidence rates of the KHS cohort substantially improved the performance of the Framingham functions in the KHS cohort. Conclusions The present study provides the first evidence that the Framingham risk function overestimates the risk of CHD in the Korean population where CHD incidence is low. The Korean CHD risk model is well-calculated alternations which can be used to predict an individual's risk of CHD and provides a useful guide to identify the groups at high risk for CHD among Koreans. PMID:24848088

Jee, Sun Ha; Jang, Yangsoo; Oh, Dong Joo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Seong-Wook; Seung, Ki-Bae; Mok, Yejin; Jung, Keum Ji; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Young Duk; Baek, Soo Jin; Lee, Duk Chul; Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Moon Jong; Sung, Jidong; Cho, BeLong; Kim, Eung Soo; Yu, Byung-Yeon; Lee, Tae-Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Yong-Jin; Oh, Jang-Kyun; Kim, Sung Hi; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang Baek; Park, Sat Byul; Lee, Soon Young; Yoo, Cheol-In; Kim, Moon Chan; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Park, Joo-sung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Gyu Jang; Woodward, Mark

2014-01-01

240

A Study on Value-Perception Priority of Human Resource Development (HRD) Practitioners for Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP) in the Korean Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research sought to measure the value-perception priorities of Korean HRD professionals based on a modified previously developed HRD value matrix. Findings show that Korean HRD practitioners perceived the learning process and performance-related values as more important than environmental factor-related values on both individual and…

Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Jin Yong

2007-01-01

241

Perceptions of Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Patterns among African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American Elderly Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used 13 scenarios to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of African-American, Caucasian American, and Korean-American elderly women. Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to six scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive given…

Moon, Ailee; Williams, Oliver

1993-01-01

242

Assessment of Bone Age in Prepubertal Healthy Korean Children: Comparison among the Korean Standard Bone Age Chart, Greulich-Pyle Method, and Tanner-Whitehouse Method  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Materials and Methods Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Results Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Conclusion The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children. PMID:25598691

Kim, Jeong Rye; Yu, Jeesuk

2015-01-01

243

Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease  

PubMed Central

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

2014-01-01

244

Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts. PMID:21368564

Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young

2011-01-01

245

Time Course of Attentional Bias in Anxiety: Measuring Eye Gaze for Angry Faces in Women and Men  

E-print Network

stimuli. Two hundred thirty-one (104 men, 127 women) participants pre-selected for high and low trait anxiety completed a battery of mood measures and viewed a series of slides with competing angry versus friendly faces. For a subset of these participants...

Evardone, Milagros

2010-10-12

246

An eye on reactor and computer control  

SciTech Connect

At ORNL computer software has been developed to make possible an improved eye-gaze measurement technology. Such an inovation could be the basis for advanced eye-gaze systems that may have applications in reactor control, software development, cognitive engineering, evaluation of displays, prediction of mental workloads, and military target recognition.

Schryver, J.; Knee, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01

247

Diabetic Eye Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and ...

248

Diabetic Eye Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

249

Eye Disease Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Eye Disease Simulations Listen Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

250

Eye Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. Continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

251

Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Results Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). Conclusion This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women. PMID:24501665

Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul

2014-01-01

252

Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea. PMID:25276012

Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R.

2014-01-01

253

Eye Movements during Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

254

Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle

255

Dwarf Eye Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

256

Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

1989-01-01

257

Finding an Eye Care Professional  

MedlinePLUS

Finding an Eye Care Professional Listen Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific eye care professionals. However, you may wish to consider the ...

258

The prevalence of obesity and the level of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides in Korean preschool children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the degree of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides for Children (KDAGC). In a cross-sectional study based on a child care center-based survey in Seoul, Korea, we collected parental-reported questionnaires (n = 2,038) on children's weight and height, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the quality of dietary and activity behaviors based on the 2009 KDAGC Adherence Index (KDAGCAI) which was developed as a composite measure of adherence to the KDAGC. Overweight and obesity were determined according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentile from the 2007 Korean national growth chart. Associations were assessed with generalized linear models and polytomous logistic regression models. Approximately 17.6% of Korean preschool children were classified as overweight or obese. Obese preschoolers had lower adherence to the KDAGCAI compared to those with lean/normal weight. Preschoolers with a high quality of dietary and activity behaviors had a 51% decreased odds ratio (OR) of being obese (highest vs. lowest tertile of KDAGCAI-score, 95% CI 0.31, 0.78; P = 0.001); the associations were more pronounced among those who were older (P = 0.048) and lived in lower income households (P = 0.014). A greater frequency of vegetable consumption, but not fruit, was associated with a borderline significant reduction in the prevalence of obesity. Our findings support the association between obesity prevention and high compliance with the Korean national dietary and activity guideline among preschool children. PMID:23766882

Choi, Yuni; You, Yeji; Go, Kyeong Ah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; You, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Seungmin

2013-01-01

259

Is the human eye a perfect optic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the optical aberrations of higher order in a normal population and to answer the question on the optical quality of the human eye. Therefore, the optical aberrations of 130 eyes (90 individuals) have been measured by means of a wavefront measuring devices of Tscherning's-type. The pupil of each measured eye was dilated to at least 7 mm in diameter and wavefront sensing was performed with respect to the line of sight. The optical aberrations are expressed in terms of Zernike coefficients up to the 6th order, root-means-squared wavefront errors and critical pupil size. The main finding of this paper is that the `average eye' has only minimal wavefront errors indicating that the construction of the human eye, in principle, provides excellent optics exceeding the Marechal- criterion only by a factor of 2.1 (pupil diameter 5 mm). However, such minimal aberrations are achieved in only 6% of the individual eyes examined in this study. In conclusion, the `averaged human' eye has nearly a perfect optic, but the individual eye provides poor optical quality.

Mrochen, Michael; Kaemmerer, Maik; Mierdel, Peter; Krinke, Hans-Eberhard; Seiler, Theo

2001-06-01

260

Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.  

PubMed

In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior. PMID:14745852

Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

2004-02-01

261

Transformation of Child Socialization in Korean Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines agents of socialization, socialization skills, the influence of Confucian principles, gender socialization, and the differentiation of parental roles in traditional Korean families; and the value of children, the purpose of education, and family orientation in the modern family. (BC)

Yi, Soon Hyung

1993-01-01

262

Korean institutional investors and real estate investments  

E-print Network

Korean institutional investors comprise one of the major investor groups in the financial market. Given their characteristics and constraints, asset allocation of such institutional investors is dominated by 'traditional ...

Nam, Sangwook, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

263

Korean Adults' Attitudes towards Varieties of English   

E-print Network

This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research ...

Kim, Young Soo

2007-11-28

264

Diaspora without Homeland: Being Korean in Japan  

E-print Network

soldiers rushed into the ancient Chinese city of Nanjing, under orders to rape all femalessoldiers and anti- Korean citizens who harass students, respectively) but also by their own communities’ dominant masculinist logics, which place female

Ryang, Sonia; Lie, John

2009-01-01

265

Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in…

Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung

2012-01-01

266

Eye-tracking measures reveal how changes in the design of aided AAC displays influence the efficiency of locating symbols by school-age children without disabilities.  

PubMed

PURPOSE Many individuals with communication impairments use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems involving letters, words, or line drawings that rely on the visual modality. It seems reasonable to suggest that display design should incorporate information about how users attend to and process visual information. The organization of AAC symbols can influence the speed and accuracy with which children select a target symbol on a display. This research examined why some displays facilitate responding. METHOD Eye-tracking technology recorded point-of-gaze while children without disabilities engaged in a visual search task with 2 AAC displays. In 1 display, symbols sharing an internal color were clustered together. In the other display, like-colored symbols were distributed. Dependent measures were (a) latency to fixate on the target compared with distracters and (b) the number of fixations to target and distracters. RESULTS Participants were significantly slower to fixate on the target when like-colored symbols were distributed; there was a significant increase in the number of fixations to distracters that did not share color with the target. CONCLUSIONS Efficient search was related to minimizing fixations to nonrelevant distracters. Vulnerability to distraction can be a significant problem in individuals with disabilities who use AAC. Minimizing the intrusion of such distraction may, therefore, be of importance in AAC display design. PMID:24129007

Wilkinson, Krista M; O'Neill, Tara; McIlvane, William J

2014-04-01

267

Astronaut Preflight Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Vascular Compliance are Highly Correlated with Post-Flight Eye Outcome Measures in the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome Following Long Duration Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of the first VIIP case occurred in 2005, and adequate eye outcome measures were available for 31 (67.4%) of the 46 long duration US crewmembers who had flown on the ISS since its first crewed mission in 2000. Therefore, this analysis is limited to a subgroup (22 males and 9 females). A "cardiovascular profile" for each astronaut was compiled by examining twelve individual parameters; eleven of these were preflight variables: systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, use of anti-lipid medication, fasting serum glucose, and maximal oxygen uptake in ml/kg. Each of these variables was averaged across three preflight annual physical exams. Astronaut age prior to the long duration mission, and inflight salt intake was also included in the analysis. The group of cardiovascular variables for each crew member was compared with seven VIIP eye outcome variables collected during the immediate post-flight period: anterior-posterior axial length of the globe measured by ultrasound and optical biometry; optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve diameter, and optic nerve to sheath ratio- each measured by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraocular pressure (IOP), change in manifest refraction, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and RNFL of the inferior and superior retinal quadrants. Since most of the VIIP eye outcome measures were added sequentially beginning in 2005, as knowledge of the syndrome improved, data were unavailable for 22.0% of the outcome measurements. To address the missing data, we employed multivariate multiple imputation techniques with predictive mean matching methods to accumulate 200 separate imputed datasets for analysis. We were able to impute data for the 22.0% of missing VIIP eye outcomes. We then applied Rubin's rules for collapsing the statistical results across our 200 multiply imputed data sets to assess the canonical correlation between the eye outcomes and the twelve astronaut cardiovascular variables available for all 31 subjects. Results: A highly significant canonical correlation was observed among the canonical solutions (p<.00001), with an average best canonical correlation of.97. The results suggest a strong association between astronauts' measures of cardiovascular health and the seven eye outcomes of the VIIP syndrome used in this analysis. Furthermore, the "joint test" revealed a significant difference in cardiovascular profile between male and female astronauts (Prob > F = 0.00001). Overall, female astronauts demonstrated a significantly healthier cardiovascular status. Individually, the female astronauts had significantly healthier profiles on seven of twelve cardiovascular variables than the men (p values ranging from <0.0001 to <0.05). Male astronauts did not demonstrate significantly healthier values on any of the twelve cardiovascular variables measured

Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Snyder, R.

2015-01-01

268

Crisis Guide: The Korean Peninsula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations has created a number of interactive guides that address everything from Africa's conflict zones to the region along Pakistan's Afghan border. This particular interactive feature deals with the ongoing political situation on the Korean Peninsula. After a brief audio and visual introduction, visitors can take in eight chapters that cover the region's historical background, military history, and nuclear facilities. Along with graphics such as charts and tables, some of the chapters include interactive timelines and maps. One chapter that should not be missed is the one dedicated to exploring the subject of "Military Balance". In this chapter, users can learn about the military assets in the region held by the United States, Japan, China, Russia, and South and North Korea. It's quite an overview, and this site could also be used in an introductory political science or international relations course.

269

The Eyes Have It Terry Riopka Terrance Boult  

E-print Network

localization on face recognition accuracy. To investigate its importance, we present an eye perturbation a key role in the accuracy of face recognition systems. In particular, correct measurement of eye in recognition accuracy may be achieved by focussing more effort on the eye localization stage of the face

Boult, Terrance E.

270

Can eye movements be quantitatively applied to image quality studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to find out whether subjective image quality evaluations can be quantified by eye movement tracking. We want to map objective or physically measurable image quality to subjective evaluations and eye movement data. Results show that eye movement parameters consistently change according to the instructions given to the user, and according to physical image quality.

Tero Vuori; Maria Olkkonen; Monika Pölönen; Ari Siren; Jukka Häkkinen

2004-01-01

271

Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

2014-01-01

272

Korean Teachers’ Beliefs and Teaching Practices in Korean Early Childhood Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs and practices of early childhood teachers in Korea. 54 child care teachers, 58 private kindergarten teachers and 45 public kindergarten teachers participated in this study. The Teacher Questionnaire was adapted for the Korean situation using both Korean and American early childhood education experts to determine cultural appropriateness of items (i.e.,

Joan E. Herwig

1997-01-01

273

Phonological Development of Word-Initial Korean Obstruents in Young Korean Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially.…

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2011-01-01

274

"We Shouldn't Be Forgotten": Korean Military Brides and Koreans in Kansas  

E-print Network

importantly, Korean women have dominated the makeup of the migrants by gender and continue to play the major role in this expanding diaspora. Not only highly gendered, the Korean diaspora in Kansas is also relatively young and scattered across the state...

Kim, Sang Jo

2012-08-31

275

Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, ?2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0.541), or monthly income (P = 0.1696, ?2). The result of this study might be useful in facial rejuvenation surgeries as well as in brow esthetics or tattooing of eyebrows. PMID:25006898

Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

2014-07-01

276

An information flow among industry sectors in the Korean stock market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the information flow among 22 industry sectors in the Korean stock market by using the symbolic transfer entropy (STE) method. We consider the daily index of 22 industry sectors in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) from January 3, 2000 to March 30, 2012. We measure the degree of asymmetry in the information flow and the amount of information flow among the industry sectors before, during, and after the subprime crisis in order to analyze how to relate them to the market crisis. We find that the amount of information flow and the number of connectedness during the financial crisis in the Korean stock market are higher than those before and after the market crisis. In addition, we find the role of the insurance sector, which is related to risk management, increases as information source after the crisis.

Oh, Gabjin; Oh, Tamina; Kim, Hoyong; Kwon, Okyu

2014-12-01

277

Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye  

SciTech Connect

An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-02-28

278

Influence of the prediction error of the first eye undergoing cataract surgery on the refractive outcome of the fellow eye  

PubMed Central

Introduction In addition to measurement errors, individual anatomical conditions could be made responsible for unexpected prediction errors in the determination of the correct intraocular lens power for cataract surgery. Obviously, such anatomical conditions might be relevant for both eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the postoperative refractive error of the first eye has to be taken in account for the biometry of the second. Methods In this retrospective study, we included 670 eyes of 335 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a foldable intraocular lens in both eyes. According to the SRK/T formula, the postoperative refractive error of each eye was determined and compared with its fellow eye. Results Of 670 eyes, 622 showed a postoperative refractive error within ±1.0 D (93%), whereas the prediction error was 0.5 D or less in 491 eyes (73%). The postoperative difference between both eyes was within 0.5 D in 71% and within 1.0 D in 93% of the eyes. Comparing the prediction error of an eye and its fellow eye, the error of the fellow eye was about half the value of the other. Conclusion Our results imply that substitution of half of the prediction error of the first eye into the calculation of the second eye may be useful to reduce the prediction error in the second eye. However, prospective studies should be initiated to demonstrate an improved accuracy for the second eye’s intraocular lens power calculation by partial adjustment. PMID:25382967

Gorodezky, Ludmilla; Mazinani, Babac AE; Plange, Niklas; Walter, Peter; Wenzel, Martin; Roessler, Gernot

2014-01-01

279

Antioxidant activities of Korean rice wine concentrates.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of six Korean rice wine (KRW) concentrates were measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and lipid/malonaldehyde (MA) assays. In the DPPH assay, the antioxidant activities of the KRW concentrates, including Maesilju (MSJ), Kookhwaju-1 (KHJ-1), Kookhwaju-2 (KHJ-2), Gugijaju (GGJ), Sasamju (SSJ), and Sogokju (SGJ), were 40%, 66%, 64%, 35%, 35%, and 63%, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrates inhibited the formation of MA from cod liver oil by 49%, 83%, 75%, 82%, 89%, and 90%, respectively, according to the lipid/MA assay. The sample wines were also analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids (°Bx), and reducing sugars. The antioxidant activities of volatile extracts of the KRWs extracted by a solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) apparatus were evaluated by aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. The volatile extracts of MSJ, KHJ-1, KHJ-2, GGJ, SSJ, and SGJ inhibited the oxidation of hexanal by 97%, 99%, 90%, 90%, 50%, and 51%, respectively. Among the nonvolatile extracts of KRWs, KHJ-2 showed the highest inhibitory effect on MA formation. PMID:21591772

Jeong, Jae-Wook; Nam, Pil-Woo; Lee, Seung-Joo; Lee, Kwang-Geun

2011-07-13

280

Prevention of Eye Injuries  

PubMed Central

In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

Pashby, Tom

1981-01-01

281

Eye drop neurology.  

PubMed

Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure. PMID:24520179

Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T

2014-06-01

282

Arms control in the Korean peninsula. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of the Korean War, both North and South Korea have been building up their military power. This arms race has increased the risk of a military conflict between the North and South which could result in major power involvement. In recent years, various measures have been attempted to enhance stability in Korea to no avail. When the situation becomes more favorable for negotiations, the most difficult problem will be arms control. This paper discusses the interests of the two countries and of the four major powers involved and suggests a suitable format for arms control agreements.

Kim, H.

1986-05-01

283

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye  

E-print Network

MAC-EYE: a Tendon Driven Fully Embedded Robot Eye Dario Biamino, Giorgio Cannata, Marco Maggiali the possibility of designing a robot eye with kinematics and actuation similar to those of the human eye. In particular, we tried to exploit the spherical shape of the eye and to study the feasibility of a tendon based

Cannata, Giorgio

284

Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul

2009-01-01

285

Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1998-01-01

286

A Descriptive Statistical Approach to the Korean Pharmacopuncture Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews trends in research related to Korean pharmacopuncture therapy. Specifically, basic and clinical research in pharmacopuncture within the last decade is summarized by introducing categorical variables for classification. These variables are also analyzed for association. This literature review is based on articles published from February 1997 to December 2008 in a Korean journal, the Journal of the Korean

Jungdae Kim; Dae-In Kang

2010-01-01

287

Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

2011-01-01

288

Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

2012-01-01

289

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

290

Examining the Health Information–Seeking Behaviors of Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Korean Americans suffer from high levels of cancer incidence and have low cancer screening rates. A significant number of Korean Americans lack adequate information about cancer screening tests. However, little is known about their health behaviors. This article examines exposure to mass media and health information–seeking behaviors for Korean Americans, and their associations with demographic characteristics influencing variations in

Kyeung Mi Oh; Gary L. Kreps; Jungmi Jun; Elizabeth Chong; Lolita Ramsey

2012-01-01

291

What North Korea wants. [North Korean nuclear policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author draws upon his experiences from his four trips to North Korea, during which he discussed nuclear issues with North Korean leaders, to help explain part of the North Korean reasoning behind its threats to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its gyrating nuclear policies. In essence, the author believes that North Korean nuclear policy

1993-01-01

292

Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

293

Horizontal Eye Position in Thyroid Eye Disease: A Retrospective Comparison with Normal Individuals and Changes after Orbital Decompression Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare horizontal eye positions between proptotic thyroid eye disease patients and normal individuals, and to examine positional changes after orbital decompression surgery in thyroid eye disease patients. Methods The present case-controlled and retrospective comparative study included 78 proptotic thyroid eye disease patients who underwent bilateral orbital decompression surgery [lateral orbital wall decompression (Group L), 47 patients; medial orbital wall decompression (Group M), 9 patients; and balanced orbital decompression (Group B), 22 patients] and 143 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. The interpupillary distance was measured to determine horizontal eye positions before and 3 months after surgery in thyroid eye disease patients and was also examined in control eyes. Horizontal eye shifts were calculated by subtracting postoperative from preoperative interpupillary distances. Results Preoperative interpupillary distances in thyroid eye disease patients were significantly larger than in controls. The interpupillary distances were significantly decreased postoperatively in Groups M and B, but were significantly increased in Group L. The order of the magnitude of the horizontal shifts was Groups M>B>L. Conclusions Proptotic thyroid eye disease patients preoperatively showed laterally displaced eyes in comparison with controls. However, the eyes shifted medially after the medial orbital wall decompression and the balanced orbital decompression, although the former showed more shift. Medial orbital wall or balanced orbital decompression can be used to correct both lateral and anterior displacement of the eyes. PMID:25469505

Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

2014-01-01

294

Acoustic characteristics of Korean stops in Korean child-directed speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of cross-linguistic studies have documented that the acoustic properties of speech addressed to young children include exaggeration of pitch contours and acoustically salient features of phonetic units. It has been suggested that phonetic modifications of child-directed speech facilitate young children's speech perception by providing detailed phonetic information about the target word. While there are several studies reporting vowel modifications in speech to infants (i.e., hyper-articulated vowels), there has been relatively little research about consonant modifications in speech to young children (except for VOT). The present study examines acoustic properties of Korean stops in Korean mothers' speech to their children aged 29 to 38 months (N=6). Korean tense, lax, and aspirated stops are all voiceless in word-initial position, and are perceptually differentiated by several acoustic parameters including VOT, f0 of the following vowel, and the amplitude difference of the first and second harmonics at the voice onset of the following vowel. This study compares values of these parameters in Korean motherese to those in speech to adult Koreans from same speakers. Results focus on the acoustic properties of Korean stops in child-directed speech and how they are modified to help Korean young children learn the three-way phonetic contrast.

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-04-01

295

Sagging Eye Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Importance Recognition of sagging eye syndrome (SES) as the cause of chronic or acute acquired diplopia may avert neurologic evaluation and imaging in most cases. Objectives To determine whether SES results from inferior shift of lateral rectus (LR) extraocular muscle (EOM) pulleys and to investigate anatomic correlates of strabismus in SES. Design and Setting We used magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate rectus EOMs, pulleys, and the LR– superior rectus (SR) band ligament at an eye institute. Participants Patients with acquired diplopia suspected of having SES. We studied 56 orbits of 11 men and 17 women (mean [SD] age of 69.4 [11.9] years) clinically diagnosed with SES. Data were obtained from 25 orbits of 14 control participants age-matched to SES and from 52 orbits of 28 younger controls (23[4.6] years). Main Outcome Measures Rectus pulley locations compared with age-matched norms and lengths of the LR-SR band ligament and rectus EOMs. Data were correlated with facial features, binocular alignment, and fundus torsion. Results Patients with SES commonly exhibited blepharoptosis and superior sulcus defect. Significant infero-lateral LR pulley displacement was confirmed in SES, but the spectrum of abnormalities was extended to peripheral displacement of all other rectus pulleys and lateral displacement of the inferior rectus pulley, with elongation of rectus EOMs (P < .001). Symmetrical LR sag was associated with divergence paralysis esotropia and asymmetrical LR sag greater than 1mm with cyclovertical strabismus. The LR-SR band was ruptured in 91% of patients with SES. Conclusions and Relevance Widespread rectus pulley displacement and EOM elongation, associated with LR-SR band rupture, causes acquired vertical and horizontal strabismus. Small-angle esotropia or hypertropia may result from common involutional changes in EOMs and orbital connective tissues that may be suspected from features evident on external examination. PMID:23471194

Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

2014-01-01

296

The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

2012-01-01

297

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye  

E-print Network

Optical Prosthetics Mimicking the Eye Abstract The eye is a complex optical system that, like other still being in its infancy. Introduction The eye consists of many parts. · Sclera: The majority of the eye, it forms the white shell and the basic shape of the eyeball. · Cornea: The frontal 1/6 of the eye

La Rosa, Andres H.

298

Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals of selected regions in the eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier. Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 600 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

299

Dry eye diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the most effective objective tests, applied singly or in combination in the diagnosis of dry eye disease. Two groups of subjects—41 with dry eye and 32 with no ocular surface disease—had symptoms, tear film quality, evaporation, tear turnover rate (TTR), volume and osmolarity, and meibomian gland dropout score assessed.

Khanal Santosh; Alan Tomlinson; Angus McFadyen; Charles J. M. Diaper; Kanna Ramaesh

2008-01-01

300

Eyes in arhinencephalic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The ocular features of eight cases of arhinencephaly have been described. Prediction of the degree of brain involvement from the eye defects could not be made, but eye abnormalities were present in all cases. The relationship of these syndromes to chromosomal abnormalities is emphasized. In the less severe cases treatable endocrine dysgenesis must be excluded. Images PMID:812548

Karseras, A G; Laurence, K M

1975-01-01

301

Foreign Body in Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... there. Most corneal abrasions heal within 48 hours. Glass shards, other sharp objects and objects that entered the eye at high speed are more likely to cause damage. An object that penetrates the eye may lead to severe vision loss. Additional Info American Academy ...

302

Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

Medicare benefits and your eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk for vision impairment ... on the arrows below for detailed information about Medicare benefits and your eyes. Request a Free Copy ...

303

Eye muscle repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Strabismus (crossed eyes) is caused by a lack of muscle coordination between the eyes, causing the eyes ... unable to focus simultaneously on a single point. Strabismus may result from problems with the extraocular muscles ( ...

304

Financial Aid for Eye Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Programs Training and Jobs Financial Aid for Eye Care Listen Financial Aid for Eye Care PDF* Many state and national resources regularly provide ... research, does not help individuals pay for eye care. However, if you are in need of financial ...

305

A Psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the evidence based practice questionnaire for nurses.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Measuring of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) competence is a challenge in health care setting. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Methods/Design: Data were collected from Korean clinical nurses (N = 801) who worked in acute care settings. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to assess its construct validity. Concurrent validity and internal consistence were also assessed. Results: Findings identified that exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution with 64.4% of total variance explained. The factor loadings ranged from 0.431 to 0.900 for the 24 items. The instrument showed good reliability and concurrent validity with the Critical Thinking Disposition scale. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the Korean version of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire was acceptable. Conclusion: The Korean version of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire is a valid and reliable evaluation measure of evidence-based practice competencies of nurses in South Korea. PMID:25429908

Son, Youn-Jung; Song, Youngshin; Park, So-Youn; Kim, Jong-Im

2014-11-28

306

Role of lasers in eye care.  

PubMed

This review discusses the role of lasers in eye care under five headings: Absorption of laser radiation by ocular tissues. Types of lasers include: ruby, argon, gas, organic dye, krypton, Nd:YAG, excimer, and infrared. Applications of lasers for examining the eye include: laser refraction, determining visual acuity by laser fringes, measuring retinal blood flow, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and tomography, measuring aqueous flare, ocular holography, measuring retinal absorption, measuring visually evoked potentials, and measuring corneal sensitivity. Applications of laser radiation for ocular surgery include: photocoagulation, destruction of tumors, reattaching the retina, treating glaucoma by producing an iridotomy or by trabeculoplasty or by cyclodestruction. Lasers can be used to remove surface irregularities or superficial opacities from the cornea or eyelids. Other uses are for producing a capsulotomy and for altering corneal curvature as a means of correcting ametropia. Potential adverse effects of laser radiation on the eye are summarized. PMID:8446378

Lyle, W M; Cullen, A P; Charman, W N

1993-02-01

307

Dose reduction in computed tomography: the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose measured in patients with beryllium oxide-based optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose to the lens and the testes\\u000a of patients undergoing CT examinations. Fifty-one male patients underwent CT twice with identical protocols initially without,\\u000a the second time with protective garments. Doses to the testes and the lenses were recorded with beryllium oxide-based dosimeters.\\u000a The

Henrik Grobe; Marian Sommer; Arne Koch; Volker Hietschold; Jürgen Henniger; Nasreddin Abolmaali

2009-01-01

308

American Colleges See Potential in Korean Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For colleges in the United States seeking a foothold in South Korea's formerly insular higher-education sector, the lure seems to be part location, part alumni lobbying, and part desire to be part of the country's rapid transformation. The South Korean government's newfound openness to overseas universities is helping persuade American college…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

309

Acculturation and health in Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increasing research on the relationships between acculturation and health, it is unclear whether (1) ethnic group variation occurs in acculturation-health relationships, (2) acculturation components vary differently in relationship to health, (3) biculturalism has beneficial effects on health and (4) multidimensional health relationships occur with acculturation. This study examined the Korean American ethnic group, considering how acculturation was related with

Soo-Kyung Lee; Jeffery Sobal; Edward A. Frongillo

2000-01-01

310

Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

Murfin, Brian

2009-01-01

311

Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

Koh, Hesung Chun

2006-01-01

312

The Korean connective nuntey in conversational discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interactional use of the Korean connective nuntey in spontaneous conversational discourse in the framework of conversation analysis. Nuntey has mainly been discussed as a clause connector, linking a subordinate nuntey-clause to a main clause. As such it has been glossed as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘so’, or ‘given that’. Using conversation analysis, this study reveals that nuntey-clauses often

Yong-Yae Park

1999-01-01

313

Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

Silva, David J., Ed.

314

Object Drop in Japanese and Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Languages can differ in fundamental ways with respect to the syntax of sentences with a "missing" direct object. Whereas Japanese and Korean permit null direct objects that are licensed under general discourse conditions (the recoverability of the referent from context) without regard for choice of verb, object ellipsis in English obeys lexical…

O'Grady, William; Yamashita, Yoshie; Cho, Sookeun

2008-01-01

315

Improving eye cursor's stability for eye pointing tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the stability of eye cursor, we introduce three methods, force field (FF), speed reduction (SR), and warping to target center (TC) to modulate eye cursor trajectories by counteracting eye jitter, which is the main cause of destabilizing the eye cursor. We evaluate these methods using two controlled experiments. One is an attention task experiment, which indicates

Xinyong Zhang; Xiangshi Ren; Hongbin Zha

2008-01-01

316

Eye to I  

E-print Network

This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience ...

Brunstein, Ada

2007-01-01

317

Anatomy of the Eye  

MedlinePLUS

External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are present in the orbit (eye socket) that attach to the ... on which contact lenses are placed. Internal (Intraocular)Anatomy Anterior chamber: The anterior chamber is a fluid ( ...

318

Dry eye syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... t smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

319

Multimodal eye recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

2010-04-01

320

The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs. PMID:12859794

Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

2003-01-01

321

Peak torque and electromyographic responses during fatiguing concentric muscle actions with eyes-open versus eyes-closed.  

PubMed

This study compared peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) mean frequency responses during fatiguing muscle actions with eyes-open vs eyes-closed. On four separate days, 21 men (M age = 23 yr.) performed 100 repeated maximal concentric muscle actions of the forearm flexors with eyes-open, eyes-closed, eyes-closed for first 50 muscle actions, and eyes-closed for the last 50 muscle actions while surface EMG signals were collected from the biceps brachii. The data were examined with seven separate repeated measures analyses of variance. There were no mean differences among the conditions for initial, average, and final peak torque, percent decline, the linear slope coefficient for the decline in peak torque, as well as the linear slope coefficient and y-intercept for the normalized EMG mean frequency vs repetition number relationships. These findings indicate performance during fatiguing muscle actions is not influenced by whether participants have their eyes open or closed throughout testing. PMID:24032332

Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M

2013-04-01

322

The watery eye.  

PubMed

The surface of the eye needs to be wet constantly to ensure its integrity in maintaining ocular comfort, clear vision, and ocular health. This article presents new findings in the tear dynamics of the human eye, with an emphasis on the tear meniscus and tear film through the day and in response to punctual occlusion and wearing of contact lenses. Recent advances in imaging technique are briefly discussed. PMID:21302004

Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao; Cui, Lele; Wang, Michael R

2011-06-01

323

Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes  

MedlinePLUS

... cause painful damage called snow blindness . The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Summer Sun Eye Safety Winter Sun Eye Safety Indoor Tanning Eye Safety Solar Eclipse Eye Safety Snow Blindness Who is at ...

324

Validation of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26) in Korean population.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26). Translation/retranslation of the English version of QUALEFFO was conducted, and all steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were performed. The Korean version of the visual analog scale measure of pain, QUALEFFO-26 and the previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) were mailed to 162 consecutive patients with osteoporosis. Factor analysis and reliability assessment by kappa statistics of agreement for each item, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's ? were conducted. Construct validity was also evaluated by comparing the responses of QUALEFFO-26 with the responses of SF-36 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Factor analysis extracted 3 factors. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement greater than 0.6. The QUALEFFO-26 showed good test/retest reliability (QUALEFFO-26: 0.8271). Internal consistency of Cronbach's ? was found to be very good (QUALEFFO-26: 0.873). The Korean version of QUALEFFO-26 showed good significant correlation with SF-36 total score and with single SF-36 domains scores. The adapted Korean version of the QUALEFFO-26 was successfully translated and showed acceptable measurement properties and, as such, is considered suitable for outcome assessments in the Korean-speaking patients with osteoporosis. PMID:24414743

Lee, Jung Sub; Shin, Jong Ki; Son, Seung Min; An, Sung Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

2014-07-01

325

Eye Development and Retinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Three embryonic tissue sources—the neural ectoderm, the surface ectoderm, and the periocular mesenchyme—contribute to the formation of the mammalian eye. For this reason, the developing eye has presented an invaluable system for studying the interactions among cells and, more recently, genes, in specifying cell fate. This article describes how the eye primordium is specified in the anterior neural plate by four eye field transcription factors and how the optic vesicle becomes regionalized into three distinct tissue types. Specific attention is given to how cross talk between the optic vesicle and surface ectoderm contributes to lens and optic cup formation. This article also describes how signaling networks and cell movements set up axes in the optic cup and establish the multiple cell fates important for vision. How multipotent retinal progenitor cells give rise to the six neuronal and one glial cell type in the mature retina is also explained. Finally, the history and progress of cellular therapeutics for the treatment of degenerative eye disease is outlined. Throughout this article, special attention is given to how disruption of gene function causes ocular malformation in humans. Indeed, the accessibility of the eye has contributed much to our understanding of the basic processes involved in mammalian development. PMID:23071378

Heavner, Whitney; Pevny, Larysa

2012-01-01

326

Scientific publication productivity of Korean medical colleges: an analysis of 1988-1999 MEDLINE papers.  

PubMed

To identify where the quality research activity has been and is carried out in Korea, and to examine to what extents Korean medical colleges play leading roles in the production of international research papers, we investigated the publication productivity of Korean medical colleges and their medical departments as measured by the number of papers published in foreign journals indexed in MEDLINE. The 12-year period from 1988 to 1999 is covered. A total of 4,881 papers is published in MEDLINE foreign journals by the researchers in Korean medical colleges during the period. The production of MEDLINE papers are concentrated in a few universities. More than 60% of MEDLINE foreign journal papers is published by top five universities 25% by Seoul National University, and 15% by Yonsei University. The newly established medical colleges at the University of Ulsan and Sungkyunkwan University produced outstanding numbers of papers in less than ten years. Radiology has led the internationalization of Korean medical papers. It was the most productive specialty identified in this study. The productivity of Internal medicine is on the rise from the mid-1 990s, and the field began to produce the most number of papers since then. PMID:10719802

Han, M C; Lee, C S

2000-02-01

327

The application of cooperative monitoring techniques to a conceptual limited deployment zone in the Korean peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The Korean peninsula is the site of a tense military confrontation. Relations between North and South Korea improved during the early 1990`s but the process is now frozen. Confidence building measures, particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries would decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for direct negotiations. The Korean Institute for Defense Analysis (KIDA) analyzed current security conditions and options. Their scenario includes a conceptual agreement to establish Limited Force Deployment Zones (LDZ) along the current demilitarized zone (DMZ) to increase mutual security. The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with KIDA, developed a strategy, with examples, for cooperatively monitoring the agreement. A cooperative monitoring regime requires consideration of the agreement`s terms, the geographic, logistic, military, and political factors of the Korean environment, and the capability of technology to monitor the terms. This paper assesses the applicability of cooperative monitoring to Korea, describes the monitoring strategy for the Korean enhanced DMZ scenario, and describes the applicable technologies and procedures.

Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

1996-10-01

328

Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

329

Development of a Modified Naturalistic Action Test for Korean Patients With Impaired Cognition  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a modified Naturalistic Action Test (m-NAT) for Korean patients with impaired cognition. The NAT was originally designed to assess everyday action impairment associated with higher cortical dysfunction. Methods We developed the m-NAT by adapting the NAT for the Korean cultural background. The m-NAT was modeled as closely as possible on the original version in terms of rules and scoring. Thirty patients receiving neurorehabilitation (twenty-three stroke patients, five traumatic brain injury patients, and two dementia patients) and twenty healthy matched controls were included. Inter-rater reliability was assessed between two raters. Validity was evaluated by comparing the m-NAT score with various measures of attention, executive functions, and daily life. Results Performance on the m-NAT in terms of the total score was significantly different between patients and controls (p<0.01). Patients made significantly more total errors than controls (p<0.01). Omissions error was the most frequent type of error in patient group. Intraclass correlation coefficients for total m-NAT score was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 0.97; p<0.001); total error was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.92; p<0.001). Total m-NAT score showed moderate to strong correlations with Stroop test interference score & index, Trail Making Test parts A and B, Sustained Attention to Response Task commission error, Functional Independence Measure, Korean instrumental activities of daily living, Korean version of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and Executive Behavior Scale (p<0.05). Conclusion The m-NAT showed very good inter-rater reliability and adequate validity. The m-NAT adjusted to Korean cultural background can be useful in performance-based assessment of naturalistic action for clinical and research purposes. PMID:23525262

Jung, Mi Ae; Kang, Youn Joo; Kim, Yon Joon

2013-01-01

330

Analysis of product efficiency in the Korean automobile market from a consumer’s perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we develop and describe a conceptual and methodological framework to measure technical and allocative efficiency\\u000a at the product level considering consumer choice, which encompasses overall efficiency. Empirically, we combined data envelopment\\u000a analysis and a discrete choice model in order to measure efficiency levels. The suggested framework is applied to the Korean\\u000a automobile market. The relationship between the

Inha Oh; Jeong-Dong Lee; Seogwon Hwang; Almas Heshmati

2010-01-01

331

Optical quality of the living cat eye  

PubMed Central

1. The optical quality of the living cat eye was measured under conditions similar to those of cat retinal ganglion cell experiments by recording the aerial image of a nearly monochromatic thin line of light. 2. Experiments were performed to assess the nature of the fundal reflexion of the cat eye, which was found to behave essentially as a diffuser. 3. The optical Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was calculated from the measured aerial linespread using Fourier mathematics; the MTF of a `typical' cat eye was averaged from data collected from ten eyes. 4. The state of focus of the optical system, the pupil size and the angle of the light incident on the eye were all varied to determine their effect on image quality. 5. By using an image rotator, the aerial linespread was measured for several orientations of the line; these measurements yielded an approximation of the two-dimensional pointspread completely characterizing the optical system. 6. Evidence is reviewed to show that the optical resolution of the cat, albeit some 3-5 times worse than that of human, appears to be better than the neural resolution of its retina and its visual system as a whole. PMID:4449081

Bonds, A. B.

1974-01-01

332

A novel frameshift mutation in the EYA1 gene in a Korean family with branchio-oto-renal syndrome.  

PubMed

Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by branchial cleft fistulae or cysts, preauricular pits, ear malformations, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. Mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophilia eyes absent gene (EYA1) are the most common cause of BOR syndrome. In this study, we found a Korean family showing clinical features of the disease. Mutation analysis of the EYA1 gene revealed a novel one-base-pair deletion resulting in truncated protein (c.321delT; p.Ala107fs). This is the first report of BOR syndrome caused by deletion mutation of the EYA1 gene in Korea. PMID:19667416

Lee, Jong Dae; Kim, Shi-Chan; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Hye-Jin; Choi, Soo-Young; Kim, Un-Kyung

2009-01-01

333

2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469139

Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

2014-01-01

334

Detection of vigilance performance using eye blinks.  

PubMed

Research has shown that sustained attention or vigilance declines over time on task. Sustained attention is necessary in many environments such as air traffic controllers, cyber operators, and imagery analysts. A lapse of attention in any one of these environments can have harmful consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine if eye blink metrics from an eye-tracker are related to changes in vigilance performance and cerebral blood flow velocities. Nineteen participants performed a vigilance task while wearing an eye-tracker on four separate days. Blink frequency and duration changed significantly over time during the task. Both blink frequency and duration increased as performance declined and right cerebral blood flow velocity declined. These results suggest that eye blink information may be an indicator of arousal levels. Using an eye-tracker to detect changes in eye blinks in an operational environment would allow preventative measures to be implemented, perhaps by providing perceptual warning signals or augmenting human cognition through non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. PMID:23722006

McIntire, Lindsey K; McKinley, R Andy; Goodyear, Chuck; McIntire, John P

2014-03-01

335

Eye movements during emotion recognition in faces.  

PubMed

When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear, sadness, shame, and disgust) and neutral facial expressions. Participant eye movements primarily fell in five distinct regions (eyes, upper nose, lower nose, upper lip, nasion). Distinct fixation patterns emerged for each emotion, such as a focus on the lips for joyful faces and a focus on the eyes for sad faces. These patterns were strongest for emotional faces but were still present when viewers sought evidence of emotion within neutral faces, indicating a goal-driven influence on eye-gaze patterns. Experiment 2 verified that these fixation patterns tended to reflect attention to the most diagnostic regions of the face for each emotion. Eye movements appear to follow both stimulus-driven and goal-driven perceptual strategies when decoding emotional information from a face. PMID:25406159

Schurgin, M W; Nelson, J; Iida, S; Ohira, H; Chiao, J Y; Franconeri, S L

2014-01-01

336

A survey of overweight, body shape perception and eating attitude of Korean female university students  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] We obtained basic data on a proper weight loss training program by considering the relationship between body mass index (BMI), the perception of appearance, and eating attitudes of Korean female university students. [Methods] The survey and anthropometry for the perception of appearance and eating attitudes were conducted targeting 657 female university students located in Seoul, Busan, Ulsan, Daejeon, Chungcheongnam-do, and Gangwon-do South Korea who were not specializing in physical education. [Results] The underweight group accounted for 21.16% of the population, the normal weight group comprised 69.71%, the overweight group was 6.09%, and the obese group accounted for 3.04%. The satisfaction rate of appearance was 56.16%, the dissatisfaction rate was 43.84%, and normal-weight students who were dissatisfied with their own appearance comprised 48.5%. The More obese students were more dissatisfied with their appearance. As a result of investigating eating attitudes, 37.75% of all subjects had a risk for an eating disorder, and 38.6% were normal weight but showed a risk for an eating disorder. More obese (BMI) subjects were at higher risk for an eating disorder. [Conclusion] The BMIs of the Korean female university students were lower than those of European and American Caucasian women students, but the dissatisfaction of Korean female university students with their appearances was greater than that of European and American students, indicating that more Korean female university students were suffering from an eating disorder. It is predicted that the incidence of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia, will rise in Korean women if there is no accurate understanding and measure to identify the high risk group for an eating disorder.

Woo, Jinhee

2014-01-01

337

Causes of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed at analyzing the causes of death of prisoners of war (POWs) during the Korean War (1950-1953) who fought for the Communist side (North Korea and the People's Republic of China). In 1998, the United States Department of Defense released new information about the prisoners including, 7,614 deaths of the POW during the Korean War. The data on the causes of death of the POWs during the Korean War provides valuable information on the both the public health and history of the conflict. Materials and Methods To analyze the causes of death of the POWs, we classified the clinical diagnosis and findings on 7,614 deaths into 22 chapters, as outlined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision (ICD-10). Second, we traced changes in the monthly death totals of POWs as well as deaths caused by common infectious diseases and external causes of death including injury over time from August 1950 to September 1953. Results The most common category of causes of deaths of POWs was infectious disease, 5,013 (65.8%) out of 7,614 deaths, followed by external causes including injury, 817 (10.7%). Overall, tuberculosis and dysentery/diarrhea were the most common causes of death. Deaths caused by acute and chronic infection, or external causes showed different patterns of increases and decline over time during the Korean War. Conclusion The information and data on POWs' deaths during the Korean War reflects the critical impact of the POWs' living conditions and the effect of public health measures implemented in POW camps during the war. PMID:23364985

Lee, Myoung-Soon; Kang, Min-Jung

2013-01-01

338

Development of Tibiofemoral Angle in Korean Children  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to identify the chronological changes of the knee angle or the tibiofemoral angles in normal healthy Korean children. Full-length anteroposterior view standing radiographs of 818 limbs of 452 Korean children were analyzed. The overall patterns of the chronological changes in the knee angle were similar to those described previously in western or Asian children, but the knee angle development was delayed, i.e., genu varum before 1 yr, neutral at 1.5 yr, increasing genu valgum with maximum a value of 7.8° at 4 yr, followed by a gradual decrease to approximately 5-6° of genu valgum of the adult level at 7 to 8 yr of age. These normative data on chronological changes of knee angles should be taken into consideration when evaluating lower limb alignment in children. PMID:18756063

Yoo, Jae Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Chung, Chin Youb; Yoo, Won Joon

2008-01-01

339

Genetic content in Korean nursing textbooks.  

PubMed

Due to the significant developments in genetic health services that have occurred, nurses now must strive to incorporate cutting-edge information from this fast-evolving field into their day-to-day practice. This study examined the amount and the content of genetics education in Korean nursing textbooks. We analyzed 165 textbooks that were published by four companies between 2005 and 2009. Eighty percent contained some information on genetics; however, the content was limited to bioscience, the latest information on common diseases, and nursing interventions in genetics. There was an average of six pages of genetics content in the seven specialized textbooks on nursing that were analyzed. This indicates that many topics on genetics need to be incorporated into Korean nursing education, especially in light of the recent genetic innovations in all curricular areas of nursing education. We recommend the establishment of strategic perspectives to bridge the content gaps in genetics education in nursing. PMID:20487337

Kim, Miyoung; Han, Jinho

2010-03-01

340

Prescription of eye drops  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess whether patients have their ocular drops correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. A retrospective review of notes of patients who were admitted to hospital for general medical or surgical care, while on regular eye drops at the time of admission was performed. Twenty two patients were on regular ocular medication when admitted. Only seven out of 22 patients had their eye drops correctly prescribed. Furthermore, six patients had been prescribed topical ?-blockers, yet suffered from medical conditions that may have been aggravated by these drops. These findings demonstrate that the majority of patients on drops do not have their medication correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. Also topical ?-blockers continue to be inappropriately prescribed.???Keywords: eye drops; non-ophthalmic admissions PMID:11571373

O'Sullivan, E; Malhotra, R; Migdal, C

2001-01-01

341

#55 Cancer in korean war navy technicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To assess mortality due to cancer and other causes among 40,581 Navy veterans of the Korean war with potential exposure to high-intensity radar after 40 years of follow-up.METHODS: The cohort death rates were compared with mortality rates for White US men using standardized mortality ratios, and the death rates for men in occupations considered a priori to have high

FD Groves; WF Page; G Gridley; L Lisimaque; PA Stewart; RE Tarone; MH Gail; JD Boice; GW Beebe

2002-01-01

342

A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

343

Eye injuries in sport.  

PubMed

Most ocular injuries involve only the external eye. However, in approximately one-third of cases the intraocular structures are damaged with potentially sight threatening consequences. A small number of sports, such as soccer, rugby, hockey and the racquet sports are responsible for most injuries. Sport is responsible for between 25-40% of all eye injuries severe enough to require hospital admission. Most of these are recognised as being largely preventable and methods of reducing the number and severity of such injuries are of prime importance. PMID:20533697

MacEwen, C J; McLatchie, G R

2010-05-01

344

Photorefraction of the Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

2015-02-01

345

Benzodiazepines impair smooth pursuit eye movements.  

PubMed Central

Five healthy male volunteers received single oral doses of 10 mg diazepam, 20 mg temazepam and placebo, in a double-blind, randomised fashion. Smooth pursuit eye movement velocity and serum benzodiazepine concentration were measured before and after at 0.5,1,1.5,2,3,4,6,9 and 12 h after administration of the treatments. Significant decrease in smooth pursuit eye movement velocity as compared to placebo was observed between 0.5-2 h after temazepam, and between 1-2 h after diazepam. Smooth pursuit eye movement velocity was log-linearly correlated with serum temazepam and diazepam concentration. The results demonstrate the relationship between serum benzodiazepine concentration and its effect on an objective measure of oculomotor performance. PMID:6133544

Bittencourt, P R; Wade, P; Smith, A T; Richens, A

1983-01-01

346

ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL SPECIES TO THE EYE IRRITATION POTENTIAL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG  

EPA Science Inventory

Eye irritation measurements are available from smog chamber solar irradiations of selected hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxide mixtures. These results have been used to compute eye irritation intensity parameters for formaldehyde, acrolein, peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate...

347

The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort  

PubMed Central

The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) is a population-based longitudinal study of health determinants among elderly Koreans. The target population of the KSHAP are people aged 60 years or older and their spouses living in a rural community of Korea. A complete enumeration survey was conducted in the first wave of the KSHAP on 94.7% (814 of 860) of the target population between December 2011 and July 2012. The KSHAP-Health Examination (KSHAP-HE) cohort consists of 698 people who completed additional health examinations at a public health center (n=533) or at their home (n=165). Face-to-face questionnaires were used to interview participants on their demographics, social network characteristics, medical history, health behaviors, cognitive function, and depression symptoms. Health center examinations included anthropometric measures, body impedance analysis, resting blood pressure measurement, radial artery tonometry, bone densitometry, the timed up-and-go test, and fasting blood analysis. However, only anthropometric measures, blood pressure measurement, and non-fasting blood analysis were available for home health examinations. Collaboration is encouraged and access to the KSHAP baseline data will be available via the website of the Korean Social Science Data Archive (http://www.kossda.or.kr). PMID:24876995

Lee, Ju-Mi; Lee, Won Joon; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Choi, Wungrak; Lee, Jina; Sung, Kiho; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik

2014-01-01

348

Using the surgical result in the first eye to calculate intraocular lens power for the second eye.  

PubMed

This paper examines the possibility of using the surgical result in the first eye when planning the intraocular lens power for the second eye. Two methods were considered: (1) an empirical method by which one regards the second procedure as a repeat of the one in the first eye and calculates the power from the actual refractive error obtained in the first eye and (2) a theoretical method by which one measures the pseudophakic anterior chamber depth (ACD) of the first eye and uses this value to plan for the second eye. Based on the data from 136 second eye procedures using extracapsular cataract extraction, the prediction error of the empirical method ranged from -10.5 to +9.5 diopters. The error of the theoretical method ranged from -2.3 to +2.8 diopters, which was significantly more accurate than the empirical method (P < .001). We conclude that the fellow eye ACD may be used as a guideline for the assumed ACD of the second eye. However, such use of the fellow eye ACD could not be shown to improve power calculation predictions significantly. PMID:8426319

Olsen, T; Løgstrup, N; Olesen, H; Corydon, L

1993-01-01

349

Procoagulant activity and thrombelastography in Korean hemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed Central

Twenty male patients with Korean hemorrhagic fever were evaluated with thrombelastography (TEG) to assess the changes in coagulation system, and the results were compared with those of conventional coagulation tests. Procoagulant activity in the plasma was determined by comparing the reaction time "r" of the normal plasma and that of the mixture of equal parts of the normal plasma and the patient's plasma. The TEG was found to be a useful measure of the changes in the coagulation profile, and provided instant accurate assessment of the patient's hemostatic function. Presence of the procoagulant activity was demonstrated in the plasma of the patients and indicated occurrence of active intravascular coagulation during the early stage of the disease. PMID:2908802

Lee, M.; Park, S.; Han, J. S.; Lee, Y. Y.; Lee, H. Y.; Kye, K. C.; Kim, B. K.; Lee, J. S.

1986-01-01

350

Spectrum of rhodopsin mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the spectrum and frequency of rhodopsin gene (RHO) mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to characterize genotype–phenotype correlations in patients with mutations. Methods The RHO mutations were screened by direct sequencing, and mutation prevalence was measured in patients and controls. The impact of missense mutations to RP was predicted by segregation analysis, peptide sequence alignment, and in silico analysis. The severity of disease in patients with the missense mutations was compared by visual acuity, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and kinetic visual field testing. Results Five heterozygous mutations were identified in six of 302 probands with RP, including a novel mutation (c.893C>A, p.A298D) and four known mutations (c.50C>T, p.T17M; c.533A>G, p.Y178C; c.888G>T, p.K296N; and c.1040C>T, p.P347L). The allele frequency of missense mutations was measured in 114 ethnically matched controls. p.A298D, newly identified in a sporadic patient, had never been found in controls and was predicted to be pathogenic. Among the patients with the missense mutations, we observed the most severe phenotype in patients with p.P347L, less severe phenotypes in patients with p.Y178C or p.A298D, and a relatively moderate phenotype in a patient with p.T17M. Conclusions The results reveal the spectrum of RHO mutations in Korean RP patients and clinical features that vary according to mutations. Our findings will be useful for understanding these genetic spectra and the genotype–phenotype correlations and will therefore help with predicting disease prognosis and facilitating the development of gene therapy. PMID:21677794

Kim, Kwang Joong; Kim, Cinoo; Bok, Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Seon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Sung Pyo; Chung, Hum; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kimm, Kuchan; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2011-01-01

351

Vergence-mediated changes in the axis of eye rotation during the human vestibulo-ocular reflex can occur independent of eye position.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether vergence-mediated changes in the axis of eye rotation in the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) would obey Listing's Law (normally associated with saccadic eye movements) independent of the initial eye position. We devised a paradigm for disassociating the saccadic velocity axis from eye position by presenting near and far targets that were centered with respect to one eye. We measured binocular 3-dimensional eye movements using search coils in ten normal subjects and 3-dimensional linear head acceleration using Optotrak in seven normal subjects. The stimuli consisted of passive, unpredictable, pitch head rotations with peak acceleration of approximately 2000 degrees /s(2 )and amplitude of approximately 20 degrees. During the pitch head rotation, each subject fixated straight ahead with one eye, whereas the other eye was adducted 4 degrees during far viewing (94 cm) and 25 degrees during near viewing (15 cm). Our data showed expected compensatory pitch rotations in both eyes, and a vergence-mediated horizontal rotation only in the adducting eye. In addition, during near viewing we observed torsional eye rotations not only in the adducting eye but also in the eye looking straight ahead. In the straight-ahead eye, the change in torsional eye velocity between near and far viewing, which began approximately 40 ms after the start of head rotation, was 10+/-6 degrees /s (mean +/- SD). This change in torsional eye velocity resulted in a 2.4+/-1.5 degrees axis tilt toward Listing's plane in that eye. In the adducting eye, the change in torsional eye velocity between near and far viewing was 16+/-6 degrees /s (mean +/- SD) and resulted in a 4.1+/-1.4 degrees axis tilt. The torsional eye velocities were conjugate and both eyes partially obeyed Listing's Law. The axis of eye rotation tilted in the direction of the line of sight by approximately one-third of the angle between the line of sight and a line orthogonal to Listing's plane. This tilt was higher than predicted by the one-quarter rule. The translational acceleration component of the pitch head rotation measured 0.5 g and may have contributed to the increased torsional component observed during near viewing. Our data show that vergence-mediated eye movements obey a VOR/Listing's Law compromise strategy independent of the initial eye position. PMID:12783151

Migliaccio, Americo A; Cremer, Phillip D; Aw, Swee T; Halmagyi, G Michael; Curthoys, Ian S; Minor, Lloyd B; Todd, Michael J

2003-07-01

352

The world in an eye [eye image interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a single image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typical catadioptric system, a corneal one

Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2004-01-01

353

Task Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity  

E-print Network

the dual task the mean pupil diameter and horizontal vergence increased when subjects performed wellTask Performance & Eye Activity 1 Task Performance and Eye Activity: Predicting Behavior Relating of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA Running Head: Task Performance & Eye Activity Abstract word count: 254

Makeig, Scott

354

Biochemical methane potential and solid state anaerobic digestion of Korean food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an anaerobic digestion process for Korean food wastes containing 15–30% total solids (TS) the biochemical methane potentials (BMP) of their components and mixture (mixed food waste, MFW) were measured. The methane yields of cooked meat, cellulose (as control), boiled rice, fresh cabbage and MFW were 482, 356, 294, 277 and 472 ml CH4\\/gVS added and anaerobic

Ho Nam Chang; Soon Chul Park

1995-01-01

355

Alcohol Consumption and Its Relation to Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues in Healthy Male Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association of alcohol with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 951 healthy male Korean participants who underwent health checkups. We measured the cross-sectional areas of VAT and SAT by computed tomography of the abdomen

Kyae Hyung Kim; Seung-Won Oh; Hyuktae Kwon; Jin-Ho Park; Hochun Choi; BeLong Cho

2012-01-01

356

The Role of Culture, Family Processes, and Anger Regulation in Korean American Adolescents’ Adjustment Problems  

PubMed Central

Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11-15 (M = 13.0; SD = 1.2) years old. Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific vs. common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye towards prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519

Park, Irene J. K.; Kim, Paul Youngbin; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Kim, May

2010-01-01

357

Characteristics of microseismicity in the southeastern area of the Korean Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of microseismicity occurred in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula are investigated. High-resolution data obtained from a dense temporary seismic network were analyzed with aid of data from the permanent seismograph networks which are administered by several organizations. A hundred of events with magnitude below 3.0 have been observed in the region during about one-year observation. Many of events are clustered in several localized regions and almost all of those events are observed at day time. This implies that those events might be related to the human activity at a limited location such as stone-mining site although we could not confirm our conjecture with eye investigations. The rest of events can be classified into natural earthquakes. Although they show a scattered pattern apparently, some of events are suspected to be related to the neotectonic geological features in the region based on distribution of both the hypocenter and origin time. Focal mechanisms of these events reflect an influence of the regional stress with no noticeable discrepancy from the rest of the Korean Peninsula. The longer observation using the dense temporary seismic network would be highly informative to confirm the relationship between the present seismicity and the neotectonic surface faults of the region. Thus the long-time seismic observations in a region is imperative to reduce uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment in the region.

Park, J.; Kang, T.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, W.; Jo, B.; Chung, T.

2012-12-01

358

Through Our Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

Narva, Sara

2009-01-01

359

An eye for inspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

2009-11-01

360

Eyes for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

Orfield, Antonia

2008-01-01

361

Through Students' Eyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

1994-01-01

362

LASIK eye surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the front of the ... For clear vision, the eye's cornea and lens must bend (refract) light rays properly. This allows images to be focused on the retina. Otherwise, the images will ...

363

Eye of the Beholder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

Rogers, Michael

2010-01-01

364

Eye-Tracking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the eye-movement paradigm and refers to recent experiments applying the paradigm to issues of spoken word recognition (e.g., lexical competitor effects), syntactic processing, reference resolution, focus, as well as issues in cross-modality integration that are central to evaluating the modularity hypothesis. (Seven references) (Author/CK)

Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Spivey-Knowlton, Michael J.

1996-01-01

365

A Real Time Eye-Motion Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real time image based system is presented that is able to measure eye movement related quantities at high frame rate. The system's hardware component allows for high frame rate image acquisition under near infrared constant lighting conditions, whereas the software component is capable of performing real time image processing to determine the values of the required eye-related parameters. The

K. K. Delibasis; P. Asvestas; G. K. Matsopoulos; T. Economopoulos; N. Assimakis

2009-01-01

366

Longer Eye Contact Improves ADHD Children's Compliance with Parents' Commands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effectiveness of eye contact in reducing ADHD children's problems with compliance. Seventy-six parents of ADHD boys between ages 5 and 10 were randomized into two treatment groups and a control group. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that, as hypothesized, eye contact was effective in reducing ADHD children's problems with…

Kapalka, G. M.

2004-01-01

367

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know  

E-print Network

Eye Health:Eye Health: What You Should KnowWhat You Should Know Holly B. Hindman, MDHolly B of Ophthalmology Flaum Eye InstituteFlaum Eye Institute University of RochesterUniversity of Rochester #12;THE FLAUM EYE INSTITUTE #12;Keeping Your Eyes Healthy · Know about how your eyes work · Most Eye Diseases

Goldman, Steven A.

368

Chinese and Korean Characters Engage the Same Visual Word Form Area in Proficient Early Chinese-Korean Bilinguals  

PubMed Central

A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals. PMID:21818386

Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

2011-01-01

369

Visceral fat accumulation determines postprandial lipemic response, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese Korean men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral fat has been associated with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify anthropometrical measures most closely associated with some well-known CVD risk factors. Because most Asians at risk have normal body mass index (BMI) according to Western standards, we studied healthy nonobese Korean males (n ? 102; age: 36.5 ? 0.8 years,

Yangsoo Jang; Oh Yoen Kim; Ha Jung Ryu; Ji Young Kim; Sang Hoon Song; Jose M. Ordovas; Jong Ho Lee

2003-01-01

370

Psychometric Properties of Scores on the French and Korean Versions of the Hexaco Personality Inventory. Validity Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent lexical studies of personality structure suggest that there are six independent major dimensions of personality. The HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI), a new questionnaire that measures these six lexically derived personality constructs, was examined in two different cultural contexts using samples of 149 Francophone and 211 Korean

Boies, Kathleen; Yoo, Tae-Yong; Ebacher, Annik; Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C.

2004-01-01

371

Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined…

Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

2014-01-01

372

The Korean Wave: A Marketing and Innovation Diffusion View  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surge in Korean popular culture exports (cinema, live and recorded music, and television program content), commenced in the late 1990's. While its causes have been the subject of speculation from a mainly sociological perspective, its growth and spread from an international marketing perspective has been less researched. After seeking to clarify the content and scope of the Korean Wave,

James Y. Yoo; John Stanton

373

Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

2013-01-01

374

Gender Differences in Correlates of Mental Health Among Elderly Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study examined the differential impact of social roles and socioeconomic resources on the mental health of Korean men and women aged 65 years or older. Methods. The study sample was a weighted population of 930 people (905 survey samples) aged 65 years or older who had responded to the health behavior survey of the 2001 Korean National Health

Gyeong-Suk Jeon; Soong-Nang Jang; Seon-Ja Rhee; Ichiro Kawachi; Sung-Il Cho

2007-01-01

375

Korean Compound Noun Decomposition Using Syllabic Information Only  

E-print Network

important role in natural language processing. The critical issue in handling compound nounsKorean Compound Noun Decomposition Using Syllabic Information Only Seong-Bae Park, Jeong-Ho Chang, Korea {sbpark,jhchang,btzhang}@bi.snu.ac.kr Abstract. The compound nouns are freely composed in Korean

376

Development of environmental education in the Korean kindergarten context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmental educators insist that environmental education (EE) should be started from a young age. The Korean Ministry of Education (1999) has also emphasized the importance of environmental education in early childhood by including content and objectives regarding EE in the 1999 National Curriculum of Kindergarten. However, many Korean kindergarten teachers do not sufficiently implement environmental education in their teaching

Keum Ho Shin

2008-01-01

377

Christianity and Korean Higher Education in the Late Choson Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines particular aspects of higher education during the late Korean Choson period with descriptive analysis. The context of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism between the early 18th and the late 19th centuries is presented. Also examined is Christian higher education during these two centuries. The impact of Christianity on Korean

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2002-01-01

378

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

379

Conceptualization of the Constructs in Korean Primary Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a classroom observation study in Korean primary mathematics classrooms. What was discovered in Korean classrooms was children, through higher level questioning, were being led to conceptualize the constructs and operations. The textbook was focused on the concepts in a concise, coherent and systematic manner similar to what…

Grow-Maienza, Janice; Beal, Susan; Randolph, Tamara

380

New Challenges to Korean Universities: Increase of Older Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the implications of the recent increase in older students at Korean universities dominated by younger students. A case study design is used to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of older students in a Korean university. Semi-structured interviews of twelve older students, three professors, two administrators, and…

Chae, Jae-Eun

2010-01-01

381

Binding Interpretations of Anaphors by Korean Heritage Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the potential incomplete acquisition of binding interpretations in Korean-English bilinguals by asking whether and how the majority language of these bilinguals (English) influences their family or heritage language (Korean), especially when exposure to and use of English starts very early. The experiment tested the…

Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

2009-01-01

382

Multivocal Post-Diasporic Selves: Entangled in Korean Dramas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I interrogate my personal diaries documenting my life in New York, Beijing, Tokyo, and Sydney over a 20-year period. Taking bearings from Bakhtinian thoughts, I explore the emergence of my post-diasporic identity as a second generation Korean American through watching South Korean dramas. By conversing with journals kept over a 20-year period, I…

Choi, Julie

2012-01-01

383

A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

2012-01-01

384

Korean and Japanese Women: An Analytic Bibliographical Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a selective bibliography and index of materials on Korean and Japanese women, their history, social and cultural patterns, sex roles, family and kinship patterns, and other characteristics. Designed to assist researchers in the systematic selection of information for descriptive or comparative research on Korean and Japanese women,…

Koh, Hesung Chun, Ed.

385

Cultural Influences on Caregiving Burden: Cases of Koreans and Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares cultural influences on caregiver burdens of Korean adult children and American adult children caring for parents with dementia. Identifies culturally specific values, norms, and customs associated with low or high burden. Findings show low burden for Korean caregivers and high burden for American caregivers. (MKA)

Lee, Yoon-Ro; Sung, Kyu-Taik

1998-01-01

386

Development of third molars in Korean juveniles and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to provide reference data of the Korean population which is adequate to compare with other mongoloid populations and can be applied to the age estimation of Korean juveniles and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed on a randomly selected sample of 3301 orthopantomographs taken of patients aged from 4 to 26 years, and

Soo-Hyun Lee; Jeong-Yun Lee; Hee-Kyung Park; Young-Ku Kim

2009-01-01

387

Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

2008-01-01

388

77 FR 45477 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...defining moments of the Cold War. Today, on the 59th anniversary...who served in the Korean War, and we pay lasting tribute...than ever before; and a world that is safer for their...keep faith with our Korean War veterans by upholding the...deserve. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA,...

2012-08-01

389

Evidentials and Interrogatives: A Case Study from Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My aims in this thesis are to establish how evidentiality is grammatically encoded in Korean, and to investigate the semantic nature of evidential morphemes in Korean, which helps us to explain the semantic and pragmatic behavior of evidential markers in non-declarative sentences, such as interrogatives. By doing so, this thesis also shows the…

Lim, Dong Sik

2010-01-01

390

The professional self concept of Korean hospital nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a background of strong North American influence in a country with deeply embedded customs, a collaborative study was initiated to examine and communicate to the international nursing community some of the characteristics and features of Korean nurses. Seven hundred Korean hospital nurses were administered an instrument aimed at examining their professional self concept, their self esteem and related demographic

David Arthur; Kyeong Yae Sohng; Choon Hee Noh; Susie Kim

1998-01-01

391

Identification of 15 loci influencing height in a Korean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Height is a complex genetic trait that involves multiple genetic loci. Recently, 44 loci associated with height were identified in Caucasian individuals by large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies. To identify genetic variants influencing height in the Korean population, we analyzed GWA data from 8842 Korean individuals and identified 15 genomic regions with one or more sequence variants associated with height

Jae-Jung Kim; Hae-In Lee; Taesung Park; Kyunga Kim; Jong-Eun Lee; Nam Han Cho; Chol Shin; Yoon Shin Cho; Jong-Young Lee; Bok-Ghee Han; Han-Wook Yoo; Jong-Keuk Lee; J-K Lee

2010-01-01

392

The Syntax of Inaudible Noun Phrases in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I examine the interpretation of NP-ellipsis (henceforth, NPE) in Korean. Some unexpected interpretive and grammatical contrasts arise in Korean between pro-forms such as "caki" "self" and "ku" "'3.S.M" (~"he") in object position and their null counterparts in NPE…

Kim, Ock-Hwan

2012-01-01

393

Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

394

Kinematics of eye movement control.  

PubMed

In this paper a kinematic description of the restrictions imposed on the eye movements is presented. The restrictions arise from a pattern of nonlinear interactions between desired changes in viewing direction and current eye position. It is shown that various reported relations between eye torsion and viewing direction can be derived by changing only the relative weights of the interactions terms. This descriptive scheme may help to elucidate the control of eye torsion in the brainstem. PMID:7784439

van den Berg, A V

1995-05-22

395

Teaching Korean Rhythms in Music Class through Improvisation, Composition, and Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to introduce the characteristics of Korean rhythmic patterns and provide effective ways to teach Korean rhythms based on the theoretical and pedagogical approaches derived from 5,000 years of Korean musical tradition. First, we have provided the fundamental principles of Korean rhythms that represent the culture from…

Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi

2014-01-01

396

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

397

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

398

Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Alerts Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... over the battery and always wear safety goggles. Eye Protection Works Wearing the proper protective eyewear for ...

399

What's on TV? Detecting age-related neurodegenerative eye disease using eye movement scanpaths  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We test the hypothesis that age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be detected by examining patterns of eye movement recorded whilst a person naturally watches a movie. Methods: Thirty-two elderly people with healthy vision (median age: 70, interquartile range [IQR] 64–75 years) and 44 patients with a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma (median age: 69, IQR 63–77 years) had standard vision examinations including automated perimetry. Disease severity was measured using a standard clinical measure (visual field mean deviation; MD). All study participants viewed three unmodified TV and film clips on a computer set up incorporating the Eyelink 1000 eyetracker (SR Research, Ontario, Canada). Eye movement scanpaths were plotted using novel methods that first filtered the data and then generated saccade density maps. Maps were then subjected to a feature extraction analysis using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Features from the KPCA were then classified using a standard machine based classifier trained and tested by a 10-fold cross validation which was repeated 100 times to estimate the confidence interval (CI) of classification sensitivity and specificity. Results: Patients had a range of disease severity from early to advanced (median [IQR] right eye and left eye MD was ?7 [?13 to ?5] dB and ?9 [?15 to ?4] dB, respectively). Average sensitivity for correctly identifying a glaucoma patient at a fixed specificity of 90% was 79% (95% CI: 58–86%). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82–0.87). Conclusions: Huge data from scanpaths of eye movements recorded whilst people freely watch TV type films can be processed into maps that contain a signature of vision loss. In this proof of principle study we have demonstrated that a group of patients with age-related neurodegenerative eye disease can be reasonably well separated from a group of healthy peers by considering these eye movement signatures alone. PMID:25429267

Crabb, David P.; Smith, Nicholas D.; Zhu, Haogang

2014-01-01

400

Occupational radiation dose to eyes from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in light of the revised eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection  

PubMed Central

Objective: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure that combines the use of X-ray fluoroscopy and endoscopy for examination of the bile duct. Published data on ERCP doses are limited, including staff eye dose from ERCP. Occupational eye doses are of particular interest now as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended a reduction in the dose limit to the lens of the eye. The aim of this study was to measure occupational eye doses obtained from ERCP procedures. Methods: A new eye lens dosemeter (EYE-D™, Radcard, Krakow, Poland) was used to measure the ERCP eye dose, Hp(3), at two endoscopy departments in Ireland. A review of radiation protection practice at the two facilities was also carried out. Results: The mean equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of a gastroenterologist is 0.01?mSv per ERCP procedure with an undercouch X-ray tube and 0.09?mSv per ERCP procedure with an overcouch X-ray tube. Staff eye dose normalised to patient kerma area product is also presented. Conclusion: Staff eye doses in ERCP have the potential to exceed the revised ICRP limit of 20?mSv per annum when an overcouch X-ray tube is used. The EYE-D dosemeter was found to be a convenient method for measuring lens dose. Eye doses in areas outside of radiology departments should be kept under review, particularly in light of the new ICRP eye dose limit. Advances in knowledge: Occupational eye lens doses from ERCP procedures have been established using a new commercially available dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. PMID:23385992

Gallagher, A; Malone, L; O’Reilly, G

2013-01-01

401

Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2012-01-01

402

Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

2010-01-01

403

Eye-Openers in ASL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes most of what Sign linguists know about the function of the eyes in American Sign Language discourse. Here, "eyes" is taken to cover both opening and closing of the eyes and looking in a particular direction, referred to as the signer's "gaze-direction." Evidence is presented demonstrating that a signer's gaze can be lexically…

Baker, Charlotte

404

The World in an Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of exactly what visual information about the world is embedded within a sin- gle image of an eye. It turns out that the cornea of an eye and a camera viewing the eye form a catadioptric imaging system. We refer to this as a corneal imaging system. Unlike a typ- ical catadioptric system, a

Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2004-01-01

405

Biomedical Devices for the Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the structure and function of the human eye, learning some amazing features about our eyes, which provide us with sight and an understanding of our surroundings. Students also learn about some common eye problems and the biomedical devices and medical procedures that resolve or help to lessen the effects of these vision deficiencies, including vision correction surgery.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

406

Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.  

PubMed Central

The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

2001-01-01

407

How Does Power Influence on Learning in Korean Organizations? How to Facilitate Learning in Korean Organizations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject into which this study inquired was the relationship between learning and power in Korean context. This study presents two case studies in two different organizations in Korea. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews, observation and document analysis. Power semantics, rhetorical visions and informal learning model…

Kim, Young-Saing

2006-01-01

408

Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

2009-01-01

409

Visibility limit of naked-eye sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on observations of 20 observers, a visibility limit for naked-eye sunspot observations has been calculated. A sunspot with a penumbral diameter of at least 41 arcsec and an umbral diameter of at least 15 arcsec can be detected by an average eye. An eyesight test was designed to solve the question whether the penumbral or the umbral diameter is conclusive for the visibility of a sunspot. The measured limit of 19.3 arcsec indicates that a combination of both is the determining factor.

Keller, H. U.; Friedli, T. K.

1992-06-01

410

Introduction to Symptoms of Eye Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... the Eyes Vision Loss, Sudden Other Eye Symptoms Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Symptoms of Eye ...

411

The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.  

PubMed

This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further. PMID:23639994

Choi, Hansook

2014-06-01

412

Differences in stress and coping models of emotional distress among Korean, Korean-American and White-American caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares path models of emotional distress among three groups of caregivers for elderly patients with dementia: 64 Koreans residing in Korea, and 53 Korean-Americans and 54 White-Americans living in the USA. The results support a common core model throughout the three groups: patient's disruptive behavior leads to caregiver burden, which then affects caregivers’ depression and anxiety. Instrumental support

M. Chun; B. G. Knight; G. Youn

2007-01-01

413

Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science  

PubMed Central

Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

2011-01-01

414

Sub-Syllabic Processing in Young Korean-English Bilinguals: Semivowel Placement Differences between Korean and English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the…

Baek, Seunghyun

2014-01-01

415

Examining the health information-seeking behaviors of Korean Americans.  

PubMed

Many Korean Americans suffer from high levels of cancer incidence and have low cancer screening rates. A significant number of Korean Americans lack adequate information about cancer screening tests. However, little is known about their health behaviors. This article examines exposure to mass media and health information-seeking behaviors for Korean Americans, and their associations with demographic characteristics influencing variations in exposure to the different health information and trust in health information sources. The authors gathered data for this study using a cross-sectional, community-based survey conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during 2006 and 2007. It was administered to 254 Korean Americans who were 40 years of age or older. This study is part of the first health-related program of research to study exposure to mass media, health and cancer information sources, and seeking preferences and experiences of Korean Americans. Results indicated that Korean ethnic media sources and Internet are important sources used regularly. Age, years of education completed, and English proficiency levels for Korean Americans significantly predicted the likelihood of their Internet use. Low-income Korean Americans with less education were more likely to seek health information in Korean ethnic magazines and newspapers, whereas Korean Americans with higher education and English proficiency were more likely to seek information online. The most trusted source of health information among respondents was from a doctor or other health care professional. Future research should be conducted to determine whether physicians are actually used as a primary source for health information. PMID:22642692

Oh, Kyeung Mi; Kreps, Gary L; Jun, Jungmi; Chong, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Lolita

2012-08-01

416

Adaptive Optics for the Human Eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics can extend not only the resolution of ground-based telescopes, but also the human eye. Both static and dynamic aberrations in the cornea and lens of the normal eye limit its optical quality. Though it is possible to correct defocus and astigmatism with spectacle lenses, higher order aberrations remain. These aberrations blur vision and prevent us from seeing at the fundamental limits set by the retina and brain. They also limit the resolution of cameras to image the living retina, cameras that are a critical for the diagnosis and treatment of retinal disease. I will describe an adaptive optics system that measures the wave aberration of the eye in real time and compensates for it with a deformable mirror, endowing the human eye with unprecedented optical quality. This instrument provides fresh insight into the ultimate limits on human visual acuity, reveals for the first time images of the retinal cone mosaic responsible for color vision, and points the way to contact lenses and laser surgical methods that could enhance vision beyond what is currently possible today. Supported by the NSF Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, the National Eye Institute, and Bausch and Lomb, Inc.

Williams, D. R.

2000-05-01

417

Cortexin diffusion in human eye sclera  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the diffusion of cytamines, a typical representative of which is cortexin, is important for evaluating the drug dose, necessary to provide sufficient concentration of the preparation in the inner tissues of the eye. In the present paper, the cortexin diffusion rate in the eye sclera is measured using the methods of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance spectroscopy. The technique for determining the diffusion coefficient is based on the registration of temporal dependence of the eye sclera scattering parameters caused by partial replacement of interstitial fluid with the aqueous cortexin solution, which reduces the level of the OCT signal and decreases the reflectance of the sclera. The values of the cortexin diffusion coefficient obtained using two independent optical methods are in good agreement. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, Valerii V; Ghosn, M G; Larin, Kirill V; Kamenskikh, T G

2011-05-31

418

Peace and security in Northeast Asia: The nuclear issue and the Korean Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

Korean security was the focus of world-wide attention and concern in 1993--95 with North Korea's 'suspected' nuclear weapons program. Dubbed by some as the first post-Cold War nuclear crisis, it was triggered by the United Nations Security Council's move to impose economic sanctions on North Korea. Although the immediate crisis was defused diplomatically, the nuclear time bomb continues to tick on the Korean peninsula, and the issues remain under close international surveillance. This important book examines North Korea's nuclear controversy from a variety of perspectives, including nuclear reactor technology and technology transfer, economic sanctions and incentives, strategic calculus and confidence-building measures, the major powers, and environmental challenges that a nuclear-free zone in Korea will present.

Kihl, Y.W.; Hayes, P.; Scalapino, R.A.

1996-01-01

419

Psychometric Properties of the Korean Versions of Three Sleep Evaluation Questionnaires.  

PubMed

Psychometric properties of the Korean versions of three sleep evaluation questionnaires were described to provide tools for practitioners and researchers interested in transcultural studies in Korea. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS), and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) were analyzed using data from 959 community-dwelling adults in Korea. Furthermore, cut-off points and prevalence of sleep disturbance were identified. Reliability and concurrent validity for all measures were acceptable. Optimal cut-off points of PSQI, GSDS, and LSEQ with highest Youden's index were 5, 33, and 66, and prevalence of sleep disturbance was 22.1%, 26.3%, and 25.8%, respectively. The Korean PSQI, GSDS, and LSEQ are all valid and reliable tools for detecting sleep disturbance. We provide suggestions for selecting the right tools according to the purpose, setting, and participants of transcultural studies. PMID:25287067

Choi, Heejung; Kim, Sungjae; Kim, Beomjong; Kim, Inja

2014-10-01

420

Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

421

Nutrition and the eye.  

PubMed

The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

Congdon, N G; West, K P

1999-12-01

422

Pioneers of eye movement research  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

Wade, Nicholas J

2010-01-01

423

Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

2013-01-01

424

Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). III. Adult compound eyes.  

PubMed

The distribution of ommatidial diameters and interommatidial angles, as determined by measuring the angles between the optic axes of adjacent ommatidia, are mapped across the surface of the compound eyes of a variety of species selected for different adult behaviors, developmental histories, and taxonomic positions. The size of the visual fields, prey capture foveas, foveas composed of large dorsal ommatidia, and other specializations in the numbers of ommatidia that view various directions in the visual field are discussed in relation to adult behavior. Advanced species have less resemblance between their larval and adult eyes than primitive species. In contrast to their larvae, adults increase the monocular resolution of each eye at the expense of binocular vision. Most species have foveas which view in approximately the anterior direction, instead of in a region of binocular overlap, and many species have foveal bands which view along the horizon. Some advanced perching species, which approach their prey and other odonates from below, have an additional vertical foveal band that views along a vertical plane from the anterior direction to a more dorsal direction. The most unusual foveal band is seen in active flying species. The large dorsal ommatidia of the migratory Anax junius, which cover approximately one third of the eye surface, view a narrow region of the visual field that extends along a plane from the most lateral direction of one eye to a dorsal direction, and continues without interruption to the most lateral direction of the other eye. PMID:624923

Sherk, T E

1978-01-01

425

Haemophili from eyes.  

PubMed

The identity of haemophili isolated in our laboratories from eye swabs was investigated. Ten out of 114 strains belonged to capsulated types of H. influenzae. Seventy-six strains were submitted to tests for the identification of H. aegyptius (the Koch-Weeks bacillus), but none was proved to belong to this species. An unexpectedly high proportion of the haemophilus strains, including most of those with capsules, came from patients with lachrymal duct obstruction. PMID:5305825

Ingham, H R; Turk, D C

1969-05-01

426

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website highlights the history and use of satellites and remote-sensing technology to determine the state of the planet. A timeline covers the history of satellites from 1858 to 2000, including both accomplishments and failures. The Eye contains slide shows and images from satellites covering the topics of volcanoes, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, floods, dams, ozone, deforestation, desertification, overpopulation, exploration of space, and human conflict. A section on classroom ideas provides activities for K-12 classrooms.

427

The report of coping strategies and psychosocial adjustment in Korean mothers of children with cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Parents of children with cancer must cope with multiple challenges over time. As most research on parental coping has been conducted in Western countries, little information is available on the parental experience of coping in non-Western countries. Using a new cultural sample of Korean mothers, this study describes their coping strategies. In addition, the association of particular coping patterns with mothers’ report of psychosocial adjustment is investigated. Methods A total of 200 Korean mothers of children with cancer participated in the study. Coping strategies were measured by the Coping Health Inventory for Parents in the following three categories: Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, Seeking Social Support, and Seeking Information. Maternal psychosocial adjustment was measured by psychological distress, family relationship, and social relationship subscales from the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. Results Korean mothers reported coping strategies related to Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation as being most helpful. More frequent use of coping pattern, Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, and less frequent use of coping pattern, Information-Seeking were significantly associated with lower psychological distress and better family relationship after children’s medical and maternal characteristics were controlled for. Coping pattern, Seeking Social Support was only predictive of social relationships. Conclusions This study suggests that culture may play a significant role in the report of coping among Korean mothers. Future studies should consider culturally preferred coping methods and available resources as they relate to different adjustment outcomes. PMID:19117279

Han, Hae-Ra; Cho, Eun Joo; Kim, Daehee; Kim, Jiyun

2011-01-01

428

Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study is to analyze what aspects of occupational stress predict depression among Korean workers, and determine\\u000a which components of occupational stress or job characteristics is more strongly associated with depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8,522 workers (21–65 years of age) from a nationwide sample were recruited. A self-administered\\u000a questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographics,

Jung Jin Cho; Ji Yong Kim; Sei Jin Chang; Nancy Fiedler; Sang Baek Koh; Benjamin F. Crabtree; Dong Mug Kang; Yong Kyu Kim; Young Ho Choi

2008-01-01

429

Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.  

PubMed

Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

Daxecker, F

1992-01-01

430

Michelangelo's eye disease.  

PubMed

Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

2012-06-01

431

Stigma of Mental Illnesses as Perceived by North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. Methods We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. Results North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. Conclusion North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors.

Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

2015-01-01

432

Tracing Eye Movement Protocols with Cognitive Process Models Dario D. Salvucci (dario+@cs.cmu.edu)  

E-print Network

1 Tracing Eye Movement Protocols with Cognitive Process Models Dario D. Salvucci (dario+@cmu.edu) Department of Psychology; Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract In using eye movements to develop cognitive models, researchers typically analyze eye movement protocols with aggregate measures

Salvucci, Dario D.

433

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Receptive Field Positions in Area MT during Slow Eye Movements Till S across eye movements. We first tested the hypothesis that motion signals are integrated by neurons whose receptive fields (RFs) do not move with the eye but stay fixed in the world. Specifically, we measured

Krekelberg, Bart

434

Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.  

PubMed

The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration. PMID:24529860

Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

2014-04-01

435

Validity and reliability of the index of self-regulation scale for physical activity in older korean americans.  

PubMed

The Korean version of the index of self-regulation (KISR) is a nine-item scale designed to measure individuals' level of self-regulation for physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the KISR, including reliability and validity, in a group of older Korean Americans. The KISR was administered to a sample of older Korean Americans at a baseline interview (Time 1) and 12 week followup (Time 2). The internal consistency of the KISR was high at both time points, with Cronbach's alphas of .94 and .95, respectively. The test-retest reliability was moderate-to-high at .68. There was evidence of construct validity of the KISR based on its moderate to high significant correlations with theoretically relevant variables, including motivational appraisal and self-efficacy for physical activity. A principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation resulted in two factors, explaining 89% of the variance. The KISR is a reliable and valid measure to assess the level of self-regulation for physical activity behavior in older Korean Americans. PMID:21994821

Yeom, Hye-A; Fleury, Julie

2011-01-01

436

The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed by the Fly's Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1017 eV as observed by the Fly's Eye detector. The detector has been operated in monocular mode (Fly's Eye I only) since 1981 and in stereo mode (both Fly's Eye I and Fly's Eye II) since 1986. This paper includes data through 1992 July. The cosmic-ray primary energy is measured by integrating

D. J. Bird; S. C. Corbato; H. Y. Dai; B. R. Dawson; J. W. Elbert; B. L. Emerson; K. D. Green; M. A. Huang; D. B. Kieda; M. Luo; S. Ko; C. G. Larsen; E. C. Loh; M. H. Salamon; J. D. Smith; P. Sokolsky; P. Sommers; J. K. K. Tang; S. B. Thomas

1994-01-01

437

A novel functional magnetic resonance imaging compatible search-coil eye-tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring eye movements (EMs) using the search-coil eye-tracking technique is superior to video-based infrared methods [Collewijn H, van der Mark F, Jansen TC. Precise recording of human eye movements. Vision Res 1975;15(3):447-50], which suffer from the instability of pupil size, blinking behavior and lower temporal resolution. However, no conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-compatible search-coil eye tracker exists. The main

Axel Oeltermann; Shih-Pi Ku; Nikos K. Logothetis

2007-01-01

438

Eye Size at Birth in Prosimian Primates: Life History Correlates and Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta) to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius), compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. Conclusions/Significance The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits of nocturnal species, mainly emerge during postnatal development. PMID:22567127

Cummings, Joshua R.; Muchlinski, Magdalena N.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Rehorek, Susan J.; DeLeon, Valerie B.; Smith, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

439

Korean Immigrants’ Knowledge of Heart Attack Symptoms and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study assessed the knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors in a convenience sample of Korean immigrants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A total of 116 Korean immigrants in a Midwestern metropolitan area were recruited through Korean churches and markets. Knowledge\\u000a was assessed using both open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Latent class cluster analysis and Chi-square\\u000a tests were used to analyze the

Seon Y. Hwang; Catherine J. Ryan; Julie Johnson Zerwic

2008-01-01

440

More Than Meets the Eye The Genetics of Eye Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The genetics of eye color are more complex than commonly believed. This interrupted case study uses the story of a blue-eyed couple with a brown-eyed child to explore the possible scenarios that could result in this outcome. The case emphasizes the link between Mendelian genetics and the underlying molecular basis of the phenotype. It is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate biology majors with a good understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation and Mendelian genetics.

Annie Prud?homme Genereux

2011-01-01

441

Be Informed: Learn What Protective Measures to Take Before, During, and After an Emergency  

MedlinePLUS

... Vietnamese ??? Japanese ??? Korean ?? Chinese ??????? Arabic ?????? Hindi ????, Urdu FAQS FEMA.gov ... Home Be Informed Print Be Informed Be Informed Learn what protective measures to take before, during, and ...

442

Older Korean American men's prostate cancer screening behavior: the prime role of culture.  

PubMed

East and South Asian male immigrants show markedly low odds of prostate cancer screening as compared to U.S.-born men. However, knowledge about these immigrants' culture-based screening behavior and barriers to screening is extremely limited. This study investigates factors influencing receipt of prostate cancer screening among Korean American immigrant men, particularly investigating culture's impact on screening behaviors. Data were collected through a convenience and purposive sampling technique from 134 Korean American males aged 50 and older recruited in New York City. A structured questionnaire was used and cultural variables were measured by adopting items from Tang and colleagues' work. Approximately 60 % of the sample had received a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in their lifetime, and of these, about 66 % reported having done so in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a crisis-oriented intervention approach was associated with a substantially reduced likelihood of screening. A positive correlation was noted between the use of Eastern medicine and PSA test receipt. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between use of Eastern medicine and age in predicting PSA test uptake. Culture-specific intervention strategies for increasing prostate cancer screening in this group are discussed, with particular attention to increasing pertinent health literacy. Health professionals should consider the cultural domain when working with Korean immigrant men in order to provide culturally competent care. PMID:23504334

Lee, Hee Yun; Jung, Yunkyung

2013-12-01

443

Mental Health of North Korean Refugees in Protective Facilities in China  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to provide alternative care plans for mental health of North Korean refugees who are in protective facilities in China. Methods Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was utilized to measure the presence/absence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 65 North Korean refugees. Results The gender differences in PAI t-scores showed that women exhibited meaningfully higher scores largely in anxiety (m=61.85), depression (m=65.23), and schizophrenia (m=60.98). In different age groups, schizophrenia in the 30 age bracket (m=65.23) was meaningfully higher than the teens (m=48.11). Aggression among the treatment features was the highest in the 20 age group (m=59.19) showing higher t-scores than the teens (m=39.67). Duration in the facility affected mental health in that the 3-5 years group (m=63.91) reported the highest in paranoia. Groups of under 1 year and less than 1-3 years showed meaningfully higher scores in nonsupport. The PTSD (including partial PTSD) rate of the group recorded 9.2%. Correlation between the PTSD and PAI scores showed that the full-PTSD group demonstrated higher average scores in negative impression, somatic complaints, anxiety, anxiety-related disorder, depression, paranoia, schizophrenia, antisocial features, suicide ideation, and treatment rejection than the non-PTSD group. Conclusion Mental health of North Korean refugees in China was worse in women, the thirties, and less than 3-5 years in the facility, and it deteriorated as the duration prolonged. To promote better psychological health of North Korean refugees in China, the attention and aid from the protection facilities and domestic and international interests are required. PMID:20046348

Yu, Shi-Eun

2008-01-01

444

Re-evaluation of Probable Maximum Tsunamis for Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of tsunami-triggering earthquakes occur in subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean area including the East Sea surrounded by Korea, Japan and Russia. In the East Sea, there were three major historical tsunami events occurred in 1964, 1983 and 1993. Among them, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred in 1983, in special, caused huge losses of human lives and property damage at Korean coastal communities. There are several nuclear power plants under operation and several more plants will be built along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula. These historical tsunamis were considered individually to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for Korean nuclear power plant sites. Recently, several catastrophic tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the East Japan Tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 has attracted social attention due to the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The accident is still going on. Therefore, new approach to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for the Korean sites is investigated in this study. Joint rupture of historical tsunami sources and hypothetical tsunami sources is employed to define the new source parameters of the probable maximum tsunami. The hypothetical tsunamis are inferred from the seismic gap theories. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is used to simulate the propagation of the new probable maximum tsunami across the East Sea and the numerical model simulating the associated run-up process of tsunamis is then employed to estimate the maximum run-up heights. Predicted results will be used to make a measure against unexpected tsunami attacks.

Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Park, Sang ho; Bae, Jae Seok; Cho, Yong-Sik; Yoon, Sung Bum

2014-05-01

445

A new species of the genus Capsus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae) from the Korean Peninsula, with a key to the Korean Capsus species.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Capsus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae) from the Korean Peninsula is reported, and congeners in the Korean Peninsula are reviewed. Biological information such as host plants and distributions with a key to the Korean species are also provided.  PMID:25661233

Kim, Junggon; Park, Haechul; Heiss, Ernst; Jung, Sunghoon

2015-01-01

446

The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.  

PubMed

This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul. Kong's fame as a successful practitioner gradually made him express his opinion on various social issues. Kong did not hesitate to utilize his influence to advocate the new "modern" way of living, with special emphasis on speed and efficiency. His engagement in typewriter business since 1949 may also be attributed to his firm belief in the value of speed and efficiency. Although he could not fulfill his dream of being an academic, Kong still remains as an important figure in the history of medicine in modern Korea, not only for his publicity. By closely analyzing Kong's personal story, one can see various aspects of opportunities, personal networks, social norms, and limitations within the colonial setting. PMID:24503921

Kim, Tae-Ho

2013-12-01

447

EyeGaze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EyeGaze is a British company that has developed video technology that can be used by profoundly and partially deaf people. One example of their services and technology is a remote video interpreting centre. The project is managed by a team of Deaf and hearing individuals with diverse skills and experiences, "which affords us a holistic view of issues surrounding communication, information delivery and the Deaf community." The website provides an overview of their research and services, as well as some information on issues in the deaf community.

448

Ionospheric disturbances locate the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric disturbances from the North Korean underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 were detected using the total electron content (TEC) measurements from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The TEC measurements were derived from the ionospheric delay of the GNSS signals and identified traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that can be attributed to the UNE. Taking three point numerical derivatives of the TEC measurements isolated the TIDs with propagation speeds of roughly 150 - 400 m/s at stations located about 365 km to 1330 km from the UNE. TIDs were detected at eleven stations where the statistical probability for these TIDs to have occurred randomly across the GNSS array was found to be less than one chance in 1033 chances. Nearly 1300 TID samples from these GNSS stations were tested to confirm the strong statistical uniqueness of the array signature. Furthermore, the GNSS observations mapped ionospheric winds for adjusting the TID velocities to locate the UNE to within about 2.7 km of its seismically determined epicenter.

Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.; Gaya-Pique, L. R.

2011-12-01

449

Glaucoma-Induced Optic Disc Morphometric Changes and Glaucoma Diagnostic Ability of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II in Highly Myopic Eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to first investigate the morphological differences in the optic nerve head between highly myopic non-glaucomatous controls and highly myopic glaucomatous eyes in comparison with the differences between emmetropic non-glaucomatous controls and emmetropic glaucomatous eyes using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Further, the ability of the apparatus in glaucoma diagnosis in highly myopic eyes was compared with that in emmetropic eyes. Methods Healthy subjects and age-matched patients with early-stage open-angle glaucoma were divided into two groups: emmetropic eyes (?1.0 to +1.0 diopters) and highly myopic eyes (?12.0 to ?5.0 diopters).The participants were comprised of 65 emmetropic normal eyes, 59 emmetropic glaucomatous eyes, 62 highly myopic normal eyes, and 68 highly myopic glaucomatous eyes and eyes with pathologic myopia were carefully excluded. Confocal scanning laser tomographic parameters were compared among all subjects after adjustment for age and disc area. The ROC curves and sensitivity and specificity for glaucoma detection using several clinical methods were then compared between the emmetropic and highly myopic eyes. Results Rim area, cup/disc area ratio, mean cup depth, and cup shape measure of glaucoma eyes are significantly different from those of normal eyes in both highly myopic eyes and emmetropic eyes. Methodological overestimation of retinal nerve fiber layer cross sectional area due to optic disc tilting was suggested in the highly myopic eyes. The diagnostic performance of glaucoma using several discriminant methods significantly deteriorated in the highly myopic eyes. Conclusions In the highly myopic glaucomatous eyes, confocal scanning laser tomographic parameters were significantly different from that of non-glaucomatous highly myopic eyes but diagnostic performance of glaucoma was deteriorated than that in emmetropic eyes. These findings demonstrate the utility and limitations of the apparatus in diagnosing glaucoma in highly myopic patients. PMID:24475117

Mayama, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Tae; Saito, Hitomi; Asaoka, Ryo; Tomidokoro, Atsuo; Iwase, Aiko; Otani, Shinichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Araie, Makoto

2014-01-01

450

Eye Gaze Processing in Schizophrenia.  

E-print Network

??Accurately perceiving self-referential social signals, particularly eye contact, is critical to social adaptation. Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder often accompanied by deficits in… (more)

Tso, Ivy F.

2012-01-01

451

Differential function marking and focus structure. Some evidence from Korean.  

E-print Network

, as in (i): (i) inu -ga neko -o oikakete iru. dog ga cat o chase be `Dogs are chasing cats.' [adapted from a numbeer of facts unexplained. We shall argue that DM in Korean regularly correlates with an interpretive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.  

PubMed

This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements. PMID:25297054

Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

2014-10-01

453

Predictors of regular Pap smears among Korean-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMany Korean-American women (KAW) are unaware of the importance of regular cancer screening. This research estimates rates and examines predictors of regular cervical cancer screening among KAW.

Hee-Soon Juon; Christine Seung-Lee; Ann C Klassen

2003-01-01

454

Coverage of Unification Issue in North and South Korean Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that while the North Korean press gives more space to stories concerning the unification of the two Koreas than does the South, it is also more hostile and less varied in its coverage of the issue. (FL)

Chang, Won H.

1981-01-01

455

Patterns of Political Socialization in North Korean Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the government's use of the schools in North Korea and its instructional programs as a means of political indoctrination that aims at shaping and remolding North Korean youth into communists. (Author/RK)

Kim, Hyung-Chan

1973-01-01

456

Eye in the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Geographic magazine, long known for its educational maps and writing that is easily understood by a variety of readers, has added a feature to its Website. The new online resource from National Geographic, sponsored by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), is called Eye in the Sky, and it showcases what we can learn about our planet using satellites. Here, users can read about the history of satellites and remote-sensing technology and choose from a menu of brief lessons on natural disasters, human impacts on Earth, human conflicts, and exploration of Mars. Each lesson page gives photographs, facts, and short movies (RealPlayer or Windows Media Player). The title "Eye in the Sky" is slightly misleading because most of the images featured are taken at ground-level, and it isn't always clear how some of the lessons fit with the idea of remote sensing. Nevertheless, the site is worth a look, and a few satellite images (of floodplains and the ozone hole, for example) pepper the material here.

457

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

458

Eye Surgery Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

1978-01-01

459

Estimation of Boron Intake and its Relation with Bone Mineral Density in Free-Living Korean Female Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the status of boron intake was evaluated and its relation with bone mineral density was examined among free-living\\u000a female subjects in Korea. Boron intake was estimated through the use of the database of boron content in frequently consumed\\u000a foods by Korean people as well as measuring bone mineral density, taking anthropometric measurements, and surveying dietary\\u000a intake of

Mi-Hyun Kim; Yun-Jung Bae; Yoon-Shin Lee; Mi-Kyeong Choi

2008-01-01

460

EMDR Effects on Pursuit Eye Movements  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale) decreased to a near zero value. Smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded by an Eyelink II video system before and after EMDR. For the five complete sessions, pursuit eye movement improved after their EMDR session. Notably, the number of saccade intrusions—catch-up saccades (CUS)—decreased and, reciprocally, there was an increase in the smooth components of the pursuit. Such an increase in the smoothness of the pursuit presumably reflects an improvement in the use of visual attention needed to follow the target accurately. Perhaps EMDR reduces distress thereby activating a cholinergic effect known to improve ocular pursuit. PMID:20505828

Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Bonnet, Audrey; Bourtoire, Pauline; Sandretto, Jean

2010-01-01

461

Eye structure and amphibious foraging in albatrosses  

PubMed Central

Anterior eye structure and retinal visual fields were determined in grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses, Diomedea melanophris and D. chrysostoma (Procellariiformes, Diomedeidae), using keratometry and an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique. Results for the two species were very similar and indicate that the eyes are of an amphibious optical design suggesting that albatross vision is well suited to the visual pursuit of active prey both on and below the ocean surface. The corneas are relatively flat (radius ca. 14.5 mm) and hence of low absolute refractive power (ca. 23 dioptres). In air the binocular fields are relatively long (vertical extent ca. 70 degrees) and narrow (maximum width in the plane of the optic axes 26–32 degrees), a topography found in a range of bird species that employ visual guidance of bill position when foraging. The cyclopean fields measure approximately 270 degrees in the horizontal plane, but there is a 60 degrees blind sector above the head owing to the positioning of the eyes below the protruding supraorbital ridges. Upon immersion the monocular fields decrease in width such that the binocular fields are abolished. Anterior eye structure, and visual field topography in both air and water, show marked similarity with those of the Humboldt penguin.

Martin, G. R.

1998-01-01

462

KAIST Tree Bank Project for Korean: Present and Future Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the on-going project for building a large annotatedcorpus of Korean written texts undertaken by KAIST1since 1992. Atpresent, the corpus consists of over 5 million word units of Korean covering13 subject fields. The POS tagset used to annotate the corpus contains74 tags. The tagset is designed to provide sufficient recoverability even forhigh level linguistic processing. Current

Key-sun Choi; Young S. Han; Young G. Han

1994-01-01

463

Some Aspects of Korean Acculturation and Value Orientation Since 1950  

E-print Network

Extract from INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE PROBLEMS OF MODERNIZATION IN ASIA 1965 Some Aspects of Korean Acculturation and Value Orientation Since 1950 By Felix Moos East Asian Series, Reprint No. 4 INTERNATIONAL STUDIES CENTER FOR EAST..., by Norman Jacobs. 3. Early Chinese Economic Influences in the Philip pines, by Edgar Wickberg. 4. Some Aspects of Korean Acculturation and Value Orientation Since 1950, by Felix Moos. 5. The Philippine Political Party System, by Carl H. Lande. 6...

Moos, Felix

1965-01-01

464

Perceptions of China in the Turkish Korean War Narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey’s decision to enter the Korean War in the early 1950s was a major event in the republic’s history. As the country became a NATO member after the war, most scholars see this event as the beginning of a new era in Turkish foreign policy. This article argues that the Korean War has also been important in shaping the long?term

Ça?da? Üngör

2006-01-01

465

Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

466

The High Resolution Fly's Eye Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) is under construction at Dugway, Utah. It measures the longitudinal development profiles of cosmic ray air showers by means of atmospheric scintillation light which is produced in proportion to the number of shower particles at each atmospheric depth. The new detector has greater sensitivity and higher resolution than the former Utah Fly's Eye because its mirrors collect 2.3 times as much light, the pixel solid angle has been reduced by 1/25, and signals will be measured with flash ADC electronics. A 14-mirror prototype has operated for 3 years, measuring air showers in coincidence with the CASA/MIA detector arrays and also with the Fly'e Eye II detector. HiRes is designed to measure extremely high energy cosmic ray air showers stereoscopically, and a set of such stereo events has been collected during the past year using a second prototype of 4 mirror units located at a distance of 12.6 km from the 14-mirror prototype. Laser pulses and vertical flashers have proved useful for evaluating the detector's performance and for studying the variability of atmospheric aerosol concentrations. The HiRes collaboration includes the University of Adelaide, Columbia University, the University of Illinois, and the University of Utah.

Sommers, Paul

1996-05-01

467

Comparing the accuracy of video-oculography and the scleral search coil system in human eye movement analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of eye movements in three dimensions is an important tool to investigate the human vestibular and oculomotor system. The primary methods for three dimensional eye movement measurement are the scleral search coil system (SSCS) and video-oculography (VOG). In the present study, we compare the accuracy of VOG with that of SSCS using an artificial eye. We then analyzed

Takao Imai; Kazunori Sekine; Kousuke Hattori; Noriaki Takeda; Izumi Koizuka; Koji Nakamae; Katsuyoshi Miura; Hiromu Fujioka; Takeshi Kubo

2005-01-01

468

Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis  

E-print Network

Automated Eye-Movement Protocol Analysis Dario D. Salvucci and John R. Anderson Carnegie Mellon analysis of eye-movement protocols. Although eye movements have be- come increasingly popular as a tool an ap- proach to automating eye-movement protocol analysis by means of tracing--re- lating observed eye

Salvucci, Dario D.

469

Eye Health in Sports and Recreation  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Health in Sports and Recreation Tweet Tens of thousands of sports ... Updated by David Turbert on Mar. 20, 2014 Sports Eye Injuries by the ... eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address ...

470

German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs  

PubMed Central

This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon

2013-01-01

471

The Austrialian National Chinese Japanese Korean Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing access to Asian-language materials has always been a problem for libraries. There are particular difficulties in acquiring Asian materials, in cataloguing them and providing access, and in incorporating them in library systems. There is, however, an urgent and growing need for access to Asian materials. Part of the response of the Australian library community to the difficulties and to the increasing need has been the Australian National CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) Project. The CJK Project is a co-operative project involving seven Australian universities and the National Library of Australia. Membership is expected to grow to include other Australian research libraries, some public research libraries and some overseas libraries.

Groom, Linda

1994-01-01

472

Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotte