Science.gov

Sample records for korean medication algorithm

  1. Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder: third revision

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Lee, Jung Goo; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Sohn, Inki; Shim, Se-Hoon; Jon, Duk-In; Seo, Jeong Seok; Shin, Young-Chul; Min, Kyung Joon; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To constitute the third revision of the guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder issued by the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP 2014). Methods A 56-item questionnaire was used to obtain the consensus of experts regarding pharmacological treatment strategies for the various phases of bipolar disorder and for special populations. The review committee included 110 Korean psychiatrists and 38 experts for child and adolescent psychiatry. Of the committee members, 64 general psychiatrists and 23 child and adolescent psychiatrists responded to the survey. Results The treatment of choice (TOC) for euphoric, mixed, and psychotic mania was the combination of a mood stabilizer (MS) and an atypical antipsychotic (AAP); the TOC for acute mild depression was monotherapy with MS or AAP; and the TOC for moderate or severe depression was MS plus AAP/antidepressant. The first-line maintenance treatment following mania or depression was MS monotherapy or MS plus AAP; the first-line treatment after mania was AAP monotherapy; and the first-line treatment after depression was lamotrigine (LTG) monotherapy, LTG plus MS/AAP, or MS plus AAP plus LTG. The first-line treatment strategy for mania in children and adolescents was MS plus AAP or AAP monotherapy. For geriatric bipolar patients, the TOC for mania was AAP/MS monotherapy, and the TOC for depression was AAP plus MS or AAP monotherapy. Conclusion The expert consensus in the KMAP-BP 2014 differed from that in previous publications; most notably, the preference for AAP was increased in the treatment of acute mania, depression, and maintenance treatment. There was increased expert preference for the use of AAP and LTG. The major limitation of the present study is that it was based on the consensus of Korean experts rather than on experimental evidence. PMID:25750530

  2. Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder 2014: comparisons with other treatment guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Jeong Goo; Kim, Moon-Doo; Sohn, Inki; Shim, Se-Hoon; Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Jon, Duk-In; Seo, Jeong Seok; Shin, Young-Chul; Min, Kyung Joon; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to compare the recommendations of the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2014 (KMAP-BP 2014) with other recently published guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder. We reviewed a total of four recently published global treatment guidelines and compared each treatment recommendation of the KMAP-BP 2014 with those in other guidelines. For the initial treatment of mania, there were no significant differences across treatment guidelines. All recommended mood stabilizer (MS) or atypical antipsychotic (AAP) monotherapy or the combination of an MS with an AAP as a first-line treatment strategy for mania. However, the KMAP-BP 2014 did not prefer monotherapy with MS or AAP for dysphoric/psychotic mania. Aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone were the first-line AAPs in nearly all of the phases of bipolar disorder across the guidelines. Most guidelines advocated newer AAPs as first-line treatment options in all phases, and lamotrigine in depressive and maintenance phases. Lithium and valproic acid were commonly used as MSs in all phases of bipolar disorder. As research evidence accumulated over time, recommendations of newer AAPs – such as asenapine, paliperidone, lurasidone, and long-acting injectable risperidone – became prominent. This comparison identifies that the treatment recommendations of the KMAP-BP 2014 are similar to those of other treatment guidelines and reflect current changes in prescription patterns for bipolar disorder based on accumulated research data. Further studies are needed to address several issues identified in our review. PMID:26170669

  3. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  4. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in Korean American community newspapers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management. PMID:25942506

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Young Hee; Rim, Hyo Deog; Won, Seung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) is a self-report measure of early maladaptive schemas and is currently in its third revision; it is available in both long (YSQ-L3) and short (YSQ-S3) forms. The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and establish its psychometric properties in a Korean sample. Methods A total of 542 graduate medical students completed the Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and several other psychological scales. A subsample of 308 subjects completed the Korean YSQ-S3 both before and after a 2-year test-retest interval. Correlation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the data. Results The internal consistency of the 90-item Korean YSQ-S3 was 0.97 and that of each schema was acceptable, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.46 to 0.65. Every schema showed robust positive correlations with most psychological measures. The confirmatory factor analysis for the 18-factor structure originally proposed by Young, Klosko, and Weishaar (2003) showed that most goodness-of-fit statistics were indicative of a satisfactory fit. Conclusion These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the YSQ-S3. PMID:26207121

  6. Educational and Relational Stressors Associated with Burnout in Korean Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. Methods A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. Results The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Conclusion Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout. PMID:26508955

  7. Ethnicity, health and medical care: towards a critical realist analysis of general practice in the Korean community in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Davies, Carmel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the use and provision of biomedicine among Korean-Australian men on the basis of interview data from all of the eight Korean-speaking doctors practising in the Korean community in Sydney in 1995. From the viewpoint of these general practitioners, an analysis is made of the processes Korean men go through in adjusting to a new country, being involved in constant hard manual work and long working hours, and explores how they make use of all available resources to stay healthy. The Korean men have fully utilized the 'freely' available medical services under government-subsidized Medicare, bearing in mind that health is a capacity to work under the current environment, although illegal migrants restrained themselves from using it until they obtained legal status. Korean-speaking medical practitioners have been able to provide their fellow Koreans with 'culturally appropriate' health care, with the key factor being the absence of a language barrier. The level of patient satisfaction is high, possibly due to the excellent understanding the doctors have of the social aspects of illnesses, although the doctors do not go beyond curative medicine in their practice. However, the increasing number of Korean-speaking doctors in the small Korean community means that there is competition for patients. Consequently, the medical care is highly entrepreneurial. Referral by Korean doctors to practitioners of Korean herbal medicine is also a notable feature of the health care sector of the Korean community, especially as this offers Korean patients 'satisfactory' health relief for problems that are not easily relieved by doctors in the biomedical system. PMID:17060035

  8. Novel Algorithm for Classification of Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Juneja, Monika

    2010-11-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods in medical image databases have been designed to support specific tasks, such as retrieval of medical images. These methods cannot be transferred to other medical applications since different imaging modalities require different types of processing. To enable content-based queries in diverse collections of medical images, the retrieval system must be familiar with the current Image class prior to the query processing. Further, almost all of them deal with the DICOM imaging format. In this paper a novel algorithm based on energy information obtained from wavelet transform for the classification of medical images according to their modalities is described. For this two types of wavelets have been used and have been shown that energy obtained in either case is quite distinct for each of the body part. This technique can be successfully applied to different image formats. The results are shown for JPEG imaging format.

  9. Medical image segmentation using genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Ujjwal

    2009-03-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been found to be effective in the domain of medical image segmentation, since the problem can often be mapped to one of search in a complex and multimodal landscape. The challenges in medical image segmentation arise due to poor image contrast and artifacts that result in missing or diffuse organ/tissue boundaries. The resulting search space is therefore often noisy with a multitude of local optima. Not only does the genetic algorithmic framework prove to be effective in coming out of local optima, it also brings considerable flexibility into the segmentation procedure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the major applications of GAs to the domain of medical image segmentation. PMID:19272859

  10. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adults using data from the 2002-2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  11. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Kon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted on medical and non-medical students of a national university, and the responses of 224 students were analyzed for this study. Factor analysis and reliability testing were performed based on data collected for 25 adapted EASSI questions and those on the Korean version of the Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale (GARSS). A correlation analysis was performed between the 13 modified EASSI questions and the GARSS, and validity of the modified EASSI was verified by directly comparing stress levels between the two student groups. Results The 13 questions adapted for the EASSI were called the modified EASSI and classified into four factors through a factor analysis and reliability testing. The Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between the modified EASSI and the Korean version of the GARSS, suggesting a complementary strategy of using both tests. Conclusion The validity and reliability of the EASSI were verified. The modified Korean EASSI could be a useful stress test for Korean medical students. Our results show that medical students were under more stress than that of non-medical students. Thus, these results could be helpful for managing stress in medical students. PMID:26885317

  12. Novel fusion algorithms for medical ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashford, Gregory R.; Morse, Jonathan L.; Melander, Jennifer R.

    2004-10-01

    Ultrasound tomography is a bioimaging method that combines the geometry of X-ray computed tomography with the non-ionizing energy of ultrasound. This modality has potential clinical utility in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. In conventional ultrasound tomography, data sets from different interrogation angles are used to reconstruct an estimate of a biomechanical property of the tissue, such as sound velocity, in the form of an image. Here we describe an alternative method of reconstruction using novel algorithms which weight the data based on a "quality" score. The quality score is derived from beamforming characteristics, for example, the weighting of angle-dependent data by its distance from the transmit focal zones. The new approach is that for each data set (taken at a different view angle), the reliability of the data (in the range dimension) is assumed to vary. By fusing (combining) the data based on the quality score, a complete image is formed. In this paper, we describe the construction of a rotational translation stage and tissue-mimicking phantoms that are used in conjunction with a commercial medical ultrasound machine to test our reconstruction algorithms. The new algorithms were found to increase the contrast-to-speckle ratio of simulated cysts by 114% from raw data over a 77% improvement by spatial compounding (averaging), and to decrease wire target width by 54% over a 39% reduction by spatial compounding alone. The new method shows promise as a computationally efficient method of improving contrast and resolution in ultrasound images.

  13. Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors at the Forefront of Improving the Quality and Indexing Chances of its Member Journals

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Chang-Ok; Oh, Se Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The article overviews some achievements and problems of Korean medical journals published in the highly competitive journal environment. Activities of Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE) are viewed as instrumental for improving the quality of Korean articles, indexing large number of local journals in prestigious bibliographic databases and launching new abstract and citation tracking databases or platforms (eg KoreaMed, KoreaMed Synapse, the Western Pacific Regional Index Medicus [WPRIM]). KAMJE encourages its member journals to upgrade science editing standards and to legitimately increase citation rates, primarily by publishing more great articles with global influence. Experience gained by KAMJE and problems faced by Korean editors may have global implications. PMID:23678253

  14. Adverse events attributed to traditional Korean medical practices: 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate adverse events attributed to traditional medical treatments in the Republic of Korea. Methods Adverse events recorded in the Republic of Korea between 1999 and 2010 – by the Food and Drug Administration, the Consumer Agency or the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine – were reviewed. Records of adverse events attributed to the use of traditional medical practices, including reports of medicinal accidents and consumers’ complaints, were investigated. Findings Overall, 9624 records of adverse events attributed to traditional medical practices – including 522 linked to herbal treatments – were identified. Liver problems were the most frequently reported adverse events. Only eight of the adverse events were recorded by the pharmacovigilance system run by the Food and Drug Administration. Of the 9624 events, 1389 – mostly infections, cases of pneumothorax and burns – were linked to physical therapy (n = 285) or acupuncture/moxibustion (n = 1104). Conclusion In the Republic of Korea, traditional medical practices often appear to have adverse effects, yet almost all of the adverse events attributed to such practices between 1999 and 2010 were missed by the national pharmacovigilance system. The Consumer Agency and the Association of Traditional Korean Medicine should be included in the national pharmacovigilance system. PMID:23940404

  15. Perspectives on Medical Services Integration among Conventional Western, Traditional Korean, and Dual-Licensed Medical Doctors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Junghwa; Yun, Youngju; Lee, Sangyeoup; Cho, Younghye

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the perspectives on the options for the integration of western and traditional Korean medical services among three types of medical doctors with different disciplines in Korea. We surveyed and analyzed responses from 167 conventional Western medicine (WM), 135 traditional Korean medicine (KM), and 103 dual-licensed (DL) doctors who can practice both. All three kinds of doctors shared similar attitude toward license unitarization. KM doctors most strongly agreed on the need of the cooperative practice (CP) between KM and WM and on the possibility of license unitarization among three groups. DL doctors believed that CP is currently impracticable and copractice is more efficient than CP. WM doctors presented the lowest agreement on the need of CP and showed lower expectation for DL doctors as mediators between WM and KM than others. This study showed the difference of perspectives on the options for the integrative medical services among three different doctor groups in Korea. More studies are required to explore the underlying reasons for these discrepancies among WM, KM, and DL doctors. PMID:24382975

  16. Examination on accuracy of the radar rainfall estimated by using Korean dual-pol radar rainfall estimation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jungsoo; Choi, Dayoung; Suk, Mi-Kyung; Nam, Kyung-Yeub; Lee, Sangmi; Ko, Jeong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Weather Radar Center (WRC) in Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) have tried to improve the accuracy of the radar rainfall. WRC introduced Radar-AWS Rainrate (RAR) algorithm in 2001 to quantitatively improve the accuracy of the radar rainfall. Whereafter, RAR algorithm have been advanced and still used to estimate the radar rainfall. WRC has developed Korean dual-pol radar rainfall estimation algorithm from 2014 when the project of constructing the dual-pol radar network was initiated. WRC therefore suggested first Korean dual-pol radar rainfall estimation equations (R(Z), R(Z, ZDR), R(ZDR, KDP), and R(KDP)) in 2014 and developed the equations in 2015. Since WRC just suggested each equation, it needs to algorithmize the equations. This study suggested Korean dual-pol radar rainfall estimation algorithm and examined on the accuracy of the radar rainfall estimated by the algorithm. The radar measurements obtained by dual-pol radars (BRI, BSL, and SBS) which were introduced in 2015 were used.

  17. Assessing the Quality of Randomized Controlled Urological Trials Conducted by Korean Medical Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the quality of randomized controlled urological trials conducted by Korean medical institutions. Materials and Methods Quality assessment was conducted by using the Jadad scale; in addition, the van Tulder scale and the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool were used as individual indices. All assessments were performed by two reviewers. If the outcomes differed, the two reviewers and a third reviewer adjusted the discrepancy in the results through discussion. Starting from 1986, a quality analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted in 1-year and 5-year units. The quality assessment was conducted by subject, type of intervention, presence of double blinding, presence of funding, and review by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Results Whereas the number of RCTs published has gradually increased, there was no significant difference in the quality of the RCTs according to publication year. Drug studies, double-blind studies, studies with funding, and studies reviewed by IRBs had higher quality scores and a higher percentage of high-quality RCTs than did other studies. Thirty-six RCTs were published in journals included in the Science Citation Index and 20 RCTs were published in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded. The largest number of RCTs (32.32%) were published by the Korean Journal of Urology. Conclusions A quantitative increase was observed in RCTs over time, but no qualitative improvement in the RCTs was observed. It seems necessary to put effort into the quality improvement of RCTs at the design stage. PMID:23700493

  18. [A history of Korean medical association's emblem: the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes].

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Jeon

    2007-06-01

    An emblem represents the identity of an organization. Through the emblem of an organization, they differentiate the members from others and reinforce the membership, homogeneity, and pride. It is also a tool that an organization officially publicizes its mission and values. The symbol designed by Cho, Byungduk was announced as the first emblem of Korean Medical Association (KMA) on October 31st 1947. His design work has the caduceus with the Taeguk sign on the top, the symbol of Korea, and the Red Cross in the background including the name, 'KMA'. Since then, the emblem was revised three times: in 1964, 1973, and 1995. The current symbol is based on the design of the first one. Although Asklepian, the single serpent-entwined staff of Asklepios, is the one known as the symbol of medicine, this emblem takes the caduceus of Hermes who is the patron god of merchants, thieves, and travelers. The mistake comes from the unawareness of the distinction between the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes. Moreover, it proves that U. S. Army Medical Corps (USAMC) heavily influenced the reconstruction of Korean health care system including KMA. The USAMC has used the symbol of caduceus since 1902. In 1947, the year that the first emblem of KMA was established, Southern part of Korea was governed by the United States Military Government (USMG, 1945-1948). The current emblem of KMA brings up a question whether we should continue to use the symbol that was taken from USMAC in the historical period of USMG governance. Celebrating 100th anniversary year of KMA, KMA needs to re-evaluate the appropriateness of the KMA symbol. PMID:18175460

  19. Korean Guideline Development for the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment of the Spine: Proposal by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Committee

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Baeg; Park, Chan-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Youn-Kwan; Sung, Nak-Jung; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Ahn, Jae-Sung; Shin, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bum-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Jeon, Chang-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for the evaluation of spinal impairment are diverse, complex, and have no standardized form. This makes it difficult and somewhat troublesome to accurately evaluate spinal impairment patients. A standardized guideline was studied for the evaluation of spinal impairment, based on the American Medical Association (AMA) Guides and the McBride method. This guideline proposal was developed by specialty medical societies under the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences. In this study, the grades of impairment were assessed by dividing patients into three different categories: spinal cord impairment, spinal injury impairment and spinal disorder impairment. The affected regions of the spine are divided into three: the cervical region, the thoracic region, and the lumbosacral region. The grade of impairment was differentially evaluated according to the affected region. The restricted range of motion was excluded in the evaluation spinal impairment because of low objectivity. Even though the new Korean guideline for the evaluation of spinal impairment has been proposed, it should be continuously supplemented and revised. PMID:19503688

  20. Medical image compression algorithm based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghong; Zhang, Guoping; Wan, Wei; Liu, Minmin

    2005-02-01

    With rapid development of electronic imaging and multimedia technology, the telemedicine is applied to modern medical servings in the hospital. Digital medical image is characterized by high resolution, high precision and vast data. The optimized compression algorithm can alleviate restriction in the transmission speed and data storage. This paper describes the characteristics of human vision system based on the physiology structure, and analyses the characteristics of medical image in the telemedicine, then it brings forward an optimized compression algorithm based on wavelet zerotree. After the image is smoothed, it is decomposed with the haar filters. Then the wavelet coefficients are quantified adaptively. Therefore, we can maximize efficiency of compression and achieve better subjective visual image. This algorithm can be applied to image transmission in the telemedicine. In the end, we examined the feasibility of this algorithm with an image transmission experiment in the network.

  1. An algorithm to identify medication nonpersistence using electronic pharmacy databases

    PubMed Central

    Moffet, Howard H; Adams, Alyce; Karter, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying patients who are medication nonpersistent (fail to refill in a timely manner) is important for healthcare operations and research. However, consistent methods to detect nonpersistence using electronic pharmacy records are presently lacking. We developed and validated a nonpersistence algorithm for chronically used medications. Materials and Methods Refill patterns of adult diabetes patients (n = 14,349) prescribed cardiometabolic therapies were studied. We evaluated various grace periods (30-300 days) to identify medication nonpersistence, which is defined as a gap between refills that exceeds a threshold equal to the last days’ supply dispensed plus a grace period plus days of stockpiled medication. Since data on medication stockpiles are typically unavailable for ongoing users, we compared nonpersistence to rates calculated using algorithms that ignored stockpiles. Results When using grace periods equal to or greater than the number of days’ supply dispensed (i.e., at least 100 days), this novel algorithm for medication nonpersistence gave consistent results whether or not it accounted for days of stockpiled medication. The agreement (Kappa coefficients) between nonpersistence rates using algorithms with versus without stockpiling improved with longer grace periods and ranged from 0.63 (for 30 days) to 0.98 (for a 300-day grace period). Conclusions Our method has utility for health care operations and research in prevalent (ongoing) and new user cohorts. The algorithm detects a subset of patients with inadequate medication-taking behavior not identified as primary nonadherent or secondary nonadherent. Healthcare systems can most comprehensively identify patients with short- or long-term medication underutilization by identifying primary nonadherence, secondary nonadherence, and nonpersistence. PMID:26078413

  2. Generating useful images for medical applications from the Visible Korean Human.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Jung, Yong-Wook; Lee, Jun Won; Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Riemer, Martin; Handels, Heinz

    2008-12-01

    For the Visible Korean Human (VKH), a male cadaver was serially ground off to acquire the serially sectioned images (SSIs) of a whole human body. Thereafter, more than 700 structures in the SSIs were outlined to produce detailed segmented images; the SSIs and segmented images were volume- and surface-reconstructed to create three-dimensional models. For outlining and reconstruction, popular software (Photoshop, MRIcro, Maya, AutoCAD, 3ds max, and Rhino) was mainly used; the technique can be reproduced by other investigators for creating their own images. For refining the segmentation and volume reconstruction, the VOXEL-MAN system was used. The continuously upgraded technique was applied to a female cadaver's pelvis to produce the SSIs with 0.1mm sized intervals and 0.1mm x 0.1mm sized pixels. The VKH data, distributed worldwide, encouraged researchers to develop virtual dissection, virtual endoscopy, and virtual lumbar puncture contributing to medical education and clinical practice. In the future, a virtual image library including all the Visible Human Project data, Chinese Visible Human data, and VKH data will hopefully be established where users will be able to download one of the data sets for medical applications. PMID:18782644

  3. A Thoracic Surgical Case Presented at the First Academic Meeting of the Chosun (Korean) Medical Association Held in 1947

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The late Prof. Kyeok Boo Han (1913–2005) was one of the pioneers in the early stages of the establishment of thoracic surgery in Korea. He was in charge of thoracic surgery at Seoul National University Hospital from 1948 to the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. He presented a thoracic surgical case entitled “Adhesive (constrictive) pericarditis: one surgical case” at the first academic meeting of the Chosun (an old name for Korea) Medical Association, held in 1947. This presentation is considered to be the first thoracic surgical case presented by a Korean surgeon at a domestic medical meeting after the National Liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. In this regard, this study was intended to analyze the content and the meaning of the case, published in a journal in 1948. PMID:27525248

  4. A Thoracic Surgical Case Presented at the First Academic Meeting of the Chosun (Korean) Medical Association Held in 1947.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-08-01

    The late Prof. Kyeok Boo Han (1913-2005) was one of the pioneers in the early stages of the establishment of thoracic surgery in Korea. He was in charge of thoracic surgery at Seoul National University Hospital from 1948 to the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. He presented a thoracic surgical case entitled "Adhesive (constrictive) pericarditis: one surgical case" at the first academic meeting of the Chosun (an old name for Korea) Medical Association, held in 1947. This presentation is considered to be the first thoracic surgical case presented by a Korean surgeon at a domestic medical meeting after the National Liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. In this regard, this study was intended to analyze the content and the meaning of the case, published in a journal in 1948. PMID:27525248

  5. Assessing the Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Korean Medical Science from 1986 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Jo, Jung Ki

    2012-01-01

    Low quality clinical trials have a possibility to have errors in the process of deriving the results and therefore distort the study. Quality assessment of clinical trial is necessary in order to prevent any clinical application erroneous results is important. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a design for evaluate the effectiveness of medical procedure. This study was conducted by extracting the RCTs from the original articles published in the Journal of Korean Medical Science (JKMS) from 1986 to 2011 and conducting a qualitative analysis using three types of analysis tools: Jadad scale, van Tulder scale and Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias Tool. To compare the quality of articles of JKMS, quality analysis of the RCTs published in Yonsei Medical Journal (YMJ) and Korean Journal of Internal Medicine was also conducted. In the JKMS, YMJ and Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, the quantitative increase of RCT presented over time was observed but no qualitative improvement of RCT was observed over time. From the results of this study, it is required for the researchers to plan for and perform higher quality studies. PMID:22969240

  6. Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: 2015 Position Statement of the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Lee, Jeong Keun; Kim, Deog-Yoon

    2015-11-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are also used in malignant bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and Paget's disease, and provide therapeutic efficacy on those diseases. However, it was reported that occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) could be related with bisphosphonate exposures, and there have been many cases regarding this issue. Therefore, a clearer definition and treatment guidelines were needed for this disease. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) and American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) reported statements on bisphosphonate-related ONJ (BRONJ), and a revised version was recently presented. In the revised edition, the diagnosis BRONJ was changed to medication-related ONJ (MRONJ), which reflects a consideration of the fact that ONJ also occurs for denosumab, a bone resorption inhibitor of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody family, and bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenesis inhibitor. In 2009, a statement on ONJ was also reported locally by a relevant organization, which has served as basis for clinical treatment in Korea. In addition to the new official stance of the AAOMS and ASBMR, with an increasing pool of ONJ clinical experience, a revised version of the 2009 local statement is needed. As such, the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research (KSBMR) and the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (KAOMS) have collectively formed a committee for the preparation of an official statement on MRONJ, and have reviewed recent local and international data to propose guidelines customized for the local Korean situation. PMID:26713306

  7. Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: 2015 Position Statement of the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Lee, Jeong Keun

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are also used in malignant bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and Paget's disease, and provide therapeutic efficacy on those diseases. However, it was reported that occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) could be related with bisphosphonate exposures, and there have been many cases regarding this issue. Therefore, a clearer definition and treatment guidelines were needed for this disease. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) and American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) reported statements on bisphosphonate-related ONJ (BRONJ), and a revised version was recently presented. In the revised edition, the diagnosis BRONJ was changed to medication-related ONJ (MRONJ), which reflects a consideration of the fact that ONJ also occurs for denosumab, a bone resorption inhibitor of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody family, and bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenesis inhibitor. In 2009, a statement on ONJ was also reported locally by a relevant organization, which has served as basis for clinical treatment in Korea. In addition to the new official stance of the AAOMS and ASBMR, with an increasing pool of ONJ clinical experience, a revised version of the 2009 local statement is needed. As such, the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research (KSBMR) and the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (KAOMS) have collectively formed a committee for the preparation of an official statement on MRONJ, and have reviewed recent local and international data to propose guidelines customized for the local Korean situation. PMID:26713306

  8. Medication treatment for the severely and persistently mentally ill: the Texas Medication Algorithm Project.

    PubMed

    Rush, A J; Rago, W V; Crismon, M L; Toprac, M G; Shon, S P; Suppes, T; Miller, A L; Trivedi, M H; Swann, A C; Biggs, M M; Shores-Wilson, K; Kashner, T M; Pigott, T; Chiles, J A; Gilbert, D A; Altshuler, K Z

    1999-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the issues involved in developing, using, and evaluating specific medication guidelines for patients with psychiatric disorders. The potential advantages and disadvantages, as well as the essential elements in the structure of algorithms, are illustrated by experience to date with the Texas Medication Algorithm Project, a public-academic collaboration. Phase 1 entailed assembling research findings on the efficacy of medications for schizophrenic, bipolar, and major depressive disorders. This knowledge was evaluated for its quality and relevance, integrated with expert clinical judgment as well as input by practicing clinicians, family advocates, and patients. Phase 1 (the design and development of the algorithms) was followed by a feasibility test (Phase 2). Phase 3 is an ongoing evaluation comparing the clinical and economic effects of using specific medication guidelines (algorithms) versus treatment as usual in public sector patients with severe and persistent mental illnesses. PMID:10362434

  9. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599

  10. Review of Medical Advisory Services by the Korean Society of Pathologists from 2003 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Hye; Lee, Geon Kook; Kim, Han Seong; Kim, Wan Seop

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since 2003, the Korean Society of Pathologists (KSP) has been officially providing medical advisory services (MAS). We reviewed the cases submitted to the KSP between 2003 and 2014. Methods: In total, 1,950 cases were submitted, most by private health insurance companies. The main purposes of the consultations were to clarify the initial diagnoses and to assign a proper disease classification code. We comprehensively reviewed 1,803 consultation cases with detailed information. Results: In spite of some fluctuations, the number of submitted cases has been significantly increasing over the 12 study years. The colon and rectum (40.3%), urinary bladder (14.2%), and stomach (6.9%) were the three most common tissues of origin. The most common diagnoses for each of the three tissues of origin were neuroendocrine tumor (50.7%), non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma (70.7%), and adenocarcinoma (36.2%). Regardless of the tissue of origin, neuroendocrine tumor of the digestive system was the most common diagnosis (419 of 1,803). Conclusions: In the current study, we found that pathologic consultations associated with private health insurance accounted for a large proportion of the MAS. Coding of the biologic behavior of diseases was the main issue of the consultations. In spite of the effort of the KSP to set proper guidelines for coding and classification of tumors, this review revealed that problems still exist and will continue to be an important issue. PMID:26581208

  11. [An improved medical image fusion algorithm and quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiling; Tao, Ling; Qian, Zhiyu

    2009-08-01

    Medical image fusion is of very important value for application in medical image analysis and diagnosis. In this paper, the conventional method of wavelet fusion is improved,so a new algorithm of medical image fusion is presented and the high frequency and low frequency coefficients are studied respectively. When high frequency coefficients are chosen, the regional edge intensities of each sub-image are calculated to realize adaptive fusion. The choice of low frequency coefficient is based on the edges of images, so that the fused image preserves all useful information and appears more distinctly. We apply the conventional and the improved fusion algorithms based on wavelet transform to fuse two images of human body and also evaluate the fusion results through a quality evaluation method. Experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively retain the details of information on original images and enhance their edge and texture features. This new algorithm is better than the conventional fusion algorithm based on wavelet transform. PMID:19813594

  12. [An algorithm of a wavelet-based medical image quantization].

    PubMed

    Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Peng, Chenglin

    2002-12-01

    The compression of medical image is the key to study tele-medicine & PACS. We have studied the statistical distribution of wavelet subimage coefficients and concluded that the distribution of wavelet subimage coefficients is very much similar to that of Laplacian distribution. Based on the statistical properties of image wavelet decomposition, an image quantization algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, we selected the sample-standard-deviation as the key quantization threshold in every wavelet subimage. The test has proved that, the main advantages of this algorithm are simple computing and the predictability of coefficients in different quantization threshold range. Also, high compression efficiency can be obtained. Therefore, this algorithm can be potentially used in tele-medicine and PACS. PMID:12561372

  13. Post-Nargis medical care: experience of a Korean Disaster Relief Team in Myanmar after the cyclone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Jun Sig; Hong, EunSeog

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and clinical data of patients observed by the Korean Disaster Relief Team, during its deployment in Myanmar, from 6 to 12 June 2008. A cross-sectional, medical record-based study in the Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic, established a month after the cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar. Data collected included demographic variables, and whether or not the problem was acute or chronic, and traumatic or medical. We included 2641 patients in the study. Of those, 57.6% presented with an acute condition, and the rest had chronic conditions. Approximately 5% of the patients presented with trauma/injury; and in 29% of the trauma cases, the problem was directly related to the cyclone. The most common diagnostic category was musculoskeletal problems (21.5%), followed by respiratory (15.3%), and digestive (14.6%) abnormalities. A little over 5% of patients had posttraumatic stress disorder, and the odds ratio was 2.62 (95% confidence interval 1.63-4.21) for women to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Most of the patients (97.5%) had minor problems and were sent home. In conclusion, a huge unmet medical need in at-risk populations and a relatively large proportion of chronic medical conditions should be considered in any future planning of a similar type of disaster. PMID:19654547

  14. Framing Service, Benefit, and Credibility Through Images and Texts: A Content Analysis of Online Promotional Messages of Korean Medical Tourism Industry.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi

    2016-07-01

    This study examines how the Korean medical tourism industry frames its service, benefit, and credibility issues through texts and images of online brochures. The results of content analysis suggest that the Korean medical tourism industry attempts to frame their medical/health services as "excellence in surgeries and cancer care" and "advanced health technology and facilities." However, the use of cost-saving appeals was limited, which can be seen as a strategy to avoid consumers' association of lower cost with lower quality services, and to stress safety and credibility. PMID:26644259

  15. A New Disability Rating Method according to the Job Using the Korean Academy of Medical Science Disability Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jay-young; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Yongkyu; Rhie, Jeong-Bae; Jeong, In-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a disability rating scale according to job classification using the Korean Academy of Medical Society (KAMS) guidelines. All jobs were categorized based on their level of physical activity and professional skills. The KAMS guidelines were used for the impairment rating. We modified the California Schedule for rating permanent disabilities. The differences were plotted to compare between the impairment rate and the job-adjusted disability rate. The KAMS job-adjusted disability rates were then compared to the McBride and workers' compensation rates. A total of 1,206 occupations were classified into 44 groups. The occupational disability indexes were rated on a scale of 1 to 7. The differences in the McBride disability rates varied inconsistently from 0% to 35%, while the differences in the KAMS disability rates were between 0% and 18%. The KAMS disability rates were slightly higher than the McBride disability rates for the upper extremities, but were lower for the lower extremities and internal organs. This is the first Korean job-adjusted disability rating method. There are several limitations, but its impairment rating is more scientific and reflects the current Korean occupational environment. PMID:23255842

  16. Negotiating last-minute concerns in closing Korean medical encounters: the use of gaze, body and talk.

    PubMed

    Park, Yujong

    2013-11-01

    Although patients may raise new concerns during any time of the medical visit, the closing phase of the consultation is a critical locus for the negotiation of the topicalization of additional concerns. Using conversation analysis as the primary method of analysis, this study provides an analysis of the structure of consultation "closings" in Korean primary-care encounters and the way in which the organization of closings in this context discourages patients' presentation of additional concerns. Data are drawn from 60 videotaped primary-care encounters collected from Korea, between 2007 and 2008. The rare occasions in which last-minute concerns are raised are closely analyzed to reveal that the organization of gaze and body orientation play an important role in foreclosing the presentation of additional concerns. The results contribute to our understanding of closings in the primary-care interview by investigating a non-western setting that includes an investigation of an understudied subject--that of embodied resources--and shows how these closings serve the doctor's purpose of bringing closure in the face of last-minute concerns broached by the patient. The cultural meaning of gaze in the Korean medical care context is also discussed. The findings have implications for research on nonverbal communication, cultural differences, and interactions in medical care. PMID:24161103

  17. A Feasibility Study of the Childhood Depression Medication Algorithm: The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project (Cmap)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Hughes, Carroll W.; Crismon, M. Lynn; Lopez, Molly; Pliszka, Steve; Toprac, Marcia G.; Boemer, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and impact on clinical response and function associated with the use of an algorithm-driven disease management program (ALGO) for children and adolescents treated for depression with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community mental health centers. Method: Interventions included…

  18. Edge detection in medical images using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, M; El-Kwae, E A; Kabuka, M R

    1998-06-01

    An algorithm is developed that detects well-localized, unfragmented, thin edges in medical images based on optimization of edge configurations using a genetic algorithm (GA). Several enhancements were added to improve the performance of the algorithm over a traditional GA. The edge map is split into connected subregions to reduce the solution space and simplify the problem. The edge-map is then optimized in parallel using incorporated genetic operators that perform transforms on edge structures. Adaptation is used to control operator probabilities based on their participation. The GA was compared to the simulated annealing (SA) approach using ideal and actual medical images from different modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound. Quantitative comparisons were provided based on the Pratt figure of merit and on the cost-function minimization. The detected edges were thin, continuous, and well localized. Most of the basic edge features were detected. Results for different medical image modalities are promising and encourage further investigation to improve the accuracy and experiment with different cost functions and genetic operators. PMID:9735910

  19. Intercultural Usage of Mori Folium: Comparison Review from a Korean Medical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Byungjin; Jeon, Eun Sang; Lim, Su Hye; Park, Yu Lee; Park, Wansu; Chae, Han

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. A review on studies related to the use of Mori folium, the leaves of Morus alba, was conducted with the goal of identifying new clinical applications in Korean medicine. Methods. Global literature search was conducted using three electronic databases up to January 2015 with the term Morus alba and its Korean terms. KM literatures including textbooks and standard pharmacopoeia were separately hand-searched and reviewed to provide comparison. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria, and clinical uses were standardized with ICD-10 categories. Results. 159 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 18 articles including 12 ethnopharmacologic and 6 clinical studies were finally included in this analysis. Ethnopharmacologic studies from 8 countries provided 17 clinical uses. We found that five out of six clinical trials were related to diabetes and suggested a moderate short-term to mild long-term effect. And 43 Korean texts also provided 156 clinical uses in 35 categories including ocular and respiratory disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Though majority of the clinical uses were also found in Korean medicine literature, treatment of infertility, jaundice, cognitive disorder, and hyperpigmentation was found to be effective and diabetes with Morus alba was recognized to have clinical importance. PMID:26539223

  20. Mapping iterative medical imaging algorithm on cell accelerator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meilian; Thulasiraman, Parimala

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques require about half the number of projections as that of Fourier backprojection methods, which makes these methods safer in terms of required radiation dose. Algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and its variant OS-SART (ordered subset simultaneous ART) are techniques that provide faster convergence with comparatively good image quality. However, the prohibitively long processing time of these techniques prevents their adoption in commercial CT machines. Parallel computing is one solution to this problem. With the advent of heterogeneous multicore architectures that exploit data parallel applications, medical imaging algorithms such as OS-SART can be studied to produce increased performance. In this paper, we map OS-SART on cell broadband engine (Cell BE). We effectively use the architectural features of Cell BE to provide an efficient mapping. The Cell BE consists of one powerPC processor element (PPE) and eight SIMD coprocessors known as synergetic processor elements (SPEs). The limited memory storage on each of the SPEs makes the mapping challenging. Therefore, we present optimization techniques to efficiently map the algorithm on the Cell BE for improved performance over CPU version. We compare the performance of our proposed algorithm on Cell BE to that of Sun Fire ×4600, a shared memory machine. The Cell BE is five times faster than AMD Opteron dual-core processor. The speedup of the algorithm on Cell BE increases with the increase in the number of SPEs. We also experiment with various parameters, such as number of subsets, number of processing elements, and number of DMA transfers between main memory and local memory, that impact the performance of the algorithm. PMID:21922018

  1. Mapping Iterative Medical Imaging Algorithm on Cell Accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meilian; Thulasiraman, Parimala

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques require about half the number of projections as that of Fourier backprojection methods, which makes these methods safer in terms of required radiation dose. Algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and its variant OS-SART (ordered subset simultaneous ART) are techniques that provide faster convergence with comparatively good image quality. However, the prohibitively long processing time of these techniques prevents their adoption in commercial CT machines. Parallel computing is one solution to this problem. With the advent of heterogeneous multicore architectures that exploit data parallel applications, medical imaging algorithms such as OS-SART can be studied to produce increased performance. In this paper, we map OS-SART on cell broadband engine (Cell BE). We effectively use the architectural features of Cell BE to provide an efficient mapping. The Cell BE consists of one powerPC processor element (PPE) and eight SIMD coprocessors known as synergetic processor elements (SPEs). The limited memory storage on each of the SPEs makes the mapping challenging. Therefore, we present optimization techniques to efficiently map the algorithm on the Cell BE for improved performance over CPU version. We compare the performance of our proposed algorithm on Cell BE to that of Sun Fire ×4600, a shared memory machine. The Cell BE is five times faster than AMD Opteron dual-core processor. The speedup of the algorithm on Cell BE increases with the increase in the number of SPEs. We also experiment with various parameters, such as number of subsets, number of processing elements, and number of DMA transfers between main memory and local memory, that impact the performance of the algorithm. PMID:21922018

  2. Microwave-based medical diagnosis using particle swarm optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modiri, Arezoo

    This dissertation proposes and investigates a novel architecture intended for microwave-based medical diagnosis (MBMD). Furthermore, this investigation proposes novel modifications of particle swarm optimization algorithm for achieving enhanced convergence performance. MBMD has been investigated through a variety of innovative techniques in the literature since the 1990's and has shown significant promise in early detection of some specific health threats. In comparison to the X-ray- and gamma-ray-based diagnostic tools, MBMD does not expose patients to ionizing radiation; and due to the maturity of microwave technology, it lends itself to miniaturization of the supporting systems. This modality has been shown to be effective in detecting breast malignancy, and hence, this study focuses on the same modality. A novel radiator device and detection technique is proposed and investigated in this dissertation. As expected, hardware design and implementation are of paramount importance in such a study, and a good deal of research, analysis, and evaluation has been done in this regard which will be reported in ensuing chapters of this dissertation. It is noteworthy that an important element of any detection system is the algorithm used for extracting signatures. Herein, the strong intrinsic potential of the swarm-intelligence-based algorithms in solving complicated electromagnetic problems is brought to bear. This task is accomplished through addressing both mathematical and electromagnetic problems. These problems are called benchmark problems throughout this dissertation, since they have known answers. After evaluating the performance of the algorithm for the chosen benchmark problems, the algorithm is applied to MBMD tumor detection problem. The chosen benchmark problems have already been tackled by solution techniques other than particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the results of which can be found in the literature. However, due to the relatively high level

  3. The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: Revision of the Algorithm for Pharmacotherapy of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliszka, Steven R.; Crismon, M. Lynn; Hughes, Carroll W.; Corners, C. Keith; Emslie, Graham J.; Jensen, Peter S.; McCracken, James T.; Swanson, James M.; Lopez, Molly

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In 1998, the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation developed algorithms for medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Advances in the psychopharmacology of ADHD and results of a feasibility study of algorithm use in community mental health centers caused the algorithm to be modified and…

  4. Not at All Effective: Differences in Views on the Causes of Prescription Non-adherence Between North Korean Defectors and Medical Providers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2015-06-01

    By focusing on North Korean defectors' medical experiences in South Korea and their medical providers' experiences treating the defectors, this article considers the differences between the views of these two groups in regard to the causes of prescription non-adherence. The results suggest that (a) whereas the defectors tended to see their symptoms as being physical in nature, the medical providers often ascribed symptoms to psychological/socio-cultural influence; (b) whereas the defectors tended to trust in their ability to self-diagnose and in their belief systems established in North Korea, the medical providers tended not to place trust in these aspects; (c) whereas the defectors tended to view the available medical treatment as inappropriate for them, the medical providers often noted the presence of tolerant bacterial strains as causes of treatment failure; and (d) whereas the defectors felt that the treatment they received was slow and ineffective and attributed this to capitalism, the medical providers felt that the defectors failed to understand the concept of staged treatments. Based on the findings, some solutions are suggested to address the complex issue of North Korean defectors' prescription non-adherence in terms of subjective/objective health assessments and patient-centered care. North Korean defectors' established health beliefs/lack of medical knowledge based on their previous medical and cultural experiences gave rise to beliefs and practices associated with medicine that differ significantly from those of the health providers and that have the potential to severely compromise the defectors' health. Therefore, therapy negotiation and appropriate education are suggested as possible solutions, and as an agenda, the notion of civic friendship is addressed. Implications for medical practice, prevention, and intervention are also discussed. PMID:24647785

  5. Pediatric Medical Complexity Algorithm: A New Method to Stratify Children by Medical Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cawthon, Mary Lawrence; Stanford, Susan; Popalisky, Jean; Lyons, Dorothy; Woodcox, Peter; Hood, Margaret; Chen, Alex Y.; Mangione-Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop an algorithm based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), codes for classifying children with chronic disease (CD) according to level of medical complexity and to assess the algorithm’s sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted among 700 children insured by Washington State Medicaid with ≥1 Seattle Children’s Hospital emergency department and/or inpatient encounter in 2010. The gold standard population included 350 children with complex chronic disease (C-CD), 100 with noncomplex chronic disease (NC-CD), and 250 without CD. An existing ICD-9-CM–based algorithm called the Chronic Disability Payment System was modified to develop a new algorithm called the Pediatric Medical Complexity Algorithm (PMCA). The sensitivity and specificity of PMCA were assessed. RESULTS: Using hospital discharge data, PMCA’s sensitivity for correctly classifying children was 84% for C-CD, 41% for NC-CD, and 96% for those without CD. Using Medicaid claims data, PMCA’s sensitivity was 89% for C-CD, 45% for NC-CD, and 80% for those without CD. Specificity was 90% to 92% in hospital discharge data and 85% to 91% in Medicaid claims data for all 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: PMCA identified children with C-CD (who have accessed tertiary hospital care) with good sensitivity and good to excellent specificity when applied to hospital discharge or Medicaid claims data. PMCA may be useful for targeting resources such as care coordination to children with C-CD. PMID:24819580

  6. Development of Outlier detection Algorithm Applicable to a Korean Surge-Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Whan; Park, Sun-Cheon; Lee, Won-Jin; Lee, Duk Kee

    2016-04-01

    The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) is operating a surge-gauge (aerial ultrasonic type) at Ulleung-do to monitor tsunamis. And the National Institute of Meteorological Sciences (NIMS), KMA is developing a tsunami detection and observation system using this surge-gauge. Outliers resulting from a problem with the transmission and extreme events, which change the water level temporarily, are one of the most common discouraging problems in tsunami detection. Unlike a spike, multipoint outliers are difficult to detect clearly. Most of the previous studies used statistic values or signal processing methods such as wavelet transform and filter to detect the multipoint outliers, and used a continuous dataset. However, as the focus moved to a near real-time operation with a dataset that contains gaps, these methods are no longer tenable. In this study, we developed an outlier detection algorithm applicable to the Ulleung-do surge gauge where both multipoint outliers and missing data exist. Although only 9-point data and two arithmetic operations (plus and minus) are used, because of the newly developed keeping method, the algorithm is not only simple and fast but also effective in a non-continuous dataset. We calibrated 17 thresholds and conducted performance tests using the three month data from the Ulleung-do surge gauge. The results show that the newly developed despiking algorithm performs reliably in alleviating the outlier detecting problem.

  7. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects. PMID:25861371

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Modified Adult Attachment Scale for the Use of Medically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Byunggu; Rim, Hyo-Deog

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-M36) scale was developed for medically ill, older individuals in 2008 (Toronto, Canada, department of psychosocial oncology and palliative care, Princess Margaret Hospital). The scale has displayed satisfactory reliability and validity. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (K-ECR-M36) questionnaire in female patients with breast cancer. Methods A total of 199 post-operative breast cancer patients completed the K-ECR-M36 as well as other psychological measures including the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The reliability and validity of the K-ECR-M36 were evaluated. Explorative factor analysis was conducted to identify the factor structure of the K-ECR-M36. Results The K-ECR-M36 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.87) and reasonable test-retest reliability (r=0.752, p<0.001). The total as well as avoidance and anxiety subscales demonstrated construct validity with the RAAS, the HADS, and the WHOQOL-BREF. Factor analysis revealed four-factor structure which was originally proposed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998). Conclusion These findings support that the K-ECR-M36 has satisfactory reliability, validity and factor structure among patients with breast cancer. PMID:26508959

  9. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  10. Adaptation of the Texas Implementation Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder in Adult Female Offenders.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Jayesh; Wakai, Sara; Zhang, Wanli; Kesten, Karen; Shelton, Deborah; Trestman, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Use of medication algorithms in the correctional setting may facilitate clinical decision making, improve consistency of care, and reduce polypharmacy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effectiveness of algorithm (Texas Implementation of Medication Algorithm [TIMA])-driven treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU) in the correctional environment. A total of 61 women inmates with BD were randomized to TIMA (n = 30) or TAU (n = 31) and treated over a 12-week period. The outcome measures included measures of BD symptoms, comorbid symptomatology, quality of life, and psychotropic medication utilization. In comparison with TAU, TIMA-driven treatment reduced polypharmacy, decreased overall psychotropic medication utilization, and significantly decreased use of specific classes of psychotropic medication (antipsychotics and antidepressants). This pilot study confirmed the feasibility and benefits of algorithm-driven treatment of BD in the correctional setting, primarily by enhancing appropriate use of evidence-based treatment. PMID:25829456

  11. The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho

    2013-12-01

    This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul

  12. Analysis of anesthesia-related medical disputes in the 2009-2014 period using the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists database.

    PubMed

    Roh, Woon-Seok; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Jeon, Young-Hun; Kim, Seong-Hyop; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Ko, Young-Kwon; Lee, Yong-Cheol; Lee, Gyu-Hong

    2015-02-01

    Using the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists database of anesthesia-related medical disputes (July 2009-June 2014), causative mechanisms and injury patterns were analyzed. In total, 105 cases were analyzed. Most patients were aged < 60 yr (82.9%) and were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≤ II (90.5%). In 42.9% of all cases, the injuries were determined to be 'avoidable' if the appropriate standard of care had been applied. Sedation was the sec most common type of anesthesia (37.1% of all cases), following by general anesthesia. Most sedation cases (27/39, 69.2%) showed a common lack of vigilance: no pre-procedural testing (82.1%), absence of anesthesia record (89.7%), and non-use of intra-procedural monitoring (15.4%). Most sedation (92.3%) was provided simultaneously by the non-anesthesiologists who performed the procedures. After the resulting injuries were grouped into four categories (temporary, permanent/minor, permanent/major, and death), their causative mechanisms were analyzed in cases with permanent injuries (n=20) and death (n=82). A 'respiratory events' was the leading causative mechanism (56/102, 54.9%). Of these, the most common specific mechanism was hypoxia secondary to airway obstruction or respiratory depression (n=31). The sec most common damaging event was a 'cardiovascular events' (26/102, 25.5%), in which myocardial infarction was the most common specific mechanism (n=12). Our database analysis demonstrated several typical injury profiles (a lack of vigilance in seemingly safe procedures or sedation, non-compliance with the airway management guidelines, and the prevalence of myocardial infarction) and can be helpful to improve patient safety. PMID:25653494

  13. Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: Update from Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carroll W.; Emslie, Graham J.; Crismon, M. Lynn; Posner, Kelly; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Jensen, Peter; Curry, John; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lopez, Molly; Shon, Steve P.; Pliszka, Steven R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To revise and update consensus guidelines for medication treatment algorithms for childhood major depressive disorder based on new scientific evidence and expert clinical consensus when evidence is lacking. Method: A consensus conference was held January 13-14, 2005, that included academic clinicians and researchers, practicing…

  14. Research on Medical Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on GSM Model for Wavelet Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Nian-de; Ning, Xing

    For the complexity and application diversity of medical CT image, this article presents a medical CT Image enhancing algorithm based on Gaussian Scale Mixture Model for wavelet coefficient in the study of wavelet multi-scale analysis. The noisy image is firstly denoised in auto-adapted Wiener filter. Secondly, through the qualitative analysis and classification of wavelet coefficients for the signal and noise, the wavelet's approximate distribution and statistical characteristics are described, combining GSM(Gaussian scale mixture) model for wavelet coefficient in this paper. It is shown that this algorithm can improve the denoised result and enhanced the medical CT image obviously.

  15. A Local IDW Transformation Algorithm for Medical Image Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoretto, Roberto; De Rossi, Alessandra

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose the use of a modified version of the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method for landmark—based registration of medical images. More precisely, we consider radial basis functions (RBFs) as nodal functions in the modified IDW method, circumventing the drawback due to RBF global support.

  16. Building a medical image processing algorithm verification database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. Wayne

    2000-06-01

    The design of a database containing head Computed Tomography (CT) studies is presented, along with a justification for the database's composition. The database will be used to validate software algorithms that screen normal head CT studies from studies that contain pathology. The database is designed to have the following major properties: (1) a size sufficient for statistical viability, (2) inclusion of both normal (no pathology) and abnormal scans, (3) inclusion of scans due to equipment malfunction, technologist error, and uncooperative patients, (4) inclusion of data sets from multiple scanner manufacturers, (5) inclusion of data sets from different gender and age groups, and (6) three independent diagnosis of each data set. Designed correctly, the database will provide a partial basis for FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) approval of image processing algorithms for clinical use. Our goal for the database is the proof of viability of screening head CT's for normal anatomy using computer algorithms. To put this work into context, a classification scheme for 'computer aided diagnosis' systems is proposed.

  17. Utility of an Algorithm to Increase the Accuracy of Medication History in an Obstetrical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, Aline; Baud, David; Chaouch, Aziz; Beney, Johnny; Csajka, Chantal; Panchaud, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Background In an obstetrical setting, inaccurate medication histories at hospital admission may result in failure to identify potentially harmful treatments for patients and/or their fetus(es). Methods This prospective study was conducted to assess average concordance rates between (1) a medication list obtained with a one-page structured medication history algorithm developed for the obstetrical setting and (2) the medication list reported in medical records and obtained by open-ended questions based on standard procedures. Both lists were converted into concordance rate using a best possible medication history approach as the reference (information obtained by patients, prescribers and community pharmacists’ interviews). Results The algorithm-based method obtained a higher average concordance rate than the standard method, with respectively 90.2% [CI95% 85.8–94.3] versus 24.6% [CI95%15.3–34.4] concordance rates (p<0.01). Conclusion Our algorithm-based method strongly enhanced the accuracy of the medication history in our obstetric population, without using substantial resources. Its implementation is an effective first step to the medication reconciliation process, which has been recognized as a very important component of patients’ drug safety. PMID:26999743

  18. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  19. Impact of continuous Medical Aid utilisation on healthcare utilisation: unique insight using the 2008–2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Na Rae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although there has been considerable discussion about the social safety net, few studies related to effect of duration of continuous receipt of Medical Aid on healthcare utilisation have been conducted. Therefore, we investigate whether the duration of receiving Medical Aid affected medical care utilisation. Setting Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study conducted from 2008 to 2012. Participants We included 11 783 samples. Interventions Estimating changes in their healthcare utilisation during specific time intervals (1, 2 and ≥3 years) after they switched from National Health Insurance to Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number of outpatient visits. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.0.051-fold higher (p value: 0.434) among those who were Medical Aid beneficiaries for a continuous period of 1 year, 0.0.267-fold higher (p value: 0.000) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 2 years, and 0.0.562-fold higher (p value:<0.0001) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 3 years than it was among those who were beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Conclusions Our results reflect an association between the number of consecutive years of receiving Medical Aid and number of outpatient visits. Since duration of dependence is correlated with reduced exit rates, limits on length of benefits should be considered to strengthen the incentive to return to work. PMID:27053265

  20. A Selective Encryption Algorithm Based on AES for Medical Information

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ju-Young; Chon, Ki-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The transmission of medical information is currently a daily routine. Medical information needs efficient, robust and secure encryption modes, but cryptography is primarily a computationally intensive process. Towards this direction, we design a selective encryption scheme for critical data transmission. Methods We expand the advandced encrytion stanard (AES)-Rijndael with five criteria: the first is the compression of plain data, the second is the variable size of the block, the third is the selectable round, the fourth is the optimization of software implementation and the fifth is the selective function of the whole routine. We have tested our selective encryption scheme by C++ and it was compiled with Code::Blocks using a MinGW GCC compiler. Results The experimental results showed that our selective encryption scheme achieves a faster execution speed of encryption/decryption. In future work, we intend to use resource optimization to enhance the round operations, such as SubByte/InvSubByte, by exploiting similarities between encryption and decryption. Conclusions As encryption schemes become more widely used, the concept of hardware and software co-design is also a growing new area of interest. PMID:21818420

  1. Alternatives to potentially inappropriate medications for use in e-prescribing software: triggers and treatment algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Anne L; Quilliam, Brian J; Goldman, Roberta; Eaton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of evidence-based electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) triggers and treatment algorithms for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for older adults. Design Literature review, expert panel and focus group. Setting Primary care with access to e-prescribing systems. Participants Primary care physicians using e-prescribing systems receiving medication history. Interventions Standardised treatment algorithms for clinicians attempting to prescribe PIMs for older patients. Main outcome measure Development of 15 treatment algorithms suggesting alternative therapies. Results Evidence-based treatment algorithms were well received by primary care physicians. Providing alternatives to PIMs would make it easier for physicians to change decisions at the point of prescribing. Conclusion Prospectively identifying older persons receiving PIMs or with adherence issues and providing feasible interventions may prevent adverse drug events. PMID:21719560

  2. Medical computing over the World Wide Web: use of forms and CGI scripts for constructing medical algorithm Web pages.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D J; Jarvis, B A; Ruskin, K J; Engel, T P

    1997-01-01

    The development of the World Wide Web has led to an explosion of educational and clinical resources available via the Internet with minimal effort or special training. However, most of these Web pages contain only static information; few offer dynamic information shaped around clinical or laboratory test findings. In this report we show how this goal can be achieved with the design and construction of Medical Algorithm Web Pages (MAWP). Specifically, using Internet technologies known as forms and CGI scripts we demonstrate how one can implement medical algorithms remotely over the Internet's World Wide Web. To use a MAWP, one enters the URL for the site and then enters information according to the instructions presented there, usually by entering numbers and other information into fields displayed on screen. When all the data is entered, the user clicks on the SUBMIT icon, resulting in a new Web page being constructed "on-the-fly" containing diagnostic calculations and other information pertinent to the patient's clinical management. Four sample applications are presented in detail to illustrate the concept of a Medical Algorithm Web page: Computation of the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference using the alveolar gas equation; Computation of renal creatinine clearance; drug infusion calculation (micrograms/kilogram/minute); Computation of the renal failure index. PMID:10179110

  3. Research on an Improved Medical Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on P-M Model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beibei; Yang, Jingjing; Hao, Shangfu; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement can improve the detail of the image and so as to achieve the purpose of the identification of the image. At present, the image enhancement is widely used in medical images, which can help doctor's diagnosis. IEABPM (Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on P-M Model) is one of the most common image enhancement algorithms. However, it may cause the lost of the texture details and other features. To solve the problems, this paper proposes an IIEABPM (Improved Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on P-M Model). Simulation demonstrates that IIEABPM can effectively solve the problems of IEABPM, and improve image clarity, image contrast, and image brightness. PMID:26628929

  4. Risk-assessment algorithm and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medical patients

    PubMed Central

    T Rocha, Ana; F Paiva, Edison; Lichtenstein, Arnaldo; Milani, Rodolfo; Cavalheiro-Filho, Cyrillo; H Maffei, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical patients is high, but risk assessment is rarely performed because there is not yet a good method to identify candidates for prophylaxis. Purpose To perform a systematic review about VTE risk factors (RFs) in hospitalized medical patients and generate recommendations (RECs) for prophylaxis that can be implemented into practice. Data sources A multidisciplinary group of experts from 12 Brazilian Medical Societies searched MEDLINE, Cochrane, and LILACS. Study selection Two experts independently classified the evidence for each RF by its scientific quality in a standardized manner. A risk-assessment algorithm was created based on the results of the review. Data synthesis Several VTE RFs have enough evidence to support RECs for prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients (eg, increasing age, heart failure, and stroke). Other factors are considered adjuncts of risk (eg, varices, obesity, and infections). According to the algorithm, hospitalized medical patients ≥40 years-old with decreased mobility, and ≥1 RFs should receive chemoprophylaxis with heparin, provided they don’t have contraindications. High prophylactic doses of unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight-heparin must be administered and maintained for 6–14 days. Conclusions A multidisciplinary group generated evidence-based RECs and an easy-to-use algorithm to facilitate VTE prophylaxis in medical patients. PMID:17969384

  5. Interactive Algorithms for Teaching and Learning Acute Medicine in the Network of Medical Faculties MEFANET

    PubMed Central

    Štourač, Petr; Komenda, Martin; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina; Gregor, Jakub; Hůlek, Richard; Smékalová, Olga; Křikava, Ivo; Štoudek, Roman; Dušek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical Faculties Network (MEFANET) has established itself as the authority for setting standards for medical educators in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, 2 independent countries with similar languages that once comprised a federation and that still retain the same curricular structure for medical education. One of the basic goals of the network is to advance medical teaching and learning with the use of modern information and communication technologies. Objective We present the education portal AKUTNE.CZ as an important part of the MEFANET’s content. Our focus is primarily on simulation-based tools for teaching and learning acute medicine issues. Methods Three fundamental elements of the MEFANET e-publishing system are described: (1) medical disciplines linker, (2) authentication/authorization framework, and (3) multidimensional quality assessment. A new set of tools for technology-enhanced learning have been introduced recently: Sandbox (works in progress), WikiLectures (collaborative content authoring), Moodle-MEFANET (central learning management system), and Serious Games (virtual casuistics and interactive algorithms). The latest development in MEFANET is designed for indexing metadata about simulation-based learning objects, also known as electronic virtual patients or virtual clinical cases. The simulations assume the form of interactive algorithms for teaching and learning acute medicine. An anonymous questionnaire of 10 items was used to explore students’ attitudes and interests in using the interactive algorithms as part of their medical or health care studies. Data collection was conducted over 10 days in February 2013. Results In total, 25 interactive algorithms in the Czech and English languages have been developed and published on the AKUTNE.CZ education portal to allow the users to test and improve their knowledge and skills in the field of acute medicine. In the feedback survey, 62 participants completed the online questionnaire (13

  6. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  7. A hybrid flower pollination algorithm based modified randomized location for multi-threshold medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Zhou, Yongquan; Zhao, Chengyan; Wu, Haizhou

    2015-01-01

    Multi-threshold image segmentation is a powerful image processing technique that is used for the preprocessing of pattern recognition and computer vision. However, traditional multilevel thresholding methods are computationally expensive because they involve exhaustively searching the optimal thresholds to optimize the objective functions. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a flower pollination algorithm with a randomized location modification. The proposed algorithm is used to find optimal threshold values for maximizing Otsu's objective functions with regard to eight medical grayscale images. When benchmarked against other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms, the new algorithm proves itself to be robust and effective through numerical experimental results including Otsu's objective values and standard deviations. PMID:26405895

  8. Risk Factors of Discharged Against Medical Advice among Adolescents Self-inflicted Injury and Attempted Suicide in the Korean Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Do Kyun; Jung, Jae Yun; Lee, Jin Hee; Kwak, Young Ho

    2015-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Korean adolescents. Many suicide attempting adolescents often are discharged against medical advice in the emergency department. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors for discharge against medical advice (DAMA) after self-inflicted injury or attempted suicide in the emergency department. We extracted data on adolescents (10-19 yr old) from the national emergency department information system; we used data from 2007 and 2011. A total of 6,394 adolescents visited EDs after self-inflicted injury or attempted suicide. Among these patients, the median age was 17 yr (Interquatile range, 15-18 yr), 83.2% were between 15-19 yr of age, and 63.3% were female. Poisoning was the most common method of attempted suicide, while hanging and fall were the most common methods of fatality. The rate of DAMA from the ED was 22.8%. Independent risk factors for DAMA included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.49), older age adolescents (OR, 1.96), residence in a metropolitan/large city area (OR, 1.49), and discharge at night (OR, 1.38). These risk factors should be considered in establishing management and counseling plans for patients discharged against medical advice by community services and EDs. PMID:26425044

  9. Novel adaptive distance relay algorithm considering the operation of 154 kV SFCL in Korean power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.; Song, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-11-01

    In general, SFCLs can have a negative impact on the protective coordination in power transmission system because of the variable impedance of SFCLs. It is very important to solve the protection problems of the power system for the successful application of SFCLs to real power transmission system. This paper reviews some protection problems which can be caused by the application of 154 kV SFCLs to power transmission systems in South Korea. And then we propose an adaptive protection algorithm to solve the problems. The adaptive protection algorithm uses the real time information of the SFCL system operation.

  10. Designing an Algorithm to Preserve Privacy for Medical Record Linkage With Error-Prone Data

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Doyel; Chen, Tingting; Khethavath, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Linking medical records across different medical service providers is important to the enhancement of health care quality and public health surveillance. In records linkage, protecting the patients’ privacy is a primary requirement. In real-world health care databases, records may well contain errors due to various reasons such as typos. Linking the error-prone data and preserving data privacy at the same time are very difficult. Existing privacy preserving solutions for this problem are only restricted to textual data. Objective To enable different medical service providers to link their error-prone data in a private way, our aim was to provide a holistic solution by designing and developing a medical record linkage system for medical service providers. Methods To initiate a record linkage, one provider selects one of its collaborators in the Connection Management Module, chooses some attributes of the database to be matched, and establishes the connection with the collaborator after the negotiation. In the Data Matching Module, for error-free data, our solution offered two different choices for cryptographic schemes. For error-prone numerical data, we proposed a newly designed privacy preserving linking algorithm named the Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm, that allows the error-prone data to be correctly matched if the distance between the two records is below a threshold. Results We designed and developed a comprehensive and user-friendly software system that provides privacy preserving record linkage functions for medical service providers, which meets the regulation of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. It does not require a third party and it is secure in that neither entity can learn the records in the other’s database. Moreover, our novel Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm implemented in this software can work well with error-prone numerical data. We theoretically proved the correctness and security of our Error

  11. Comparison of Outcomes after Device Closure and Medication Alone in Patients with Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jeonggeun; Kim, Sihoon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Park, Yae Min; Chung, Wook-Jin; Choi, Deok Young; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Hwang, Hee Young; Ahn, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of device closure and medical therapy in prevention of recurrent embolic event in the Korean population with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). Materials and Methods Consecutive 164 patients (men: 126 patients, mean age: 48.1 years, closure group: 72 patients, medical group: 92 patients) were enrolled. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or peripheral embolism. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups, except age, which was higher in the medical group (45.3±9.8 vs. 50.2±6.1, p<0.0001), and risk of paradoxical embolism score, which was higher in the closure group (6.2±1.6 vs. 5.7±1.3, p=0.026). On echocardiography, large right-to-left shunt (81.9% vs. 63.0%, p=0.009) and shunt at rest/septal hypermobility (61.1% vs. 23.9%, p<0.0001) were more common in the closure group. The device was successfully implanted in 71 (98.6%) patients. The primary end point occurred in 2 patients (2 TIA, 2.8%) in the closure group and in 2 (1 death, 1 stroke, 2.2%) in the medical group. Event-free survival rate did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Compared to medical therapy, device closure of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke did not show difference in reduction of recurrent embolic events in the real world's setting. However, considering high risk of echocardiographic findings in the closure group, further investigation of the role of PFO closure in the Asian population is needed. PMID:26996560

  12. A Simple and Portable Algorithm for Identifying Atrial Fibrillation in the Electronic Medical Record.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Shaan; Keaney, John; Ellinor, Patrick T; Lubitz, Steven A

    2016-01-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common and increases stroke risk and mortality. Many knowledge gaps remain with respect to practice patterns and outcomes. Electronic medical records (EMRs) may serve as powerful research tools if AF status can be properly ascertained. We sought to develop an algorithm for identifying subjects with and without AF in the EMR and compare it to previous methods. Using a hospital network EMR (n = 5,737,846), we randomly selected 8,200 subjects seen at a large academic medical center in January 2014 to derive and validate 7 AF classification schemas (4 cases and 3 controls) to construct a composite AF algorithm. In an independent sample of 172,138 subjects, we compared this algorithm against published AF classification methods. In total, we performed manual adjudication of AF in 700 subjects. Three AF schemas (AF1, AF2, and AF4) achieved positive predictive value (PPV) >0.9. Two control schemas achieved PPV >0.9 (control 1 and control 3). A combination algorithm AF1, AF2, and AF4 (PPV 88%; 8.2% classified) outperformed published classification methods including >1 outpatient International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code or 1 outpatient code with an electrocardiogram demonstrating AF (PPV 82%; 5.9% classified), ≥ 1 inpatient International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code or electrocardiogram demonstrating AF (PPV 88%; 6.1% classified), or the intersection of these (PPV 84%; 7.4% classified). When applied simultaneously, the case and control algorithms classified 98.4% of the cohort with zero disagreement. In conclusion, we derived a parsimonious and portable algorithm to identify subjects with and without AF with high sensitivity. If broadly applied, this algorithm can provide optimal power for EMR-based AF research. PMID:26684516

  13. Improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for android medical care IOT using modified parameters.

    PubMed

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Chiang, Yen-Chun

    2012-12-01

    This study examines wireless sensor network with real-time remote identification using the Android study of things (HCIOT) platform in community healthcare. An improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is proposed to efficiently enhance physiological multi-sensors data fusion measurement precision in the Internet of Things (IOT) system. Improved PSO (IPSO) includes: inertia weight factor design, shrinkage factor adjustment to allow improved PSO algorithm data fusion performance. The Android platform is employed to build multi-physiological signal processing and timely medical care of things analysis. Wireless sensor network signal transmission and Internet links allow community or family members to have timely medical care network services. PMID:22492176

  14. An innovative calibration based integral photography rendering algorithm for medical application and its evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guowen; Zhang, Xinran; Fan, Zhencheng; Liao, Hongen

    2015-08-01

    Autostereoscopic has long been proposed to fulfill medical display in image-guided surgery and clinical education to provide more intuitive position information of clinical interest zone thus improving surgery safety and accuracy. As one category of flexible autostereoscopic 3D display, computer generated integral photography (CGIP) has been studied in medical application by many researches for its convenience and cost-efficiency. However, IP still suffers from inaccurate light field reconstruction, which limits its practicality in surgery. In this paper, we propose and apply a flexible fish-eye model based micro lens array (MLA) distortion calibration method and pre-distorted retracing rendering algorithm to render elemental image array (EIA) of CGIP. Furthermore, we also evaluate light field of the proposed algorithm in depth cue, and signal noise ratio of IP images by phantom experiment. PMID:26737227

  15. Medical Journal Toughens Its Conflict-of-Interest Policy; South Korean Stem-Cell Scientist Admits Some Fabrications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine; Young, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The failure of at least seven medical researchers to disclose their financial ties to the makers of antidepressants prompted The Journal of the American Medical Association to toughen its conflict-of-interest policy. It also issued a correction of an article those researchers wrote warning of the potential dangers to pregnant women who stop using…

  16. Reconciling a geophysical model to data using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm: An application to the Yellow Sea-Korean Peninsula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Franz, Gregory A.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2006-03-01

    In an effort to build seismic models that are the most consistent with multiple data sets we have applied a new probabilistic inverse technique. This method uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to sample models from a prior distribution and test them against multiple data types to generate a posterior distribution. While computationally expensive, this approach has several advantages over deterministic models, notably the seamless reconciliation of different data types that constrain the model, the proper handling of both data and model uncertainties, and the ability to easily incorporate a variety of prior information, all in a straightforward, natural fashion. A real advantage of the technique is that it provides a more complete picture of the solution space. By mapping out the posterior probability density function, we can avoid simplistic assumptions about the model space and allow alternative solutions to be identified, compared, and ranked. Here we use this method to determine the crust and upper mantle structure of the Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula region. The model is parameterized as a series of seven layers in a regular latitude-longitude grid, each of which is characterized by thickness and seismic parameters (Vp, Vs, and density). We use surface wave dispersion and body wave traveltime data to drive the model. We find that when properly tuned (i.e., the Markov chains have had adequate time to fully sample the model space and the inversion has converged), the technique behaves as expected. The posterior model reflects the prior information at the edge of the model where there is little or no data to constrain adjustments, but the range of acceptable models is significantly reduced in data-rich regions, producing values of sediment thickness, crustal thickness, and upper mantle velocities consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the regional tectonic setting.

  17. The delay multiply and sum beamforming algorithm in ultrasound B-mode medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Caliano, Giosue; Magenes, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Most of ultrasound medical imaging systems currently on the market implement standard Delay and Sum (DAS) beamforming to form B-mode images. However, image resolution and contrast achievable with DAS are limited by the aperture size and by the operating frequency. For this reason, different beamformers have been presented in the literature that are mainly based on adaptive algorithms, which allow achieving higher performance at the cost of an increased computational complexity. In this paper, we propose the use of an alternative nonlinear beamforming algorithm for medical ultrasound imaging, which is called Delay Multiply and Sum (DMAS) and that was originally conceived for a RADAR microwave system for breast cancer detection. We modify the DMAS beamformer and test its performance on both simulated and experimentally collected linear-scan data, by comparing the Point Spread Functions, beampatterns, synthetic phantom and in vivo carotid artery images obtained with standard DAS and with the proposed algorithm. Results show that the DMAS beamformer outperforms DAS in both simulated and experimental trials and that the main improvement brought about by this new method is a significantly higher contrast resolution (i.e., narrower main lobe and lower side lobes), which turns out into an increased dynamic range and better quality of B-mode images. PMID:25420256

  18. Algorithms for Image Analysis and Combination of Pattern Classifiers with Application to Medical Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Harris

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to advanced pattern classifiers and machine learning models. Finally, these approaches are extended in multi-classifier models under the scope of Game Theory and optimum collective deci-sion, in order to produce efficient solutions for combining classifiers with minimum computational costs for advanced diagnostic systems. The material covered in this thesis is related to a total of 18 published papers, 6 in scientific journals and 12 in international conferences.

  19. Sustainability and shared smart and mutual--green growth (SSaM-GG) in Korean medical waste management.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Jeong, Seung-Ik

    2015-05-01

    Since medical insurance was introduced in the Republic of Korea, there have been several increases concerning medical waste. In order to solve these problems, we have applied life cycle assessment and life cycle cost. But these methods cannot be a perfect decision-making tool because they can only evaluate environmental and economic burdens. Thus, as one of many practical methods the shared smart and mutual - green growth considers economic growth, environmental protection, social justice, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism when applied to medical waste management in the Republic of Korea. Four systems were considered: incineration, incineration with heat recovery, steam sterilisation, and microwave disinfection. This research study aimed to assess pollutant emissions from treatment, transport, and disposal. Global warming potential, photochemical oxidant creation potential, acidifications potential, and human toxicity are considered to be environmental impacts. Total investment cost, transport cost, operation, and maintenance cost for the medical waste are considered in the economy evaluations though life cycle cost. The social development, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism are analysed through the Delphi-method conducted by expert groups related to medical waste. The result is that incineration with heat recovery is the best solution. However, when heat recovery is impossible, incineration without heat recovery becomes the next best choice. That is why 95% of medical waste is currently treated by both incineration and incineration with heat recovery within the Republic of Korea. PMID:25762566

  20. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  1. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ava Elizabeth; Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  2. Varying levels of difficulty index of skills-test items randomly selected by examinees on the Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to characterize the difficulty index of the items in the skills test components of the class I and II Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination (KEMTLE), which requires examinees to select items randomly. Methods: The results of 1,309 class I KEMTLE examinations and 1,801 class II KEMTLE examinations in 2013 were subjected to analysis. Items from the basic and advanced skills test sections of the KEMTLE were compared to determine whether some were significantly more difficult than others. Results: In the class I KEMTLE, all 4 of the items on the basic skills test showed significant variation in difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as 4 of the 5 items on the advanced skills test (P<0.05). In the class II KEMTLE, 4 of the 5 items on the basic skills test showed significantly different difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as all 3 of the advanced skills test items (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the skills test components of the class I and II KEMTLE, the procedure in which examinees randomly select questions should be revised to require examinees to respond to a set of fixed items in order to improve the reliability of the national licensing examination. PMID:26883810

  3. Forecasting of the development of professional medical equipment engineering based on neuro-fuzzy algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaganova, E. V.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the research is the development of evolutionary algorithms for assessments of promising scientific directions. The main attention of the present study is paid to the evaluation of the foresight possibilities for identification of technological peaks and emerging technologies in professional medical equipment engineering in Russia and worldwide on the basis of intellectual property items and neural network modeling. An automated information system consisting of modules implementing various classification methods for accuracy of the forecast improvement and the algorithm of construction of neuro-fuzzy decision tree have been developed. According to the study result, modern trends in this field will focus on personalized smart devices, telemedicine, bio monitoring, «e-Health» and «m-Health» technologies.

  4. Fast algorithm of 3D median filter for medical image despeckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chengyi; Hou, Jianhua; Gao, Zhirong; He, Xiang; Chen, Shaoping

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) median filtering is very useful to eliminate speckle noise from a medical imaging source, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and ultrasonic imaging. 3-D median filtering is characterized by its higher computation complexity. N 3(N 3-1)/2 comparison operations would be required for 3-D median filtering with N×N×N window if the conventional bubble-sorting algorithm is adopted. In this paper, an efficient fast algorithm for 3-D median filtering was presented, which considerably reduced the computation complexity for extracting the median of a 3-D data array. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed method could reduce the computation complexity of 3-D median filtering by 33%. It results in efficiently reducing the system delay of the 3-D median filter by software implementation, and the system cost and power consumption by hardware implementation.

  5. Visualization of large medical data sets using memory-optimized CPU and GPU algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Gundolf; Lehmann, Helko; Weese, Juergen

    2005-04-01

    With the evolution of medical scanners towards higher spatial resolutions, the sizes of image data sets are increasing rapidly. To profit from the higher resolution in medical applications such as 3D-angiography for a more efficient and precise diagnosis, high-performance visualization is essential. However, to make sure that the performance of a volume rendering algorithm scales with the performance of future computer architectures, technology trends need to be considered. The design of such scalable volume rendering algorithms remains challenging. One of the major trends in the development of computer architectures is the wider use of cache memory hierarchies to bridge the growing gap between the faster evolving processing power and the slower evolving memory access speed. In this paper we propose ways to exploit the standard PC"s cache memories supporting the main processors (CPU"s) and the graphics hardware (graphics processing unit, GPU), respectively, for computing Maximum Intensity Projections (MIPs). To this end, we describe a generic and flexible way to improve the cache efficiency of software ray casting algorithms and show by means of cache simulations, that it enables cache miss rates close to the theoretical optimum. For GPU-based rendering we propose a similar, brick-based technique to optimize the utilization of onboard caches and the transfer of data to the GPU on-board memory. All algorithms produce images of identical quality, which enables us to compare the performance of their implementations in a fair way without eventually trading quality for speed. Our comparison indicates that the proposed methods perform superior, in particular for large data sets.

  6. Cost benefit analysis of the radiological shielding of medical cyclotrons using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar

    2001-12-01

    Adequate radiation shielding is vital to the safe operation of modern commercial medical cyclotrons producing large yields of short-lived radioisotopes. The radiological shielding constitutes a significant capital investment for any new cyclotron-based radioisotope production facility; hence, the shielding design requires an accurate cost-benefit analysis often based on a complex multi-variant optimization technique. This paper demonstrates the application of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for the optimum design of the high yield target cave of a Medical Cyclotron radioisotope production facility based in Sydney, Australia. The GA is a novel optimization technique that mimics the Darwinian Evolution paradigm and is ideally suited to search for global optima in a large multi-dimensional solution space.

  7. An electronic health record driven algorithm to identify incident antidepressant medication users

    PubMed Central

    Bobo, William V; Pathak, Jyotishman; Kremers, Hilal Maradit; Yawn, Barbara P; Brue, Scott M; Stoppel, Cynthia J; Croarkin, Paul E; St Sauver, Jennifer; Frye, Mark A; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    Objective We validated an algorithm designed to identify new or prevalent users of antidepressant medications via population-based drug prescription records. Patients and methods We obtained population-based drug prescription records for the entire Olmsted County, Minnesota, population from 2011 to 2012 (N=149 629) using the existing electronic medical records linkage infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP). We selected electronically a random sample of 200 new antidepressant users stratified by age and sex. The algorithm required the exclusion of antidepressant use in the 6 months preceding the date of the first qualifying antidepressant prescription (index date). Medical records were manually reviewed and adjudicated to calculate the positive predictive value (PPV). We also manually reviewed the records of a random sample of 200 antihistamine users who did not meet the case definition of new antidepressant user to estimate the negative predictive value (NPV). Results 161 of the 198 subjects electronically identified as new antidepressant users were confirmed by manual record review (PPV 81.3%). Restricting the definition of new users to subjects who were prescribed typical starting doses of each agent for treating major depression in non-geriatric adults resulted in an increase in the PPV (90.9%). Extending the time windows with no antidepressant use preceding the index date resulted in only modest increases in PPV. The manual abstraction of medical records of 200 antihistamine users yielded an NPV of 98.5%. Conclusions Our study confirms that REP prescription records can be used to identify prevalent and incident users of antidepressants in the Olmsted County, Minnesota, population. PMID:24780720

  8. Developing an Algorithm to Identify History of Cancer Using Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christina L.; Feigelson, Heather S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction/Objective: The objective of this study was to develop an algorithm to identify Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) members with a history of cancer. Background: Tumor registries are used with high precision to identify incident cancer, but are not designed to capture prevalent cancer within a population. We sought to identify a cohort of adults with no history of cancer, and thus, we could not rely solely on the tumor registry. Methods: We included all KPCO members between the ages of 40–75 years who were continuously enrolled during 2013 (N=201,787). Data from the tumor registry, chemotherapy files, inpatient and outpatient claims were used to create an algorithm to identify members with a high likelihood of cancer. We validated the algorithm using chart review and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for occurrence of cancer. Findings: The final version of the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 100 percent and specificity of 84.6 percent for identifying cancer. If we relied on the tumor registry alone, 47 percent of those with a history of cancer would have been missed. Discussion: Using the tumor registry alone to identify a cohort of patients with prior cancer is not sufficient. In the final version of the algorithm, the sensitivity and PPV were improved when a diagnosis code for cancer was required to accompany oncology visits or chemotherapy administration. Conclusion: Electronic medical record (EMR) data can be used effectively in combination with data from the tumor registry to identify health plan members with a history of cancer. PMID:27195308

  9. Deblurring Computed Tomography Medical Images Using a Novel Amended Landweber Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Al-Ameen, Zohair; Sulong, Ghazali

    2015-09-01

    In computed tomography (CT), blurring occurs due to different hardware or software errors and hides certain medical details that are present in an image. Image blur is difficult to avoid in many circumstances and can frequently ruin an image. For this, many methods have been developed to reduce the blurring artifact from CT images. The problems with these methods are the high implementation time, noise amplification and boundary artifacts. Hence, this article presents an amended version of the iterative Landweber algorithm to attain artifact-free boundaries and less noise amplification in a faster application time. In this study, both synthetic and real blurred CT images are used to validate the proposed method properly. Similarly, the quality of the processed synthetic images is measured using the feature similarity index, structural similarity and visual information fidelity in pixel domain metrics. Finally, the results obtained from intensive experiments and performance evaluations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, which has potential as a new approach in medical image processing. PMID:26199211

  10. Classification of Medical Datasets Using SVMs with Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms Based on Endocrine-Based Particle Swarm Optimization and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Cheng; Hsieh, Yi-Hsiu

    2015-10-01

    The classification and analysis of data is an important issue in today's research. Selecting a suitable set of features makes it possible to classify an enormous quantity of data quickly and efficiently. Feature selection is generally viewed as a problem of feature subset selection, such as combination optimization problems. Evolutionary algorithms using random search methods have proven highly effective in obtaining solutions to problems of optimization in a diversity of applications. In this study, we developed a hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on endocrine-based particle swarm optimization (EPSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms in conjunction with a support vector machine (SVM) for the selection of optimal feature subsets for the classification of datasets. The results of experiments using specific UCI medical datasets demonstrate that the accuracy of the proposed hybrid evolutionary algorithm is superior to that of basic PSO, EPSO and ABC algorithms, with regard to classification accuracy using subsets with a reduced number of features. PMID:26289628

  11. Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Medical Data: Improved Self-Adaptive Niche Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Jing; Yan, Molei; Cai, Guolong; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of medical technology, more and more parameters are produced to describe the human physiological condition, forming high-dimensional clinical datasets. In clinical analysis, data are commonly utilized to establish mathematical models and carry out classification. High-dimensional clinical data will increase the complexity of classification, which is often utilized in the models, and thus reduce efficiency. The Niche Genetic Algorithm (NGA) is an excellent algorithm for dimensionality reduction. However, in the conventional NGA, the niche distance parameter is set in advance, which prevents it from adjusting to the environment. In this paper, an Improved Niche Genetic Algorithm (INGA) is introduced. It employs a self-adaptive niche-culling operation in the construction of the niche environment to improve the population diversity and prevent local optimal solutions. The INGA was verified in a stratification model for sepsis patients. The results show that, by applying INGA, the feature dimensionality of datasets was reduced from 77 to 10 and that the model achieved an accuracy of 92% in predicting 28-day death in sepsis patients, which is significantly higher than other methods. PMID:26649071

  12. Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction based on improved live wire segmentation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Jiang, Zhengang; He, Wei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Yang, Huamin

    2008-03-01

    Three-dimensional image reconstruction by volume rendering has two problems: time-consuming and low precision. During the diagnosis procedure, some detailed organ tissue is the interest to doctors, so the reconstructed two-dimensional images are pre-processed before three-dimensional reconstruction including disturbance removing and precise segmentation, to obtain Region-Of-Interest (ROI) based on which three-dimensional reconstruction carries through, that can decrease the complexity of time and space. By this, Live Wire segmentation algorithm model for medical image is improved to gain exact edge coordinate for the image segmentation with interior details by improved filling algorithm. Segmented images with object details only are regarded as input to realize volume rendering by ray casting tracking algorithm. Because the needless organs have been filtered, the disturbance on interested objects for doctors is reduced. Meanwhile, generally speaking, these needed organs left are less proportion in images. So it reduces data amount of volume rendering, and improves the speed of three-dimensional reconstruction.

  13. Edge extraction of CT medical image based on wavelet transform algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Xinzheng; Lai, Weidong

    2011-06-01

    Since computer tomography (CT) image has been widely applied in clinic diagnostics, while for many applications the information directly provided by CT images is incomplete corrupted by noise or instrument defect, there has great demand to further the processing methods for improving the CT image quality. Among all image features, the edge profile of clinic focus has obvious influence on accurately translating CT image. In this paper, the wavelet filtering algorithm based on modulus maximum method is put forward to extract and enhance the CT image edges. Edges in the brain lobe CT image can be outlined after wavelet transform, during which the wavelet assigned as the first order derivative of Gauss function. Further manipulation through maximum threshold checking to the modulus have been attenuated the pseudo-edges. After segmented with the original CT image, the edge structure has been distinctly enhanced, and high contrast is achieved between the brain lobe microstructure and the artificially established edges. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than the common first order differential operator, for the latter it even deteriorates the edge features. The algorithm proposed in this article can be integrated in medical image analyzing software to obtain higher accuracy for symptom interpretation.

  14. An attribute weight assignment and particle swarm optimization algorithm for medical database classifications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Chann; Lin, Jyun-Jie; Liu, Chen-Hao

    2012-09-01

    In this research, a hybrid model is developed by integrating a case-based reasoning approach and a particle swarm optimization model for medical data classification. Two data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository, i.e., Liver Disorders Data Set and Breast Cancer Wisconsin (Diagnosis), are employed for benchmark test. Initially a case-based reasoning method is applied to preprocess the data set thus a weight vector for each feature is derived. A particle swarm optimization model is then applied to construct a decision-making system for diseases identified. The PSO algorithm starts by partitioning the data set into a relatively large number of clusters to reduce the effects of initial conditions and then reducing the number of clusters into two. The average forecasting accuracy for breast cancer of CBRPSO model is 97.4% and for liver disorders is 76.8%. The proposed case-based particle swarm optimization model is able to produce more accurate and comprehensible results for medical experts in medical diagnosis. PMID:21194784

  15. Topology correction of segmented medical images using a fast marching algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Dzung L

    2007-11-01

    We present here a new method for correcting the topology of objects segmented from medical images. Whereas previous techniques alter a surface obtained from a binary segmentation of the object, our technique can be applied directly to the image intensities of a probabilistic or fuzzy segmentation, thereby propagating the topology for all isosurfaces of the object. From an analysis of topological changes and critical points in implicit surfaces, we derive a topology propagation algorithm that enforces any desired topology using a fast marching technique. The method has been applied successfully to the correction of the cortical gray matter/white matter interface in segmented brain images and is publicly released as a software plug-in for the MIPAV package. PMID:17942182

  16. SVM algorithm based on wavelet kernel function for medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian; Wei, Fang

    2009-10-01

    Along with more demand for 3D reconstruction, quantitative analysis and visualization, the more precise segmentation of medical image is required, especially MR head image. But the segmentation of MRI will be much more complex and difficult because of indistinct boundaries between brain tissues due to their overlapping and penetrating with each other, intrinsic uncertainty of MR images induced by heterogeneity of magnetic field, partial volume effect and noise. After studying the kernel function conditions of support vector, we constructed wavelet SVM algorithm based on wavelet kernel function. Its convergence and commonality as well as generalization are analyzed. The comparative experiments are made using the different number of training samples and the different scans, and it .The wavelet SVM can be extended easily and experiment results show that the SVM classifier offers lower computational time and better classification precision and it has good function approximation ability.

  17. Optimum wavelet based masking for the contrast enhancement of medical images using enhanced cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Anitha, J

    2016-04-01

    Unsharp masking techniques are a prominent approach in contrast enhancement. Generalized masking formulation has static scale value selection, which limits the gain of contrast. In this paper, we propose an Optimum Wavelet Based Masking (OWBM) using Enhanced Cuckoo Search Algorithm (ECSA) for the contrast improvement of medical images. The ECSA can automatically adjust the ratio of nest rebuilding, using genetic operators such as adaptive crossover and mutation. First, the proposed contrast enhancement approach is validated quantitatively using Brain Web and MIAS database images. Later, the conventional nest rebuilding of cuckoo search optimization is modified using Adaptive Rebuilding of Worst Nests (ARWN). Experimental results are analyzed using various performance matrices, and our OWBM shows improved results as compared with other reported literature. PMID:26945462

  18. Treating depression within the HIV "medical home": a guided algorithm for antidepressant management by HIV clinicians.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julie L; Gaynes, Bradley N; McGuinness, Teena; Modi, Riddhi; Willig, James; Pence, Brian W

    2012-11-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) suffer increased depression prevalence compared to the general population, which negatively impacts antiretroviral (ART) adherence and HIV-related outcomes leading to morbidity and mortality. Yet depression in this population often goes undiagnosed and untreated. The current project sought to design an evidence-based approach to integrate depression care in HIV clinics. The model chosen, measurement-based care (MBC), is based on existing guidelines and the largest randomized trial of depression treatment. MBC was adapted to clinical realities of HIV care for use in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of depression management at three academic HIV clinics. The adaptation accounts for drug-drug interactions critical to ongoing ART effectiveness and can be delivered by a multidisciplinary team of nonmental health providers. A treatment algorithm was developed that enables clinically supervised, nonphysician depression care managers (DCMs) to track and monitor antidepressant tolerability and treatment response while supporting nonpsychiatric prescribers with antidepressant choice and dosing. Quality of care is ensured through weekly supervision of DCMs by psychiatrists. Key areas of flexibility that have been important in implementation have included flexibility in timing of assessments, accommodation of divergence between algorithm recommendations and provider decisions, and accommodation of delays in implementing treatment plans. This adaptation of the MBC model to HIV care has accounted for critical antidepressant-antiretroviral interactions and facilitated the provision of quality antidepressant management within the HIV medical home. PMID:23134559

  19. A novel hybrid reconstruction algorithm for first generation incoherent scatter CT (ISCT) of large objects with potential medical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Alpuche Aviles, Jorge E; Pistorius, Stephen; Gordon, Richard; Elbakri, Idris A

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a first generation incoherent scatter CT (ISCT) hybrid (analytic-iterative) reconstruction algorithm for accurate ρ{e}imaging of objects with clinically relevant sizes. The algorithm reconstructs quantitative images of ρ{e} within a few iterations, avoiding the challenges of optimization based reconstruction algorithms while addressing the limitations of current analytical algorithms. A 4π detector is conceptualized in order to address the issue of directional dependency and is then replaced with a ring of detectors which detect a constant fraction of the scattered photons. The ISCT algorithm corrects for the attenuation of photons using a limited number of iterations and filtered back projection (FBP) for image reconstruction. This results in a hybrid reconstruction algorithm that was tested with sinograms generated by Monte Carlo (MC) and analytical (AN) simulations. Results show that the ISCT algorithm is weakly dependent on the ρ{e} initial estimate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm reconstruct ρ{e} images with a mean error of -1% ± 3% for the AN model and from -6% to -8% for the MC model. Finally, the algorithm is capable of reconstructing qualitatively good images even in the presence of multiple scatter. The proposed algorithm would be suitable for in-vivo medical imaging as long as practical limitations can be addressed. PMID:21422588

  20. Involuntary motion tracking for medical dynamic infrared thermography using a template-based algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Cila

    2013-01-01

    In medical applications, Dynamic Infrared (IR) Thermography is used to detect the temporal variation of the skin temperature. Dynamic Infrared Imaging first introduces a thermal challenge such as cooling on the human skin, and then a sequence of hundreds of consecutive frames is acquired after the removal of the thermal challenge. As a result, by analyzing the temporal variation of the skin temperature over the image sequence, the thermal signature of skin abnormality can be examined. However, during the acquisition of dynamic IR imaging, the involuntary movements of patients are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of diagnosis. In this study, based on the template-based algorithm, a tracking approach is proposed to compensate the motion artifact. The affine warping model is adopted to estimate the motion parameter of the image template, and then the Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the warping function. In addition, the weighting mask is also incorporated in the computation to ensure the robustness of the algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the approach, two sets of IR image sequences of a subject’s hand are analyzed: the steady-state image sequence, in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment, and the thermal recovery image sequence, which is acquired after cooling is applied on the skin for 60 seconds. By selecting the target region in the first frame as the template, satisfactory tracking results were obtained in both experimental trials, and the robustness of the approach can be effectively ensured in the recovery trial. PMID:24392205

  1. A genetic algorithm enabled ensemble for unsupervised medical term extraction from clinical letters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Chung, Bo Chuen; Wang, Rui; Ng, Jonathon; Morlet, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rapid global movement towards electronic health records, clinical letters written in unstructured natural languages are still the preferred form of inter-practitioner communication about patients. These letters, when archived over a long period of time, provide invaluable longitudinal clinical details on individual and populations of patients. In this paper we present three unsupervised approaches, sequential pattern mining (PrefixSpan); frequency linguistic based C-Value; and keyphrase extraction from co-occurrence graphs (TextRank), to automatically extract single and multi-word medical terms without domain-specific knowledge. Because each of the three approaches focuses on different aspects of the language feature space, we propose a genetic algorithm to learn the best parameters of linearly integrating the three extractors for optimal performance against domain expert annotations. Around 30,000 clinical letters sent over the past decade from ophthalmology specialists to general practitioners at an eye clinic are anonymised as the corpus to evaluate the effectiveness of the ensemble against individual extractors. With minimal annotation, the ensemble achieves an average F-measure of 65.65 % when considering only complex medical terms, and a F-measure of 72.47 % if we take single word terms (i.e. unigrams) into consideration, markedly better than the three term extraction techniques when used alone. PMID:26664724

  2. Validation of electronic medical record-based phenotyping algorithms: results and lessons learned from the eMERGE network

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Katherine M; Peissig, Peggy L; Kho, Abel Ngo; Bielinski, Suzette J; Berg, Richard L; Choudhary, Vidhu; Basford, Melissa; Chute, Christopher G; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Li, Rongling; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Rasmussen, Luke V; Spangler, Leslie; Denny, Joshua C

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic studies require precise phenotype definitions, but electronic medical record (EMR) phenotype data are recorded inconsistently and in a variety of formats. Objective To present lessons learned about validation of EMR-based phenotypes from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) studies. Materials and methods The eMERGE network created and validated 13 EMR-derived phenotype algorithms. Network sites are Group Health, Marshfield Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Northwestern University, and Vanderbilt University. Results By validating EMR-derived phenotypes we learned that: (1) multisite validation improves phenotype algorithm accuracy; (2) targets for validation should be carefully considered and defined; (3) specifying time frames for review of variables eases validation time and improves accuracy; (4) using repeated measures requires defining the relevant time period and specifying the most meaningful value to be studied; (5) patient movement in and out of the health plan (transience) can result in incomplete or fragmented data; (6) the review scope should be defined carefully; (7) particular care is required in combining EMR and research data; (8) medication data can be assessed using claims, medications dispensed, or medications prescribed; (9) algorithm development and validation work best as an iterative process; and (10) validation by content experts or structured chart review can provide accurate results. Conclusions Despite the diverse structure of the five EMRs of the eMERGE sites, we developed, validated, and successfully deployed 13 electronic phenotype algorithms. Validation is a worthwhile process that not only measures phenotype performance but also strengthens phenotype algorithm definitions and enhances their inter-institutional sharing. PMID:23531748

  3. Early outcome of the Korean Diagnosis-Related Groups payment system for appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Yun, Keong Won; Heo, Seung Chul; Ahn, Young Joon; Hwang, Ki-Tae; Lee, Hae Won; Koo, Do Hoon; Ko, Eunyoung; Ahn, Hye Seong; Shin, Rumi; Chung, Jung Kee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The implementation of the Korean diagnosis-related groups (DRG) payment system has been recently introduced in selected several diseases including appendectomy in Korea. Here, we report the early outcomes with regard to clinical aspects and medical costs of the Korean DRG system for appendectomies in Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center throughout comparing before and after introduction of DRG system. Methods The DRG system was applied since January 2013 at our institute. After the DRG system, we strategically designed and applied our algorithm for the treatment of probable appendicitis. We reviewed the patients who were treated with a procedure of appendectomy for probable appendicitis between July 2012 and June 2013, divided two groups based on before and after the application of DRG system, and compared clinical outcomes and medical costs. Results Total 416 patients were included (204 patients vs. 212 patients in the group before vs. after DRG). Shorter hospital stays (2.98 ± 1.77 days vs. 3.82 ± 1.84 days, P < 0.001) were found in the group after DRG. Otherwise, there were no significant differences in the perioperative outcomes and medical costs including costs for first hospitalization and operation, costs for follow-up after discharge, frequency of visits of out-patient's clinic or Emergency Department or rehospitalization. Conclusion In the Korean DRG system for appendectomy, there were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes and medical costs, except shorter hospital stay. Further studies should be continued to evaluate the current Korean DRG system for appendectomy and further modifications and supplementations are needed in the future. PMID:25741491

  4. McGill algorithm for precipitation nowcasting by lagrangian extrapolation (MAPLE) applied to the South Korean radar network. Part I: Sensitivity studies of the Variational Echo Tracking (VET) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellon, Aldo; Zawadzki, Isztar; Kilambi, Alamelu; Lee, Hee Choon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Gyuwon

    2010-08-01

    A Variational Echo Tracking (VET) technique has been applied to four months of archived data from the South Korean radar network in order to examine the influence of the various user-selectable parameters on the skill of the resulting 20-min to 4-h nowcasts. The latter are computed over a (512 × 512) array at 2-km resolution. After correcting the original algorithm to take into account the motion of precipitation across the boundaries of such a smaller radar network, we concluded that the set of default input parameters initially assumed is very close to the optimum combination. Decreasing to (5 sx 5) or increasing to (50 × 50) the default vector density of (25 × 25), using two or three maps for velocity determination, varying the relative weights for the constraints of conservation of reflectivity and of the smoothing of the velocity vectors, and finally the application of temporal smoothing all had only marginal effects on the skill of the forecasts. The relatively small sensitivity to significant variations of the VET default parameters is a direct consequence of the fact that the major source of the loss in forecast skill cannot be attributed to errors in the forecast motion, but to the unpredictable nature of the storm growth and decay. Changing the time interval between maps, from 20 to 10 minutes, and significantly increasing the reflectivity threshold from 15 to 30 dBZ had a more noticeable reduction on the forecast skill. Comparisons with the Eulerian "zero velocity" forecast and with a "single" vector forecast have also been performed in order to determine the accrued skill of the VET algorithm. Because of the extensive stratiform nature of the precipitation areas affecting the Korean peninsula, the increased skill is not as large as may have been anticipated. This can be explained by the greater extent of the precipitation systems relative to the size of the radar coverage domain.

  5. Severe sepsis and septic shock in pre-hospital emergency medicine: survey results of medical directors of emergency medical services concerning antibiotics, blood cultures and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Casu, Sebastian; Häske, David

    2016-06-01

    Delayed antibiotic treatment for patients in severe sepsis and septic shock decreases the probability of survival. In this survey, medical directors of different emergency medical services (EMS) in Germany were asked if they are prepared for pre-hospital sepsis therapy with antibiotics or special algorithms to evaluate the individual preparations of the different rescue areas for the treatment of patients with this infectious disease. The objective of the survey was to obtain a general picture of the current status of the EMS with respect to rapid antibiotic treatment for sepsis. A total of 166 medical directors were invited to complete a short survey on behalf of the different rescue service districts in Germany via an electronic cover letter. Of the rescue districts, 25.6 % (n = 20) stated that they keep antibiotics on EMS vehicles. In addition, 2.6 % carry blood cultures on the vehicles. The most common antibiotic is ceftriaxone (third generation cephalosporin). In total, 8 (10.3 %) rescue districts use an algorithm for patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Although the German EMS is an emergency physician-based rescue system, special opportunities in the form of antibiotics on emergency physician vehicles are missing. Simultaneously, only 10.3 % of the rescue districts use a special algorithm for sepsis therapy. Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock do not appear to be prioritized as highly as these deadly diseases should be in the pre-hospital setting. PMID:26719078

  6. An algorithm for calculating exam quality as a basis for performance-based allocation of funds at medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Kirschstein, Timo; Wolters, Alexander; Lenz, Jan-Hendrik; Fröhlich, Susanne; Hakenberg, Oliver; Kundt, Günther; Darmüntzel, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Altiner, Attila; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The amendment of the Medical Licensing Act (ÄAppO) in Germany in 2002 led to the introduction of graded assessments in the clinical part of medical studies. This, in turn, lent new weight to the importance of written tests, even though the minimum requirements for exam quality are sometimes difficult to reach. Introducing exam quality as a criterion for the award of performance-based allocation of funds is expected to steer the attention of faculty members towards more quality and perpetuate higher standards. However, at present there is a lack of suitable algorithms for calculating exam quality. Methods: In the spring of 2014, the students‘ dean commissioned the „core group“ for curricular improvement at the University Medical Center in Rostock to revise the criteria for the allocation of performance-based funds for teaching. In a first approach, we developed an algorithm that was based on the results of the most common type of exam in medical education, multiple choice tests. It included item difficulty and discrimination, reliability as well as the distribution of grades achieved. Results: This algorithm quantitatively describes exam quality of multiple choice exams. However, it can also be applied to exams involving short assay questions and the OSCE. It thus allows for the quantitation of exam quality in the various subjects and – in analogy to impact factors and third party grants – a ranking among faculty. Conclusion: Our algorithm can be applied to all test formats in which item difficulty, the discriminatory power of the individual items, reliability of the exam and the distribution of grades are measured. Even though the content validity of an exam is not considered here, we believe that our algorithm is suitable as a general basis for performance-based allocation of funds. PMID:27275509

  7. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469078

  8. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469139

  9. Postpartum nursing for Korean mothers.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, J U

    1996-01-01

    Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400

  10. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. PMID:25064423

  11. Parameterized algorithms for quantitative differentials in spectrally equivalent medical diagnostic x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative equivalence of spectra transmitted by two different elemental filters require a good match in terms of shape and size over the entire energy range of 0-150 keV used in medical diagnostic radiology. However, the photoelectric absorptions and Compton scattering involved in the interaction of x rays with matter at these relatively low photon energies differ in a nonuniform manner with energy and atomic number. By careful choice of thicknesses for filter materials with an atomic number between 12 and 39, when compared with aluminum, it is possible to obtain transmitted beams of the same shape (quality) but not of the same size (quantity). In this paper, calculations have been carried out for the matching of the shapes and sizes of beams transmitted through specified thicknesses of aluminium filter and spectrally equivalent thicknesses of other filter materials (different from aluminium) using FORTRAN source codes traceable to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM), College Park, MD, USA. Parametrized algorithms for the evaluation of quantitative differentials (deficit or surplus) in radiation output (namely, photon fluence, exposure, kerma, energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose) from these transmitted spectrally equivalent beams were developed. These differentials range between 1%, and 4% at 1 mm Al filtration and between 8%, and 25% for filtration of 6 mm Al for different filter materials in comparison with aluminum. Also developed were models for factors for converting measures of photon fluence, exposure-area product, (EAP), and kerma-area product (KAP) to risk related quantities such as energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose from the spectrally equivalent beams. The thicknesses of other filter materials that are spectrally equivalent to given thicknesses of aluminum filter were characterized using polynomial functions. The fact that the use of equivalent spectra in radiological practice can

  12. Parameterized algorithms for quantitative differentials in spectrally equivalent medical diagnostic x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-06-15

    Qualitative and quantitative equivalence of spectra transmitted by two different elemental filters require a good match in terms of shape and size over the entire energy range of 0-150 keV used in medical diagnostic radiology. However, the photoelectric absorptions and Compton scattering involved in the interaction of x rays with matter at these relatively low photon energies differ in a nonuniform manner with energy and atomic number. By careful choice of thicknesses for filter materials with an atomic number between 12 and 39, when compared with aluminum, it is possible to obtain transmitted beams of the same shape (quality) but not of the same size (quantity). In this paper, calculations have been carried out for the matching of the shapes and sizes of beams transmitted through specified thicknesses of aluminium filter and spectrally equivalent thicknesses of other filter materials (different from aluminium) using FORTRAN source codes traceable to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM), College Park, MD, USA. Parametrized algorithms for the evaluation of quantitative differentials (deficit or surplus) in radiation output (namely, photon fluence, exposure, kerma, energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose) from these transmitted spectrally equivalent beams were developed. These differentials range between 1%, and 4% at 1 mm Al filtration and between 8%, and 25% for filtration of 6 mm Al for different filter materials in comparison with aluminum. Also developed were models for factors for converting measures of photon fluence, exposure-area product, (EAP), and kerma-area product (KAP) to risk related quantities such as energy imparted, absorbed dose, and effective dose from the spectrally equivalent beams. The thicknesses of other filter materials that are spectrally equivalent to given thicknesses of aluminum filter were characterized using polynomial functions. The fact that the use of equivalent spectra in radiological practice can

  13. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  14. Development of the neural network algorithm projecting system Neural Architecture and its application in combining medical expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeew, Sergey; Eliseev, Vladimir; Tcherkassov, Oleg; Birukow, Valentin; Orbachevskyi, Leonid; Shamsutdinov, Uriy

    1998-04-01

    Some problems of creation of medical expert systems and the ways of their overcoming using artificial neural networks are discussed. The instrumental system for projecting neural network algorithms `Neural Architector', developed by the authors, is described. It allows to perform effective modeling of artificial neural networks and to analyze their work. The example of the application of the `Neural Architector' system in composing an expert system for diagnostics of pulmonological diseases is shown.

  15. A joint watermarking/encryption algorithm for verifying medical image integrity and authenticity in both encrypted and spatial domains.

    PubMed

    Bouslimi, D; Coatrieux, G; Roux, Ch

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new joint watermarking/encryption algorithm for the purpose of verifying the reliability of medical images in both encrypted and spatial domains. It combines a substitutive watermarking algorithm, the quantization index modulation (QIM), with a block cipher algorithm, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), in CBC mode of operation. The proposed solution gives access to the outcomes of the image integrity and of its origins even though the image is stored encrypted. Experimental results achieved on 8 bits encoded Ultrasound images illustrate the overall performances of the proposed scheme. By making use of the AES block cipher in CBC mode, the proposed solution is compliant with or transparent to the DICOM standard. PMID:22256213

  16. [An improved fast algorithm for ray casting volume rendering of medical images].

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Wang, Huina; Tian, Zhiliang

    2006-10-01

    Ray casting algorithm can obtain better quality images in volume rendering, however, it presents some problems such as powerful computing capacity and slow rendering velocity. Therefore, a new fast algorithm of ray casting volume rendering is proposed in this paper. This algorithm reduces matrix computation by the matrix transformation characteristics of re-sampling points in two coordinate system, so re-sampled computational process is accelerated. By extending the Bresenham algorithm to three dimension and utilizing boundary box technique, this algorithm avoids the sampling in empty voxel and greatly improves the efficiency of ray casting. The experiment results show that the improved acceleration algorithm can produce the required quality images, at the same time reduces the total operations remarkably, and speeds up the volume rendering. PMID:17121341

  17. Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010. Data were followed up from the initiation of treatment with ADHD medications in 2010 to December 31, 2013. Discontinuation rates for 4 ADHD medications in our sample ranged from 97.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 99.4% for atomoxetine using refill gap more than 30 days and from 56.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 62.3% for extended-release methylphenidate using refill gap more than 60 days. In the number of discontinued, we found significant differences among medications using refill gap more than 30 days. Among 4 ADHD medications, extended-release methylphenidate and atomoxetine had more days than immediate-release methylphenidate and osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate. In logistic regression analyses, extended-release methylphenidate, osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate, and atomoxetine showed less discontinuation compared to immediate-release methylphenidate group when a refill gap more than 30 days was used. In logistic regression analysis of adherence, we could not find any differences among 4 medication types. We suggest that the utilization patterns should be assessed regularly in order to improve future outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:27478341

  18. Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database.

    PubMed

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Hwang, Jun-Won; Kwak, Young-Sook; Joung, Yoo Sook; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Bongseog; Sohn, Seok Han; Chung, Un Sun; Yang, Jaewon; Hong, Minha; Bahn, Geon Ho; Choi, Hyung Yun; Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Yeon Jung

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010. Data were followed up from the initiation of treatment with ADHD medications in 2010 to December 31, 2013. Discontinuation rates for 4 ADHD medications in our sample ranged from 97.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 99.4% for atomoxetine using refill gap more than 30 days and from 56.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 62.3% for extended-release methylphenidate using refill gap more than 60 days. In the number of discontinued, we found significant differences among medications using refill gap more than 30 days. Among 4 ADHD medications, extended-release methylphenidate and atomoxetine had more days than immediate-release methylphenidate and osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate. In logistic regression analyses, extended-release methylphenidate, osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate, and atomoxetine showed less discontinuation compared to immediate-release methylphenidate group when a refill gap more than 30 days was used. In logistic regression analysis of adherence, we could not find any differences among 4 medication types. We suggest that the utilization patterns should be assessed regularly in order to improve future outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:27478341

  19. Evaluation of effective dose conversion coefficients for Korean adults during medical x-ray examinations up to 150 keV through comparison with ICRP Publication 74 and ICRP Publication 116.

    PubMed

    Keum, Mihyun; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Sung Ho; Ahn, Seung Do

    2014-03-01

    A Monte Carlo program for calculating organ doses for patients undergoing medical x-ray examination (PCXMC) was used to calculate effective dose conversion coefficients for Korean adults. Two sets of effective dose results were calculated based on tissue weighting factors recommended in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 103 for monochromatic energy photons of 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100 and 150 keV. The results were obtained for monoenergetic photons, since effective dose conversion coefficients recommended in ICRP Publications 74 and 116 were given for monochromatic energies, thereby enabling the comparison of our result to those suggested by the ICRP publications. The areas of comparison include: to observe effects due to changes in tissue weighting factors, modification within Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) phantoms and differences in phantom types. The phantom employed in the PCXMC program is a modified version of the phantom used in ICRP Publication 74, with additional organs that were added in order to take into account the updated tissue weighting factors given in ICRP Publication 103. Both use MIRD phantoms but our study modified the phantom size to the average physical condition of Korean adults, while ICRP Publication 74 uses the phantom size of the reference man defined in ICRP Publication 23. On the other hand, the effective dose suggested in ICRP 116 was calculated using an entirely different type of phantom: a voxel phantom with the size of reference man. Although significant differences were observed for certain organ doses in the lateral beam directions, differences in the effective doses were within 5% for the anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) directions, and within 16% in lateral directions when tissue weighting factors were applied and the variations were adjusted for all three comparisons. The results show that calculation of effective doses for Korean adults

  20. Knowledge Discovery in Medical Mining by using Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivathsa, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    Medical Data mining could be thought of as the search for relationships and patterns within the medical data, which facilitates the acquisition of useful knowledge for effective medical diagnosis. Consequently, the predictability of disease will become more effective and the early detection of disease certainly facilitates an increased exposure to required patient care with focused treatment, economic feasibility and improved cure rates. So, the present investigation is carried on medical data(PIMA) using DM and GA based Neural Network technique and the results predict that the methodology is not only reliable but also helps in furthering the scope of the subject.

  1. Analyzing the medical image by using clustering algorithms through segmentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Papendra; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-12-01

    Basic aim of our study is to analyze the medical image. In computer vision, segmentationRefers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple regions. The goal ofSegmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something thatIs more meaningful and easier to analyze. Image segmentation is typically used to locateObjects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images.There is a lot of scope of the analysis that we have done in our project; our analysis couldBe used for the purpose of monitoring the medical image. Medical imaging refers to theTechniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) forClinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) orMedical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function).As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporatesRadiology (in the wider sense), radiological sciences, endoscopy, (medical) thermography, Medical photography and microscopy (e.g. for human pathological investigations).Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images.

  2. Analyzing the medical image by using clustering algorithms through segmentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Papendra; Kumar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Basic aim of our study is to analyze the medical image. In computer vision, segmentationRefers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple regions. The goal ofSegmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something thatIs more meaningful and easier to analyze. Image segmentation is typically used to locateObjects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images.There is a lot of scope of the analysis that we have done in our project; our analysis couldBe used for the purpose of monitoring the medical image. Medical imaging refers to theTechniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) forClinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) orMedical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function).As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporatesRadiology (in the wider sense), radiological sciences, endoscopy, (medical) thermography, Medical photography and microscopy (e.g. for human pathological investigations).Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images.

  3. The job analysis of Korean nurses as a strategy to improve the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at characterizing Korean nurses’ occupational responsibilities to apply the results for improvement of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination. Methods: First, the contents of nursing job were defined based on a focus group interview of 15 nurses. Developing a Curriculum (DACOM) method was used to examine those results and produce the questionnaire by 13 experts. After that, the questionnaire survey to 5,065 hospital nurses was done. Results: The occupational responsibilities of nurses were characterized as involving 8 duties, 49 tasks, and 303 task elements. Those 8 duties are nursing management and professional development, safety and infection control, the management of potential risk factors, basic nursing and caring, the maintenance of physiological integrity, medication and parenteral treatments, socio-psychological integrity, and the maintenance and improvement of health. Conclusion: The content of Korean Nursing Licensing Examination should be improved based on 8 duties and 49 tasks of the occupational responsibilities of Korean nurses. PMID:27270987

  4. Algorithm for the resuscitation of traumatic cardiac arrest patients in a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Survival rates following traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) are known to be poor but resuscitation is not universally futile. There are a number of potentially reversible causes to TCA and a well-defined group of survivors. There are distinct differences in the pathophysiology between medical cardiac arrests and TCA. The authors present some of the key differences and evidence related to resuscitation in TCA, and suggest a separate algorithm for the management of out-of-hospital TCA attended by a highly trained physician and paramedic team. PMID:23510195

  5. Plane-based sampling for ray casting algorithm in sequential medical images.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lili; Chen, Shengyong; Shao, Yan; Gu, Zichun

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a plane-based sampling method to improve the traditional Ray Casting Algorithm (RCA) for the fast reconstruction of a three-dimensional biomedical model from sequential images. In the novel method, the optical properties of all sampling points depend on the intersection points when a ray travels through an equidistant parallel plan cluster of the volume dataset. The results show that the method improves the rendering speed at over three times compared with the conventional algorithm and the image quality is well guaranteed. PMID:23424608

  6. Edge preserved enhancement of medical images using adaptive fusion-based denoising by shearlet transform and total variation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deep; Anand, Radhey Shyam; Tyagi, Barjeev

    2013-10-01

    Edge preserved enhancement is of great interest in medical images. Noise present in medical images affects the quality, contrast resolution, and most importantly, texture information and can make post-processing difficult also. An enhancement approach using an adaptive fusion algorithm is proposed which utilizes the features of shearlet transform (ST) and total variation (TV) approach. In the proposed method, three different denoised images processed with TV method, shearlet denoising, and edge information recovered from the remnant of the TV method and processed with the ST are fused adaptively. The result of enhanced images processed with the proposed method helps to improve the visibility and detectability of medical images. For the proposed method, different weights are evaluated from the different variance maps of individual denoised image and the edge extracted information from the remnant of the TV approach. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by conducting various experiments on both the standard images and different medical images such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound. Experiments show that the proposed method provides an improvement not only in noise reduction but also in the preservation of more edges and image details as compared to the others.

  7. Analysis of grid performance using an optical flow algorithm for medical image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Cunha, Rita de Cássio Porfírio; Gutierrez, Marco A.

    2014-03-01

    The development of bigger and faster computers has not yet provided the computing power for medical image processing required nowadays. This is the result of several factors, including: i) the increasing number of qualified medical image users requiring sophisticated tools; ii) the demand for more performance and quality of results; iii) researchers are addressing problems that were previously considered extremely difficult to achieve; iv) medical images are produced with higher resolution and on a larger number. These factors lead to the need of exploring computing techniques that can boost the computational power of Healthcare Institutions while maintaining a relative low cost. Parallel computing is one of the approaches that can help solving this problem. Parallel computing can be achieved using multi-core processors, multiple processors, Graphical Processing Units (GPU), clusters or Grids. In order to gain the maximum benefit of parallel computing it is necessary to write specific programs for each environment or divide the data in smaller subsets. In this article we evaluate the performance of the two parallel computing tools when dealing with a medical image processing application. We compared the performance of the EELA-2 (E-science grid facility for Europe and Latin- America) grid infrastructure with a small Cluster (3 nodes x 8 cores = 24 cores) and a regular PC (Intel i3 - 2 cores). As expected the grid had a better performance for a large number of processes, the cluster for a small to medium number of processes and the PC for few processes.

  8. Use of Traditional Korean Medicine by Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Choi, In Young; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae

    2013-01-01

    Background South Korea has maintained a dual healthcare delivery system that incorporates both traditional Korean and Western medicine. In this research, we identified the determinants of the frequency of using traditional Korean medicine among musculoskeletal patients, who are known to be the most frequent users of complementary and alternative medicine. Methods In this research, we reviewed 2 consecutive years of nationally representative survey data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Panel Survey. We analyzed the utilization of outpatient services by musculoskeletal patients within 12 months of the 2009 survey date. A two-part model was used because some patients did not use traditional Korean medicine and skewness was present in the data on traditional Korean medicine use. In the first part, logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the use of traditional Korean medicine. In the second part, multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage among the subjects who visited traditional Korean medical institutions. Results The frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage was positively associated with ages of 40–49 years and over 60, restrictions on daily life, a greater number of chronic diseases, not being hospitalized, and more frequent visits (more than five times) to conventional hospitals or clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions The important determinants of the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage were age, activity restrictions, the number of chronic diseases, hospitalization history, and the number of visits to conventional hospitals for musculoskeletal disorders. The results contribute to our understanding of the characteristics of traditional Korean medicine users and may be used as a basic resource for related policymaking by government officials and medical professionals. PMID:23658811

  9. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  10. A Variable Order Fractional Differential-Based Texture Enhancement Algorithm with Application in Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Vegh, Viktor; Liu, Fawang; Turner, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Texture enhancement is one of the most important techniques in digital image processing and plays an essential role in medical imaging since textures discriminate information. Most image texture enhancement techniques use classical integral order differential mask operators or fractional differential mask operators using fixed fractional order. These masks can produce excessive enhancement of low spatial frequency content, insufficient enhancement of large spatial frequency content, and retention of high spatial frequency noise. To improve upon existing approaches of texture enhancement, we derive an improved Variable Order Fractional Centered Difference (VOFCD) scheme which dynamically adjusts the fractional differential order instead of fixing it. The new VOFCD technique is based on the second order Riesz fractional differential operator using a Lagrange 3-point interpolation formula, for both grey scale and colour image enhancement. We then use this method to enhance photographs and a set of medical images related to patients with stroke and Parkinson's disease. The experiments show that our improved fractional differential mask has a higher signal to noise ratio value than the other fractional differential mask operators. Based on the corresponding quantitative analysis we conclude that the new method offers a superior texture enhancement over existing methods. PMID:26186221

  11. A Variable Order Fractional Differential-Based Texture Enhancement Algorithm with Application in Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiang; Vegh, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Texture enhancement is one of the most important techniques in digital image processing and plays an essential role in medical imaging since textures discriminate information. Most image texture enhancement techniques use classical integral order differential mask operators or fractional differential mask operators using fixed fractional order. These masks can produce excessive enhancement of low spatial frequency content, insufficient enhancement of large spatial frequency content, and retention of high spatial frequency noise. To improve upon existing approaches of texture enhancement, we derive an improved Variable Order Fractional Centered Difference (VOFCD) scheme which dynamically adjusts the fractional differential order instead of fixing it. The new VOFCD technique is based on the second order Riesz fractional differential operator using a Lagrange 3-point interpolation formula, for both grey scale and colour image enhancement. We then use this method to enhance photographs and a set of medical images related to patients with stroke and Parkinson’s disease. The experiments show that our improved fractional differential mask has a higher signal to noise ratio value than the other fractional differential mask operators. Based on the corresponding quantitative analysis we conclude that the new method offers a superior texture enhancement over existing methods. PMID:26186221

  12. [The algorithm for the medical maintenance of the aircraft personnel suffering from chronic sensorineural impairment of hearing].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Skryabina, L Yu; Barkhatova, O A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to systematize the causes underlying the development of chronic sensorineural impairment of hearing in the aircraft personnel engaged in commercial aviation of the Russian Federation. A detailed clinical and audiological picture of chronic sensorineural loss of hearing in the aircraft personnel is presented with special reference to the criteria accepted in the civil aviationfor the evaluation of professional suitability and occupational selection in terms of hearing conditions. The study has demonstrated the paramount importance of the aviation medical expertise for the flight safety control in civil aviation. We analyzed the results of the audiological examination of the aircraft personnel suffering from chronic sensorineural impairment of hearing and proposed the algorithm for the rehabilitation of such subjects taking into consideration the stage of the chronic process. PMID:27213653

  13. Indianapolis Emergency Medical Service and the Indiana Network for Patient Care: Evaluating the Patient Match Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong C.; Finnell, John T.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Indianapolis launched an electronic medical record system within their ambulances1 and started to exchange patient data with the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) This unique system allows EMS personnel to get important information prior to the patient’s arrival to the hospital. In this descriptive study, we found EMS personnel requested patient data on 14% of all transports, with a “success” match rate of 46%, and a match “failure” rate of 17%. The three major factors for causing match “failure” were ZIP code 55%, Patient Name 22%, and Birth date 12%. We conclude that the ZIP code matching process needs to be improved by applying a limitation of 5 digits in ZIP code instead of using ZIP+4 code. Non-ZIP code identifiers may be a better choice due to inaccuracies and changes of the ZIP code in a patient’s record. PMID:23304399

  14. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Interpretable Bayesian Classifiers Combination: Application to Medical Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bouktif, Salah; Hanna, Eileen Marie; Zaki, Nazar; Khousa, Eman Abu

    2014-01-01

    Prediction and classification techniques have been well studied by machine learning researchers and developed for several real-word problems. However, the level of acceptance and success of prediction models are still below expectation due to some difficulties such as the low performance of prediction models when they are applied in different environments. Such a problem has been addressed by many researchers, mainly from the machine learning community. A second problem, principally raised by model users in different communities, such as managers, economists, engineers, biologists, and medical practitioners, etc., is the prediction models’ interpretability. The latter is the ability of a model to explain its predictions and exhibit the causality relationships between the inputs and the outputs. In the case of classification, a successful way to alleviate the low performance is to use ensemble classiers. It is an intuitive strategy to activate collaboration between different classifiers towards a better performance than individual classier. Unfortunately, ensemble classifiers method do not take into account the interpretability of the final classification outcome. It even worsens the original interpretability of the individual classifiers. In this paper we propose a novel implementation of classifiers combination approach that does not only promote the overall performance but also preserves the interpretability of the resulting model. We propose a solution based on Ant Colony Optimization and tailored for the case of Bayesian classifiers. We validate our proposed solution with case studies from medical domain namely, heart disease and Cardiotography-based predictions, problems where interpretability is critical to make appropriate clinical decisions. Availability The datasets, Prediction Models and software tool together with supplementary materials are available at http://faculty.uaeu.ac.ae/salahb/ACO4BC.htm. PMID:24498276

  15. Building a diagnostic algorithm on localized neuropathic pain (LNP) and targeted topical treatment: focus on 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Roberto; Mattia, Consalvo

    2014-01-01

    Within the broad definition of neuropathic pain, the refinement of clinical diagnostic procedures has led to the introduction of the concept of localized neuropathic pain (LNP). It is characterized by consistent and circumscribed area(s) of maximum pain, which are associated with negative or positive sensory signs and/or spontaneous symptoms typical of neuropathic pain. This description outlines the clinical features (currently lacking in guidelines and treatment recommendations) in patients for whom topical targeted treatment with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster is suggested as first-line therapy. Few epidemiologic data are present in the literature but it is generally estimated that about 60% of neuropathic pain conditions are localized, and therefore identifiable as LNP. A mandatory clinical criterion for the diagnosis of LNP is that signs and symptoms must be present in a clearly identified and defined area(s). Cartographic recordings can help to define each area and to assess variations. The diagnosis of LNP relies on careful neurological examination more than on pain questionnaires, but it is recognized that they can be extremely useful for recording the symptom profiles and establishing a more targeted treatment. The most widely studied frequent/relevant clinical presentations of LNP are postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and neuropathic postoperative pain. They successfully respond to treatment with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster with equal if not better pain control but with fewer side effects versus conventional systemic treatments. Generally, the more localized the pain (ie, the area of an A4 sheet of paper) the better the results of topical treatment. This paper proposes an easy-to-understand algorithm to identify patients with LNP and to guide targeted topical treatments with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. PMID:24790451

  16. Korean Basic Course. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume I of the Korean Basic Course provides introductory materials for the student who wishes to achieve a working command of the language currently spoken by an estimated 40 to 43 million people on the Korean Peninsula and in Japan, Manchuria, and the Soviet Union. The linguistic content is based on the speech of educated Koreans in Seoul, the…

  17. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  18. ePhenotyping for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network: Algorithm Development and Konstanz Information Miner Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Kenneth M; Smelser, Diane T; Bock, Jonathan A; Elmore, James R; Ryer, Evan J; Ye, Zi; Pacheco, Jennifer A.; Carrell, David S.; Michalkiewicz, Michael; Thompson, William K; Pathak, Jyotishman; Bielinski, Suzette J; Denny, Joshua C; Linneman, James G; Peissig, Peggy L; Kho, Abel N; Gottesman, Omri; Parmar, Harpreet; Kullo, Iftikhar J; McCarty, Catherine A; Böttinger, Erwin P; Larson, Eric B; Jarvik, Gail P; Harley, John B; Bajwa, Tanvir; Franklin, David P; Carey, David J; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective We designed an algorithm to identify abdominal aortic aneurysm cases and controls from electronic health records to be shared and executed within the “electronic Medical Records and Genomics” (eMERGE) Network. Materials and methods Structured Query Language, was used to script the algorithm utilizing “Current Procedural Terminology” and “International Classification of Diseases” codes, with demographic and encounter data to classify individuals as case, control, or excluded. The algorithm was validated using blinded manual chart review at three eMERGE Network sites and one non-eMERGE Network site. Validation comprised evaluation of an equal number of predicted cases and controls selected at random from the algorithm predictions. After validation at the three eMERGE Network sites, the remaining eMERGE Network sites performed verification only. Finally, the algorithm was implemented as a workflow in the Konstanz Information Miner, which represented the logic graphically while retaining intermediate data for inspection at each node. The algorithm was configured to be independent of specific access to data and was exportable (without data) to other sites. Results The algorithm demonstrated positive predictive values (PPV) of 92.8% (CI: 86.8-96.7) and 100% (CI: 97.0-100) for cases and controls, respectively. It performed well also outside the eMERGE Network. Implementation of the transportable executable algorithm as a Konstanz Information Miner workflow required much less effort than implementation from pseudo code, and ensured that the logic was as intended. Discussion and conclusion This ePhenotyping algorithm identifies abdominal aortic aneurysm cases and controls from the electronic health record with high case and control PPV necessary for research purposes, can be disseminated easily, and applied to high-throughput genetic and other studies. PMID:27054044

  19. The trend of body donation for education based on Korean social and religious culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or organs for education in the past. However, by the end of the 20th century, a unique fusion of Western and Oriental medicines were produced on the Korean Peninsula, revolutionizing traditional perspectives on the human body, mortality, and the relationship of medical science to society. Koreans began to think about others' lives as well as their own by realizing the importance of donating one's organs and bodies for scientific purposes. Since then, the number of people donating their bodies to Korean medical and dental schools for the purpose of improving academic learning has increased dramatically. In response, Korean medical schools have begun to hold various types of funeral ceremonies to honor body donors. We have compared such ceremonies performed in Korea with those performed in the United States of America and Taiwan. These ceremonies are viewed as a suitable way to pay proper respect to the dead and to promote knowledge about body donation programs in Korea. Overall, the transition of religions and social ethics in Korea has greatly facilitated body bequeathal programs, benefiting both medical education and the Korean public health administration. PMID:21265035

  20. Information extraction from Korean radiology reports mingled two language.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Miyoung; Han, Seungbin; Choi, Jinwook

    2005-01-01

    This study presents overall of Information Extraction (IE) for SNUH (Seoul National University Hospital) radiology reports coexisted Korean and English using Concept Node (CN) which is a case frame as extraction rule. The following steps are performed: design conceptual model by terminology exploration based on lexical analysis, create a CN definition based on syntactic relationship pattern and implement automatic IE system using CN. Main purposes is to investigate whether syntactic and semantic analysis technique using extraction rule (CN) is effective for typical Korean medical text in mixed two different languages. PMID:16779301

  1. Issues Related to the Updated 2014 Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in South Korea. The Joint Committee for the Development of Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis published the Korean Guidelines for Tuberculosis in 2011 to provide evidence-based practical recommendations to health care workers caring for patients with TB in South Korea. After reviewing recent national and international scientific data on TB, the committee updated the Korean guidelines for TB in 2014. This article presents some practical issues related to the 2014 updated guidelines: namely use of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis - polymerase chain reaction assay and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of TB, as well as medical treatment for patients with multidrug-resistant TB. PMID:26770228

  2. A new algorithmic approach for the extraction of temporal associations from clinical narratives with an application to medical product safety surveillance reports.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kreimeyer, Kory; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert; Foster, Matthew; Pandey, Abhishek; Scott, John; Botsis, Taxiarchis

    2016-08-01

    The sheer volume of textual information that needs to be reviewed and analyzed in many clinical settings requires the automated retrieval of key clinical and temporal information. The existing natural language processing systems are often challenged by the low quality of clinical texts and do not demonstrate the required performance. In this study, we focus on medical product safety report narratives and investigate the association of the clinical events with appropriate time information. We developed a novel algorithm for tagging and extracting temporal information from the narratives, and associating it with related events. The proposed algorithm minimizes the performance dependency on text quality by relying only on shallow syntactic information and primitive properties of the extracted event and time entities. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by evaluating its tagging and time assignment capabilities on 140 randomly selected reports from the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We compared the performance of our tagger with the SUTime and HeidelTime taggers, and our algorithm's event-time associations with the Temporal Awareness and Reasoning Systems for Question Interpretation (TARSQI). We further evaluated the ability of our algorithm to correctly identify the time information for the events in the 2012 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) Challenge corpus. For the time tagging task, our algorithm performed better than the SUTime and the HeidelTime taggers (F-measure in VAERS and FAERS: Our algorithm: 0.86 and 0.88, SUTime: 0.77 and 0.74, and HeidelTime 0.75 and 0.42, respectively). In the event-time association task, our algorithm assigned an inappropriate timestamp for 25% of the events, while the TARSQI toolkit demonstrated a considerably lower performance, assigning inappropriate timestamps in 61.5% of the same

  3. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  4. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  5. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  6. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  7. Voices of Korean American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hastick, Eda F.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses issues of race, gender, and the immigrant experience, focusing on Korean-American women. Highlights myths and stereotypes surrounding Asian Americans and issues of immigrant adaptation and survival. Presents excerpts from a conversation among three Korean-American women, discussing issues related to race relations and the traditional…

  8. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  9. The Korean Americans. The New Americans Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurh, Won Moo

    The history and culture of Korean immigrants to the United States are described in the following chapters: (1) "Korean Ethnic Roots: The Land, History, People, and Culture"; (2) "Korean Immigration to the United States: A Historical Overview"; (3) "Economic Adjustment"; (4) "Cultural and Social Adaptation"; (5) "Family Life"; (6) "Korean Ethnic…

  10. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  11. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    PubMed

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  12. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  13. Cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook

    2014-01-01

    Linguistically and culturally isolated Korean Americans have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all U.S population. Lack of adequate cancer information is one of the barriers to undergoing cancer screening tests. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs if we are to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. The purpose of the study was to identify cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 273 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed for this study. The extracted terms were categorized based on the coding system. The primary reason for asking questions was inquiry followed by sharing experiences. The main topics of the postings were categorized as medical or non-medical. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their current cancer information seeking trends and information needs. PMID:24943573

  14. [The emergence of Korean modern hospitals: hospitals in the late period of Chosun Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Cho, Woo Hyun; Park, Chong Yon; Park, Chun Sun

    2002-06-01

    Hospitals are confronting in the transforming or reforming period to cope with the rapid social and environmental changes worldwide. By the researches in the history of Korean health, we could understand the context of the introduction of Western medicine and institutions to Korea. However there have been few studies on the historical review of hospitals in relations to their roles in the modern medicine. This article is to review the issues around the rise of modern hospitals in Korean history of health affairs. The introduction of Western medicine in Korea was on the road with the establishment of Kwanghyewon, the Royal Hospital, which was possible due to favorable conditions under the Korean socio-political background for the emerging and accepting the entirely new medical system. And also the emergence of modern and transformed the Korean traditional health system from the fundamentals through the corruption of the old dynasty to nowadays. Most national health affairs including medical services, prevention of diseases, health promotion, and the training of health personnels have performed along with the development of modern hospitals, which have the roots in the period after the end of 19th century. Thus the Korean history of health care around the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century could be defined as a period of emergence of modern hospitals. The hospitals also have played core roles in establishing the Korean modern health system and culture. Compared to the cases of Western countries, Korean modern hospitals were emerged with the exogenous factors in the turbulence of political and cultural changes in the world system. In sum, Korean modern hospitals in the period of late Chosun have the great meaning in that they are the beginning point to shape the current Korean health care system and the driving forces or carriers of this new system. PMID:12619632

  15. [A study on Horace N. Allen's medicine and recognition of Korean body].

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ah

    2011-12-31

    Je Jung Won was the first modern-style Government hospital built by the Korean King Ko-Jong in April 1885, and it was the medical missionary Horace Newton Allen(1858~1932) who made one of the greatest contributions to the establishment of the hospital. Allen was an American missionary. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University with a degree in theology in 1881, and completed one-yearcourse at Miami Medical College. In Korea and America he worked as a physician, a missionary, an American diplomatic minister to Korea and a Korean minister's secretary to America. While acting as a mediator between Korea and America, he knew and recorded the domestic and foreign situation of Korea during Gaehwagi(the civilized and enlightened age). Thus to study him is to understand Korea's Gaehwagi as well as to research American medical missionaries. During his stay in Korea(1884~1905), Allen steadily wrote diaries and letters about Korean politics, diplomacy, society, culture, and medicine. Thus his public/private record through diaries and letters(the quantity of these materials amounts to several thousands) supplements the Korean early modern era's historical record. However, until now these materials have received little scholarly attention from researchers except for a few historians of missionary work between Korea and America, or of Korean modern medicine. I intended to use these materials to suggest a new perspective on the study of Korean Gaehwagi. Allen, along with John W. Heron, who came to Seoul on June 21st 1885, treated about 10,460 Korean patients in the first year of the opening of JeJungWon. They made "the first annual report of the Korean Government Hospital". This report explained how Allen and Heron regarded and treated Korean patients. Allen's diaries, letters and other writings offer a realistic view of how the western people actually recognized the Korean people at that time. As a western doctor, Allen had an ambivalent attitude toward Korean medical concepts

  16. Reform of medical education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2010-01-01

    There are 41 medical schools in South Korea with over 3500 students graduating from the medical schools annually with the appropriate qualifications to practice medicine. Korean medical educators have made significant efforts to enhance the effectiveness of medical education by preparing students for the rapidly changing global environment of medicine and healthcare. This article outlines the reform efforts made by Korean medical schools to meet such demands, which includes the adoption of student-centered and competency-based education, e-learning, and authentic assessment of clinical performance. It also discusses the recent reform of the medical education system, driven by the Government's policy to prepare Korean higher education for an increasingly knowledge-based society. PMID:20163225

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Foot Function Index.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jung-Wook; Eun, Il-Soo; Ko, Young-Chul; Park, Man-Jun; Hwang, Keum-Min; Park, Sook-Hyun; Park, Tae-Hong; Park, Joon-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Although translated versions of the Foot Function Index (FFI) in several languages are available, the absence of a Korean version has precluded comparing the data from Korea with the data from other countries using the FFI. We, therefore, evaluated the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the FFI. We translated the English version of the FFI into Korean and back into English. We mailed the Korean version of the visual analog scale, FFI, and the previously validated Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36) to 121 patients with treated foot complaints. To evaluate the test-retest reliability and internal consistency, we used the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α, respectively. We also evaluated the concurrent and construct validity of Korean version of the FFI by comparing the visual analog scale and SF-36. Cronbach's α was 0.91 and 0.95 for the pain and disability subscales, respectively. The reproducibility was good, and a strong correlation between the FFI and the SF-36 and visual analog scale with related content was observed, indicating good construct validity.The Korean version of the FFI is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the self-assessment of pain and disability in Korean patients with foot complaints. PMID:27067199

  18. Performance evaluation of the machine learning algorithms used in inference mechanism of a medical decision support system.

    PubMed

    Bal, Mert; Amasyali, M Fatih; Sever, Hayri; Kose, Guven; Demirhan, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets. PMID:25295291

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Machine Learning Algorithms Used in Inference Mechanism of a Medical Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Mert; Amasyali, M. Fatih; Sever, Hayri; Kose, Guven; Demirhan, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets. PMID:25295291

  20. Feature Selection Method Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and Support Vector Machines for Medical Datasets Classification

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Nihat; Inan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a hybrid approach that uses the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for feature selection and support vector machines for classification. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of elimination of the unimportant and obsolete features of the datasets on the success of the classification, using the SVM classifier. The developed approach conventionally used in liver diseases and diabetes diagnostics, which are commonly observed and reduce the quality of life, is developed. For the diagnosis of these diseases, hepatitis, liver disorders and diabetes datasets from the UCI database were used, and the proposed system reached a classification accuracies of 94.92%, 74.81%, and 79.29%, respectively. For these datasets, the classification accuracies were obtained by the help of the 10-fold cross-validation method. The results show that the performance of the method is highly successful compared to other results attained and seems very promising for pattern recognition applications. PMID:23983632

  1. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  2. Activities of the korean institute of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Sungweon; Kim, Hee Jin

    2014-12-01

    The Korean National Tuberculosis Association (KNTA) set up the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT) in 1970 to foster research and technical activities pertaining to tuberculosis (TB). The KNTA/KIT had successfully conducted a countrywide TB prevalence survey from 1965 to 1995 at 5-year intervals. The survey results (decline in TB rates) established Korea as a country that had successfully implemented national control programs for TB. The KIT developed the Korea Tuberculosis Surveillance System and the Laboratory Management Information System, both of which were transferred to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its establishment. The KIT functions as a central and supranational reference TB laboratory for microbiological and epidemiological research and provides training and education for health-care workers and medical practitioners. Recently, the KIT has expanded its activities to countries such as Ethiopia, Laos, and Timor-Leste to support TB control and prevention. The KIT will continue to support research activities and provide technical assistance in diagnosing the infection until it is completely eliminated in Korea. PMID:25861580

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Stroke Triage Algorithms for Emergency Medical Dispatchers (MeDS): Prospective Cohort Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stroke is a major cause of death and leading cause of disability in the United States. To maximize a stroke patient's chances of receiving thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke, it is important to improve prehospital recognition of stroke. However, it is known from published reports that emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) using Card 28 of the Medical Priority Dispatch System protocols recognize stroke poorly. Therefore, to improve EMD's recognition of stroke, the National Association of Emergency Medical Dispatchers recently designed a new diagnostic stroke tool (Cincinnati Stroke Scale -CSS) to be used with Card 28. The objective of this study is to determine whether the addition of CSS improves diagnostic accuracy of stroke triage. Methods/Design This prospective experimental study will be conducted during a one-year period in the 911 call center of Santa Clara County, CA. We will include callers aged ≥ 18 years with a chief complaint suggestive of stroke and second party callers (by-stander or family who are in close proximity to the patient and can administer the tool) ≥ 18 years of age. Life threatening calls will be excluded from the study. Card 28 questions will be administered to subjects who meet study criteria. After completion of Card 28, CSS tool will be administered to all calls. EMDs will record their initial assessment of a cerebro-vascular accident (stroke) after completion of Card 28 and their final assessment after completion of CSS. These assessments will be compared with the hospital discharge diagnosis (ICD-9 codes) recorded in the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database after linking the EMD database and OSHPD database using probabilistic linkage. The primary analysis will compare the sensitivity of the two stroke protocols using logistic regression and generalizing estimating equations to account for clustering by EMDs. To detect a 15% difference in sensitivity between the two groups

  4. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Hyung Ji

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  5. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  6. Adeno-Associated Virus 2-Mediated Hepatocellular Carcinoma is Very Rare in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Lee, Jongan; Park, June-Hee; Joh, Jae-Won; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary widely according to race and geographic regions. The insertional mutagenesis of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) has recently been considered a new viral etiology of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and clinical characteristics of AAV2 in Korean patients with HCC. Methods A total of 289 unrelated Korean patients with HCC, including 159 Hepatitis-B-related cases, 16 Hepatitis-C-related cases, and 114 viral serology-negative cases, who underwent surgery at the Samsung Medical Center in Korea from 2009 to 2014 were enrolled in this study. The presence of AAV2 in fresh-frozen tumor tissues was investigated by DNA PCR and Sanger sequencing. The clinical and pathological characteristics of AAV2-associated HCC in these patients were compared with previous findings in French patients. Results The AAV2 detection rate in Korean patients (2/289) was very low compared with that in French patients (11/193). Similar to the French patients, the Korean patients with AAV2-related HCC showed no signs of liver cirrhosis. The Korean patients were younger than the French patients with the same AAV2-associated HCC; the ages at diagnosis of the two Korean patients were 47 and 39 yr, while the median age of the 11 French patients was 55 yr (range 43-90 yr). Conclusions AAV2-associated HCC was very rare in Korean patients with HCC. Despite a limited number of cases, this study is the first to report the clinical characteristics of Korean patients with AAV2-associated HCC. These findings suggest epidemiologic differences in viral hepatocarcinogenesis between Korean and European patients. PMID:27374713

  7. Koreans in America. In America Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Wayne; Kim, Hyung-chan

    The immigration of Koreans to the United States is traced from 1903, and the contributions Korean Americans have made to the United States are identified in this book which is part of a series for children. The number of Korean immigrants, small for many years, increased dramatically with the easing of government restrictions in the 1960s, until,…

  8. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  9. Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

  10. Korean Experience and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean education reform and to weigh Korean experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. The paper first of all illustrates a historical perspective on higher education in light of educational reform. Secondly, this study reviews the achievements of Korean higher education…

  11. Select Bibliography of the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

  12. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  13. A Comparison Study of Continuous Insulin Infusion Protocols in the Medical Intensive Care Unit: Computer-Guided Vs. Standard Column-Based Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christopher A.; Smiley, Dawn; Bode, Bruce W.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Davidson, Paul C.; Jacobs, Sol; Steed, R. Dennis; Stentz, Frankie; Peng, Limin; Mulligan, Patrick; Freire, Amado X.; Temponi, Angel; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the safety and efficacy of continuous insulin infusion (CII) via a computer-guided and a standard paper form protocol in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS Multicenter randomized trial of 153 ICU patients randomized to CII using the Glucommander (n = 77) or a standard paper protocol (n = 76). Both protocols used glulisine insulin and targeted blood glucose (BG) between 80 mg/dL and 120 mg/dL. RESULTS The Glucommander resulted in a lower mean BG value (103 ± 8.8 mg/dL vs. 117 ± 16.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and in a shorter time to reach BG target (4.8 ± 2.8 vs.7.8 hours ± 9.1 hours, P < 0.01), and once at target resulted in a higher percentage of BG readings within target (71.0 ± 17.0% vs. 51.3 ± 19.7%, P < 0.001) than the standard protocol. Mean insulin infusion rate in the Glucommander was similar to the standard protocol (P = 0.12). The percentages of patients with ≥1 episode of BG <40 mg/dL and <60 mg/dL were 3.9% and 42.9% in the Glucommander and 5.6% and 31.9% in the standard, respectively [P = not significant (NS)]. Repeated measures analyses show that the probabilities of BG reading <40 mg/dL or <60 mg/dL were not significantly different between groups (P = 0.969, P = 0.084) after accounting for within-patient correlations with or without adjusting for time effect. There were no differences between groups in the length of hospital stay (P = 0.704), ICU stay (P = 0.145), or inhospital mortality (P = 0.561). CONCLUSION Both treatment algorithms resulted in significant improvement in glycemic control in critically ill patients in the medical ICU. The computer-based algorithm resulted in tighter glycemic control without an increased risk of hypoglycemic events compared to the standard paper protocol. PMID:20945468

  14. 38 CFR 17.96 - Medication prescribed by non-VA physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Outpatient Treatment § 17.96 Medication prescribed by non-VA physicians. Any prescription... the Mexican Border Period, World War I, World War II, the Korean Conflict, or the Vietnam Era...

  15. Specific absorbed fraction for Korean adult voxel phantom from internal photon source.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Park, S; Lee, J K

    2007-01-01

    Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) are crucial values for the calculation of radionuclide S-values and consequently for internal dose estimates. The formalism of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) has been utilised as a standard in the calculation of individual organ doses for biologically distributed radionuclides and for different types of radiation. Although those quantities are highly sensitive to individual anatomical difference, the SAF dataset calculated by Caucasian-based stylised phantoms have been applied to Korean population until now. This study was intended to calculate the SAFs by using realistic Korean voxel phantom and Monte Carlo transport technique for the first time and compare the results with those of the existing Caucasian-based data and the Korean stylised phantom published recently. The up-to-date realistic Korean voxel phantom, KTMAN-2, which was developed from computed tomography (CT) images of an average Korean adult male, was employed for Monte Carlo calculation using EGSnrc user-code, developed for the purpose of this study. The SAFs for 32 target organs and tissues from the photon source, uniformly deposited in a total of 37 source organs and tissues, were calculated from KTMAN-2. The results were compared with those for an adult phantom of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Korean adult stylised phantom. Two major reasons of discrepancy were analysed: (1) racial difference between the Korean and the Caucasian and (2) anatomical difference between stylised and voxel phantoms. When the source organ was identical to the target organ, difference in SAF caused by the difference in target-organ mass between the Korean and the Caucasian phantoms was mainly observed. When the source and target organs were not identical, significant difference in SAF was observed which was mainly attributed to the difference in inter-organ distance and organ shape between

  16. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  17. Korean Basic Course. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume Two of the Korean Basic Course contains Units 29 through 47. Most units consist of (1) a basic dialog, (2) notes on the basic dialog, (3) additional vocabulary and phrases, (4) grammar notes, (5) drills, (6) a supplementary dialog for comprehension, (7) a narrative for comprehension and reading, and (8) exercises. Two of the last units…

  18. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  19. Two Causative Constructions in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong-Ik

    1993-01-01

    Two types of causative constructions in Korean behave differently both syntactically and semantically. This paper presents the syntactic differences between syntactic causative constructions and morphological causative constructions in terms of merger process of argument structures, and in the Case assignment in the two constructions in terms of…

  20. Beginning Korean. Yale Linguistic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Samuel E.; Lee, Young-Sook C.

    A "model of structural linguistic analysis as well as a teaching tool," this text is designed to give the student a comprehensive grasp of the essentials of modern Korean in 25 lessons, with 5 review lessons, leading to advanced levels of proficiency. It is intended to be used by adult students working either in classes or by themselves, with the…

  1. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  2. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

  3. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  4. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  5. Korean Basic Course: Area Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

  6. A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

    ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE "UNIFIED SYSTEM" AND…

  7. Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines: Otitis Media in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Su-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Su Eun; Chun, Young Myung; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Park, Shi-Nae; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are common infections in children, and their diagnosis and treatment have significant impacts on the health of children and the costs of providing national medical care. In 2009, the Korean Otologic Society organized a committee composed of experts in the field of otolaryngology, pediatrics, and family medicine to develop Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for otitis media in children with the goal of meeting regional medical and social needs in Korea. For this purpose, the committee adapted existing guidelines. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2004 to 2009 using medical search engines including data from Korea. A draft was written after a national questionnaire survey and several public audits, and it was editorially supervised by senior advisors before publication of the final report. These evidence-based guidelines for the management of otitis media in children provide recommendations to primary practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of children younger than 15 yr old with uncomplicated AOM and OME. The guidelines include recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment options, prevention and parent education, medical records, referral, and complementary/alternative medicine for treating pediatric otitis media. PMID:22876048

  8. Factors Influencing Help-Seeking Behavior among Battered Korean Women in Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…

  9. A method of recognition and representation of korean characters by tree grammars.

    PubMed

    Agui, T; Nakajima, M; Kim, T K; Takahashi, E T

    1979-03-01

    A syntactic method is applied to the recognition of Korean characters (Hangul). Since they develop into complex characters by the sequential addition of fundamental characters under positioning rules, there are a large amount of characters and consequently there exist many similar characters. Therefore, the sequential extraction, according to the positioning rules, of fundamental characters composing Korean characters is effective for automatic recognition. As a structural analysis, a production process of fundamental characters is represented by tree grammars, and the extraction algorithm of fundamental characters and the results of computer simulation are described. PMID:21868855

  10. Analysis of Scientific Papers Included in the Sciences Citation Index Expanded Written by South Korean Plastic Surgeons: 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Go, Ju Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lim, So-Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap Sung

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to analyze scientific papers published by South Korean plastic surgeons in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), and to evaluate the publication and research activities of Korean plastic surgeon. Methods We conducted a survey of SCIE papers in the field of plastic surgery published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010 using Web of Science software. We further analyzed these results according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution, and type of papers. We also compared the total number of citations to published scientific papers. We analyzed the rank of South Korea among other countries in representative journals. Results Overall, 667 papers were published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010. The number of publications increased dramatically from 2003 (n=31) to 2010 (n=139). Subsequently, the ten most productive Korean medical colleges were identified. All published papers received 2,311 citations and the citation to paper ratio was 3.49. The rank of Korea among other countries in terms of the number of published papers remained in the top 10 during the recent 10 years. Conclusions Publication output of Korean plastic surgeon over the last 10 years showed a remarkable growth in terms of quantity and quality. Currently, Korea is among the top six countries in representative plastic surgery journals. Korean plastic surgeons have played a central role in this progress, and it is anticipated that they will continue to do so in the future. PMID:22783491

  11. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  12. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  13. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  14. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  15. Recommendations for pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis: from medical needs to a new treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Luger, Thomas; De Raeve, Linda; Gelmetti, Carlo; Kakourou, Talia; Katsarou, Alexandra; Lambert, Julien; Morren, Marie-Anne; Oranje, Arnold; Ruer, Mireille; Serdaroglu, Server; Torrelo, Antonio; Werfel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Pimecrolimus 1% cream is an effective, non-corticosteroid, topical anti-inflammatory treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this article was to review published clinical data that have examined how pimecrolimus can address the medical needs of AD patients. Clinical studies have demonstrated that early treatment with pimecrolimus decreases the progression to disease flares, rapidly improves pruritus and significantly enhances quality of life. Patients find the formulation easy to apply, which may result in improved adherence with the treatment regimen. Pimecrolimus, in contrast to topical corticosteroids (TCSs), does not induce skin atrophy or epidermal barrier dysfunction and is highly effective for the treatment of AD in sensitive skin areas. Furthermore, pimecrolimus reduces the incidence of skin infections compared with TCSs and is not associated with other TCS-related side effects such as striae, telangiectasia and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. An additional benefit of pimecrolimus is its substantial steroid sparing effect. On the basis of these data, a new treatment algorithm for patients with mild-to-moderate AD is proposed in which pimecrolimus is recommended as a first line therapy for patients with established mild AD at the first signs and symptoms of disease. Pimecrolimus is also recommended for mild-to-moderate AD after initial treatment with a TCS. After resolution of lesions, maintenance treatment with pimecrolimus may effectively prevent subsequent disease flares. In conclusion, the clinical profile of pimecrolimus suggests that it may be considered the drug of choice for the treatment of mild-to-moderate AD in children as well as adults and particularly in sensitive skin areas. PMID:24185493

  16. Statistical guidance on seasonal forecast of Korean dust days over South Korea in the springtime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Keon Tae

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to develop the seasonal forecast models of Korean dust days over South Korea in the springtime. Forecast mode was a ternary forecast (below normal, normal, above normal) which was classified based on the mean and the standard deviation of Korean dust days for a period of 30 years (1981-2010). In this study, we used three kinds of monthly data: the Korean dust days observed in South Korea, the National Center for Environmental Prediction in National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data for meteorological factors over source regions of Asian dust, and the large-scale climate indices offered from the Climate Diagnostic Center and Climate Prediction Center in NOAA. Forecast guidance consisted of two components; ordinal logistic regression model to generate trinomial distributions, and conversion algorithm to generate ternary forecast by two thresholds. Forecast guidance was proposed for each month separately and its predictability was evaluated based on skill scores.

  17. Stories to be told: Korean doctors between hwa-byung (fire-illness) and depression, 1970-2011.

    PubMed

    Suh, Soyoung

    2013-03-01

    This article analyzes the process of the making of hwa-byung (fire illness) an internationally recognized term for a Korean emotion-related disorder. To index hwa-byung as a valid condition within professional medical circles, Koreans draw on both the traditional idea of "constrained fire" and the DSM's modern identification of "depressive disorders." Examining the research on hwa-byung since the 1970s, conducted by both Korean psychiatrists and doctors of traditional medicine, this article demonstrates how inextricably conceptions of Korean-ness in medicine have been tied to the right positioning of Korea in a global context. The project of defining a uniquely Korean malady reflects the desire of medical professionals to make the indigenous meaningful, thereby guaranteeing a tool for gaining circulation and foreign recognition. Studies of hwa-byung since the 2000s have in many ways been a reflection of the endeavor to interpret patients' narratives as a therapeutic resource. Some hwa-byung specialists have dealt with patients' stories of illness over time and argue for establishing better techniques of clinical communication. Whereas the label of hwa-byung initiated the indigenous turn during the 1980s, now the term succinctly responds to the recent trend of exploring the colloquial dimension of medicine. This also demonstrates the way in which hwa-byung has been (dis)assembled at the junction of global and domestic flows. PMID:23229388

  18. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  19. Vitamin-Mineral Supplement Use Patterns in Elderly Koreans: Data from the 2007–2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Hwang, Hye Rim; Jeong, Dong Wook; Cho, Young Hye; Choi, Eun Jung; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Tak, Young Jin; Jo, A Ra; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jeon, Jeong Suk; Lee, Bo Wha

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin-mineral supplements are the most popular dietary supplements in Korea. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between vitamin-mineral supplementation and associated factors among the Korean elderly. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of vitamin-mineral supplements among elderly in Korea as well as its association with sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, medical conditions, and nutrient intake. Methods This study was based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare from 2008 to 2009. Data from 3,294 elderly men and women (65 years of age and older) were analyzed. Multivariable-weighted logistic regression model analysis was used to evaluate the association between vitamin-mineral supplement use and sociodemographic factors, health-related habits, and medical conditions. Results Vitamin-mineral supplementation was reported by 16.3% of the participants. The most common reason for using dietary supplements was recommendations from friends and acquaintances. Highly educated person, female participants had a greater likelihood of taking vitamin-mineral supplements. In addition, analysis of nutrient intake from food sources alone revealed a lower proportion of vitamin-mineral supplement users with nutrient intakes below the estimated average requirements for vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron, and phosphorus, compared to nonusers. However, vitamin-mineral supplementation was not associated with health-related behaviors or medical conditions. Conclusion Highly educated person, elderly Korean women had a greater likelihood of using vitamin-mineral supplements. In addition, nutrient intakes from food sources alone were significantly higher among vitamin-mineral supplement users. Finally, vitamin-mineral supplementation may be an indicator of healthier diet in elderly Koreans. PMID:27073612

  20. Hwa-Byung: a Korean culture-bound syndrome?

    PubMed

    Lin, K M

    1983-01-01

    The author reports three cases of Hwa-Byung, a Korean folk illness ordinarily understood by patients and families to be a physical affliction despite the fact that its manifestations include both physiological and psychological symptoms. In addition, the patient often recognizes interpersonal conflicts and anger as precipitating factors. In the three cases reported, the patients also identified an epigastric mass that was not present on physical examination. Symptoms were accompanied by a fear of impending death that was not easily dispelled by medical reassurance. The author discusses the role of depression in the symptom formation of Hwa-Byung as well as the treatment implications. PMID:6847969

  1. Minimally invasive approaches for gastric cancer-Korean experience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Kwang; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Lee, Hyuk-Joon

    2013-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery in Korea increased rapidly because of the early detection of gastric cancer by the development of diagnostic tools and nationwide screening. The Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group (KLASS group) played a leading role in various projects related with minimally invasive surgery. The justification of minimally invasive procedures including robotic surgery, sentinel-node biopsy, or single-port surgery/Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) must be predetermined by the clinical trial before a wide application, and the medical industry as well as surgeons should have great responsibility. PMID:22806494

  2. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  3. Anthropometric measures and lipid CHD risk factors in Korean Immigrants with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sarah; Tan, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to 1) describe anthropometric measures among Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM); and, 2) examine the relationships between measures of obesity with several forms of dyslipidemia in this group. Background Obesity and dyslipidemia are commonly associated with T2DM and they are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death for people with diabetes. Asians are predisposed to abdominal obesity and experience significant CHD risk at lower BMI levels. Despite high prevalence of diabetes among Korean immigrants, relationships among anthropometric measures and lipid-related CHD risk factors have not been examined. Methods A convenience sample of 143 adult Korean immigrants with T2DM between the ages of 30–80 participated in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were obtained using standardized procedures. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were assessed using a finger stick blood test. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to identify which of the anthropometric measures was significantly related to individuals’ cholesterol levels. Results Central obesity measures, not BMI, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia in Korean immigrants with T2DM independent of potential confounds such as hemoglobin A1C, cigarette smoking, age, and cholesterol medication. Different central obesity measures were associated with different cholesterol types for Korean diabetic men and women. In men, WHR was positively associated with LDL and TC levels. In women, WC was negatively associated with HDL. Conclusions Central obesity measures (WC and WHR) are better indicators for assessing lipid-related CHD risk factor among Korean immigrants with T2DM than BMI. Gender difference in the association between central obesity measures and lipid types should

  4. Beliefs, practices, and experiences of Korean women in relation to childbirth.

    PubMed

    Park, K J; Peterson, L M

    1991-01-01

    Korean women's health beliefs and childbirth experiences in the United States were examined. A convenience sampling procedure was used, and face-to-face interviews were conducted in Korean. Interviews were audiotaped, typed, and translated from Korean to English. These women had a holistic concept of health. Some practices were influence by ancient Chinese medicine. Childbirth experiences indicated that language is a barrier requiring specific interventions. Recommendations include (a) development of an assessment tool with which health-care professionals can identify individual health beliefs early in pregnancy; (b) development of a bilingual pamphlet about medical terms and the U.S. health-care system; (c) development of a short bilingual dictionary of common foods for use in menu selection during hospitalization; and (d) provision of English practice periods based on anticipatory guidance principles to prepare women to ask for specific assistance. PMID:2022535

  5. A Review of the Korean Cultural Syndrome Hwa-Byung: Suggestions for Theory and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Wachholtz, Amy; Choi, Keum-Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review Hwa-Byung, a cultural syndrome specific to Koreans and Korean immigrants. Hwa-Byung is a unique diagnosis and differs from other DSM disorders. However, Hwa-Byung has frequent comorbidity with other DSM disorders such as anger disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder. There are several risk factors for Hwa-Byung including psychosocial stress caused by marital conflicts and conflicts with their in-laws. Previous interventions of the Hwa-Byung syndrome were based primarily on the medical model. Therefore, based on previous research, we present a new ecological model of Hwa-Byung. We also recommend some areas of future research as well as present some limitations of our ecological model. Finally, we discuss some treatment issues, particularly for Korean women in the United States. PMID:25408922

  6. Spousal Support in Diabetes Self-Management among Korean Immigrant Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer J.; Park, Jenny J.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean seniors and their spouses. We conducted two focus groups with diabetic participants and three with their spouses from the greater Los Angeles Korean community asking participants to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group was composed of 4–9 participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and treatment among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean seniors might have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  7. [To Discern the Medical Thoughts of Heo Joon, the Best Physician in Korean History--An Analysis of Disease Experiences and Treatment Cases in the Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine].

    PubMed

    Oh, Chaekun

    2015-12-01

    Heo Joon is one of the best-known physicians of the Chosun Dynasty, the last imperial dynasty (1392~1910) of Korea. He had served King Seonjo () during his practice, and has produced many publications on medicine. Then, how did he actually treat the patients? So far, other than the case when he treated Gwanghaegun's smallpox, it is not clearly known how and when he attended and treated the ill. In his most famous book, the Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, he details the physiopathological mechanisms, diagnoses, treatments or prescriptions, and treatment cases, however, it is not clear if they're from his own clinical experiences. Nevertheless, based on the written method, the original information is reconstituted according to its respective editors of the TMEM, a particular case being included may be considered as an agreement and acceptance of an actual treatment executed. This research analyzes what type of medicinal theory that the main writer Heo Joon employed in his real treatments, as well as how he diagnosed and treated diseases. After analyzing the complete series of the TMEM, we found a total of 301 clinical cases. Here, one may wonder, why does the Section of Inner and External Bodily Elements, that deal with diseases and the structure of the body, have far outnumber cases than the Section of Miscellaneous Disorders? Why does the TMEM introduce the various types of disease experiences and treatment cases, medical cases, simple treatments, nurturing life, materia medica, and also include supernatural phenomena? Why does the TMEM include the experiences and cases from the book published in the Song, Jin, Yuan dynasty of China, moreover in the Ming Dynasty of its time. These questions can be answered to the extent that Heo Joon and the others who participated in completing the book sought to justify the new clinical medicine practices, and because it had to be acceptable to the Confucius beliefs which dominated the society, and also because the book

  8. Development of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2003-01-01

    Five analyses using Korean college students (n=283, 700, 844, 306, 315) were conducted to develop the Korean Career Indecision Inventory. Five factors emerged consistently and were confirmed by factor analysis: lack of career information, lack of necessity recognition, lack of self-identity, indecisiveness, and external barriers. Reliability and…

  9. Korean Education and Foreign Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Central Education Research Inst., Seoul.

    Since the problems facing Korean education arise from very complicated factors, it was felt that the objective views of foreign observers would undoubtedly be of great help in efforts to solve them. In this connection, the Central Education Research Institute held a Seminar on Korean Education with the participation of foreign agencies in Korea…

  10. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Korea's cultural changes and trends are reflected in the country's kindergarten curriculum. Provides an overview of traditional Korean early childhood education and the historical evolution of kindergarten curriculum. Discusses the modern national kindergarten curriculum and its relationship to Korean culture and concludes that…

  11. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    This paper examines the relationship between Korean culture and the historical development of its kindergarten (preschool) curriculum. After reviewing the values that were emphasized in traditional Korean society, focusing on ethics, loyalty and filial piety, propriety, and gender roles, the paper provides examples of how these values influences…

  12. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  13. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  14. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  15. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

  16. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  17. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  18. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  19. Impact of Agent Orange exposure among Korean Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung-Soon; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Cho, Sung-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lim, Min-Kyung

    2003-07-01

    In order to determine whether Agent Orange exposure was associated with increased frequency of medical problems, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of Korean veterans during 1995-1996. 1,224 Vietnam and 154 non-Vietnam veterans were included in the study. Exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by structured in-depth interview on the participants' history of service in Vietnam. Health outcomes were assessed by a standardized comprehensive clinical investigation by a group of clinical specialists. The differences in the prevalence of various medical diagnoses were assessed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests comparing the exposure levels of Vietnam veterans, adjusting for age. Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the effect of "service in Vietnam" adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, education, and marital status. Vietnam veterans had an increased frequency of eczema (odds ratio [OR] = 6.54), radiculopathy (OR = 3.98), diabetes (OR = 2.69), peripheral neuropathy (OR = 2.39), and hypertension (OR = 2.29), compared to non-Vietnam veterans, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, higher levels of exposure among Vietnam veterans were associated with increased frequency of ischemic heart disease (p < 0.01), valvular heart disease (p < 0.01), and retinopathy (p < 0.01). We conclude that exposure to Agent Orange is associated with various health impacts in Korean Vietnam veterans. PMID:12916744

  20. Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code −10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure. PMID:24840377

  1. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  2. Asian values scale: comparisons of Korean and Korean-American high school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2006-02-01

    This study was intended to examine mean differences on the Asian Values Scale between Korean and Korean-American high school students. For 199 Korean and 217 second generation Korean-American high school students, means on emotional self-control and collectivism were significantly different. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of Korean high school students (M=4.5, SD=0.6) and second-generation Korean-American high school students (M=3.9, SD=0.5) indicated significant differences (p<.001). This present study contrasts directly with Kim, Atkinson, and Yang's past findings of no differences between first- and second-generation Asian college students. PMID:16673975

  3. Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts. PMID:21368564

  4. Preventive Health Services Utilization Among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of preventive health services among Korean American adults. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 212 Korean Americans in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Guided by the Andersen's behavioral model, the authors examined whether predisposing (age, gender, marital status, household size, education), enabling (income, health insurance, English proficiency, citizenship, social network), and need (health status) factors are predictive of Korean Americans' preventive health services utilization. A binomial logistic regression showed that younger age, male, noncitizen, low income, no insurance, a larger family network, and better perceived health were associated with decreased odds of using preventive health services. PMID:27171558

  5. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  6. The North Korean nuclear dilemma.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-01-01

    The current nuclear crisis, the second one in ten years, erupted when North Korea expelled international nuclear inspectors in December 2002, then withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and claimed to be building more nuclear weapons with the plutonium extracted from the spent fuel rods heretofore stored under international inspection. These actions were triggered by a disagreement over U.S. assertions that North Korea had violated the Agreed Framework (which froze the plutonium path to nuclear weapons to end the first crisis in 1994) by clandestinely developing uranium enrichment capabilities providing an alternative path to nuclear weapons. With Stanford University Professor John Lewis and three other Americans, I was allowed to visit the Yongbyon Nuclear Center on Jan. 8, 2004. We toured the 5 MWe reactor, the 50 MWe reactor construction site, the spent fuel pool storage building, and the radiochemical laboratory. We concluded that North Korea has restarted its 5 MWe reactor (which produces roughly 6 kg of plutonium annually), it removed the 8000 spent fuel rods that were previously stored under IAEA safeguards from the spent fuel pool, and that it most likely extracted the 25 to 30 kg of plutonium contained in these fuel rods. Although North Korean officials showed us what they claimed was their plutonium metal product from this reprocessing campaign, we were not able to conclude definitively that it was in fact plutonium metal and that it came from the most recent reprocessing campaign. Nevertheless, our North Korean hosts demonstrated that they had the capability, the facility and requisite capacity, and the technical expertise to produce plutonium metal. On the basis of our visit, we were not able to address the issue of whether or not North Korea had a 'deterrent' as claimed - that is, we were not able to conclude that North Korea can build a nuclear device and that it can integrate nuclear devices into suitable delivery systems. However

  7. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  8. Current Developments in Sino-Korean Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1977-01-01

    This article examines and evaluates studies in the field of Sino-Korean linguistics appearing primarily since 1955. Discussions focus on how studies were developed, the current state, and what problems exise. A bibliography is included. (CHK)

  9. Korean Translation of the AANCART Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sue

    2006-01-01

    The project described herein is the preparation of a culturally and linguistically appropriate Korean version of a core questionnaire developed by the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training. This version will assist in the design of interventions related to cancer for the Korean American population in the future. Following an extensive literature search, procedures recommended by various studies were incorporated into the translation process. Two final Korean versions were pilot tested to evaluate which way of asking a particular question was better, as perceived by respondents. The findings from this project helped enhance the linguistic and cultural competencies in both instruments. A cognitive walk-through interview achieved by probing after each question led respondents to offer feedback about the questions, resulting in a further review and revision of the questionnaire. The next step will be to administer the final Korean version of the two instruments to a large random sample. PMID:17344935

  10. Diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia: Dilemma for Korean pathologists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Mee; Cho, Mee-Yon; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kang, Dae Young; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Woo Ho; Jin, So-Young; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Chang, Hee Kyung; Yu, Eunsil; Jung, Eun Sun; Chang, Mee Soo; Joo, Jong Eun; Joo, Mee; Kim, Youn Wha; Park, Do Youn; Kang, Yun Kyung; Park, Sun Hoo; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Young Bae; Park, Ho Sung; Chae, Yang Seok; Kwon, Kye Won; Chang, Hee Jin

    2011-06-01

    The histopathological diagnosis of gastric mucosal biopsy and endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens is important, but the diagnostic criteria, terminology, and grading system are not the same in the East and West. A structurally invasive focus is necessary to diagnose carcinoma for most Western pathologists, but Japanese pathologists make a diagnosis of cancer based on severe dysplastic cytologic atypia irrespective of the presence of invasion. Although the Vienna classification was introduced to reduce diagnostic discrepancies, it has been difficult to adopt due to different concepts for gastric epithelial neoplastic lesions. Korean pathologists experience much difficulty making a diagnosis because we are influenced by Japanese pathologists as well as Western medicine. Japan is geographically close to Korea, and academic exchanges are active. Additionally, Korean doctors are familiar with Western style medical terminology. As a result, the terminology, definitions, and diagnostic criteria for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia are very heterogeneous in Korea. To solve this problem, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has made an effort and has suggested guidelines for differential diagnosis: (1) a diagnosis of carcinoma is based on invasion; (2) the most important characteristic of low grade dysplasia is the architectural pattern such as regular distribution of crypts without severe branching, budding, or marked glandular crowding; (3) if nuclear pseudostratification occupies more than the basal half of the cryptal cells in three or more adjacent crypts, the lesion is considered high grade dysplasia; (4) if severe cytologic atypia is present, careful inspection for invasive foci is necessary, because the risk for invasion is very high; and (5) other structural or nuclear atypia should be evaluated to make a final decision such as cribriform pattern, papillae, ridges, vesicular nuclei

  11. Length of Hospital Stay After Stroke: A Korean Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the length of hospital stay (LOS) after stroke using the database of the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Methods We matched the data of patients admitted for ischemic stroke onset within 7 days in the Departments of Neurology of 12 hospitals to the data from the database of the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. We recruited 3,839 patients who were hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2011, had a previous modified Rankin Scale of 0, and no acute hospital readmission after discharge. The patients were divided according to the initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score (mild, ≤5; moderate, >5 and ≤13; severe, >13); we compared the number of hospitals that admitted patients and LOS after stroke according to severity, age, and sex. Results The mean LOS was 115.6±219.0 days (median, 19.4 days) and the mean number of hospitals was 3.3±2.1 (median, 2.0). LOS was longer in patients with severe stroke (mild, 65.1±146.7 days; moderate, 223.1±286.0 days; and severe, 313.2±336.8 days). The number of admitting hospitals was greater for severe stroke (mild, 2.9±1.7; moderate, 4.3±2.6; and severe, 4.5±2.4). LOS was longer in women and shorter in patients less than 65 years of age. Conclusion LOS after stroke differed according to the stroke severity, sex, and age. These results will be useful in determining the appropriate LOS after stroke in the Korean medical system. PMID:27606274

  12. The Korean Cough Guideline: Recommendation and Summary Statement.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chin Kook; Jung, Ji Ye; Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Park, Dong Ah; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Je Hyeong; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Jinkyeong; Choi, Eun Young; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Hui Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases organized cough guideline committee and cough guideline was developed by this committee. The purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians to diagnose correctly and treat efficiently patients with cough. In this article, we have stated recommendation and summary of Korean cough guideline. We also provided algorithm for acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered. If UACS is suspicious, first generation anti-histamine and nasal decongestant can be used empirically. In CVA, inhaled corticosteroid is recommended in order to improve cough. In GERD, proton pump inhibitor is recommended in order to improve cough. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, habit, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factor, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic cough can be also considered as cause of chronic cough. Level of evidence for treatment is mostly low. Thus, in this guideline, many recommendations are based on expert opinion. Further study regarding treatment for cough is mandatory. PMID:26770230

  13. The Korean Cough Guideline: Recommendation and Summary Statement

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Chin Kook; Jung, Ji Ye; Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Park, Dong Ah; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Je Hyeong; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Jinkyeong; Choi, Eun Young; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases organized cough guideline committee and cough guideline was developed by this committee. The purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians to diagnose correctly and treat efficiently patients with cough. In this article, we have stated recommendation and summary of Korean cough guideline. We also provided algorithm for acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered. If UACS is suspicious, first generation anti-histamine and nasal decongestant can be used empirically. In CVA, inhaled corticosteroid is recommended in order to improve cough. In GERD, proton pump inhibitor is recommended in order to improve cough. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, habit, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factor, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic cough can be also considered as cause of chronic cough. Level of evidence for treatment is mostly low. Thus, in this guideline, many recommendations are based on expert opinion. Further study regarding treatment for cough is mandatory. PMID:26770230

  14. Phonological Development of Word-Initial Korean Obstruents in Young Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially.…

  15. Korean Year 3 Children's Environmental Literacy: A Prerequisite for a Korean Environmental Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Lee, Eun Ah; Ko, Hee Ryung; Shin, Dong Hee; Lee, Moon Nam; Min, Byeong Mee; Kang, Kyung Hee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean children's environmental literacy levels and the variables that affect their environmental literacy. An instrument, the Environment Literacy Instrument for Korean Children (ELIKC), was developed that measures four different dimensions (knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and skills) using 69 items…

  16. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  17. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-Young; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment. PMID:26957728

  18. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-young; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment. PMID:26957728

  19. Clinicopathologic Review of Ovarian Masses in Korean Premenarchal Girls

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun Young; Byun, Seung Won; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Keun Ho; Park, Jong Sup; Lee, Sung Jong; Hur, Soo Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the clinicopathological characteristics of ovarian masses in Korean premenarchal girls. Design: The data collected from hospital medical records were reviewed retrospectively regarding age, presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Participants: There were 65 premenarcheal girls who underwent surgery at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between January 1990 and March 2012. Results: The most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain (n=31, 47.7%), followed by palpable abdominal masses 16 (n=16, 24.6%), abdominal distension (n=8, 12.3%), vaginal bleeding (n=4, 6.2%), incidental finding (n=3, 4.6%), difficulty in urination or defecation (n=2, 3.1%), and prenatal sonographic findings (n=1, 1.5%). Of the patients with benign tumors, including non-neoplastic lesions and benign cysts, 26 (51%) underwent cystectomy, 6 (11.8%) underwent oophorectomy, 17 (33.3%) underwent unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and none underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Of the patients with malignant tumors, 2 (14.3%) underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 7 (50%) underwent unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 2 (14.3%) underwent oophorectomy, and 2 (14.3%) underwent cystectomy. Conclusion: Abdominal pain was the most common symptom. However, the incidence of abdominal distension was higher in patients with malignant tumors than in those with benign tumors. We assessed clinical features, operative outcomes, and histological classifications of Korean prememarchal girls with ovarian masses. Further studies with a larger number of subjects are needed to confirm our results. PMID:23801894

  20. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical administration after the korean liberation: focusing on regulating the pharmaceutical affairs law(yaksabeop) in 1953.

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    The pharmaceutical administration under U.S Military Government in Korea and government of the Republic of Korea aimed at cleaning up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism which the pharmaceutical administration attached police administration and preparing with legal and systemic basis after the Korean liberation. The pharmaceutical bureau under U.S Military Government in Korea was reorganized as the independent division. The pharmaceutical bureau focused on preserving order, narcotics control and the distribution of relief drug. U.S Military Government proceeded supply side pharmaceutical policy for the distribution of relief drug without constructing human and material infrastructure. After the Korean War, Korean society asked the construction of system for nation building. Korean national assembly regulated National Medical Law(Gukmin uiryobeop) for promotion of public health in 1951. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law(Yaksabeop) was regulated in 1953, and it prescribed the job requirement of pharmacist, apothecary, and drug maker and seller, and presented the frame of managing medical supplies. The Pharmaceutical Law originally planned the ideal pharmaceutical administration, but it rather secured the status of traditional apothecary, and drug maker and seller. On the contrary, though the Pharmaceutical Law guaranteed the traditional druggists, it did not materialize reproduction system such as educational and license system. It means that the traditional druggists would be degenerated in the near future. After the armistice agreement in 1953, Korean was in medical difficulties. Korean government was suffered from the deficiency of medical resources. Because of destruction of pharmaceutical facilities, Korean had to depend on United States and international aid. The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law did not cleaned up the vestiges of Japanese imperialism, and compromised with reality lacked human and material infrastructure. As a result, the law became the origin of

  1. Deficits in Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia: A Replication Study with Korean Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated the deficit in the recognition of facial emotions in a sample of medicated, stable Korean patients with schizophrenia using Korean facial emotion pictures and examined whether the possible impairments would corroborate previous findings. Methods Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy control subjects completed the Facial Affect Identification Test with a new set of 44 colored photographs of Korean faces including the six universal emotions as well as neutral faces. Results Korean patients with schizophrenia showed impairments in the recognition of sad, fearful, and angry faces [F(1,114)=6.26, p=0.014; F(1,114)=6.18, p=0.014; F(1,114)=9.28, p=0.003, respectively], but their accuracy was no different from that of controls in the recognition of happy emotions. Higher total and three subscale scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) correlated with worse performance on both angry and neutral faces. Correct responses on happy stimuli were negatively correlated with negative symptom scores of the PANSS. Patients with schizophrenia also exhibited different patterns of misidentification relative to normal controls. Conclusion These findings were consistent with previous studies carried out with different ethnic groups, suggesting cross-cultural similarities in facial recognition impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:21253414

  2. [Lee Jungsook, a Korean independence activist and a nurse during the Japanese colonial period].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook Young

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the life of Lee Jungsook, a Korean nurse, as a independence activist during the Japanese colonial period. Lee Jungsook(1896-1950) was born in Bukchung in Hamnam province. She studied at Chungshin girl's high school and worked at Severance hospital. The characteristics and culture of her educational background and work place were very important factors which influenced greatly the life of Lee Jungsook. She learned independent spirit and nationalism from Chungshin girls' high school and worked as nurse at the Severance hospital which were full of intense aspiration for Korea's independence. Many of doctors, professors and medical students were participated in the 3.1 Independence Movement. Lee Jungsook was a founding member of Hyulsungdan who tried to help the independence activists in prison and their families and worked as a main member of Korean Women's Association for Korean Independece and Kyungsung branch of the Korean Red Cross. She was sent to jail by the Japanese government for her independence activism. After being released after serving two years confinement, she worked for the Union for Women's Liberation as a founding member. Lee Joungsook was a great independence activist who had a nursing care spirit as a nurse. PMID:25985776

  3. Association of TAP1 and TAP2 genes with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Roh, Eun Youn; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Shin, Sue; Song, Eun Young; Park, Myoung Hee

    2015-06-01

    Tuberculosis remains an important public health problem in Koreans. However, very few studies have reported on the genetic factors associated with TB susceptibility in Koreans. The aim of this study was to elucidate the genetic factors associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We investigated the transporter associated with antigen processing -1 (TAP1) and TAP2 gene polymorphisms in 160 Korean PTB patients (categorized according to extent of lesion and TB medication history) and 210 controls. TAP2*C/E frequency was significantly increased in the PTB (pc = 0.004, OR = 2.28). TAP2*Bky2/C/E were enriched in the retreated, far-advanced and total PTB compared with the controls (pc = 0.015, OR = 3.27; pc = 0.019, OR = 2.56; pc = 2.8 × 10(-4) , OR = 2.42, respectively). In the comparison of TAP2 gene with the DRB1*08:03, which is associated with TAP2*Bky2 and PTB in Koreans, we demonstrated the hierarchy of these association factors. TAP2*C/E is independent factors as strong as DRB1*08:03, and TAP2*C/E interacts with DRB1*08:03, resulting in a striking combined association. Our results suggest that TAP2 gene has an association with PTB susceptibility, the extent of the lesion or recurrence. These associations are independent from and additive with DRB1*08:03. PMID:25846714

  4. How four different political systems have shaped the modernization of traditional Korean medicine between 1900 and 1960.

    PubMed

    Dongwon, Shin

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, I examine the modern formation of traditional Korean medicine and discuss the characteristics of the modernization, or modernity, of the medicine. I probe for answers to three questions: first, prior to the twentieth century, what were the main factors that traditional Korean medicine needed to be transformed into a new one? Second, how did four states, the Taehan Empire, colonial Korea, North Korea, and South Korea, treat traditional medicine differently, and why? Third, what are the main characteristics of the modernization of traditional Korean medicine? In examining these questions, I found the following four factors to be important in shaping the modern formation of traditional Korean medicine during the twentieth century: first, the influences of Western science and institutions; second, the rise of nationalism; third, the economics of the state; and fourth, the effectiveness of traditional medicine. Among them, the introduction of Western science and institutions was the most important factor. All the different states in modern Korea realized that Western science and institutions were indispensable for the country to be a powerful nation and to enhance people's welfare. The degree of confidentiality in scientific Western medicine determined the number of traditional medical practitioners and their professional status. The modernization also was greatly affected by modern nationalism, which clashed with Westernization. Many Koreans and the Korean governments regarded the traditional medicine as something culturally valuable to protect from Western culture. Especially, the majority of Koreans who had experienced the cruelty of the Japanese rule under colonization tended to believe that Japan, a foreign ruler, had suppressed traditional Korean medicine as a liquidation policy of Korean culture during the colonial period. This belief contributed greatly to the recovery of the traditional doctors' prestige in South Korea and North Korea after

  5. Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

  6. Pedagogical Significance of Morphological Awareness in Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Young Ok; Jung, Chae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean children understand the internal structure of compound words in Korean and English and whether there is a relationship between their performance in tasks that measure their understanding of the morphological structure of compounds in Korean and English. This study also examined the effects of gender, grade,…

  7. Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

  8. Culture-Loaded Expressions in Korean EFL Students' Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Yongjae Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the inevitability of native culture-loaded expressions in Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language students' compositions. Cultures, both native and target play a major role in forming ideas in any communicative situation. Thus, Korean EFL students' compositions all reveal without exception the traits of Korean culture. (Author/VWL)

  9. Korean Cultural Influences on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsalus, Ae-Jung Chang; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of Korean culture on the results of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) by comparing profiles of 147 Korean and 132 American college students. Results indicate that MCMI-III personality profile differences exist between Korean and American college students. Discusses implications for mental health…

  10. Evidence for the VP Constituent from Child Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young-mee Yu; Hong, Ki-Sun

    An examination of children's sentence structure in Korean argues for a verb phrase (VP) constituent in child grammar, but suggests that this does not necessarily support its existence in adult Korean grammar. Korean children, it is noted, generally restrict their sentences to one word order, subject-object-verb, despite the existence of another…

  11. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  12. Text Structure of Korean Speakers' Argumentative Essays in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yeon Hee

    1988-01-01

    Examines text structure of argumentative writing in English by Korean speakers as compared with native speakers'(NS) writing in Korean and NS writing in English. Interactive text analysis showed English essays had a clear structural pattern that the Korean essays lacked. Sample essays and questionnaires are included in Appendix. (Author/LMO)

  13. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  14. Shifting Human Resources in South Korean Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyaeweol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the changing status of South Korea in the world economy has affected the movement of Korean human resources in science and technology. Examines trends in overseas study by Korean graduate students, the migration of highly educated personnel, and the recent repatriation of Korean scientists and engineers. (SV)

  15. Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Mi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

  16. Cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans in the online community.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans tend to have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all US population. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. However, there is little known about their cancer information seeking behaviors and needs. The purpose of the study was to understand cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from MissyUSA, which is one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 393 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed; 120 were deleted because the messages were not related to cancer health information. A total of 273 posted free-texts were analyzed for this study, using an open source text-mining software program called AntConc 3.2.4. The extracted terms were categorized based on coding systems, after linguistic variations were handled. Terms such as "surgery," "breast cancer," "examination," "cancer" (unspecified), "Korea," and "pain" were most frequently identified. Medical topics accounted for 71.4 % of the main topics of the postings. Treatment was the most frequently discussed in the medical topics while in the non-medical category, the most frequently discussed topic was recommendations for hospitals or doctors. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern, followed by cervical and liver cancer. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their cancer information seeking trends and information needs. PMID:24198135

  17. Translation of Korean Medicine Use to ICD-Codes Using National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Ye-Rin; Chae, Younbyoung; Park, So-Youn; Oh, In-Hwan; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Korean medicine was incorporated into the Korean Classification of Diseases (KCD) 6 through the development of U codes (U20–U99). Studies of the burden of disease have used summary measures such as disability-adjusted life years. Although Korean medicine is included in the official health care system, studies of the burden of disease that include Korean medicine are lacking. Methods. A data-based approach was used with National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort data for the year 2012. U code diagnoses for patients covered by National Health Insurance were collected. Using the main disease and subdisease codes, the proportion of U codes was redistributed into the related KCD 6 codes and visualized. U code and KCD code relevance was appraised prior to the analysis by consultation with medical professionals and from the beta draft version of the International Classification of Diseases-11 traditional medicine chapter. Results. This approach enabled redistribution of U codes into KCD 6 codes. Musculoskeletal diseases had the greatest increase in the burden of disease through this approach. Conclusion. This study provides a possible method of incorporating Korean medicine into burden of disease analyses through a data-based approach. Further studies should analyze potential yearly differences. PMID:27069494

  18. Translation of Korean Medicine Use to ICD-Codes Using National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Ye-Rin; Chae, Younbyoung; Park, So-Youn; Oh, In-Hwan; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Korean medicine was incorporated into the Korean Classification of Diseases (KCD) 6 through the development of U codes (U20-U99). Studies of the burden of disease have used summary measures such as disability-adjusted life years. Although Korean medicine is included in the official health care system, studies of the burden of disease that include Korean medicine are lacking. Methods. A data-based approach was used with National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort data for the year 2012. U code diagnoses for patients covered by National Health Insurance were collected. Using the main disease and subdisease codes, the proportion of U codes was redistributed into the related KCD 6 codes and visualized. U code and KCD code relevance was appraised prior to the analysis by consultation with medical professionals and from the beta draft version of the International Classification of Diseases-11 traditional medicine chapter. Results. This approach enabled redistribution of U codes into KCD 6 codes. Musculoskeletal diseases had the greatest increase in the burden of disease through this approach. Conclusion. This study provides a possible method of incorporating Korean medicine into burden of disease analyses through a data-based approach. Further studies should analyze potential yearly differences. PMID:27069494

  19. Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

    2008-09-01

    American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

  20. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  1. Errors in Inflectional Morphemes as an Index of Linguistic Competence of Korean Heritage Language Learners and American Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to whether heritage languages learners are exposed to early but are interrupted manifest as L1 competence or share more…

  2. Understanding Cultural Issues in Diabetes Self-Management Behaviors of Korean Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Seok; Yang, Kyeongra; Lee, Jia; Min, Jiwon; Kim, Kevin H.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore potential factors affecting self-management behaviors in Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (KIT2Ds). Methods A qualitative descriptive design guided this study. Semi-structured interviews lasting 45-60 minutes were conducted with 20 KIT2Ds in the participant’s preferred language; in all cases this was Korean. Each interview was audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Data analysis was performed in two steps. The data written in Korean were initially analyzed by three bilingual researchers. A qualitative researcher then participated in the analysis to refine the findings for presentation to an English speaking audience while staying true to the data and preserving the nuanced Korean meanings. Results The mean age of the sample was 64. 5 ± 11.6 years (9 men and 11 women). The mean years of staying in the U. S. and age at diabetes mellitus diagnosis were 23.6 ± 9.7 years and 52.5 ± 12.3 years, respectively. Three major ideas were identified: (a) issues on treatment regimen related to both medications and diet, (b) resources that helped or hindered their ability to manage diabetes, and (c) the physician/patient relationship. Conclusions There were important cultural nuances that need to be addressed to better prepare KIT2Ds to manage their diabetes more effectively. A culture specific program should extend beyond a diabetes self-management education delivered in Korean language. Rather, content and education methods need to consider acculturation effects on diabetes management behaviors. PMID:23019236

  3. Lessons of the North Korean crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarr, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The crisis involving North Korea`s suspected nuclear weapon program is over, at least for now. Pyongyang has agreed to suspend its decision to withdraw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and to assume its obligations allowing continued International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities, although it has yet to accept IAEA {open_quotes}special{close_quotes} inspections of suspect nuclear sites. In exchange, North Korea obtained a few specific commitments from the United States - nuclear non-aggression, for example - as well as hints of longer-term benefits such as high-level US-North Korean talks extending to other topics, the cancellation of the US-South Korean {open_quotes}Team Spirit{close_quotes} military exercise, the right to reciprocal inspections in South Korea and an influx of South Korean and Japanese investment, provided North Korea meets its obligations under the NPT.

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs among Older Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Young; Lee, Eunice E.; Kim, Mi Ja; Fogg, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Korean American women’s breast cancer screening rates are low, and the rates among older Korean American women are even lower. This article describes health beliefs related to older Korean American women’s screening behaviors, comparing them to beliefs of younger Korean American women. The 73 women age 65 and older had significantly different health beliefs than the 114 women between ages 40 and 64. Further, older women’s perceptions of the seriousness of the disease and benefits of and barriers to taking action to prevent the disease predated their screening behaviors. Interventions to change the health beliefs of older Korean American women are suggested. PMID:19715259

  5. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  6. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  7. Genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  8. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  9. A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies. PMID:26024377

  10. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  11. Koreans in Japan: A minority's Changing Relationship with Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Kaori H.

    2004-03-01

    Koreans form the largest ethnic minority group in Japan. The present study explores the situation of Korean pupils in Japanese schools by analyzing recent changes in four areas:(1) governmental and school-level policies, (2) school-level programs targeted at Korean children, (3) Korean pupils' academic achievements and (4) their micro-level encounter with schooling. It shows that Japanese schools are now more willing to accommodate special needs of Koreans in mainstream schooling and that Korean students experience schooling more positively than was the case in their parents' generation. The study argues that their relationship with Japanese schools has undergone a significant transformation at least partially because of such changes, even as the shifting nature of the relationship has a long-term influence on Koreans' beliefs about schools. Central government policies are seen as having adjusted in reply to existing school practices, themselves representing a response to classroom reality and local civil movements.

  12. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors. PMID:21404760

  13. Tobacco Dependence Treatment for Korean Americans: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S; Kim, Seong-Ho; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The study was conducted to examine the relative effectiveness of two psychosocial treatments (cognitive behavior therapy with cultural tailoring intervention versus brief medication management). Methods The study used a two-arm randomized controlled trial of individual therapy in which participant assignment was stratified by gender. Data were collected at baseline and at four follow-up points: one and four weeks and three and six months from the quit date. The intervention condition received eight 40-minute weekly sessions of individualized counseling using cognitive behavior therapy and cultural tailoring intervention, while the control condition received eight 10-minute weekly sessions of individualized counseling focusing on medication management. Both conditions received 8-week nicotine patches. Results Thirty Korean immigrants participated in the study. By intention-to-treat analysis, 57.1% of participants in the intervention and 18.8% of participants in the control had 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the 6-month follow-up (odds ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.12–26.04, p = 0.04). Participants’ self-reported abstinence was biochemically validated with breath carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine tests. Conclusions The combination of cognitive behavior therapy and cultural tailoring intervention had a better treatment outcome compared to brief medication management. The promising result suggests the need to further test the intervention in a larger sample and longer follow-ups before it can be adapted in clinical settings. PMID:21785963

  14. Vowel production in Korean, Korean-accented English, and American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jimin; Weismer, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The current study compares vowel formant frequencies and durations produced by ten native speakers of Korean, those same speakers producing American English vowels, and ten native speakers of American English. The Korean speakers were chosen carefully to have a minimum of 2 years, and maximum of 5 years residence in the United States; all speakers were between the ages of 22 and 27. In addition, the native speakers of Korean were chosen, by means of a small-scale dialect-severity experiment, from a larger pool of speakers to achieve some homogeneity in their mastery of English phonetics. The full vowel systems of both languages were explored, and a rate condition was included (conversational versus fast) to test the hypothesis that the English vowel space is modified by rate differently for native speakers of Korean who produce English, versus native speakers of English. Results will be discussed in terms of language- and rate-induced adjustments of the vowel systems under study.

  15. Working Papers on Asian American Studies: Annotated Bibliography on Koreans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christopher

    This classified annotated bibliography on Koreans in America includes references on the following topics: (1) Korean American directories, (2) immigration history, (3) deportation cases, (4) Korean students in the U.S., (5) Korean Americans in the Asian American Movement, (6) state and federal legislation affecting Koreans in America, (7) Korean…

  16. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  17. Immigration, barriers to healthcare and transnational ties: A case study of South Korean immigrants in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Kwak, Min-Jung

    2015-05-01

    The paper analyzes the healthcare-seeking behavior of South Korean immigrants in Toronto, Canada, and how transnationalism shapes post-migration health and health-management strategies. Built upon largely separate research areas in ethnicity and health, health geography, and transnationalism, the paper conceptualizes immigrant health as influenced by individual characteristics, the migration and resettlement experience, and place effects at both a local and a transnational scale. A mixed-method approach is used to capture insights into health status and experiences in accessing local and transnational healthcare among South Korean immigrants - a fast growing visible minority group in Canada. Statistical analysis of data from the Canadian Community Health Survey discloses patterns and trends in health and healthcare use among the Korean Canadian, overall foreign-born, and native-born populations. Focus groups reveal in-depth information on the decline of Korean immigrants' health status and the array of sociocultural, economic and geographic barriers in accessing healthcare in Canada, which gave rise to their transnational use of health resources in the home country. The transnational strategies included traveling to South Korea for medical examinations or treatment, importing medications from South Korea to Canada, and consulting health resources in South Korea by phone or email. The results provide timely knowledge on how a recent immigrant group adapts to Canada in the domain of health and adds a transnational perspective to the literature on ethnicity and health. PMID:25481040

  18. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  19. The influence of korean nurses' immigration into Germany on the nursing culture and policy of the countries: a transnational perspective.

    PubMed

    Sim, Na Hye

    2013-04-01

    While many studies have addressed the Korean nurse immigration to Germany in 1960s-70s in terms of the nurses' personal histories from a national perspective, few studies have pointed to its transnational impact on the medical field. Given this gap, the paper discusses its significance in the medical history through examining the nursing culture and policy changes made in both countries initiated by the immigration of the qualified Korean nurses. For this end, the paper first discusses differences between Korea and Germany in the nursing culture and professional standards at the time of the nurse immigration. The study then examines the transnational changes in the two nations in the nursing professional culture and related policies including nurse education and qualification process. More specifically, the paper argues that the Korean female nurses not only supplied labor in need but also contributed to the medical policy changes in Germany. The prevalent stereotype of nursing as a non-professional field in the German society begin to change while experiencing professionally qualified Asian immigrant nurses and practiced treatments that had been conduced by German doctors by then. This observation actually leads to the policy level reforms in nursing education and qualification process to meet the need of high-quality nurses when the labor immigration was stopped in mid-1970s. The paper also points out that the influence of the nurse immigration on the Korean society is not merely economic; it brought the policy level reforms in nurse education and qualification as well. The immigration, resulting in a lack of nurses in the Korean society, triggered two main responses: the expansion of the existing nurse education system and the establishment of a new system called "nursing assistant." PMID:23695752

  20. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2±3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2±6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ2=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. PMID:26770046

  1. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Jung Jae; Moon, Duk-Soo; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Min A; Min, Seonyeong; Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yoo, Seo Koo; Chung, Un-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2 ± 3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2 ± 6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ(2)=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. PMID:26770046

  2. [Becoming medical doctors in colonial Korea: focusing on the faculty of medical colleges in early north Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Geun Bae

    2014-12-01

    This paper traces how Koreans of north area became medical doctors in colonial Korea. Most of the past research have focused only on the well-known medical doctors, or even when they discussed a great number of doctors, many research tended to only pay attention to the explicit final results of those doctors. This research, on the other hand, includes ordinary medical doctors as well as the renowed ones, and adjusts the focus to the lifetime period of their growth and activities. As a result, the misunderstanding and obscurity about the Korean medical doctors of north area during this period have been cleared. The new characteristics of the Korean medical doctors of this period have been found, along with their embodiment of historical significance. At the time, Koreans had to get through a number of qualifications in order to become doctors. First is the unique background of origin in which the family held interest in the modern education and was capable of supporting it financially. Second is the long-term status of education that the education from elementary to high school was completed without interruption. Third is the academic qualification that among various institutions of higher education, medical science was chosen as a major. Fourth is the condition of career in which as the career as a doctor had consistently continued. Thus, in oder to become a modern medical doctor, Koreans had to properly complete these multiple steps of process. The group of Korean medical doctors in north area, which was formed after getting through these series of process, possessed a number of characteristics. Firstly, as the upper-middle classes constituted the majority of medical doctors in Korea, the societal status of doctors rose and the foundation for the career as a doctor to be persisted as the family occupation settled. Secondly, the research career and academic degree became the principal method to escape from the discrimination and hierarchy existed between doctors. A

  3. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L.; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    A three-culture comparison – native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers – of two types of parenting cognitions – attributions and self-perceptions – was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children’s development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers’ attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea. PMID:26912926

  4. A medical decision support system based on support vector machines and the genetic algorithm for the evaluation of fetal well-being.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Hasan

    2013-04-01

    A new scheme was presented in this study for the evaluation of fetal well-being from the cardiotocogram (CTG) recordings using support vector machines (SVM) and the genetic algorithm (GA). CTG recordings consist of fetal heart rate (FHR) and the uterine contraction (UC) signals and are widely used by obstetricians for assessing fetal well-being. Features extracted from normal and pathological FHR and UC signals were used to construct an SVM based classifier. The GA was then used to find the optimal feature subset that maximizes the classification performance of the SVM based normal and pathological CTG classifier. An extensive clinical CTG data, classified by three expert obstetricians, was used to test the performance of the new scheme. It was demonstrated that the new scheme was able to predict the fetal state as normal or pathological with 99.3 % and 100 % accuracy, respectively. The results reveal that, the GA can be used to determine the critical features to be used in evaluating fetal well-being and consequently increase the classification performance. When compared to widely used ANN and ANFIS based methods, the proposed scheme performed considerably better. PMID:23321973

  5. Constraints on Noun Incorporation in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khym, Hangyoo

    1997-01-01

    A study of the noun incorporation phenomenon in Korean suggests that noun incorporation occurs at D-structure and obeys the Head Movement Constraint syntactically, and the Theme-Only Constraint semantically. First, the structure of "sunrise"-type words is identified, showing that before derivation through nominalization of the affix "-i,"…

  6. Korean-American Entrepreneurs. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung

    For many Korean Americans, the American dream of building a better future in the United States for their families is realized through a focus on entrepreneurship. Their formula for entrepreneurial success is simple and effective: (1) identifying a business opportunity; and (2) working hard to turn the opportunity into a business success. Korean…

  7. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people. PMID:25976699

  9. American Colleges See Potential in Korean Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    For colleges in the United States seeking a foothold in South Korea's formerly insular higher-education sector, the lure seems to be part location, part alumni lobbying, and part desire to be part of the country's rapid transformation. The South Korean government's newfound openness to overseas universities is helping persuade American college…

  10. Proper Human Relationships: Korean Principals' Leadership Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Miles; Son, Jong Ho

    In an attempt to better understand the values that Korean educational administrators associate with leadership, researchers surveyed a random sample of 292 subjects in South Korea in the spring of 2000. Using several well-tested instruments, the researchers were able to report findings of relevance to scholars interested in cultural influences on…

  11. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  12. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  13. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  14. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  15. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  16. Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis in Korean Patients: A Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seon Wook; Hong, Soon Kwon; Kim, Sang Hyun; Park, Jeong Hoon; Seo, Jong Keun; Sung, Ho Suk

    2009-01-01

    Background Progressive macular hypomelanosis is characterized by ill-defined, non-scaly, hypopigmented macules primarily on the trunk of the body. Although numerous cases of progressive macular hypomelanosis have been reported, there have been no clinicopathologic studies of progressive macular hypomelanosis in Korean patients. Objective In this study we examined the clinical characteristics, histologic findings, and treatment methods for progressive macular hypomelanosis in a Korean population. Methods Between 1996 and 2005, 20 patients presented to the Department of Dermatology at Busan Paik Hospital with acquired, non-scaly, confluent, hypopigmented macules on the trunk, and with no history of inflammation or infection. The medical records, clinical photographs, and pathologic findings for each patient were examined. Results The patients included 5 men and 15 women. The mean age of onset was 21.05±3.47 years. The back was the most common site of involvement. All KOH examinations were negative. A Wood's lamp examination showed hypopigmented lesions compared with the adjacent normal skin. A microscopic examination showed a reduction in the number of melanin granules in the lesions compared with the adjacent normal skin, although S-100 immunohistochemical staining did not reveal significant differences in the number of melanocytes. Among the 20 patients, 7 received topical drug therapy, 6 were treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy, 4 received oral minocycline, and 3 did not receive any treatment. Conclusion Most of the patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis had asymptomatic ill-defined, non-scaly, and symmetric hypopigmented macules, especially on the back and abdomen. Histologically, the number of melanocytes did not differ significantly between the hypopigmented macules and the normal perilesional skin. No effective treatment is known for progressive macular hypomelanosis; however, narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy may be a useful

  17. Genetics of Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Shin; Lee, Kyu Eun; Seo, Soo Hyun; Seong, Moon-Woo; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Recently, somatic mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D genes were found to be associated with the pathogenesis of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of somatic mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D and examine the correlations between these mutations and the clinical and biochemical characteristics in Korean patients with APA. Methods We performed targeted gene sequencing in 66 patients with APA to detect somatic mutations in these genes. Results Somatic KCNJ5 mutations were found in 47 (71.2%) of the 66 patients with APA (31 cases of p.G151R and 16 cases of p.L168R); these two mutations were mutually exclusive. Somatic mutations in the ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D genes were not observed. Somatic KCNJ5 mutations were more prevalent in female patients (66% versus 36.8%, respectively; P = 0.030). Moreover, patients with KCNJ5 mutations comprised a significantly higher proportion of patients younger than 35 years of age (19.1% versus 0%, respectively; P = 0.040). There were no significant differences in pre-operative blood pressure, plasma aldosterone, serum potassium, lateralization index, and adenoma size according to mutational status. Patients with KCNJ5 mutations were less likely to need antihypertensive medications after adrenalectomy compared with those without mutation (36.2% versus 63.2%; P = 0.045). Conclusions The present study demonstrated the high prevalence of somatic KCNJ5 mutations in Korean patients with APA. Carriers of somatic KCNJ5 mutations were more likely to be female. Early diagnosis and better therapeutic outcomes were associated with somatic KCNJ5 mutations in APA. PMID:26807823

  18. Job Information Deprivation in the United States: A Case Study of Korean Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the methods of job information acquisition used by recent Korean immigrants. Indicates the Koreans most frequently use personal contact with other Koreans. Reviews findings from the perspective of labor market segmentation. (Author/MK)

  19. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression in Korean American Elderly: Findings from the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Kim B.; Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Hochang Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and identify the predictors of depression among community-dwelling Korean American elderly (KAE). Design A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey using a two-step sampling strategy to obtain a representative community sample. Setting We recruited study participants at religious, service, and business establishments in the KA community (26 churches, 6 senior centers, 2 medical daycare centers, 1 supermarket). Participants Community-dwelling first-generation KAE (n=1,118; mean age ±SD; 70.5 ±7.0 years; female: 67.2%). Measurements Trained bilingual nurses and community health workers interviewed participants face-to-face for demographic information, chronic conditions, and depression using the Korean versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). Results 30.3% of KAEs were classified as having either mild (PHQ-9K score = 5 to 9; n=218, 19.5%) or clinical depression (PHQ-9K score >=10; n = 120, 10.8%), respectively. One of seven KAE (n=164, 14.7%) endorsed thoughts of death or self-injury, but only 63 (5.7%) reported utilizing mental health services. We also identified several predictors of depression, including living arrangement (living alone vs. living with family/spouse); having chronic conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, digestive disorders, or chronic bronchitis; years of education; and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high prevalence of depression among KAE and a low level of mental health service utilization. Because there are urgent needs for culturally and contextually relevant interventions, we also discuss the feasibility of community-based interventions to reduce the burden of depression, which should be incorporated into a management system for multiple chronic conditions. PMID:25554484

  1. Association between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System and the risk of metabolic abnormalities in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ju; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Sujin; Paik, Hee Young; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-12-01

    Consumption of a diet consistent with dietary guidelines is believed to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of general health. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS), which was based on the 2010 revised KDRIs, and the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Five hundred and ninety-six Korean adults between 30 and 59 years of age were recruited by advertisement to the Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital (BJGH), and those not taking regular medications and without diagnoses of fulminant disease were included. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, diagnostic parameters for metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 3-day dietary intakes from individuals in the study. The number of servings consumed from each food group was compared to the KFGS recommended servings for each of the 6 food groups. Poor adherence to the recommendations for servings of milk and dairy products (OR: 2.038, 1.128-3.682) was associated with a higher risk of MetS, and poor adherence to the guidelines for fruit consumption (OR: 1.849, 1.027-3.329) was associated with a higher risk for the existence an elevated waist circumference. Conversely, the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, and beans above the recommended number of servings was associated with a lower risk of having an elevated waist circumference (OR: 0.523, 0.288-0.950), and the consumption of vegetables above the recommended number of servings was associated with a reduced risk of having elevated fasting glucose (OR: 0.533, 0.298-0.954). These results suggest that adherence to the KFGS guidelines helps to prevent the development of MetS, but this association needs to be confirmed by prospective studies. PMID:22259682

  2. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle navigation Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications ( ...

  3. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  4. The 'Adventist advantage'. Glendale Adventist Medical Center distinguishes itself.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2002-01-01

    Glendale Adventist Medical Center, Glendale, Calif., adopted an image-building campaign to differentiate the 450-bed hospital from its neighbors. This included the headline "Adventist Advantage," used in a series of sophisticated ads, printed in gold. In all their efforts, marketers consider the sensibilities of the sizable Armenian, Korean, Hispanic and Chinese populations. PMID:12134406

  5. Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Wook; Koh, Eun Sil; Kim, Si Eun; Kim, Seok Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs) according to their duration of stay in South Korea. Methods NKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire. Results A total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years), NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years) in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea. Conclusion The NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed. PMID:26485471

  6. Psychosocial Aspects of Acne Vulgaris: A Community-based Study with Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Do, Jeong Eun; Cho, Sun-Mi; In, Sung-Il; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Sungnack

    2009-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a distressing condition that affects the majority of adolescents, but the impact of acne vulgaris on the psychological aspects in this age group is poorly understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acne, and the level of emotional, social, and functional impairments among Korean adolescents with acne. Methods Five hundred four middle school students (13~16 years) participated. The severity of acne was graded by visual examination using the Korean Acne Grading System. Self-reported questionnaires, including subjective acne severity rating, the Self Image Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Index of Peer Relations, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess psychologic status. Results There was a prevalence of acne in 78.9% of the study samples, with 10.2% of students having moderate-to-severe acne. Acne was more prevalent and severe in boys than girls. Participants with severe acne and girls had higher levels of emotional and social impairments. The longer the acne persisted, the more stress the students felt. The degree of stress and extent of self-image impairment were related to subjective severity more than objective grading. Conclusion Acne is a common disorder among Korean adolescents and appears to have a considerable impact on mental health. Dermatologists should be aware of the importance of basic psychosomatic treatment in conjunction with early medical, educational intervention in the management of acne. PMID:20523769

  7. Normal 24-hour Ambulatory Esophageal pH Values in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Won; Kim, Gyung Mi; Kim, Kyu Jong; Park, Seun Ja; Mun, Hyo Sung; Lee, Kang Dae

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring is considered the gold standard for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to quantify normal distal esophageal acid parameters in healthy Koreans. Methods Thirty healthy adults who were not on medication and were free from gastrointestinal symptoms were analyzed. Ambulatory esophageal acid (pH <4) exposure parameters were recorded at 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Results The 95th percentiles for reflux parameters assessed in the distal esophagus were as follows: percentage of total time with pH <4, 5.10%; percentage of upright time with pH <4, 7.88%; percentage of supine time with pH <4, 4.00%; number of reflux episodes, 62.7; number of reflux episodes with pH <4 for >5 minutes, 5.3; and the longest single acid-exposure episode, 21.3 minutes. Conclusions Physiological gastroesophageal reflux occurs frequently in healthy Koreans. These data provide a reference range that could be utilized in studies involving Korean subjects. PMID:20485604

  8. Clinical Experiences of Korean Medicine Treatment against Urinary Bladder Cancer in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Taeyeol; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common cancers, with 1 out of every 26 men and 1 out of every 80 women worldwide developing the disease during their lifetime. Moreover, it is a disease that predominantly affects the elderly and is becoming a major health problem as the elderly population continues to rapidly increase. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, the 5-year survival rate has remained around 75% since the 1990s, and the FDA has approved no new drugs for UBC over the last 10 years. In addition, most patients experience frequent recurrence and poor quality of life after diagnosis. Therefore, in order to solve unmet needs by alternative methods, we present our clinical cases of UBC where we observed outstanding results including regression and recurrence prevention exclusively through Traditional Korean Medicine such as (1) herbal therapy, (2) acupuncture, (3) pharmacopuncture and needle-embedding therapy, (4) moxibustion, and (5) cupping therapy. From our experience, it appears that multimodal strategies for synergistic efficiency are more effective than single Korean Medicine treatment. We hope this will encourage investigation of the efficacy of Korean Medicine treatment in clinical trials for UBC patients. PMID:27190532

  9. Is Routine Thromboprophylaxis Needed in Korean Patients Undergoing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the natural course of venous thromboembolism (VTE) without thromboprophylaxis to ascertain whether routine thromboprophylaxis is necessary following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in Korean patients. The medical records and multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging of the consecutive 77 UKAs in 70 patients were reviewed. In all patients, MDCTs were undertaken preoperatively and at 1-week after surgery, and VTE symptoms were evaluated. At postoperative 6-months, follow-up MDCTs were undertaken in all patients in whom VTEs were newly detected after surgery. VTE lesions were newly detected in 18 (26%) of the 70 patients. However, none of the patients complained of VTE-related symptoms and MDCT demonstrated that all VTEs were small and involved limited portion without lower leg edema or pleuroparenchymal complication. At the 6-month follow up MDCT, all types of VTEs were shown to be completely resolved, regardless of their location. All of the VTE lesions maintained an asymptomatic status for 6-month after surgery. VTE following UKA in Korean patients who do not receive thromboprophylaxis seems to occur frequently, but all of the VTEs are clinically insignificant and all VTEs are spontaneously regressed. Routine thromboprophylaxis or thrombolytic treatment in Korean patients undergoing UKA may not be necessary. PMID:26955247

  10. Exposure and exclusion: disenfranchised biological citizenship among the first-generation Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewoo; Haney, Charlotte; Hutchinson, Janis Faye

    2012-12-01

    Based on fieldwork with a highly uninsured and underinsured Korean American population, this article maps how the current healthcare system in the United States disenfranchises those of marginal insurance status. The vulnerability of these disenfranchised biological citizens is multiplied through exposure to disproportional health risks compounded by exclusion from essential healthcare. The first-generation Korean Americans, who commonly work in small businesses, face the double burden of increased health risks from long, stress-laden work hours and lack of access to healthcare due to the prohibitive costs of health insurance for small business owners. Even as their health needs become critical, their insurance status and costly medical bills discourage them from visiting healthcare institutions, leaving Korean Americans outside the "political economy of hope" (Good, Cult Med Psychiatry 52:61-69, 2001). Through an ethnographic examination of the daily practice of doing-without-health among a marginalized sub-group in American society, this paper articulates how disenfranchised biological citizenship goes beyond creating institutional barriers to healthcare to shaping subjectivities of the disenfranchised. PMID:23054295

  11. Factors Associated with Willingness to Use Mental Health Services in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sharon; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Responding to the concern about underutilization of mental health services in immigrant populations, the present study explored the factors associated with Korean immigrants' willingness to use mental health services. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, consideration was given to the role of predisposing (age, gender, marital status, education, and years in the United States), need (depressive symptoms), and enabling (health insurance, acculturation, and personal beliefs about depression) variables. The study estimated, using data from a sample of 205 Korean immigrants (ages 18-45), a logistic regression model of willingness to use mental health services. Although participants experiencing more depressive symptoms tend to be less willing to use these services (odds ratio [OR] = .89, p < .05), an increase in the odds of willingness to use them are found among women (OR = 2.52, p < .01), highly acculturated individuals (OR = 1.09, p < .05), and individuals who believe that depression is a medical condition (OR = 4.71, p < .01). Educational interventions focused on increasing mental health literacy may be beneficial in promoting mental health services for Korean immigrants. PMID:26984783

  12. Predictors of and health services utilization related to depressive symptoms among elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Hee; Do, Young Kyung; Maselko, Joanna; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Song, Sang Wook; Østbye, Truls

    2012-07-01

    While the prevalence, comorbidity, risk profile and health care utilization for late-life depression have been described for many Western countries, much less is known about the recent epidemiology of late-life depression in East Asian countries such as Korea. We investigated predictors for depressive symptoms and the association between depressive symptoms and the utilization of both medical care and preventive services in elderly Koreans. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of Koreans aged 60 and above (2226 men, 2911 women) who participated in the 2008 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Risk factors considered included sociodemographics, health behaviors, chronic diseases, and physical function. Health care utilization factors included hospitalization, outpatient clinic use and basic medical checkup. Being female, being unmarried, and having less education, lower household income, physical inactivity and lower weight were associated with depressive symptoms. Presence of chronic diseases and limited physical function also showed a significant association with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased odds of hospitalization and outpatient visits, but decreased the odds of utilization of basic medical checkup after controlling for potential confounders. Findings on most risk factors, except lower weight, were consistent with reports from Western countries. It is important to recognize the burden of depressive symptoms in the elderly. The interaction of such symptoms with chronic diseases should be acknowledged and considered in the clinical setting as well as in health care planning and policymaking. PMID:22531571

  13. Cloning and deliberation: Korean consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sik

    2002-12-01

    This article addresses the 2nd Korean consensus conference on cloning that was held by the Korean National commission for UNESCO in 1999. It notes that the citizens participated directly and handled the important social agenda through deliberative process. The consensus conference is another democratic form derived from preference aggregative democracy in the sense that it basically depends on public judgment of the citizens. Compared to other models (elitist or preference aggregative), it has some advantages: 1. It can solve the problem of political legitimacy. 2. It can check the partiality of expert groups in biotechnology and ethics. 3. It enables us to make informed, responsible decisions. 4. It results in education of citizens' preference. However, we need to expand the deliberative model. First, we need institutional efforts on behalf of future generations because cloning relates to them. Second, we should not include the value of life which cannot be expressed in the form of argument or discourse. PMID:12870502

  14. Analysis of the discoid meniscus in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Seong, S C; Park, M J

    1992-01-01

    Discoid meniscus is a relatively common disorder of the knee in Koreans. Its arthroscopic treatment is one of the most technically demanding procedures of this field. The purposes of this study were to define the clinical features of the discoid meniscus in Koreans and to suggest an adequate arthroscopic technique. We performed arthroscopic meniscectomy on 37 knees with a lateral discoid meniscus. The average length of follow up was 21 months. The presence of synovial hypertrophy in the knee with discoid was significantly higher than that with a non-discoid meniscal lesion. A medial midpatellar portal for the arthroscope is advisable for clean arthroscopic surgery in this situation. We obtained satisfactory results through the partial resection of the discoid meniscus, leaving the normal semilunar-shaped meniscus intact as much as possible. PMID:1738712

  15. Psycholinguistic Evidence for Inverse Scope in Korean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunyoung; O'Grady, William

    2016-08-01

    We use experimental data to shed light on the ongoing question of whether Korean allows inverse scope interpretation in sentences containing an indefinite subject and a universally quantified direct object (e.g., 'Someone bought each loaf of bread at the bakery'). The results of an off-line acceptability judgment task (n = 38) and an online self-paced reading task (n [Formula: see text] 22) indicate that inverse scope interpretations are in fact permitted in Korean as a secondary option, as is also the case in English. We argue that the dispreference for the inverse scope reading reflects processing considerations related to burden on working memory. PMID:26022290

  16. The report of coping strategies and psychosocial adjustment in Korean mothers of children with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hae-Ra; Cho, Eun Joo; Kim, Daehee; Kim, Jiyun

    2011-01-01

    Objective Parents of children with cancer must cope with multiple challenges over time. As most research on parental coping has been conducted in Western countries, little information is available on the parental experience of coping in non-Western countries. Using a new cultural sample of Korean mothers, this study describes their coping strategies. In addition, the association of particular coping patterns with mothers’ report of psychosocial adjustment is investigated. Methods A total of 200 Korean mothers of children with cancer participated in the study. Coping strategies were measured by the Coping Health Inventory for Parents in the following three categories: Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, Seeking Social Support, and Seeking Information. Maternal psychosocial adjustment was measured by psychological distress, family relationship, and social relationship subscales from the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. Results Korean mothers reported coping strategies related to Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation as being most helpful. More frequent use of coping pattern, Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, and less frequent use of coping pattern, Information-Seeking were significantly associated with lower psychological distress and better family relationship after children’s medical and maternal characteristics were controlled for. Coping pattern, Seeking Social Support was only predictive of social relationships. Conclusions This study suggests that culture may play a significant role in the report of coping among Korean mothers. Future studies should consider culturally preferred coping methods and available resources as they relate to different adjustment outcomes. PMID:19117279

  17. Validation of a Korean MMPI-2 Hwa-Byung scale using a Korean normative sample.

    PubMed

    Ketterer, Holly; Han, Kyunghee; Weed, Nathan C

    2010-07-01

    The psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of Hwa-Byung (HB), a Korean culture bound syndrome, using an updated version of the Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, were examined in Korean normative sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both the first-order four-factor model and the single second-order factor model fit the data well, but the latter may be superior because of its parsimony. The HB scale correlated modestly with age, sex, SES, and problems with family and finance. However, it showed substantial correlations with spouse ratings items that were identified a priori as prospective HB correlates, indicating excellent concurrent validity. The limitations of the study and the need for future studies employing HB patients were discussed. PMID:20658881

  18. Cultural competence and health care: Japanese, Korean, and Indian patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Andresen, J

    2001-01-01

    Cultural competence requires sensitivity to the diverse ethnic, religious, and cultural expectations of patients in our health care system. In the increasingly multicultural world of the city hospital, patients will benefit from increased cultural competency on the part of health care providers. This study interviews Japanese, Korean, and Indian immigrants to the United States, showing that these individuals hold vastly different expectations concerning: 1) when to seek medical assistance; 2) the role of the doctor in the community; 3) the role of the patient and the patient's family in conversations with the medical specialist; 4) the roles of doctors versus nurses; 5) issues of privacy and disclosure to patient and family; 6) organ donation; and 7) end-of-life care. The paper concludes with immigrants' views on what would make their medical experience in the United States more comfortable, and hence, potentially more beneficial to their mental and physical health. PMID:11908075

  19. The Korean Version of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist: Psychometric Properties in Korean School-aged Children.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Woo, Jungmin; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Sunyung; Chung, Un-Sun

    2015-08-01

    Psychosocial problems increase the risk for mental health problems and increase the need for health care services in children and adolescents. Primary care practice is a valuable avenue for identifying the need for more specialized mental health care. We hypothesized that Korean version of the pediatric symptom checklist (PSC) would be a useful tool for early detection of psychosocial problems in children and adolescents in Korea and we aimed to suggest cut-off scores for detecting meaningful psychosocial problems. A total of 397 children with their parents and 97 child patients with their parents were asked to complete the PSC Korean version and the child behavior checklist (CBCL). The internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the PSC as well as the cut-off score of the PSC was determined via receiver operating characteristic analysis of the CBCL score, clinical group scores and non-clinical group scores. The internal consistency of the PSC-Korean version was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95). The test-retest reliability was r = 0.73 (P < 0.001). Using clinical CBCL scores (total score, externalizing score, internalizing score, respectively ≥ 60) and presence of clinical diagnosis, the recommended cut-off score of the PSC was 14. Using 494 Korean children aged 7-12 yr, the current study assessed the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the PSC and suggested a cut-off for recommending further clinical assessment. The present results suggest that the Korean version of the PSC has good internal consistency and validity using the standard of CBCL scores. PMID:26240496

  20. Derivation of the Korean radwaste scaling factor

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang Yong Jee; Hong Joo Ahn; Se Chul Sohn; Sun Ho Han; Ki Seop Choi

    2007-07-01

    The concentrations of several radionuclides in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) drums have to be determined before shipping to disposal facilities. A notice, by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the Korean Government, related to the disposal of LILW drums came into effect at the beginning of 2005, with regards to a radionuclide regulation inside a waste drum. MOST allows for an indirect radionuclide assay using a scaling factor to measure the inventories due to the difficulty of nondestructively measuring the essential {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides inside a drum. That is, a scaling factor calculated through a correlation of the {alpha} or {beta}-emitting nuclide (DTM, Difficult-To-Measure) with a {gamma}-emitting nuclide (ETM, Easy-To-Measure) which has systematically similar properties with DTM nuclides. In this study, radioactive wastes, such as spent resin and dry active waste which were generated at different sites of a PWR and a site of a PHWR type Korean NPP, were partially sampled and analyzed for regulated radionuclides by using radiochemical methods. According to a reactor type and a waste form, the analysis results of each radionuclide were classified. Korean radwaste scaling factor was derived from database of radionuclide concentrations. (authors)

  1. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  2. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

  3. The value of care algorithms.

    PubMed

    Myers, Timothy

    2006-09-01

    The use of protocols or care algorithms in medical facilities has increased in the managed care environment. The definition and application of care algorithms, with a particular focus on the treatment of acute bronchospasm, are explored in this review. The benefits and goals of using protocols, especially in the treatment of asthma, to standardize patient care based on clinical guidelines and evidence-based medicine are explained. Ideally, evidence-based protocols should translate research findings into best medical practices that would serve to better educate patients and their medical providers who are administering these protocols. Protocols should include evaluation components that can monitor, through some mechanism of quality assurance, the success and failure of the instrument so that modifications can be made as necessary. The development and design of an asthma care algorithm can be accomplished by using a four-phase approach: phase 1, identifying demographics, outcomes, and measurement tools; phase 2, reviewing, negotiating, and standardizing best practice; phase 3, testing and implementing the instrument and collecting data; and phase 4, analyzing the data and identifying areas of improvement and future research. The experiences of one medical institution that implemented an asthma care algorithm in the treatment of pediatric asthma are described. Their care algorithms served as tools for decision makers to provide optimal asthma treatment in children. In addition, the studies that used the asthma care algorithm to determine the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide and levalbuterol in children with asthma are described. PMID:16945065

  4. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management. PMID:21642033

  5. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment or software that is connected to their computer. However, technological advances have changed the way medical ... this section Medical transcriptionists must be comfortable using computers. Medical transcriptionists typically need postsecondary education. Prospective medical ...

  6. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this page, ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten ...

  7. Identification of inactive medications in narrative medical text.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Eugene M; Chu, Julia T; Turchin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Discontinued medications are frequently not removed from EMR medication lists - a patient safety risk. We developed an algorithm to identify inactive medications using in the text of narrative notes in the EMR. The algorithm was evaluated against manual review of 297 randomly selected notes. One in five notes documented inactive medications. Sensitivity and precision of 87.7% and 80.7%, respectively, on per-note basis and 66.3% and 80.0%, respectively, on per-medication basis. When medication names missing from the dictionary were excluded, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 91.4%. Using real clinical data, the algorithm identified inactive medications documented in the note but still listed as active on the patients medication list in more than one in ten notes. Documentation of inactive medications is common in narrative provider notes and can be computationally extracted. This technology could be employed in real-time patient care as well as for research and quality of care monitoring. PMID:18999079

  8. The Syntax of Inaudible Noun Phrases in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ock-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the interpretation of NP-ellipsis (henceforth, NPE) in Korean. Some unexpected interpretive and grammatical contrasts arise in Korean between pro-forms such as "caki" "self" and "ku" "'3.S.M" (~"he") in object position and their null counterparts in NPE…

  9. Language Ideologies and Bilingual Education: A Korean-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an ethnographic record of an ongoing journey during which I have tried to understand the kinds of language ideologies that my students and I have constructed about the Korean language. My students are mainly Korean-American university students who have never successfully achieved native fluency in their heritage language, although…

  10. Cultural Influences on Caregiving Burden: Cases of Koreans and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoon-Ro; Sung, Kyu-Taik

    1998-01-01

    Compares cultural influences on caregiver burdens of Korean adult children and American adult children caring for parents with dementia. Identifies culturally specific values, norms, and customs associated with low or high burden. Findings show low burden for Korean caregivers and high burden for American caregivers. (MKA)

  11. Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1999-01-01

    An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

  12. Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

  13. Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

  14. Cultural Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyojung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the MBI-SS in Korean students. Specifically, we investigated whether the original three-factor structure of the MBI-SS was appropriate for use with Korean students. In addition, by running multi-group structural equation model analyses with factorial invariance tests simultaneously…

  15. Identifying Balanced Action Learning: Cases of South Korean Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…

  16. Eye Movements and Parafoveal Processing during Reading in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Parafoveal word processing was examined during Korean reading. Twenty-four native speakers of Korean read sentences in two conditions while their eye movements were being monitored. The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to create a mismatch between characters displayed before and after an eye movement contingent display change. In the…

  17. Korean Percussion Ensemble ("Samulnori") in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces "samulnori" (Korean percussion ensemble), its cultural background, and instructional methods as parts of a classroom approach to teaching upper-level general music. We introduce five of eight sections from "youngnam nong-ak" (a style of samulnori) as a repertoire for teaching Korean percussion music to…

  18. The Experience of Korean Immigrant Grandmothers with Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soohong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the following research question: "What is the experience of Korean immigrant grandmothers in their relationships with their adolescent, U.S. born grandchildren?" In the United States, the situation of Korean immigrant grandparents is complicated because they live in two cultures. Immigrant…

  19. Deconstruction of Cultural Dominance in Korean EFL Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Heejin

    2013-01-01

    This article examines patterns of cultural representations embedded in Korean EFL textbooks, using a content analysis to investigate how different cultures are reflected in textbooks and whether or not cultural biases are present. In the revised Korean national English curriculum that has been implemented since 2009, English is viewed as a…

  20. Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

  1. Binding Interpretations of Anaphors by Korean Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the potential incomplete acquisition of binding interpretations in Korean-English bilinguals by asking whether and how the majority language of these bilinguals (English) influences their family or heritage language (Korean), especially when exposure to and use of English starts very early. The experiment tested the…

  2. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8695 of July 26, 2011 National Korean War..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold...

  3. 78 FR 46245 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-18540 Filed 7-30... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9000 of July 25, 2013 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013 By the... anniversary of the end of the Korean War--a conflict that defined a generation and decided the fate of...

  4. 75 FR 45035 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-18987 Filed 7-29-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Proclamation 8543--National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010 Executive Order 13548--Increasing Federal... President ] Proclamation 8543 of July 26, 2010 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010 By...

  5. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  6. Multivocal Post-Diasporic Selves: Entangled in Korean Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Julie

    2012-01-01

    I interrogate my personal diaries documenting my life in New York, Beijing, Tokyo, and Sydney over a 20-year period. Taking bearings from Bakhtinian thoughts, I explore the emergence of my post-diasporic identity as a second generation Korean American through watching South Korean dramas. By conversing with journals kept over a 20-year period, I…

  7. Studies on Korean in Community Schools. Technical Report #22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong Jae, Ed.; Cho, Sookeun, Ed.; Lee, Miseon, Ed.; Song, Min Sun, Ed.; O'Grady, William, Ed.

    The papers in this volume, all written in Korean, focus on language teaching and learning in Korean community schools. Drawing on innovative experimental work and research in linguistics, education, and psychology, the contributors address issues of importance to teachers, administrators, and parents. Topics covered include: childhood…

  8. Correlates of Korean Hangul Acquisition among Kindergartners and Second Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In two separate studies, 100 South Korean kindergartners and 100 second graders were administered tests of speed of processing and phonological-processing skills as well as a Korean Hangul reading test. Speed of processing tasks were significantly correlated with most of the reading-related tasks but not with Hangul reading itself. Across studies,…

  9. Connectedness of Korean Adolescents: Profiles and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, HaeJin; Yu, Kumlan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify profiles of Korean adolescent connectedness across multiple contexts (e.g., family, school, neighborhood, etc.), using cluster analysis. In addition, this study examined how the profiles of Korean adolescent connectedness are discriminated by demographic and adjustment-related variables. Data were…

  10. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  11. Favourable Teaching Approaches in the South Korean Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Korean education certainly has its strong points as its fifteen year olds produce outstanding results in the area of mathematics and are the world's most literate bunch. However, South Korean high schools are insufficiently preparing students for an often learner centered and creative system of education that often necessitates students to be…

  12. Korean Science Teachers' Understanding of Creativity in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Hae-Ae; Lee, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2005-01-01

    With the passing of Korea's Gifted Education Act, creativity has come to the forefront in considering the future of Korea's economic prosperity in the global economy (Korean Educational Development Institute, 2003). The purpose of this study was to examine the understanding of creativity among Korean science teachers of gifted students. Sixty…

  13. Korean Communities in America: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Eui-Young

    1983-01-01

    Presents a general introduction to the past, present, and future of the Koreans of America. Focuses on immigration rates and distribution, social and economic characteristics, news media, religion, and social relations with other ethnic and racial groups. Offers recommendations for Koreans' survival and success as a racial minority. (KH)

  14. New Challenges to Korean Universities: Increase of Older Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Jae-Eun

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the implications of the recent increase in older students at Korean universities dominated by younger students. A case study design is used to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of older students in a Korean university. Semi-structured interviews of twelve older students, three professors, two administrators, and…

  15. Contrastive Rhetorical Study on Korean and English Research Paper Introductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Investigates differences in the rhetorical organization of research article introductions between Korean academic writing and English academic writing based on Swales' Create a Research Space model (1990). Twelve published articles written by Korean national scholars and American scholars are compared, and eight term papers by Korean…

  16. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  17. Validity of DIBELS Early Literacy Measures with Korean English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderwood, Michael L.; Nam, Jeanie E.; Sun, Jennifer W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of two Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) early literacy measures with first-grade Korean speaking English Learners (ELs). A total of 30 first-grade Korean ELs were screened three times during the year using early literacy measures from DIBELS. A sample of students was…

  18. Sociocultural Barriers to Lung Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrant Men.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Ha, Ara; Taylor, Vicky

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is a commonly occurring cancer among Korean American men. Korean Americans have lower rates of cancer screening participation than other Asian American sub-groups. However, little is known about factors that influence the cancer screening behavior of Korean immigrants. The purpose of this study was to explore facilitators of and barriers to lung cancer screening (i.e., low dose CT of the chest) among Korean immigrant men, using qualitative individual interviews and focus groups. A convenience sample of 24 Korean men who were immigrants, Washington State residents, able to speak Korean, aged 55-79, and eligible for lung cancer screening (based on current guidelines) were recruited from Korean churches and senior centers. Five focus groups (that included between two and five men) and nine individual interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Facilitators of lung cancer screening included perceptions about positive aspects of the health care system in South Korea, recommendations from others (physicians, family members, and community organizations), existing health problems and respiratory symptoms, interest in health, and the health consequences of aging. Barriers included costs of health care in the US, lack of time, lack of knowledge (about lung cancer and screening), attitudes about prevention, and lack of physician recommendation. This study adds new knowledge to a field where little information is available. It also lays the groundwork for developing culturally relevant lung cancer screening interventions for Korean Americans and the health care providers who serve them. PMID:26846627

  19. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  20. Korean and American Teachers' Praising Styles and Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jungsub

    2016-01-01

    Praising is a crucial part of teaching performance that greatly impacts student performance and self-esteem. South Korean teachers are traditionally known to possess authoritarian attributes, whereas U.S. teachers have contradictory beliefs in terms of why and how to use praise. We used Q methodology among 16 American and 22 Korean teachers to…

  1. Motivation and Foreign Language Learning in Korean EFL Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Dong-Ho

    This paper argues that understanding the source and development of student motivation for learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is very important for educational purposes. The purpose of this study of 234 Korean 9th graders was to identify the following: (1) Korean students' orientations and motivations for learning English; (2) what kinds…

  2. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  3. Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

  4. Quantum algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel S.

    This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases (commonly found in ab initio physics and chemistry problems) for which all known classical algorithms require exponential time. Fast algorithms for simulating many body Fermi systems are also provided in both first and second quantized descriptions. An efficient quantum algorithm for anti-symmetrization is given as well as a detailed discussion of a simulation of the Hubbard model. In addition, quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and various characteristics of stochastic processes are described. Two techniques are given, both of which obtain an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algorithms and a quadratic speed increase in comparison to classical Monte Carlo (probabilistic) methods. I derive a simpler and slightly faster version of Grover's mean algorithm, show how to apply quantum counting to the problem, develop some variations of these algorithms, and show how both (apparently distinct) approaches can be understood from the same unified framework. Finally, the relationship between physics and computation is explored in some more depth, and it is shown that computational complexity theory depends very sensitively on physical laws. In particular, it is shown that nonlinear quantum mechanics allows for the polynomial time solution of NP-complete and #P oracle problems. Using the Weinberg model as a simple example, the explicit construction of the necessary gates is derived from the underlying physics. Nonlinear quantum algorithms are also presented using Polchinski type nonlinearities which do not allow for superluminal communication. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  5. "My Heart Beats in Two Places": Immigration Stories in Korean-American Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Joanne H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of immigration on Korean children through a content and literary analysis of 14 children's picture books. A majority of published children's literature dealing with the subject of Korean Americans or Korean immigration contains culturally specific themes common to the Korean immigration experience. These…

  6. Native and Nonnative Rater Behavior in Grading Korean Students' English Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate rating behavior between Korean and native English speaking (NES) raters. Five Korean English teachers and five NES teachers graded 420 essays written by Korean college freshmen and completed survey questionnaires. The grading data were analyzed with FACETS program. The results revealed Korean raters'…

  7. Teaching Korean Rhythms in Music Class through Improvisation, Composition, and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the characteristics of Korean rhythmic patterns and provide effective ways to teach Korean rhythms based on the theoretical and pedagogical approaches derived from 5,000 years of Korean musical tradition. First, we have provided the fundamental principles of Korean rhythms that represent the culture from…

  8. Participation Patterns of Korean Adolescents in School-Based Career Exploration Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…

  9. Korean-English Dual Language Immersion: Perspectives of Students, Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Jeong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of Korean-American students, parents and teachers in a newly instituted 50/50 Korean-English dual language immersion programme, where the majority of the students are of Korean descent. Based on home and school observations, as well as interviews with six Korean-American students and their parents…

  10. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking…

  11. Being a Korean Studying Koreans in an American School: Reflections on Culture, Power, and Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates on situated knowledge highlight the issue of the researcher's position in the research process, challenging the traditional assumption of the insider/outsider dichotomy. Drawing on my fieldwork among Korean immigrant parents in an American school, I describe my shifting positions in negotiation and scrutinize the ways my reflexivity…

  12. Exploring Korean Heritage Language Learners' Anxiety: "We Are Not Afraid of Korean!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated Korean heritage language (KHL) learners' foreign language classroom anxiety, reading anxiety and writing anxiety using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) by Saito, Garza and Horwitz and the Writing Apprehension Test (WAT) by…

  13. Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

  14. "No One Speaks Korean at School!": Ideological Discourses on Languages in a Korean Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Kwangok

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how a Korean family with temporary immigrant status in the United States employed ideological discourses on languages to make sense of their experiences. The parents initially accepted but later rejected ideologies on children's learning of English. English-as-a-legitimate-language ideology in the United States and…

  15. Korean Guideline for Colonoscopic Polypectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suck-Ho; Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Pil; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Bo In; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong

    2012-01-01

    There is indirect evidence to suggest that 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) develop from adenomatous polyps and that, on average, it takes 10 years for a small polyp to transform into invasive CRC. In multiple cohort studies, colonoscopic polypectomy has been shown to significantly reduce the expected incidence of CRC by 76% to 90%. Colonoscopic polypectomy is performed frequently in primary outpatient clinics and secondary and tertiary medical centers in Korea. However, there are no evidence-based, procedural guidelines for the appropriate performance of this procedure, including the technical aspects. For the guideline presented here, PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Library literature searches were performed. When little or no data from well-designed prospective trials were available, an emphasis was placed on the results from large series and reports from recognized experts. Thus, these guidelines for colonoscopic polypectomy are based on a critical review of the available data as well as expert consensus. Further controlled clinical studies are needed to clarify aspects of this statement, and revision may be necessary as new data become available. This guideline is intended to be an educational device to provide information that may assist endoscopists in providing care to patients. This guideline is not a rule and should not be construed as a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment. Clinical decisions for any particular case involve a complex analysis of the patient's condition and the available courses of action. PMID:22741130

  16. Sub-Syllabic Processing in Young Korean-English Bilinguals: Semivowel Placement Differences between Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Seunghyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the…

  17. Korean Born, Korean-American High School Students' Entry into Understanding Race and Racism through Social Interactions and Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, John D.; Jang, Eun-Young

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of Korean born, Korean-American high school students came to understand race and racism in the US through social interactions and conversations, with particular attention paid to the locality of time, space and people engaged. Therefore, we explore not only how race and racism are socially constructed in the lives…

  18. A Critical Content Analysis of Korean-to-English and English-to-Korean Translated Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mi-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study explores cultural representations and cultural adaptations made by translators in translated children's picture books. This study has two focuses. In the first part of this study, which is a critical content analysis, I examine the cultural representations depicted in Korean-to-English and English-to-Korean translated picture books,…

  19. Korean Students' Stories from an Aotearoa New Zealand High School: Perceived Affordances of English and Korean Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article is informed by van Lier's ecological approach to linguistics in considering the affordances Korean-born students perceived in using Korean or English language in an Aotearoa New Zealand high school setting. Here, I regard affordances as the students' perceptions of their languages as linguistic resources enabling them to…

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ye Seul; Im, Sun-Wha; Kang, Mi So; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Soon Hang; Cho, Be Long; Park, Jin Ho; Nam, You-Seon; Son, Ho-Young; Yang, San Deok; Sung, Joohon; Oh, Kwang Ho; Yun, Jae Moon; Kim, Jong Il

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition of global concern, with increasing incidence in both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD), a highly heritable trait, has been proven a useful diagnostic factor in predicting fracture. Because medical information is lacking about male osteoporotic genetics, we conducted a genome-wide association study of BMD in Korean men. With 1,176 participants, we analyzed 4,414,664 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after genomic imputation, and identified five SNPs and three loci correlated with bone density and strength. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to adjust for age and body mass index interference. Rs17124500 (p = 6.42 × 10-7), rs34594869 (p = 6.53 × 10-7) and rs17124504 (p = 6.53 × 10-7) in 14q31.3 and rs140155614 (p = 8.64 × 10-7) in 15q25.1 were significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD), while rs111822233 (p = 6.35 × 10-7) was linked with the femur total BMD (FT-BMD). Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between BMD and five genes previously identified in Korean men. Rs61382873 (p = 0.0009) in LRP5, rs9567003 (p = 0.0033) in TNFSF11 and rs9935828 (p = 0.0248) in FOXL1 were observed for LS-BMD. Furthermore, rs33997547 (p = 0.0057) in ZBTB and rs1664496 (p = 0.0012) in MEF2C were found to influence FT-BMD and rs61769193 (p = 0.0114) in ZBTB to influence femur neck BMD. We identified five SNPs and three genomic regions, associated with BMD. The significance of our results lies in the discovery of new loci, while also affirming a previously significant locus, as potential osteoporotic factors in the Korean male population. PMID:27445649

  1. Korean medicine in Kazakhstan: Ideas, practices and patients.

    PubMed

    Penkala-Gawecka, Danuta

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1990s, after gaining independence by the Republic of Kazakhstan, various complementary therapies have grown rapidly there. Korean medicine in its several forms belongs among them. There is an important population of Korean deportees from Stalinist times, but this paper will show that the various forms of Korean medicine practised in Almaty, Kazakhstan's former capital, do not primarily cater for ethnic Koreans. Rather, as the paper demonstrates, it is important to see that there are different forms of Korean medicine attractive to clientele from different strata of society. Thus, there are, apart from the most traditional treatment practised at the Korean-Kazakhstani clinic in Almaty, two other newly invented modifications of Korean medicine: soo-jok and soo-ji . The paper embeds Korean medicine into the context of the drastic deterioration of the state health care system and general dissatisfaction with its services, on the one hand, and a generally supportive attitude of government authorities to complementary medicine, on the other. My empirical data suggest that in Kazakhstan people of different ethnic background, sex, age and education choose complementary therapies. The growing popularity of these therapies is not only attributed to public confidence in the methods that are perceived as 'traditional' but more importantly to the extremely difficult economic conditions which have made people search for cheaper treatment. The paper presents data that are critical of a purely culturalist interpretation of explaining the arrival of Korean medicine in Kazakhstan and suggests that it is the political economy of Korean medicine as a non-costly therapy which has made it attractive to a wide range of clients. PMID:26869122

  2. Korean Contribution to the Progress of Science and Humanity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dong-Pil

    2012-03-01

    Science has problems yet to solve those global issues as the climate change, nuclear waste, water pollution, etc, although science and technology have been major contributors to human progress and will continue to open new doors to economic, medical and environmental advancement. Furthermore the benefits of scientific knowledge are not readily and evenly allocated across the globe. Korea will contribute to the progress of science by providing cooperative opportunities of the future research on the pure and applied scientific issues. Recently Korea launches a project of construction of the rare isotope accelerator, KoRIA, and Institute of Basic Science. Plans are set also to help develop the appropriate technology for developing countries. In this talk two aspects of science policy of Korean government are introduced, which are related to the accelerator KoRIA and to the thought on the establishment of Common Technology Platform. The former is to help the world science society for the expansion of our knowledge on the universe and matter, while the latter is to help the transfer of our knowledge to make our planet more flat.

  3. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Materials and Methods Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Results Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Conclusion Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. PMID:26727718

  4. Characteristics of Workplace Injuries among Nineteen Thousand Korean Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Ha; Kim, Yeong Kwang; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2016-10-01

    To determine the actual firefighter injury statistics in Korea, we conducted a survey on the nature of on-duty injuries among all male firefighters in Korea. We distributed questionnaires to all Korean male firefighters via email, and data from the 19,119 workers that responded were used for data analysis. The job types were categorized into fire suppression, emergency medical service (EMS) and officers. As estimated of age standardized injury prevalence per one thousand workers, 354 fire extinguishing personnel, 533 EMS workers, and 228 officers experienced one or more injuries during the previous 12 months. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of injuries was 1.86 (1.61-2.15) for fire suppression and 2.93 (2.51-3.42) for EMS personnel compared to officers after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking habit and career period. Age standardized absence days from work due to injuries per one thousand workers were 1,120, 1,337, and 676 for fire suppression, EMS and officers, respectively. Car accident (24.5%) was the most common cause and wound (42.3%) was the most common type of injuries. Our nationwide representative study showed that fire suppression and EMS workers are at greater risk of on-duty injuries compared to officers. We observed different injury characteristics compared to those reported in other countries. PMID:27550481

  5. Haplotyping algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, E.; Lange, K.; O`Connell, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Haplotyping is the logical process of inferring gene flow in a pedigree based on phenotyping results at a small number of genetic loci. This paper formalizes the haplotyping problem and suggests four algorithms for haplotype reconstruction. These algorithms range from exhaustive enumeration of all haplotype vectors to combinatorial optimization by simulated annealing. Application of the algorithms to published genetic analyses shows that manual haplotyping is often erroneous. Haplotyping is employed in screening pedigrees for phenotyping errors and in positional cloning of disease genes from conserved haplotypes in population isolates. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The influences of immigration on health information seeking behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping Pearl; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, this study examines the influence of immigration status on KAs' trust in health information sources and health information seeking behaviors. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area as well as in the Gwangju metropolitan city in South Korea during 2006-2007. Two hundred and fifty-four KAs and 208 native Koreans who were 40 years of age or older completed the surveys. When comparing native Koreans to KAs, we found KAs were 3 times more likely to trust health information from newspapers or magazines (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-6.54) and 11 times more likely to read the health sections of newspapers or magazines (OR = 11.35; 95% CI = 3.92-32.91) in multivariate adjusted models. However, they were less likely to look for health information from TV (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) than native Koreans. Our results indicate that immigration status has profound influences on KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Increasing the availability of reliable and valid health information from printed Korean language magazines or newspapers could have a positive influence on increasing awareness and promoting screening behaviors among KAs. PMID:23943681

  7. Prevention of venous thromboembolism, 2nd edition: Korean Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bang, Soo-Mee; Jang, Moon Ju; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Yhim, Ho-Young; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Nam, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, Hun Gyu; Bae, Sung Hwa; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Yang-Ki; Kim, Inho; Choi, Won-Il; Jung, Chul Won; Park, Nan Hee; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Park, Byung-Joo; Oh, Doyeun; Korean Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis

    2014-02-01

    In 2010, we proposed the first Korean Guidelines for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE). It was applicable to Korean patients, by modifying the contents of the second edition of the Japanese guidelines for the prevention of VTE and the 8th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. From 2007 to 2011, we conducted a nationwide study regarding the incidence of VTE after major surgery using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. In addition, we have considered the 9th edition of the ACCP Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines, published in 2012. It emphasized the importance of clinically relevant events as opposed to asymptomatic outcomes with preferences for both thrombotic and bleeding outcomes. Thus, in the development of the new Korean guidelines, three major points were addressed: 1) the new guidelines stratify patients into 4 risk groups (very low, low, moderate, and high) according to the actual incidence of symptomatic VTE from the HIRA databases; 2) the recommended optimal VTE prophylaxis for each group was modified according to condition-specific thrombotic and bleeding risks; 3) guidelines are intended for general information only, are not medical advice, and do not replace professional medical care and/or physician advice. PMID:24550640

  8. [The beginning of western medical education].

    PubMed

    Kee, C D

    1992-01-01

    Our country had quite an advanced system of medical education during the era of the Koryo Kingdom, and during the Choson Dynasty, the Kyong Guk Dae Jon, in which a systematized medical education was clearly described, was compiled in the era of King Sejong. However, the educational system was not for Western medicine. Western medicine was first introduced to our country in the 9th year of King Injo (1631) when Chong Du Won, Yi Yong Jun, etc. returned from Yon Gyong (Beiuin) with Chik Bang Oe Gi. Knowledge of Western medicine was disseminated by Shil Hak (practical learning) scholars who read a translation in Chinese characters, of Chik Bang Oe Gi. Yi Ik (Song Ho), Yi Gyu Gyong (O ju), Choe Han Gi (Hye Gang), Chong Yak Yong (Ta San), etc., read books of Western medicine and introduced in writing the excellent theory of Western medicine. In addition, Yu Hyong Won (Pan Gye), Pak Ji Won (Yon Am), Pak Je Ga (Cho Jong), etc., showed much interest in Western medicine, but no writings by them about western medicine can be found. With the establishment of a treaty of amity with Japan in the 13th year of King Kojong (1876), followed by the succession of amity treaties with Western powers, foreigners including medical doctors were permitted to flow into this country. At that time, doctors Horace N. Allen, W. B. Scranton, John W. Heron, Rosetta Sherwood (Rosetta S. Hall), etc., came to Korea and inaugurated hospitals, where they taught Western medicine to Korean students. Dr. Horace N. Allen, with the permission of king Kojong, established Che Jung Won in April 1885, and in March 1886, he began at the hospital to provide education of Western medicine to Korean students who were recrutied by the Korean Government. However, the education was not conduted on a regular basis, only training them for work as assistants. This is considered to be the pioneer case of Western medical education in this country. Before that time, Japanese medical doctors came to Korea, but there are no

  9. Vaccination Policy in Korean Armed Forces: Current Status and Future Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Woo Joo; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have historically resulted in suspended or cancelled military operations. Vaccination for disease prevention is a critical component of the military's force readiness doctrine. Until recently, Korea had not recognized the importance of vaccinating military personnel. However, a 2011 meningococcal disease outbreak at an army recruit training center led to dramatic changes in the paradigm of traditional medical practice in the Korean armed forces. A new vaccination policy was formed by a 2012 Military Healthcare Service Act. Since then, Neisseria meningitidis, hepatitis A, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines have been routinely administered to all new recruits early in basic training to ensure protection against these diseases. All active-duty soldiers also receive seasonal influenza vaccination annually. Despite quantitative improvements in vaccination policies, several instances of major infectious diseases and adverse vaccine reactions have threatened soldier health. In the future, vaccination policies in the Korean armed forces should be based on epidemiologic data and military medical research for vaccine use and safety management. PMID:25829800

  10. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  11. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  12. Hemispheric asymmetries in reading Korean: task matters.

    PubMed

    Vaid, J; Park, K

    1997-06-01

    Native Korean readers were studied in a visual half-field paradigm. Subjects were to make speeded judgments on Hangul (syllabic) and Hanzza (logographic) scripts based on phonetic or visual properties of the stimuli. A task by visual field interaction was obtained indicating that, for both scripts, responses on the phonetic task were faster in the right visual field, whereas no visual field differences were found on the visual task. Script type did not interact with visual field. The results support a task-based account of hemispheric differences in verbal processing. PMID:9184098

  13. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  14. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

  15. Stigma of Mental Illnesses as Perceived by North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. Methods We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. Results North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. Conclusion North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors. PMID:25670940

  16. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team. PMID:24290796

  17. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possession of marijuana is illegal under federal law. Medical marijuana refers to using marijuana to treat certain medical ... Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten Taken as a liquid extract Marijuana leaves and buds contain substances ...

  18. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  19. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers. PMID:26219368

  20. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... The pregnancy is harmful to the woman's health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  1. Korean Studies on Blood Stasis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Lee, Ju Ah; Yun, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Blood stasis is one of the important pathological concepts in Korean medicine. We analyzed the Korean studies concerning blood stasis. We searched for articles in eight electronic databases from their inception to September, 2014. We included reviews, clinical studies, and preclinical studies that had studied blood stasis and excluded articles in which blood stasis was not mentioned or in which the original authors had not explained blood stasis. Of 211 total included studies, 19 were reviews, 52 were clinical studies, and 140 were preclinical articles. “Stagnant blood within the body” was the most frequently mentioned phrase of the traditional concept of blood stasis. Traumatic injury was the most frequently studied disease/condition in the clinical studies. In the preclinical studies, coagulopathy was studied most frequently, followed by hyperviscosity, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, neoplasm, ischemic brain injury, and atherosclerosis. Hyeolbuchukeo-tang and Angelicae Gigantis Radix were the most frequent formula and single herb, respectively, used in the blood stasis researches. The results showed that blood stasis was mainly recognized as disorder of circulation and many studies showed the effectiveness of activating blood circulating herbs for diseases and pathologies such as traumatic injury or coagulopathy. Further studies are needed in the pathologic mechanisms and various diseases of blood stasis. PMID:25821483

  2. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  3. Lessons from Korean Capsule Endoscopy Multicenter Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Ok

    2012-01-01

    Since its development, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) introduced a new area in the study of small bowel disease. We reviewed and discussed current issues from Korean capsule endoscopy multicenter studies. Main results are as follows: First, there was no significant difference in diagnostic yield according to the method of bowel preparation. Second, VCE represents a reliable and influential screening measure in patients with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and this technique could successfully alter the clinical course especially for patients with small bowel tumor. Third, the inter-observer variation in the expert group was lower than that in trainee group. Fourth, studies about the spontaneous capsule passage after retention showed 2.5% of retention rate and the size of lumen was an important factor of spontaneous passage. We need larger scale studies on the effect of bowel preparation methods on the diagnostic yield and further studies about the learning curve or unique capsule endoscopic findings for small intestinal diseases in Korean patients. PMID:22977821

  4. Radiological Analysis of Ponticulus Posticus in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Since there has been little reporting on the prevalence or morphologic characteristics of ponticulus posticus in Asians, we retrospectively reviewed cervical 3-dimensional CT scan images and plain radiographs which had been ordered by neurosurgeons or orthopaedic surgeons for evaluation of cervical spine problems to investigate the prevalence and morphologic features of the ponticulus posticus in Koreans. Patients and Methods The presence and types of ponticulus posticus were investigated on 200 consecutive cervical 3-D CT scans. Results Thirty-one patients, 48 ponticulus posticus, complete or partial, bilateral or unilateral, were identified on the 200 cervical 3-D CT scans; therefore, the prevalence was 15.5% in our patient population. In plain radiographs analysis, the prevalence was 6.95%. Conclusion The ponticulus posticus is a relatively common anomaly in Koreans. Therefore, proper identification of this anomaly on preoperative lateral radiographs should alert surgeons to avoid using the ponticulus posticus as a starting point for a lateral mass screw. Because of its size and shape have wide variation, 3-D CT scanning should be considered before lateral mass screw placement into the posterior arch if its presence is suspected or confirmed on radiographs. PMID:19259347

  5. The Korean Neonatal Network: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the Republic of Korea, despite the very-low-birth rate, the birth rate and number of preterm infants are markedly increasing. Neonatal deaths and major complications mostly occur in premature infants, especially very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs). VLBWIs weigh less than 1,500 g at birth and require intensive treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The operation of the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) officially started on April 15, 2013, by the Korean Society of Neonatology with support from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The KNN is a national multicenter neonatal network based on a prospective web-based registry for VLBWIs. About 2,000 VLBWIs from 60 participating hospital NICUs are registered annually in the KNN. The KNN has built unique systems such as a web-based real-time data display on the web site and a site-visit monitoring system for data quality surveillance. The KNN should be maintained and developed further in order to generate appropriate, population-based, data-driven, health-care policies; facilitate active multicenter neonatal research, including quality improvement of neonatal care; and ultimately lead to improvement in the prognosis of high-risk newborns and subsequent reduction in health-care costs through the development of evidence-based neonatal medicine in Korea. PMID:26566355

  6. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Bae; Bae, Sejong; Ham, Byung-Ho; Singh, Karan P

    2008-11-15

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended. PMID:18060692

  7. Developing perspectives on Korean nursing theory: the influences of Taoism.

    PubMed

    Shin, K R

    2001-10-01

    Nursing theory provides a systematic explanation and description of nursing phenomena. Western nursing theories have widely influenced Korean nursing. And yet, although nursing theory has universal aspects, the differences in philosophy and culture that are unique to each country need to be considered. This inquiry seeks to investigate the Korean cultural heritage, which integrates Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and how it provides a unique worldview of human beings, the universe, health, and nursing. Essential principles and therapies consistent with Taoist philosophy are also identified. This framework is proffered as the basis for establishing understanding between Korean nurses and patients. PMID:11873374

  8. A hypothesized model of Korean women's responses to abuse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghan; Harwood, Jake

    2004-07-01

    Many abused married Korean women have a strong desire to leave their abusive husbands but remain in the abusive situations because of the strong influence of their sociocultural context. The article discusses Korean women's responses to spousal abuse in the context of patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theory. Age, education, and income as component elements share common effects on the emergent variable, sociostructural power. Gender role attitudes, traditional family ideology, individualism/collectivism, marital satisfaction, and marital conflict predict psychological-relational power as a latent variable. Sociostructural, patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theories are reconceptualized to generate the model of Korean women's responses to abuse. PMID:15189642

  9. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of anemia in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae Sung; Bang, Ki Bae; Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Quality of life is closely related to anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several studies have reported on anemia in patients with IBD in Western countries. This study investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of anemia in Korean patients with IBD. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 92 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 76 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who were followed regularly at a single tertiary medical center in Korea between January 2003 and December 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) thresholds used to define anemia were <13.0 g/dL in men and <12.0 g/dL in women according to the World Health Organization criteria. We chose the lowest Hb level in each year as a representative value because Hb levels changed at each examination and anemia was associated with disease deterioration. The relationship between clinical variables and lowest Hb level was assessed. Results The prevalence of anemia was 36.3% in patients with UC and 41.6% in patients with CD. Anemia in patients with CD was associated with hospital admission, 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) and infliximab treatment in men. Anemia in patients with UC was associated with hospital admission, oral steroid use, thiopurine and infliximab treatment in men. Conclusions The prevalence of anemia in Korean patients with IBD was comparable to that of patients in Western countries. Anemia was associated with male patients with CD who were admitted to the hospital and received medications including 5-ASA and infliximab, and men with UC who were admitted to the hospital and received medications including oral steroids, thiopurine and infliximab. PMID:26884734

  10. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Korean Patient With Crohn's Disease Following Early Use of Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jung, Yoon Suk; Moon, Chang Mo; Lee, Shin Yeong; Kim, Eun Ran; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Chang Kyun; Lee, Suck Ho; Kim, Jae Hak; Huh, Kyu Chan; Yoon, Soon Man; Song, Hyun Joo; Boo, Sun-Jin; Jang, Hyun Joo; Kim, You Sun; Lee, Kang-Moon; Shin, Jeong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Several recent studies have reported that the early use of infliximab (IFX) improves the prognosis of Crohn's disease (CD). However, no data are available from Asian populations, as the forementioned studies have all been conducted in Western countries. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of early use of IFX on the prognosis of Korean patients with CD. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of CD established between July 1987 and January 2012 were investigated in 12 university hospitals in Korea. Because insurance coverage for IFX treatment began in August 2005, patients were assigned to either of 2 groups based on diagnosis date. The first group included patients diagnosed from July 1987 to December 2005, and the second from January 2006 to January 2012. We compared the cumulative probabilities of operation and reoperation between the two groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test. Results Of the 721 patients investigated, 443 (61.4%) comprized the second group. Although the cumulative probabilities of immunosuppressant (P<0.001) and IFX use (P<0.001) after diagnosis were significantly higher in the second group, there were no significant differences in cumulative probabilities of operation (P=0.905) or reoperation (P=0.418) between two groups. Conclusions The early use of IFX did not reduce CD-related surgery requirements in Korean patients with CD. These study results suggest that the early use of IFX may have little impact on the clinical outcome of CD in Korean patients in the setting of a conventional step-up algorithm. PMID:25374493

  11. A Validation Study of the Korean-Ruminative Response Scale in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Korean version of Ruminative Response Scale (K-RRS) for Korean adolescents. Methods A community sample of 1220 adolescents was recruited from middle schools and high schools. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and additional analyses were performed to assess the reliability and validity of the K-RRS. Results An exploratory factor analysis of a sample of adolescents (n=550) yielded a three factor structure: 'depressive rumination', 'reflective pondering', and 'brooding'. Confirmatory factor analyses of another sample of adolescents (n=530) supported the three-factor model for the K-RRS. The K-RRS was found to have good internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusion Our results suggest that K-RRS is a valid measurement to assess rumination in adolescents, as well as in adults. PMID:26508962

  12. Threshold extended ID3 algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. B. Rajesh; Ramesh, C. Phani; Madhusudhan, E.; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Information exchange over insecure networks needs to provide authentication and confidentiality to the database in significant problem in datamining. In this paper we propose a novel authenticated multiparty ID3 Algorithm used to construct multiparty secret sharing decision tree for implementation in medical transactions.

  13. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  14. Sex Differences in the Treatment and Outcome of Korean Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Kang, Hee-Chung

    2015-09-01

    Evidence showing higher acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rates among female compared with male inpatients has stimulated interest in whether this disparity is the result of biological factors or differences in the provision of healthcare services. We investigated the impact of sex on in-hospital mortality rates due to AMI, and evaluated the contribution of differences in the delivery of optimal medical services for AMI.We retrospectively constructed a dataset of 85,329 new patients admitted to Korean hospitals with AMI between 2003 and 2007 from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database. We used the claims database to provide information about treatment after admission or death for each patient.Proportionally more female than male patients aged 65 years or older had complications; however, proportionally fewer female patients underwent invasive procedures. Female patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than males (21.2% vs 14.6%, odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-1.64). The probability of death within 30 days after admission remained higher for females than males after adjusting for demographic characteristics and severity (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.13). After additionally adjusting for invasive and medical management, the probability of death within 30 days did not differ between males and females (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99-1.08). A similar trend was revealed by an additional analysis of patients according to younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) age groups.The higher in-hospital mortality rates after AMI in Korean female patients was associated with a lower procedure rate. Evidence indicating that AMI symptoms differ according to sex highlights the need for health policies and public education programs that raise awareness of sex-related differences in early AMI symptoms to increase the incidence of appropriate early treatment in females. PMID:26334894

  15. Sex Differences in the Treatment and Outcome of Korean Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok; Kang, Hee-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evidence showing higher acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rates among female compared with male inpatients has stimulated interest in whether this disparity is the result of biological factors or differences in the provision of healthcare services. We investigated the impact of sex on in-hospital mortality rates due to AMI, and evaluated the contribution of differences in the delivery of optimal medical services for AMI. We retrospectively constructed a dataset of 85,329 new patients admitted to Korean hospitals with AMI between 2003 and 2007 from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database. We used the claims database to provide information about treatment after admission or death for each patient. Proportionally more female than male patients aged 65 years or older had complications; however, proportionally fewer female patients underwent invasive procedures. Female patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than males (21.2% vs 14.6%, odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52–1.64). The probability of death within 30 days after admission remained higher for females than males after adjusting for demographic characteristics and severity (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.13). After additionally adjusting for invasive and medical management, the probability of death within 30 days did not differ between males and females (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99–1.08). A similar trend was revealed by an additional analysis of patients according to younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) age groups. The higher in-hospital mortality rates after AMI in Korean female patients was associated with a lower procedure rate. Evidence indicating that AMI symptoms differ according to sex highlights the need for health policies and public education programs that raise awareness of sex-related differences in early AMI symptoms to increase the incidence of appropriate early treatment in females. PMID:26334894

  16. Coverage of Unification Issue in North and South Korean Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Won H.

    1981-01-01

    Concludes that while the North Korean press gives more space to stories concerning the unification of the two Koreas than does the South, it is also more hostile and less varied in its coverage of the issue. (FL)

  17. Monitoring of trace metals in coastal sediments around Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong-Woon; Kim, Seong-Gil; Choi, Minkyu; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Seong-Soo; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2016-01-15

    Spatial distributions and temporal variations of trace metals in Korean coastal sediments were investigated by determining seven metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in sediment collected from 71 stations between 2004 and 2010 (n=491). High metal concentrations were found in the southeastern coast, where there are many cities and industrial complexes, indicating that metal concentrations in Korean coastal sediment are significantly influenced by human activities associated with urbanization and industrialization. However, metal concentrations in sediment did not markedly vary temporally, which was because the coast is managed sustainably and because of the characteristics of the sediment environments. Based on the sediment quality guidelines and geoaccumulation index, Korean coastal sediments are practically unpolluted with Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn but moderately polluted with As. More intensive monitoring is required to determine the potential As sources and to understand the As geochemical cycles in Korean coastal sediments. PMID:26639653

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of Astrovirus and Kobuvirus in Korean Dogs

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Sarah; LIM, Seong-In; KIM, Yong Kwan; CHO, Yoon-Young; SONG, Jae-Young; AN, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Astroviruses and kobuviruses are frequently found in mammalian feces, including that of humans. The present study examined fecal samples from 91 Korean dogs suffering from diarrhea. Canine astroviruses (CAstVs) and canine kobuviruses (CKoVs) were identified in 2 (2.1%) and 46 (50.6%) dogs, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis coupled with phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method showed that CAstVs clustered into four genetically diverse groups. Two Korean CAstVs belonged to group 2 alongside strains isolated in Italy and France. Twelve of the Korean CKoVs belonged to a single clade, along with strain UK003 identified in the UK and six CKoVs identified in the USA. Thus, the results suggest that the Korean strain of CAstV is closely related to strains isolated in Europe. Surely, CKoV in South Korea could identify the circulation among dogs population. PMID:24784439

  19. An overview of Korean astronaut’s space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Kang, S. W.; Choi, G. H.; Sim, E. S.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of the scientific space experiments in the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) that were conducted on the International Space Station (ISS), beginning with launch of the Soyuz TMA-12 spacecraft with the first Korean astronaut and two Russian astronauts on April 8, 2008 and returning to Earth on April 19, 2008. During the 10 days aboard the ISS, the Korean astronaut successfully completed thirteen scientific experiments in biology, life science, material science, earth science, and system engineering, five educational space experiments, and three kinds of international collaboration experiments. These experiments were the first Korean manned space experiments and these missions were the first steps toward the manned space exploration by Korea. In this paper, we briefly discuss the descriptions, conduct, and results of the space experiments and discuss future plans. In addition, the lessons learned with respect to the performing of these manned space experiments on the ISS are presented.

  20. Developing Korean-specific equations of stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop Korean-specific equations for stature estimation and compare their performance to existing techniques. Due to a lack of appropriate reference samples in Korea, equations were generated using a hybrid method on 113 Korean unknown skeletons. In this approach, estimates using the anatomical method [1] were regarded as actual stature. Results revealed that new equations produced more accurate and precise estimates than previous techniques. In addition, due to consistent body proportions of Korean populations through time and space, new equations are applicable to Korean skeletons regardless of their temporal and geographic origins. For obtaining statures at death, particularly in a forensic context, an age correction factor, 0.0426 cm/year, should be applied. PMID:26833426

  1. Patterns of Political Socialization in North Korean Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-Chan

    1973-01-01

    Considers the government's use of the schools in North Korea and its instructional programs as a means of political indoctrination that aims at shaping and remolding North Korean youth into communists. (Author/RK)

  2. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  3. Perceived sleep quality is associated with depression in a Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ki Jung; Son, Sang Joon; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Kang Soo; Lee, Soo Jin; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jai Sung; Kim, Hyun Chung; Koh, Sang Hyun; Roh, Hyun Woong; Park, Mi Ae; Kim, Jin Ju; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived sleep quality and depression using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cole's model to materialize the concept of perceived sleep quality in the non-cognitively impaired elderly. Older adults aged 60+ were recruited from the baseline study of Suwon Project (SP) between 2009 and 2011 (n=2040). Perceived sleep quality was measured using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K), and depression was accessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K). We excluded the cognitively impaired elderly using the Korean version-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) score less than or equal to 17. In multivariable adjusted logistic regression related to PSQI-K components, poor perceived sleep quality, including poor subjective sleep quality (Odds ratio (OR)=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.61), longer sleep latency (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.13-1.55) and the frequent use of sleeping medication (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.10-1.53) were significantly associated with depression after adjusting for age, sex, education, living status, current smoking and current alcohol drinking, the number of comorbidity and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). PSQI-K global score also had greater odds of reporting depression (OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.07-1.16). These results suggested that poor perceived sleep quality was associated with a greater level of depression in the elderly. PMID:24852666

  4. Comparison of Korean and European women professional golfers' training time and perceptions of ideal training time.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Mi; Kim, Soon-Young; Kim, Sung-Hee

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Korean and European female professional golfer's reported practice hours and their different understandings about golf training. 55 Korean and 21 European female professional golfers were asked questions about average actual practice days per week, average actual practice hours per day, ideal practice days per week, and ideal practice hours per day. All the women participated in the Korean Female Masters Golf Tournament at the Korean Cyprus Golf course from 6-8 November in 2009. Korean female professional golfers reported practicing more hours, but both the Korean and European golfers reported actually practicing more hours than their ideal practice hours. PMID:21058589

  5. Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study of Korean Americans’ smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Methods Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 hours. Results Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking more frequently with greater puff flows than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day. PMID:24068611

  6. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. Methods: All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Results: Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. Conclusions: The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking. PMID:26951917

  7. Genetic basis of hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueducts in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Park, H-J; Lee, S-J; Jin, H-S; Lee, J O; Go, S-H; Jang, H S; Moon, S-K; Lee, S-C; Chun, Y-M; Lee, H-K; Choi, J-Y; Jung, S-C; Griffith, A J; Koo, S K

    2005-02-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) can be associated with mutations of the SLC26A4 gene. In western populations, less than one-half of the affected individuals with EVA have two mutant SLC26A4 alleles, and EVA is frequently caused by unknown genetic or environmental factors alone or in combination with a single SLC26A4 mutation as part of a complex trait. In this study, we ascertained 26 Korean probands with EVA and performed nucleotide sequence analysis to detect SLC26A4 mutations. All subjects had bilateral EVA, and 20 of 26 were sporadic (simplex) cases. Fourteen different mutations were identified, including nine novel mutations. Five mutations were recurrent and accounted for 80% of all mutant alleles, providing a basis for the design and interpretation of cost-efficient mutation detection algorithms. Two mutant alleles were identified in 21 (81%), one mutant allele was detected in three (11%), and zero mutant allele was detected in two (8%) of 26 probands. The high proportion of Korean probands with two SLC26A4 mutations may reflect a reduced frequency of other genetic or environmental factors causing EVA in comparison to western populations. PMID:15679828

  8. Ethnomedicine and dominant medicine in multicultural Australia: a critical realist reflection on the case of Korean-Australian immigrants in Sydney

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; Ballis, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Background Viewed through the micro focus of an interpretive lens, medical anthropology remains mystified because interpretivist explanations seriously downplay the given context in which individual health seeking-behaviours occur. This paper draws upon both the interpretivist and political economy perspectives to reflect on the ethno medical practices within the Korean-Australian community in Sydney. Methods We draw on research data collected between 1995 and 1997 for an earlier study of the use of biomedical and traditional medicine by Korean-Australians in Sydney. A total of 120 interviews were conducted with a range of participants, including biomedical doctors, traditional health professionals, Korean community leaders and Korean migrants representing a range of socio-economic backgrounds and migration patterns. Results and Discussion First, the paper highlights the extent to which the social location of migrants in a host society alters or restructures their initial cultural practices they bring with them. Second, taking hanbang medicine in the Korean-Australian community as an illustrative case, the paper explores the transformation of the dominant biomedicine in Australia as a result of the influx of ethnomedicine in the era of global capitalism and global movement. Conclusion In seeking to explain the popularity and supply of alternative health care, it is important to go beyond the culture of each kind of health care itself and to take into consideration the changes occurring at societal, national and global levels as well as consequential individual response to the changes. New social conditions influence the choice of health care methods, including herbal/alternative medicine, health foods and what are often called New Age therapies. PMID:17201916

  9. Hwa-byung. A community study of Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Lin, K M; Lau, J K; Yamamoto, J; Zheng, Y P; Kim, H S; Cho, K H; Nakasaki, G

    1992-06-01

    One hundred nine Korean American community subjects were interviewed regarding their experiences with hwa-byung (HB), a Korean folk illness label commonly used by Koreans with a myriad of physiological and psychological complaints. During these interviews, standard instruments were also used to assess their depressive and somatic symptoms. The results indicated that a relatively high proportion (12%) of the subjects labeled themselves as having suffered from HB. While no apparent sociodemographic differences were found between HB and non-HB subjects, significantly more HB subjects fulfilled the diagnosis of DSM-III major depression and also had previous diagnoses of depression. The HB subjects also had significantly higher scores for the total, depressive, and somatic subscales and 16 of the 20 individual items of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. These data confirm previous observations of substantial overlap between HB and DSM-III major depression among Koreans and Korean Americans, and suggest that HB may be a culturally patterned way of expression for Koreans experiencing major depression and related conditions. The clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:1593273

  10. First Generation Korean American Parents’ Perceptions of Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with the professional guidelines of discipline and but also be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first generation Korean American parents’ perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first generation Korean American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first generation Korean American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style and time out, using a sticker chart, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to the mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children’s views on discipline and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean American parents’ perceptions on discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from the western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  11. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  12. Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

  13. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  14. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  15. German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

  16. Overview of the development of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

  17. Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxias: A Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary ataxia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive ataxia combined with/without peripheral neuropathy, extrapyramidal symptoms, pyramidal symptoms, seizure, and multiple systematic involvements. More than 35 autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have been designated as spinocerebellar ataxia, and there are 55 recessive ataxias that have not been named systematically. Conducting genetic sequencing to confirm a diagnosis is difficult due to the large amount of subtypes with phenotypic overlap. The prevalence of hereditary ataxia can vary among countries, and estimations of prevalence and subtype frequencies are necessary for planning a diagnostic strategy in a specific population. This review covers the various hereditary ataxias reported in the Korean population with a focus on the prevalence and subtype frequencies as the clinical characteristics of the various subtypes. PMID:26090078

  18. The Austrialian National Chinese Japanese Korean Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Providing access to Asian-language materials has always been a problem for libraries. There are particular difficulties in acquiring Asian materials, in cataloguing them and providing access, and in incorporating them in library systems. There is, however, an urgent and growing need for access to Asian materials. Part of the response of the Australian library community to the difficulties and to the increasing need has been the Australian National CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) Project. The CJK Project is a co-operative project involving seven Australian universities and the National Library of Australia. Membership is expected to grow to include other Australian research libraries, some public research libraries and some overseas libraries.

  19. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  20. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risk-taking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues. PMID:22232620

  1. Health promotion capacity mapping: the Korean situation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eun Woo; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2007-06-01

    Ten years ago the Republic of Korea enacted the National Health Promotion Act, setting the stage for health promotion action in the country. A National Health Promotion Fund was established, financed through tobacco taxes, which is now one of the largest in the world. However, despite abundant financial resources, the infrastructure needed to plan, implement, coordinate and evaluate health promotion efforts is still underdeveloped. Currently, health promotion capacity mapping efforts are emerging in Korea. Two international capacity mapping tools have been used to assess the Korean situation, namely HP-Source and the Health Promotion Capacity Profile, which was developed prior to the sixth Global Conference of Health Promotion, held in August 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand. The article summarizes and discusses the results of the capacity mapping exercise, highlights its challenges and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of health promotion capacity mapping. PMID:17341492

  2. Korean American Women and Mammogram Uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunice E; Nandy, Karabi; Szalacha, Laura; Park, HanJong; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Lee, Jongwon; Menon, Usha

    2016-02-01

    A high percentage of Korean American (KA) women have never had a mammogram, which puts them at greater risk for late-stage breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare health beliefs and spousal support about breast cancer and screening between KA women with and without a history of mammogram completion. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 428 non-adherent married KA women. KA women who never had a mammogram were younger, had less access to health care, had less knowledge, and had lower perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and spousal support, and higher perceived barriers to breast cancer screening compared to women who had had a mammogram. Assessing differing characteristics between the two groups of KA women may lead to a better understanding of the variables influencing mammography screening in this population and possibly increase early screening. PMID:25669627

  3. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  4. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  5. Follow-up studies of World War II and Korean war prisoners. II. Morbidity, disability, and maladjustments.

    PubMed

    Beebe, G W

    1975-05-01

    US Army veterans taken prisoner (POW's) in World War II and in the Korean War are compared with controls as to hospital admissions from 1946 to 1965 (1954-1965 for Korean War POW's), and as to symptoms, disability, and maladjustments in 1966-1967. Sequelae of the POW experience are both somatic and psychiatric, and are of greatest extent and severity among Pacific World War II POW's. Among European World War II POW's only psychiatric sequelae are apparent. Somatic sequelae were most prevalent in the early years after liberation, but for Pacific World War II POW's they persist in the form of higher hospital admission rates for many specific causes in the most recent period. Nevertheless, persistent psychiatric sequelae (especially psychoneurosis but also schizophrenia) are the more notable and pervasive for both Pacific World War II POW's and Korean War POW's as seen not only in elevated hospital admission rates but also in VA disability awards and in symptoms reported on the cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire. The excess morbidity appears to correlate well with retrospective accounts of weight-loss and nutritional deficiency diseases and symptoms during the POW period. PMID:124131

  6. Impact of depression and activities of daily living on the fear of falling in Korean community-dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Kang, Younhee; Kim, Mi Young; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Hong, Chong Min; Yun, Eun Suk; Ma, Rye Won

    2010-12-01

    This study determined the predictors of the fear of falling (FOF) in 213 South Korean community-dwelling elderly. The Fall Efficacy Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Korean Geriatric Depression Screening Scale, and Barthel Index were used to measure the FOF, sleep quality, depression, and activities of daily living, respectively. In addition, information regarding the participants' demographic details and the number of types of medication was collected. The data were analyzed by using hierarchical regression. The general regression model, with the FOF as a dependent variable, was statistically significant. The FOF variance was partially explained. Depression and activities of daily living significantly influenced the FOF. Thus, the results indicate that the FOF in community-dwelling elderly Koreans is affected by depression and activities of daily living. Therefore, an older adult with recognized signs of depression must be provided with more appropriate care and the allocation of specific interventional strategies in order to maintain activities of daily living should be developed to manage the FOF. PMID:21210929

  7. Insomnia in North Korean Refugees: Association with Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Jin G.; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, So Hee; Yu, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence of insomnia and its clinical characteristics in North Korean refugees. Methods North Korean refugees living in South Korea (48 males, 129 females; mean age 38.22±12.24 years) and South Koreans (112 males, 203 females; mean age 39.48±10.32 years) completed the following questionnaires: the Self-reported Questionnaire on Insomnia, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Trauma Exposure Check List for North Korean Refugees, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results North Korean refugees had insomnia more often than South Koreans did (38.42% vs. 8.89%). Depression combined with insomnia was also more prevalent in North Korean refugees (28.25% vs. 3.17%). Compared with South Koreans with insomnia, North Korean refugees with insomnia showed higher CES-D scores. The North Korean refugees with insomnia had experienced a larger number of traumatic events, and had higher CES-D and IES-R scores compared to North Korean refugees without insomnia. Insomnia in North Korean refugees was also associated with the presence of significant depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Conclusion Insomnia was common in North Korean refugees and was closely associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms. Our study suggests that complaints of insomnia may indicate more severe psychopathology, especially in refugees. PMID:26766948

  8. [Birth and succession of a current of learning in Korean medicine: the supporting yang current of learning].

    PubMed

    Oh, Chaekun

    2014-04-01

    In this study, I aim to reveal how Lee Gyoojoons medicine has given birth to a current of learning, the supporting yang current of learning, and describe its historical significance. Before anything, I'd like to throw the question of whether if there were any currents within the traditional Korean medicine. There are no records of medical currents being widely discussed until now in medical history of Korea; however, the current of Lee Jema's sasang medicine is the most noticeable one. Among the contemporaries of Lee Jema, during the late Chosun, there was also another famed medical practitioner called Lee Gyoojoon. Lee Gyoojoon mainly practiced his medicine within Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do area, his apprentices have formed a group and have succeeded his medical practice. Based on the analyses of Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices and the Somun Oriental Medical Society, which is known as a successor group to Lee Gyoojoon's medicine today, they are fully satisfying the five requirements to establish a medical current: first, they held Lee Gyoojoon as the first and foremost, representative practitioner of their current; second, they advocate the supporting yang theory suggested by Lee Gyoojoon, which is originated from his theory of Mind; third, books such as the Major Essentials of Huangdi's Internal Classic Plain Questions, and the Double Grinded Medical Mirror, were being used as the main textbooks to educate their students or to practice medicine. Fourth, Lee Gyoojoon's medical ideas were being transcended quite clearly within his group of apprentices, including Seo Byungoh, Lee Wonse, and the Somun Oriental Medical Society. Fifth, Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices were first produced through the Sukgok School, however, nowadays they are being produced through medical groups formed by Lee Wonse, the Somun Oriental Medical Society, regarding the propagation of medical theories, compilation of textbooks, publication of academic journals, etc. Then, what do the existence of the

  9. The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean. PMID:22993518

  10. Clinical Effect of Acupotomy Combined with Korean Medicine: A Case Series of a Herniated Intervertebral Disc.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-ji; Jeon, Ju-hyun; Kim, Young-il

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of acupotomy for treating patients with a herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD). This case series includes five HIVD patients who were treated at the Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Daejeon University Dunsan Korean Hospital, Daejeon, Korea, from January 2015 to April 2015. Acupotomy was performed three times over a 2-week period, along with Korean medical treatment. The outcomes were evaluated by using a numeric rating scale (NRS), physical examination, the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36), and the Surgical Safety Checklist. The NRS and physical examination results, as well as the ODI scores, were improved in all cases. No significant differences were noted on the SF-36. No patients had any adverse effects. This study, with its findings of encouraging responses in reducing low back pain and radiating pain and in recovering the kinetic state of soft tissue, supports the potential use of acupotomy for the treatment of patients suffering from HIVD. PMID:26896075

  11. Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

  12. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  13. Designing an effective pay-for-performance system in the Korean National Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyoung-Sun

    2012-05-01

    The challenge facing the Korean National Health Insurance includes what to spend money on in order to elevate the 'value for money.' This article reviewed the changing issues associated with quality of care in the Korean health insurance system and envisioned a picture of an effective pay-for-performance (P4P) system in Korea taking into consideration quality of care and P4P systems in other countries. A review was made of existing systematic reviews and a recent Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development survey. An effective P4P in Korea was envisioned as containing three features: measures, basis for reward, and reward. The first priority is to develop proper measures for both efficiency and quality. For further improvement of quality indicators, an electronic system for patient history records should be built in the near future. A change in the level or the relative ranking seems more desirable than using absolute level alone for incentives. To stimulate medium- and small-scale hospitals to join the program in the next phase, it is suggested that the scope of application be expanded and the level of incentives adjusted. High-quality indicators of clinical care quality should be mapped out by combining information from medical claims and information from patient registries. PMID:22712039

  14. Attitudes toward hepatitis B virus among Vietnamese, Chinese and Korean Americans in the Houston area, Texas.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jessica P; Roundtree, Aimee K; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2012-10-01

    We explored attitudes about prevention, screening and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese communities. We use qualitative methods in 12 focus groups (n = 113) of adults who self-reported their ethnicity to be Chinese, Korean, or Vietnamese. We use grounded theory (i.e., consensus-building between co-coders about recurring, emerging themes) for analysis. Diet, nutrition, fatigue and stress were misidentified as HBV causes. Improving hygiene, diet, exercise, and holistic methods were misidentified as viable HBV prevention methods. Common screening problems included not affording test and not understanding test results. Participants shared reasons for using complementary and alternative medicine--when Western medicine fails or becomes unaffordable. Participants sought information from medical providers and fellow community members, but also from the internet. Many of the attitudes and opinions that emerged may deter participation in HBV screening, prevention and treatment, insofar as community members may factor them into healthcare decision-making, choose alternative but ineffective methods of prevention and treatment, and undervalue the benefits of screening. More patient education in both traditional and new media is necessary for clarifying transmission, screening and treatment misunderstandings. PMID:22302653

  15. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  16. Development and Comparison of Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Yul; Choi, Jong Rak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The genes for cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) have been identified as important genetic determinants of warfarin dosing and have been studied. We developed warfarin algorithm for Korean patients with stroke and compared the accuracy of warfarin dose prediction algorithms based on the pharmacogenetics. Materials and Methods A total of 101 patients on stable maintenance dose of warfarin were enrolled. Warfarin dosing algorithm was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The performance of all the algorithms was characterized with coefficient of determination, determined by linear regression, and the mean of percent deviation was used to predict doses from the actual dose. In addition, we compared the performance of the algorithms using percentage of predicted dose falling within ±20% of clinically observed doses and dividing the patients into a low-dose group (≤3 mg/day), an intermediate-dose group (3–7 mg/day), and high-dose group (≥7 mg/day). Results A new developed algorithms including the variables of age, body weight, and CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype. Our algorithm accounted for 51% of variation in the warfarin stable dose, and performed best in predicting dose within 20% of actual dose and intermediate-dose group. Conclusion Our warfarin dosing algorithm may be useful for Korean patients with stroke. Further studies to elucidate clinical utility of genotype-guided dosing and find the additional genetic association are necessary. PMID:26996562

  17. Medication Errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to reduce the risk of medication errors to industry and others at FDA. Additionally, DMEPA prospectively reviews ... List of Abbreviations Regulations and Guidances Guidance for Industry: Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication ...

  18. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we defined obesity requiring pharmacotherapy as the presence of a BMI≥30 kg/m2 or a BMI≥27 kg/m2 co-occurring with at least one associated comorbid medical condition, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results The prevalence rates of a BMI≥25 kg/m2, a BMI≥30 kg/m2, and obesity requiring pharmacotherapy were 35.7%, 3.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity increased over time for all definitions of obesity. The prevalence of obesity requiring pharmacotherapy was highest in Jeju (12.5%) and lowest in Gangwon-do (7.7%). Having a higher income, being a non-manual worker, and having completed a high level of education were significantly related to obesity requiring pharmacotherapy. More than 70% of patients with obesity requiring pharmacotherapy reported taking diet pills, eating functional foods, or consuming a one-food diet for weight reduction, but only 13.9% reported exercising for this purpose. Conclusions Male obesity is a common condition, the prevalence of which is expected to continue to increase over time. A better strategy is required to manage male obesity in Korea. PMID:27574596

  19. Caffeine Intake Is Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Sung Jong; Park, Eun Kyung; Jeung, In Cheul; Kim, Chan Joo; Lee, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) and quality of life (QOL) in Korean postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We included 4,028 postmenopausal women who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). From the KNHANES questionnaire data, we ascertained the UI status of participants, defined as self-reported or medically diagnosed UI, and calculated their total daily caffeine intake through questions regarding the frequency of food consumption. The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QOL among the study population. Results The mean age of the study population was 63.19±0.25 years. Among the 4,028 women, the prevalence of medically diagnosed UI was 2.6% (n = 151), the prevalence of self-reported UI was 11.9% (n = 483), and the lifetime prevalence of UI was 15.8% (n = 639). In the study population, the presence of UI was not significantly different by age group, but daily caffeine consumption and the percentage of caffeine consumer decreased with age (P<0.001). Higher caffeine intake led to significantly higher prevalence of both medically diagnosed UI (p = 0.012) and self-reported UI (p = 0.040) in the study population. Even after adjusting for factors including age, parity, smoking status, hypertension and diabetes in logistic regression analysis, the positive association between caffeine intake and UI prevalence was observed in both medically diagnosed UI and self-reported UI (P = 0.017) among participants. In a subgroup analysis for EQ-5D (using continuous variables) in which we categorized participants into four groups according to UI presence and caffeine consumption, the EQ-5D scores were lower in the caffeine non-user group with UI than in the caffeine consumer group with or without UI. Conclusion In a sample of Korean postmenopausal women, the prevalence of UI increased with higher

  20. Reconciling data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo: An application to the Yellow Sea - Korean Peninsula region

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Franz, G A; Ramirez, A L

    2004-08-30

    In an effort to build seismic models that are most consistent with multiple data sets, we have applied a new probabilistic inverse technique. This method uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to sample models from a prior distribution and test them against multiple data types to generate a posterior distribution. While computationally expensive, this approach has several advantages over a single deterministic model, notably the reconciliation of different data types that constrain the model, the proper handling of uncertainties, and the ability to include prior information. We also benefit from the advantage of forward modeling rather than inverting the data. Here, we use this method to determine the crust and upper mantle structure of the Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula (YSKP) region. We discuss the data sets, parameterization and starting model, outline the technique and its implementation, observe the behavior of the inversion, and demonstrate some of the advantages of this approach.

  1. 3 CFR 8399 - Proclamation 8399 of July 24, 2009. National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim July 27, 2009, as National Korean War... activities that honor and give thanks to our distinguished Korean War veterans. I also ask...

  2. Medical Appointments

    MedlinePlus

    ... trouble concentrating, stomach problems or emotional issues like anxiety. New or increasing side effects or reactions to your medications. Again, for how long? How serious are they? Medication compliance: How well you’ve been taking your medications. Have you missed doses? If so, ...

  3. MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

    THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…

  4. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

  5. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Kim, Kwan Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma. PMID:27433170

  6. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma. PMID:27433170

  7. A lossless encryption method for medical images using edge maps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2009-01-01

    Image encryption is an effective approach for providing security and privacy protection for medical images. This paper introduces a new lossless approach, called EdgeCrypt, to encrypt medical images using the information contained within an edge map. The algorithm can fully protect the selected objects/regions within medical images or the entire medical images. It can also encrypt other types of images such as grayscale images or color images. The algorithm can be used for privacy protection in the real-time medical applications such as wireless medical networking and mobile medical services. PMID:19965008

  8. [Missionary Medicine of Canadian Presbytery and Korean Doctors under Japanese Occupation--focusing Sung-jin and Ham-heung].

    PubMed

    Heo, Yun-Jung; Cho, Young-Soo

    2015-12-01

    In East Asia during the second half of the 19th century, overseas mission work by Protestant churches thrived. Missionaries built schools and hospitals and effectively used them for evangelism. In the 20th century when Social Gospel Movement was expanding, medical work has been recognized as a significant mission service in and by itself. This article reviewed the construction and characteristics of missions work conducted by Canadian Presbytery; missionary doctors and Korean doctors who worked at the mission hospitals; why the missionary medical work had to stop; and career paths taken by Korean doctors upon liberation from Japanese occupation. The Canadian Presbytery missionaries, unlike other denomination missionaries, were rather critical of Imperial Japan, but supportive towards Koreans. This could have stemmed from the reflection of their own experience of once a colony of British Empire and also their value system that promotes egalitarian, democratic and progressive theology. The Sung-jin and Ham-heung Mission Bases were a community, interacting organically as a 'Triangle of Church, School and Hospital.' The missionaries mobilized the graduates from Christian schools and organized a Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). Some of the graduates were trained to become medical doctors or assistants and worked at mission hospitals. Missionary doctors' approaches to balancing evangelism and medical practice varied. For example, Robert Grieson went through confusion and struggled to balance conflicting roles as a pastor for evangelism and also as a physician. Kate McMillan, on the other hand, had less burden for evangelism than Grieson, and focused on medical work by taking advantage of the opportunity that, as a woman, she can easily approach Korean women. Still another case was Florence Murray who practised evangelism within the hospital setting, and successfully carried out the role as a hospital administrator, going beyond 'women's work' as McMillan did

  9. The Koreans in Hawaii. An Annotated Bibliography. Hawaii Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Arthur L, Comp.

    Two hundred and twenty documents comprise this annotated bibliography concerning Koreans in Hawaii. It includes all the materials presently available in Hawaii in either the English or the Korean language on the Korean community. Most of the materials listed relate to aspects of the life of the original immigrants and their descendents. Others are…

  10. Korean-Americans in Los Angeles: Their Concerns and Language Maintenance. Technical Report 01-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    A preliminary study was conducted by the National Center for Bilingual Education on the Korean community living in the United States. The study focused on Korean Americans residing within the Los Angeles Long Beach area of southern California, one of the largest Korean communities in the United States. This report includes: (1) a history of the…

  11. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  12. The Korean Language in America: The Role of Cultural Identity in Heritage Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of cultural identity and heritage language maintenance among the lives of 40 second-generation Korean-American university students in the United States. Analyses of questionnaire data showed that most second generation Korean-Americans achieve some level of Korean proficiency, but they overwhelmingly agree that it is not enough.…

  13. The Role of Korean Parents in the Literacy Development of Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-lea

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes Korean parents' involvement in early oral language development as a major factor contributing to Korean children's early literacy development. Claims that Korean culture and parents' view support the emergent literacy theory advanced by Marie Clay and also contribute to children's reading and language abilities. Asserts…

  14. The Korean American Family: Assimilation and Its Toll on the First and Second Generation Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joann J.; Hong, Steve

    Over the last 15 years researchers have taken an increased interest in studying the large pool of recent Korean immigrants. This analysis concentrates on finding how first generation Korean Americans relate and interact with their second generation counterparts. Using studies on the adjustment of first generation Korean immigrants and the levels…

  15. Confucian Thought Affecting Leadership and Organizational Culture of Korean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    This article examines Confucian thought affecting leadership and organizational culture of Korean higher education in order to understand leadership behavior and ethical values in Korean higher education from a viewpoint of educational administration. The writer evaluates that most of educational administrators in Korean higher education prefer…

  16. Levels of Phonological Awareness in Korean and English: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined associations of levels of phonological awareness to word recognition in Korean and English in a 1-year longitudinal study of 91 children from Masan, Korea. With performances on tasks of speeded naming, vocabulary, and Korean Hangul in 2nd grade statistically controlled, only Korean syllable deletion predicted unique…

  17. Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gim, Jinyeong

    2016-01-01

    South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has…

  18. Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…

  19. Annotated Bibliography on Koreans in America. Working Papers on Asian American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christopher; Takabashi, Michiko, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography lists bibliographies, directories, articles, unpublished papers, manuals, citations, conference reports, and other documents dealing with Koreans in America. Topics considered include general history, immigration history, deportation cases, Korean students, State and Federal legislation affecting Koreans in America,…

  20. Model Minority, Self-Perception and Schooling: Multiple Voices of Korean Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2009-01-01

    Koreans have been successful in nesting their educational achievement in places like China, where they have earned the title of the "model minority", due primarily to their educational success. Drawing on data from ethnographic research on fourth-grade Korean students in a bilingual Korean school, this article examines the relationship between…

  1. A Study on the Textbook Designed to Teach Korean as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2012-01-01

    It is the reality of Korean language education that the development of teaching materials for Korean language for academic purposes are not so brisk, compared to that of the materials for general purpose, as the education of Korean language as a foreign language has just begun to proceed. The focuses of this study are to survey the brief history…

  2. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  3. Variables Related to Career Success: Korean-American Women of Distinction Tell Their Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Susan Byungsook

    The goal of this research was to uncover the reasons for the unusual success of a small group of Korean-Americans in the American work arena. All had spent their childhood and formative years in Korea under the sole influence of Korean culture, attending the best high schools and colleges. Korean culture tends not to nurture some of the…

  4. Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Park, Yoonjung; Lee, Kyoung Rang

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes--phonological…

  5. Visible or Invisible? Korean High School Students' Current Schooling Experiences in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Bogum; Haag, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the current schooling experiences of eight Korean high school students in the United States. By comparing and contrasting recent immigrant adolescents and 1.5/2nd generation students, the purpose of this study was to explore how their identities as Koreans or Korean Americans were formed and shifted while they…

  6. 31 CFR 500.582 - Importation of North Korean-origin magnesite and magnesia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of North Korean-origin... North Korean-origin magnesite and magnesia. Specific licenses may be issued authorizing the importation into the United States of North Korean-origin magnesite or magnesia....

  7. Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

  8. Language and Power: Korean-Chinese Students' Language Attitude and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, F.

    2009-01-01

    Language is not only a method of communication, but also a mechanism of power. The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of Korean students, who are participating in a bilingual Korean school in Northeast China, construct their language attitude and practice. Research findings indicate that the Korean students value…

  9. The Problem of Authority: What Can Korean Education Learn from Dewey?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    While the ideas of Western democracy and individualism are increasingly popular and influential in Korean society, the traditional Korean understanding of authority has been challenged, especially in Korean schools. In this essay, the author first tries to analyze some important educational problems in contemporary Korea as it relates to the…

  10. Language Learning as a Site for Belonging: A Narrative Analysis of Korean Adoptee-Returnees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina; Stoker, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Through analyzing narratives of Korean heritage language (HL) users, this article explores whether and to what degree these language users experience social inclusion and a sense of belonging in Korean society. We expand the field of HL research by investigating the experiences of four Korean-born, US-raised adoptee-returnees who currently reside…

  11. Ethnicity, Achievement and Friendship: Korean Chinese Students' Construction of Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    This research reported in this article ethnographically examines ethnicity and achievement in the formation of Korean Chinese students' peer networks. With the significance of children's peer networks in their interaction and school experience in mind, this article demonstrates how a group of ethnic Korean students at one Korean bilingual school…

  12. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  13. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  14. Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional status in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Na, Youn Ju

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which is being used at the Samsung Medical Center. In total, 305 (190 males and 115 females) participants consented and completed the 3-day diet records and FFQ. Age, gender and energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0.317 (polyunsaturated fatty acid) to 0.748 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.550. The weighted kappa value ranged from 0.18 (vitamin A) to 0.57 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.36. More than 75% of the subjects were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles. The FFQ had reasonably good validity compared with that of another study. Therefore, our FFQ is considered a proper method to assess nutrient intake in healthy Korean adults. PMID:23198024

  15. Factors influencing evidence-based nursing utilization intention in Korean practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee-Won; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, Mi-Mi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Korean nurses' perceptions, attitudes and utilization intention for evidence-based nursing (EBN), and to explore what factors influence utilization intention. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2012. Registered nurses directly involved in clinical practice were recruited at a medical centre in Korea. A total of 420 nurses completed a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that participants reported moderate scores regarding their perceptions and attitudes towards EBN, and rated themselves as higher than the median for utilization intention. Furthermore, this study revealed that perceptions of and attitudes towards EBN, occupational view and previous EBN education were significant factors affecting utilization intention. Nurse educators and managers should encourage nurses to have better attitudes towards EBN, help them be more satisfied with their work and provide them with appropriate education for EBN to establish evidence-based practice as a part of daily nursing care. PMID:24689706

  16. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations. PMID:22554898

  17. A descriptive statistical approach to the Korean pharmacopuncture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kang, Dae-In

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews trends in research related to Korean pharmacopuncture therapy. Specifically, basic and clinical research in pharmacopuncture within the last decade is summarized by introducing categorical variables for classification. These variables are also analyzed for association. This literature review is based on articles published from February 1997 to December 2008 in a Korean journal, the Journal of the Korean Institute of Herbal Acupuncture, which was renamed the Journal of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute in 2007. Among the total of 379 papers published in the journal during this period, 164 papers were selected for their direct relevance to pharmacopuncture research and were categorized according to three variables: medicinal materials, acupuncture points and disease. The most frequently studied medicinal materials were bee-venom pharmacopuncture (42%), followed by meridian-field pharmacopuncture (24%), single-compound pharmacopuncture (24%), and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (10%). The frequency distributions of the acupuncture points and meridians for the injection of medicinal materials are presented. The most frequently used meridian and acupuncture point was the Bladder meridian and ST36, respectively. Contingency tables are also displayed to analyze the relationship between the categorized variables. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant association between the type of pharmacopuncture and disease. The trend in research reports on Korean pharmacopuncture therapy was reviewed and analyzed using a descriptive statistical approach to evaluate the therapeutic value of this technique for future research. PMID:20869014

  18. The experience of Korean immigrant women adjusting to Canadian society.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-09-01

    The acculturation process is an important factor in the experience of all immigrants. Although previous studies have indicated the challenges faced by Korean immigrants, little attention has been paid to Korean women's immigration experiences. A focused ethnography was used to examine midlife and older Korean immigrant women's experiences following their immigration to Canada. Fifteen women were interviewed in a city in Western Canada. The findings showed that in coming to Canada, women focused on caring for their children and often sacrificed their personal dreams. They had to be employed to support their families, and received support from family and government. Women participated regularly in a Korean Church and drew on their Christian faith to ease their adjustment. They retained hopes for the future including good health and a better life for their children. Most women indicated that it was difficult to integrate into Canadian society but they never gave up on their adjustment to a new culture. In this manuscript, the adjustment experience of the immigrant women is discussed in the context of an acculturation framework. The findings will enhance health professionals' awareness of adjustment patterns and associated challenges to Korean immigrant women's quality of life. PMID:25096026

  19. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  20. Regional source properties of the North Korean nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic analyses based on regional waveforms receive increasing attention for discrimination and source studies of recent moderate-size underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Two North Korean underground nuclear explosion tests were conducted in 9 October 2006 and 25 May 2009. The Noth Korean UNEs were well observed by dense regional seismic networks with high signal-to-noise ratios. The source properties of the two North Korean UNEs are estimated using source-spectral inversions of regional phases. Ray-path effects including attenuation are corrected in the inversion. The source properties of the UNEs are compared each other. The apparent moments of high-frequency regional phases of the 2009 UNE are estimated to be about 5 times greater than those of the 2006 UNE. The corner frequencies and overshoot parameters are determined to be similar between the UNEs. The North Korean UNEs are well discriminated from natural earthquakes using P/S spectral ratios. The S waves from the North Korean UNEs display fairly weak overshooting feature in the spectra unlike P waves.