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Sample records for korean premenopausal women

  1. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p<0.02). THb and malignancy index were the two best single predictors of malignancy, with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  2. Premenopausal bone health: osteoporosis in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Alice; Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    This article will discuss the diagnosis of osteoporosis in premenopausal women and the evaluation and management of those with low-trauma fractures and/or low bone mineral density. As secondary causes (glucocorticoid excess, anorexia nervosa, premenopausal estrogen deficiency, and celiac disease) are commonly the underlying cause of osteoporosis in this population, treatment of the underlying condition should be the focus of management. Additional management options, generally reserved for those with major or multiple fractures and/or ongoing bone loss, will also be described. PMID:24022503

  3. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Insang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Mi Na; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule) or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13 ± 2.87 to 23.98 ± 4.10, p = 0.015) and placebo treatment (from 20.06 ± 2.64 to 23.78 ± 3.28, p = 0.003). However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.702). KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:26798402

  4. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Insang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Mi Na; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule) or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13 ± 2.87 to 23.98 ± 4.10, p = 0.015) and placebo treatment (from 20.06 ± 2.64 to 23.78 ± 3.28, p = 0.003). However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.702). KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:26798402

  5. Increased risk of obesity related to total energy intake with the APOA5-1131T > C polymorphism in Korean premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyo Hee; Choi, Miok; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesized that triglyceride-raising apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5)-1131T > C may contribute to the increased risk of obesity associated with dietary intake in Korean premenopausal women whose minor allele frequency is higher than that in Western people. Genetically unrelated Korean premenopausal women (approximately 20-59 years, n = 1128) were genotyped for APOA5-1131T > C. Anthropometric, metabolic parameters and dietary intakes were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity risk (body mass index, ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) were calculated. Genotype distribution of APOA5-1131T > C of study subjects were like TT: 49.9%, TC: 40.8%, and CC: 9.3%. We found a significant interaction between APOA5-1131T > C and total energy intake (TEI) for obesity after adjusted for age, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (P < .001). The risk of obesity in CC homozygotes compared with T carriers (TT + TC) was significantly increased, when the subjects consume higher TEI (≥2001 kcal/d (8372 kJ/d), median value of the population) (OR, 2.495; 95% confidence intervals, 1.325-4.696; P = .005), particularly, when they maintain negative balance between total energy expenditure and TEI (total energy expenditure/TEI, <1) (OR, 2.917; 95% confidence intervals, 1.451-5.864; P = .003). The contributions of APOA5-1131CC homozygotes to obesity risk in those who consume higher TEI were all significantly high regardless of percentage of energy intake from dietary macronutrients. Whereas, no significant association was observed in those who consume lower TEI (<2001 kcal/d). In addition, serum levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A5 were associated with APOA5-1131T > C and TEI. These findings suggest that APOA5-1131CC homozygotes may influence the susceptibility of the individual to obesity, particularly, when they consume higher TEI, but the genetic effect may be attenuated, when people maintain low or adequate energy intake. PMID:25263629

  6. A review of osteoporosis management in younger premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    McLendon, Amber N; Woodis, C Brock

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the available evidence for osteoporosis treatments in young and premenopausal women. A review of articles evaluating the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis in young (age less than 50 years) or premenopausal women was conducted. Several trials evaluating the treatment of anorexia nervosa and use of hormone therapy in those women, the use of bisphosphonates in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer and the use of bisphosphonates, teriparatide and vitamin D in women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis are described. Limited data were found to support the treatment of osteoporosis in women with idiopathic osteoporosis or cystic fibrosis, or after kidney transplant. The evidence for treatment of osteoporosis in premenopausal women is not nearly as robust as that for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although fracture risk in the premenopausal population is low, women with secondary osteoporosis may benefit from treatment with various agents, depending upon the condition. PMID:24328599

  7. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  8. Influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Liu, Jieqiong; Gu, Ran; Hu, Yue; Liu, Fengtao; Yun, Miaomiao; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi

    2016-07-01

    Mammographic density is an independent strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, the influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. In the Southern Professional Women Breast Cancer Screening Project, we assessed the associations between mammographic density and its influential factors using multivariate logistic regression in premenopausal women adjusting for BMI, age, duration of breastfeeding, number of live births, and breast size. A total of 1699 premenopausal women aged 27 to 57 years, who had been screened by mammography, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Overall, 85.2% were categorized as having dense breasts (BI-RADS density 3 and 4) and 14.8% as having fatty breasts (BI-RADS density 1 and 2). In multivariate and logistic regression analysis, only BMI and age were significantly negatively correlated with mammographic density in premenopausal women (P<0.001). No significant associations between mammographic density and number of deliveries, breastfeeding duration, education level, family history of breast cancer, as well as breast size and sleep quality, were identified in the study. Age and BMI are negatively associated with mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women. Information on the influential factors of mammographic density in premenopausal women might provide meaningful insights into breast cancer prevention. PMID:26075657

  9. Higher levels of central adiposity in healthy premenopausal women with family histories of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Britton, Julie A; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2008-01-01

    Research strongly suggests that lower overall adiposity and higher central adiposity are independent risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer in the general population. We aimed to test the possibility that these factors may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A convenience sample of healthy women, ages 25-49, was recruited to yield three study groups: (1) Women with first-degree family histories of premenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed prior to age 50 (Group FH < 50, n = 39); (2) Women with first-degree family histories of postmenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed at age 50 or after (Group FH > or = 50, n = 33); and (3) Women without a history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (Group FH-, n = 132). Multinomial logistic regression analyses, including possible confounders, waist circumference, and BMI, revealed a lower BMI among FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.59-0.87), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60-0.95), and higher waist circumferences in FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.06-1.25), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.05-1.28). No group differences were seen for waist skinfold measures. These results support the possibility that differences in patterns of adiposity may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and suggest the importance of conducting large scale, population-based studies of the link between body size characteristics and familial breast cancer risk. PMID:18161037

  10. Treatment of Premenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) results in premenopausal women is particularly challenging, because the relationship between BMD and fracture risk is not the same as for postmenopausal women. Z scores rather than T scores should be used to define “low BMD” in premenopausal women. The finding of low BMD in a premenopausal woman should prompt an evaluation for secondary causes of bone loss. If a secondary cause is found, management should focus on treatment of this condition. In some cases in which the secondary cause cannot be addressed, such as glucocorticoid therapy or cancer chemotherapy, treatment with a bone-active agent to prevent bone loss should be considered. In women with no fractures and no known secondary cause, low BMD may not signify compromised bone strength. BMD is likely to remain stable in these women, and pharmacologic therapy is rarely justified. Assessment of markers of bone turnover and follow-up bone density measurements can help to identify those with an ongoing process of bone loss that may indicate a higher risk for fracture, and possible need for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:18430399

  11. Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Christiana M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Egleston, Brian L; Kahle, L L; Spittle, Cynthia S; Godwin, Andrew K; Brinton, Louise A; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2011-06-30

    Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clinical applications. PMID:21704216

  12. Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Christiana M.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Kahle, L.L.; Spittle, Cynthia S.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Brinton, Louise A.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clinical applications. PMID:21704216

  13. Body Iron Stores and Glucose Intolerance in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, M. Ángeles; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; San-Millán, José L.; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased serum ferritin levels and iron stores may be involved in the development of abnormal glucose tolerance in women presenting with obesity and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to study the determinants of serum ferritin levels in premenopausal women among indexes of insulin resistance, adiposity, hyperandrogenism, and genotypes pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, and iron metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 257 premenopausal women, classified depending on the presence or absence of PCOS, obesity, and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, underwent a complete metabolic evaluation, serum ferritin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements, and genotyping for proinflammatory and prooxidant variants and mutations in the HFE gene. RESULTS Serum ferritin concentrations were increased in women presenting with PCOS and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, independent of obesity. A stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.18, P < 0.0001) retained menstrual dysfunction (β = 0.14, P = 0.035), free testosterone (β = 0.14, P = 0.052), insulin sensitivity index (β = −0.12, P = 0.012), the His63Asp variant in HFE (β = 0.16, P = 0.008), and abnormal glucose tolerance (β = 0.15, P = 0.015) as significant predictors of the logarithm of ferritin levels, whereas CRP, haptoglobin, waist-to-hip ratio, or variants in the TNFα, TNFRSF1B, IL6, IL6ST, IL6Rα, PON1, and HFE Cys282Tyr mutation exerted no influence. CONCLUSIONS Androgen excess (partly because of hyperandrogenemia and partly because of menstrual dysfunction), insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance, and the HFE His63Asp variant correlate with ferritin levels in premenopausal women. PMID:19401444

  14. Voices of Korean American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hastick, Eda F.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses issues of race, gender, and the immigrant experience, focusing on Korean-American women. Highlights myths and stereotypes surrounding Asian Americans and issues of immigrant adaptation and survival. Presents excerpts from a conversation among three Korean-American women, discussing issues related to race relations and the traditional…

  15. The Association between Sleep Duration and Hypertension in Non-obese Premenopausal Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Yeon; Sung, En; Lee, Keun-Mi; Keum, Shin-Ho; Ryu, Sun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed that sleep duration is linked to both obesity and hypertension. Here, we evaluated the association between sleep duration and hypertension in obese and non-obese premenopausal women using representative national survey data from the Korean population. Methods A total of 4,748 subjects over 20 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were included. To control for risk factors, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of hypertension across the following sleep duration categories: <6, 6-8, and >8 h/d. Results Among the participants, 367 subjects (7.7%) had hypertension. Their mean sleep duration was 7 hours. In the non-obese subjects, after controlling for potential confounding variables, the odds ratio for hypertension was 1.86 fold greater in those with a sleep duration of <6 hours (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.03) as compared to those who slept for 6.8 hours. However, there was no association between sleep duration and the risk of hypertension in obese subjects. Long sleep duration (over 8 h/d) was not associated with hypertension in either the non-obese or the obese subjects in this study. Conclusion Short sleep duration (less than 6 h/d) may be a significant risk factor for hypertension in non-obese premenopausal women. However, there is no association between sleep duration and the risk of hypertension in obese women. PMID:27073613

  16. Urinary Cadmium and Mammographic Density in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. Methods In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS ®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40–45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium over a period of 20–30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Results Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urine cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): −2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each two-fold increase in urine cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (odds ratio(OR): 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82–2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of “extremely dense” (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14–2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Conclusions Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women. PMID:21327468

  17. Cortisol elimination from plasma in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Koska, J; Kovalancik, M; Killinger, Z; Payer, J; Vigas, M; Jezova, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Twelve premenopausal female patients with RA (39.8 (1.8) years) and nine healthy control women matched for age and body mass index (42 (3.3) years) were enrolled in the study. None of the patients had previously been receiving treatment with glucocorticoids. After dexamethasone suppression (2 mg by mouth) the evening before the study, 20 mg of hydrocortisone was given. Blood and saliva samples were drawn six hours after injection of hydrocortisone. Plasma and salivary cortisol were measured. Results: Dexamethasone administration suppressed plasma cortisol concentrations to an almost undetectable level in all subjects, except one with RA. In this subject, a raised concentration of plasma cortisol was verified by repeated analysis despite the fact that cortisol concentration in the saliva sample measured simultaneously was not raised. No significant difference in the disappearance curve of cortisol in plasma or in salivary cortisol levels was found between the patients with RA and the healthy controls. Conclusions: The profile of disappearance of total cortisol from plasma, and salivary cortisol levels during the elimination phase after its intravenous administration, are unchanged in premenopausal women with RA. Alterations in cortisol clearance are not likely to have a role in cortisol availability in patients with RA. PMID:12810434

  18. Outcome of hysterectomy for pelvic pain in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tay, S K; Bromwich, N

    1998-02-01

    The outcome of abdominal hysterectomy for pelvic pain in premenopausal women was studied retrospectively in 228 women. In 17 women, pelvic pain was the sole indication while in the others, pelvic pain was one of the contributory indications for hysterectomy. The most common surgical histopathological diagnoses were uterine leiomyoma (73.9%), uterine adenomyosis (40.4%), benign ovarian cyst (19.3%) and endometriosis (7.9%); 118 (51.8%) patients had single pathology and 48.2% had multiple pathologies. The agreement between operative clinical diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis was 66.1% for leiomyoma, 57.1% for uterine adenomyosis and 30% for endometriosis. The incidence of early postoperative complication was 20.6%, mainly minor morbidities including urinary tract infection (3.9%), wound infection (3.1%) and unexplained fever (6.0%). These complications significantly prolonged the duration of hospital stay from an average of 7 days to 9-17 days. Of 98 patients with pain as the sole or the most predominant indication for hysterectomy, 72% responded to an outcome survey 12 or more months after hysterectomy. Of these, 62 (87%) were satisfied with the operation, 8 were unsure and 1 was dissatisfied; 68 (95.8%) patients reported relief of their symptoms. Relief of symptoms did not correlate with the patient's report of her satisfaction with hysterectomy. Pain in the abdominal wound a year or more after surgery was one of the commonest reasons cited for dissatisfaction with hysterectomy. We conclude that in well-selected cases, hysterectomy is an appropriate and satisfactory treatment for premenopausal women with pelvic pain irrespective of clinical evidence of associated pathology. Effective measures to reduce postoperative complications and wound pain are needed to further improve the outcome of abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:9521396

  19. Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

  20. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  1. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, AZ; Mumford, SL; Wactawski-Wende, J; Yeung, E; Mendola, P; Mattison, DR; Schisterman, EF

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was, 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages. PMID:23122770

  2. Analysis of high risk factors and characteristics of coronary artery in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping; Yan, Peng; Liu, Xiangyong; Zhao, Debao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the high risk factors and coronary lesion features in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease (CAD) and provide guideline for diagnosis and therapy. Methods: 114 premenopausal women and 134 postmenopausal women were conducted coronary angiography in our hospital from September, 2012 to September, 2014. According to the results of coronary angiography, premenopausal and postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease were divided into two groups respectively, including 48 premenopausal women with CAD group, 66 premenopausal women with normal coronary artery group, 76 postmenopausal women with CAD group and 58 postmenopausal women with normal coronary artery group. Clinical characteristics and coronary lesion features were analyzed. Results: Incidence rates of hypertension disease and diabetes were higher in premenopausal women with CAD group than control group. Most of premenopausal women suffered from single vessel lesion and the length of impaired vessel was less than 20 mm, meanwhile, postmenopausal women easily confronted from double vessels or mutivessle lesion and the length of impaired vessel was more than 20 mm. Left anterior descending coronary artery lesion was common for premenopausal women. Conclusion: Hypertension disease and diabetes were the main high risk factors for premenopausal women and high triglyceride was the optimal predictable factor, furthermore, single vessel lesion and short artery lesion were common in premenopausal women, which often happened in the anterior descending coronary artery. PMID:26629175

  3. Equol production changes over time in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Pagano, Ian; Morimoto, Yukiko; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-04-01

    Equol (EQ) is a metabolite produced by gut bacteria through the chemical reduction of the soya isoflavone daidzein (DE), but only by 30-60% of the population. EQ is believed to provide benefits derived from soya intake and its production is widely viewed as a relatively stable phenomenon. In a randomised, cross-over intervention with soya foods, seventy-nine pre-menopausal women were challenged with a high-soya and a low-soya diet each for 6 months, separated by a 1-month washout period. Overnight urine was collected at three time points during each diet period and analysed for DE and EQ by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Remaining an EQ producer (EP) or non-producer (NP) or changing towards an EP or NP was assessed using an EQ:DE ratio of ≥0·018 combined with a DE threshold of ≥2 nmol/mg creatinine as a cut-off point. We observed 19 and 24% EP during the low-soya and high-soya diet periods, respectively, and found that 6-11% of our subjects changed EQ status 'within' each study period (on an average of 1·2 times), while 16% changed 'between' the two diet periods. The present finding challenges the widely held conviction that EQ production within an individual remains stable over time. The precise factors contributing to changes in EQ status, however, remain elusive and warrant further investigation. PMID:21920062

  4. Bicycle Riding, Walking, and Weight Gain in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Anne C.; Mekary, Rania A.; Feskanich, Diane; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Context No research has been conducted on bicycle riding and weight control in comparison to walking. Objective To assess the association between bicycle riding and weight control in premenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants This was a 16-year follow-up of 18, 414 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Main Outcome Measures Weight change between 1989 and 2005 was the primary outcome and odds of gaining >5% of baseline body weight (BBW) by 2005 the secondary outcome. Results At baseline, only 39% walked briskly while only 1.2% bicycled for ≥30 min/d. For a 30 min/d increase in activity between 1989 and 2005, weight gain was significantly less for brisk walking (−1.81 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.05,−1.56), bicycling (−1.59 kg; 95%CI= −2.09, −1.08), and other activities (−1.45 kg; 95%CI= −1.66, −1.24) but not for slow walking (+0.06 kg; 95%CI= −0.22, 0.35). Women who reported no bicycling in 1989 and increased to as little as 5 minutes/day in 2005 gained less weight (−0.74 kg; 95%CI= −1.41, −0.07, P-trend<0.01) than those who remained non-bikers. Normal weight women who bicycled ≥ 4 hours/week in 2005 had lower odds of gaining >5% of their BBW (Odds Ratio (OR) =0.74, 95%CI=0.56–0.98) compared with those who reported no bicycling; overweight/obese women had lower odds at 2–3 hours/week (OR=0.54, 95%CI=0.34–86). Conclusions Bicycling, similar to brisk walking, is associated with less weight gain and an inverse dose-response relationship exists, especially among overweight/obese women. Future research should focus on brisk walking but also on greater time spent bicycling. PMID:20585071

  5. Sources of Cadmium Exposure Among Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38–0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27–0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11–33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06 – 0.15 μg/g ) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. PMID:21333327

  6. Navigating the Challenges of Endocrine Treatments in Premenopausal Women with ER-Positive Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Colleoni, Marco; Munzone, Elisabetta

    2015-08-01

    Endocrine therapy is a key component of adjuvant treatment for premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors. It is commonly well tolerated, although side effects are a main concern in the selection of treatment options. Tamoxifen is still considered an adequate endocrine therapy in a large group of premenopausal patients (e.g. lower-risk patient, presence of co-morbidities, patient preference). Results of the SOFT and TEXT trials addressing new adjuvant endocrine treatment options in premenopausal patients were recently presented. Overall, in the SOFT study the premenopausal population did not benefit from the addition of ovarian function suppression (OFS). Nevertheless, for women at sufficient risk of recurrence to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and who maintained premenopausal estradiol, the addition of OFS to tamoxifen reduced the risk of recurrence. The magnitude of the effect was larger in younger patients. Moreover, in the SOFT and TEXT trials, adjuvant treatment with exemestane plus OFS, as compared with tamoxifen plus OFS, significantly improved disease-free survival, breast cancer-free interval and distant disease-free survival. However, premenopausal patients include heterogeneous subsets of women and tumors where costs and benefits of adjuvant endocrine therapy should be properly weighted. Issues specific for premenopausal patients, related to desire for pregnancy, family planning, safety, quality of life and subjective side effects, should be a priority in the therapeutic algorithm. Therefore, selecting the best-tolerated agent can enhance adherence to therapies and reduce the impact on quality of life and health status for these younger patients. PMID:26177891

  7. Analgesic use and patterns of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Oh, Hannah; Daugherty, Sarah E; Xu, Xia; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G; Eliassen, A Heather

    2014-04-01

    Analgesic use has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of some cancers, with inverse associations between analgesics and colon cancer, and suggestive inverse associations for breast cancer. Estrogen metabolites (EM) have genotoxic and estrogenic potential; genotoxicity may differ by hydroxylation pathway. Analgesic use may impact patterns of estrogen metabolism; effects of analgesics on disease risk could be mediated through these patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 603 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Frequency of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen use was reported via questionnaire; average frequency in 1997 and 1999 was calculated. Women provided urine samples between 1996 and 1999, collected during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Urinary EM were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We observed no association between analgesic use and estradiol, estrone, or specific pathways of estrogen metabolism. Women reporting more frequent aspirin use had lower methylated 2-catechols (e.g., 2-hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether, 2+ days/week vs. non-use: 0.95 vs. 1.21 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.07). Non-aspirin NSAID use was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (4+ days/week vs. non-use: 2.48 vs. 1.52 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.11). Acetaminophen use was positively associated with total EM (2+ days/week vs. non-use: 236 vs. 198 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.02, p trend = 0.11), 2-hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether (1.6 vs. 1.1 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference < 0.01, p trend = 0.02), and 16α-hydroxyestrone (17 vs. 12 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.05). This study provides the first assessment of analgesic use and patterns of estrogen metabolism in women. While we observed some associations between analgesics and

  8. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  9. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  10. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained. PMID:26358933

  11. Improved adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine responsive disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldhirsch, Aron; Colleoni, Marco; Regan, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Results from two randomised global trials (SOFT & TEXT) designed to newly define the most effective components of adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine responsive disease, showed that for some, those with high risk of relapse, the use of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane together with ovarian function suppression with GnRH analogue (triptorelin) yielded the most favourable treatment outcome compared with tamoxifen. For women with low risk of relapse, treatment with tamoxifen was similar to ovarian function suppression together with either exemestane or tamoxifen. For women with intermediate risk of relapse, ovarian function suppression added to tamoxifen was not inferior to exemestane, while it resulted in superior outcomes compared to tamoxifen alone. Now, these trials provide critical information for the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal women with endocrine responsive breast cancer and are important for the development of future trials for further improvement of adjuvant endocrine therapies for the younger population. PMID:26082801

  12. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  13. CHANGES IN PLASMA MULLERIAN INHIBITING SUBSTANCE AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Faisal; Merhi, Zaher O; Ahmed, Safaa; Kuzbari, Oumar; Seifer, David B.; Minkoff, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Eight premenopausal women with cancer had blood drawn for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) before and three months after receiving chemotherapy. Unlike MIS, BDNF levels were not reduced following chemotherapy. PMID:21075370

  14. Aromatase inhibitor plus ovarian suppression as adjuvant therapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Figg, William D; Cook, Katherine; Clarke, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The goal of adjuvant hormonal therapy for breast cancer is to prevent recurrence by eradicating micrometastatic disease. Recent studies have shown that the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as adjuvant therapy improves outcomes for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer compared to adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen alone. The research question has been raised whether AIs would have similar improvements in disease-free survival (DFS) in premenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer. Combining 2 phase 3 clinical trials (n = 4,690), Pagani and colleagues randomized premenopausal women with ER-positive early breast cancer to exemestane plus ovarian suppression or tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression for a period of 5 y. After a median follow-up of 68 months, DFS was 91.1% in the AI group and 87.3% in the tamoxifen group. In premenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer, adjuvant treatment with exemestane plus ovarian suppression, as compared with tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression, significantly reduced recurrence. PMID:25535893

  15. The Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Korean Women: KNHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Bo Ok; Noe, Eun Bee; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin levels increase in postmenopausal women, and they are reported to be linked to major health problems. Here, we investigated the association between serum ferritin levels and insulin resistance (IR) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 6632 healthy Korean women (4357 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007–2010 were enrolled in the study. Serum ferritin values were divided into six groups for the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. IR and obesity indices were evaluated according to the six serum ferritin groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results The association between the IR indices and ferritin groups had a higher level of statistical significance in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. In addition, for the postmenopausal group, the estimates increased significantly in the sixth ferritin group compared to those in the first ferritin group. However, the association between the obesity indices and ferritin levels was not significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:27337113

  16. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  17. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to climacteric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Idun Berenice Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To compare fibromyalgia prevalence in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to the climacteric symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred and nine women were studied, who attended the gynecology consultation at the hospital. They were divided in two groups: group I (premenopausal, n = 113) and group II (postmenopausal, n = 96). In all of them, climacteric symptoms and fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were investigated; for the latter, the evaluations were done according to the 1990 and 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Results When groups I and II were compared, no differences were found in somatometry, medicament consumption and associated diseases. When analyzing the general group, the fibromyalgia prevalence was greater in the postmenopausal women. However, when comparing the groups according to climacteric symptoms, in group I, 29% of symptomatic women had fibromyalgia, while only 4% of asymptomatic ones (p < 0.002). In group II, 15.7% of symptomatic women, and 2.5% of asymptomatic ones had fibromyalgia (p < 0.02). In group I, the more common painful points were the lower back (45.5%), neck (35.7%), and upper back (32.1%). The more frequent symptoms were non-restful sleep (49%), followed by fatigue and cognitive symptoms (42% for each one). In group II, the more common painful points were the lower back (42%), neck (40%) and upper back (38.5%). The more frequent symptoms were fatigue (69.6%), cognitive symptoms (59.3%) and non-restful sleep (57%). Conclusions In premenopausal women, fibromyalgia was related to the presence of climacteric symptoms and in postmenopausal women – to their absence. PMID:26327850

  18. Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankita; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Schliep, Karen C; Perkins, Neil J; Kissell, Kerri A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether sexual activity was associated with reproductive function in the BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study that followed 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18 to 44years for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles in 2005-2007. Women were not attempting pregnancy nor using hormonal contraceptives. History of ever having been sexually active was assessed at baseline and frequency of sexual activity, defined as vaginal-penile intercourse, was self-reported daily throughout the study. Serum concentrations of estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and testosterone were measured up to 8times/cycle. Sporadic anovulation was identified using peak progesterone concentration. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between sexual activity and reproductive hormone concentrations and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations with sporadic anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress, and alcohol consumption and accounted for repeated measures within women. Elevated concentrations of estrogen (+14.6%, P<.01), luteal progesterone (+41.0%, P<.01) and mid-cycle LH (+23.4%, P<.01), but not FSH (P=.33) or testosterone (P=.37), were observed in sexually active women compared with sexually inactive women (no prior and no study-period sexual activity); sexually active women had lower odds of sporadic anovulation (adjusted odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.73). Among sexually active women, frequency of sexual activity was not associated with hormones or sporadic anovulation (all P>.23). Findings from our study suggest that ever having been sexually active is associated with improved reproductive function, even after controlling for factors such as age. PMID:24954690

  19. Cyclic endogenous estrogen and progesterone vary by mammographic density phenotypes in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Anita; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Flote, Vidar G.; Finstad, Sissi Espetvedt; McTiernan, Anne; Ursin, Giske; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ellison, Peter T.; Jasienska, Grazyna; Thune, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen and progesterone are key factors in the development of breast cancer, but it remains unclear whether these hormones are associated with mammographic density phenotypes in premenopausal women. We measured percent mammographic density, nondense area, and absolute mammographic density using computer-assisted breast density readings (Madena) from digitized mammograms taken on a scheduled day of the menstrual cycle (day 7–12) among 202 healthy, premenopausal women (Energy Balance and Breast cancer Aspects Study-I). Daily salivary concentrations of 17β-estradiol and progesterone throughout an entire menstrual cycle and fasting morning serum concentrations of hormones on 3 specific days of the menstrual cycle were assessed. Salivary and serum 17β-estradiol and progesterone were positively associated with percent mammographic density, we observed by 1 SD increase in overall salivary estradiol (β-value equal to 2.07, P=0.044), luteal salivary progesterone (β-value equal to 2.40, P=0.020). Women with above-median percent mammographic density had a 20% higher mean salivary 17β-estradiol level throughout the menstrual cycle. The odds ratio for having above-median percent mammographic density (>28.5%) per 1 SD increase in overall salivary 17β-estradiol was 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.13–2.45). Women in the top tertile of the overall average daily 17β-estradiol concentrations had an odds ratio of 2.54 (confidence interval 1.05–6.16) of above-median percent mammographic density compared with women in the bottom tertile. Our finding of a relationship between estrogen, progesterone, and percent mammographic density and not with other mammographic density phenotypes in premenopausal women is biologically plausible, but needs to be replicated in larger studies. PMID:25714648

  20. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (p<0.001). Serum iron (p<0.0001) and intact FGF23 (p<0.01) were higher in white women. C-terminal FGF23 did not differ between races. Phosphorus correlated with intact FGF23 (white women, r=0.120, p<0.0001; black women r=0.163, p<0.01). However, phosphorus correlated with C-terminal FGF23 only in black women (r=0.157, p<0.01). Intact FGF23 did not correlate with iron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, p<0.0001; black women r=-0.188, p<0.01), having a steeper slope at iron <50mcg/dl than ≥50mcg/dl. Longitudinal changes in iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, p<0.01) in white women; femur neck BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.119, p<0.0001) in black women. Both relationships were eliminated in weight-adjusted models. BMD did not correlate with FGF23. Serum iron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in

  1. Menstrual irregularity and bone mass in premenopausal women: Cross-sectional associations with testosterone and SHBG

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been few studies examining the associations between menstrual irregularity, androgens and bone mass in population-based samples of premenopausal women. This study aimed to describe the associations between menstrual pattern, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and bone mass in a population-based sample of premenopausal women. Methods Cross-sectional study (N = 382, mean age 31.5 years). Menstrual pattern was assessed by questionnaire, bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and androgen status was assessed by levels of serum testosterone, SHBG and the free androgen index (FAI). Results Women with irregular cycles (n = 41, 11%) had higher free androgen index (FAI, P = 0.01) and higher QUS measurements including speed of sound (SOS, 1%, P < 0.05), quantitative ultrasound index (QUI, 7%, p < 0.05), and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, 7%, p = 0.10). These associations persisted after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI). After further adjustment for hormonal factors (either testosterone, SHBG or FAI), the strength of the associations was moderately attenuated, however, women with irregular cycles still had a 6% increase in mean QUS. Total testosterone, FAI and SHBG were also associated with QUS measures (testosterone and FAI, r +0.11 to +0.21, all p < 0.05; SHBG r -0.14 to -0.16, all p < 0.05) and the associations remained significant after adjustment. Conclusion Irregular menstrual cycles were associated with higher bone mass in this population-based sample of premenopausal women suggesting menstrual disturbance should continue to be evaluated but may be less harmful for bone mass. The association between menstrual irregularity and bone mass was partially mediated by markers of androgen status especially free testosterone. PMID:21190585

  2. Effect of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in premenopausal and perimenopausal women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S L; Lebrun, C M

    2006-01-01

    Seventy five articles on the effect of oral contraceptives and other hormone replacement on bone density in premenopausal and perimenopausal women were reviewed. The evidence was appraised using the Oxford Centre for Evidence‐Based Medicine levels of evidence. There is good evidence for a positive effect of oral contraceptives on bone density in perimenopausal women, and fair evidence for a positive effect in “hypothalamic” oligo/amenorrhoeic premenopausal women. There is limited evidence for a positive effect in healthy and anorexic premenopausal women. In hypothalamic oligo/amenorrhoeic women, baseline bone density has been shown to be significantly lower than that in healthy controls, therefore the decision to treat is clinically more important. The ideal formulation(s) and duration of treatment remain to be determined by further longitudinal and prospective randomised controlled trials in larger subject populations. PMID:16371485

  3. Caffeine, coffee and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways and ratios by intake categories, and P-values for tests of linear trend. Results Compared to women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; P-trend=0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (P-trend=0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; P-trend=0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; P-trend=0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1–3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend=0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Impact Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. PMID:26063478

  4. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  5. Increased vitamin D and calcium intake associated with reduced mammographic breast density among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Lewis, Toni J; Sanderson, Maureen; Dupont, William D; Fletcher, Sarah; Egan, Kathleen M; Disher, Anthony C

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D has been identified as a weak protective factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (relative risk, ~0.9), whereas high breast density has been identified as a strong risk factor (relative risk, ~4-6). To test the hypothesis that there is an association between vitamin D intake, but not circulating vitamin D levels, and mammographic breast density among women in our study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 165 screening mammography patients at Nashville General Hospital's Breast Health Center, a public facility serving medically indigent and underserved women. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements) vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by the Harvard African American Food Frequency Questionnaire, and blood samples were analyzed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Average percent breast density for the left and right breasts combined was estimated from digitized films using an interactive thresholding method available through Cumulus software. After statistical adjustment for age, race, and body mass index, the results revealed that there were significant trends of decreasing breast density with increasing vitamin D and calcium intake among premenopausal but not among postmenopausal women. There was no association between serum vitamin D and breast density in premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Confirmation of our findings in larger studies may assist in clarifying the role of vitamin D in breast density. PMID:26321093

  6. Ovarian hyperstimulation in premenopausal women during adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for endocrine-dependent breast cancer: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    MADEDDU, CLELIA; GRAMIGNANO, GIULIA; KOTSONIS, PARASKEVAS; PARIBELLO, FRANCESCO; MACCIÒ, ANTONIO

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy is an integral component of care for endocrine-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this type of therapy is to counteract the production and the action of estrogens. The ovary is the primary site of estrogen production in premenopausal women, whereas, in postmenopausal women, the main source of estrogens is adipose tissue. Therefore, ovarian function suppression is an effective adjuvant strategy in premenopausal estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Similarly, the inhibition of estrogen action at the receptor site by tamoxifen has proven to be effective. To date, international consensus statements recommend tamoxifen (20 mg/day) for five years as the standard adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women. It should be noted that tamoxifen is a potent inducer of ovarian function and consequent hyperestrogenism in premenopausal women. In the present study, we report two cases of ovarian cyst formation with very high estrogen levels and endometrial hyperplasia during the administration of tamoxifen alone as adjuvant treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in premenopausal women. These cases suggest that in young premenopausal patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, ovarian suppression is an essential prerequisite for an adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen. In this context, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist treatment by suppressing effective ovarian function may lead to a hypoestrogenic status that may positively impact breast cancer prognosis and prevent the effects of tamoxifen at the gynecological level. It is important to reconsider the action of tamoxifen on ovarian function and include these specific effects of tamoxifen in the informed consent of premenopausal patients who are candidates for tamoxifen alone as adjuvant endocrine treatment. PMID:25120706

  7. Do Premenopausal Women with Major Depression Have Low Bone Mineral Density? A 36-Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Mistry, Sima; Nguyen, Vi T.; Eskandari, Farideh; Martinez, Pedro; Torvik, Sara; Reynolds, James C.; Gold, Philip W.; Sinai, Ninet; Csako, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested, but prospective evaluation in premenopausal women is lacking. Methods Participants of this prospective study were 21 to 45 year-old premenopausal women with MDD (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 44). We measured BMD at the anteroposterior lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, mid-distal radius, trochanter, and Ward's triangle, as well as serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), ionized calcium, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, and 24-hour urinary-free cortisol levels at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured at baseline. Results At baseline, BMD tended to be lower in women with MDD compared to controls and BMD remained stable over time in both groups. At baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months intact PTH levels were significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls. At baseline, ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in women with MDD compared to controls. At baseline and 12 months, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone formation, was significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls. Plasma ACTH was also higher in women with MDD at baseline and 6 months. Serum osteocalcin, urinary N-telopeptide, serum cortisol, and urinary free cortisol levels were not different between the two groups throughout the study. Conclusion Women with MDD tended to have lower BMD than controls over time. Larger and longer studies are necessary to extend these observations with the possibility of prophylactic therapy for osteoporosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00006180 PMID:22848407

  8. Do Premenopausal Hypothyroid Women on Levothyroxine Therapy Need Bone Status Monitoring?

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ruby P; Christy, Alap; Hegde, Anupama; Manjrekar, Poornima; D’Souza, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based case–control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30–45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and history into three groups of 25 euthyroid, 25 newly diagnosed hypothyroid, and 25 hypothyroid women on 100–200 μg of levothyroxine for a minimum of 5 years. The bone changes were evaluated and compared among the groups biochemically by estimating their plasma osteocalcin and serum calcium and phosphorus and radiologically by measuring their BMD by quantitative ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was conducted by using analysis of variance, Tukey’s test, and Pearson’s correlation using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. RESULTS Levels of plasma osteocalcin, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus in patients on long-term levothyroxine therapy were significantly higher than those in newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and in the euthyroid group. BMD showed definite features of osteopenia (T-score: −2.26 ± 0.5) among the women in the treatment group, while it was well within the normal range in the newly diagnosed and euthyroid women. A significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin levels and T-score. CONCLUSION Hypothyroid women on long-term levothyroxine therapy showed signs of increased bone turnover and increased resorptive changes, though not frank osteoporosis. Hence, it may be important to evaluate the bone status of patients on levothyroxine for >5 years. PMID:25861238

  9. Effect of misoprostol for cervical priming before gynecological procedures on nonpregnant premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Monimala; Chakraborty, Aparna; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Saha, Subhendu; Paul, Joydip; Das, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misoprostol is very effective in cervical ripening and is used for termination of pregnancy. A similar effect on the nonpregnant uterus will facilitate gynecological operations, and hence we assessed the effect of misoprostol on the nonpregnant uterus of premenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, 280 women were randomly allocated into two groups (12 women did not complete the intervention). Study (A) and control (B) group received 400 μg of misoprostol or 400 mg of metronidazole tablets (as a placebo) respectively in the posterior vaginal wall 6 h prior to gynecological procedures. Results: The mean cervical dilatation was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in misoprostol compared to placebo group (4.6 ± 0.96 mm vs. 3.6 ± 0.82 mm), benefit were also observed on secondary outcome measures which were need for further dilatation, time taken for further dilatation, ease of dilatation, subjective assessment of pain by visual analog scale. Only 3.61% patients complained of intolerable pain during dilatation in the study group while in control group 48.74% complained of intolerable pain and required anesthesia. Most common side effects of misoprostol were abdominal pain and mild vaginal bleeding. Conclusion: Misoprostol was effective in cervical ripening of nonpregnant premenopausal uterus to facilitate gynecological procedures. PMID:26604599

  10. Effect of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene on the Proliferative Activity of the Breast Epithelium in Premenopausal Women*

    PubMed Central

    Lucato, Miliana T; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Moreira, Marise AR; Bernardes-Junior, Júlio RM; Pinto, Sebastião A; Paulinelli, Regis R; Soares, Leonardo R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the effects of tamoxifen and raloxifene on the proliferative activity of normal breast tissue in premenopausal women as measured by Ki-67/MIB-1 expression. STUDY DESIGN A total of 48 women with benign breast nodules and a recommendation for surgical removal of the lesion took part in this study. They were randomized to use tamoxifen or raloxifene for 22 days, after which they were submitted to surgery. During the surgical procedure, a 1-cm fragment of normal breast tissue was removed to study Ki-67 expression. RESULTS The mean percentage ratios between immunolabeled and non-labeled cells were 2.02 ± 1.09 and 3.13 ± 3.23 for the tamoxifen and raloxifene groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the tamoxifen (n = 16) and raloxifene (n = 14) groups in relation to the immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 (P = 0.205). CONCLUSION The results of this study showed no difference between tamoxifen and raloxifene with respect to the potential of these drugs to reduce the proliferative activity of the normal breast epithelium in premenopausal women. PMID:25861235

  11. Does the addition of saline infusion sonohysterography to transvaginal ultrasonography prevent unnecessary hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding?

    PubMed

    Short, John; Sharp, Benjamin; Elliot, Nikki; McEwing, Rachael; McGeoch, Graham; Shand, Brett; Holland, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    This observational case series in 65 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding evaluated whether transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) prevented unnecessary hysteroscopy. Although SIS indicated that hysteroscopy was unnecessary in eight women, this benefit was offset by the invasive nature of the scan, the number of endometrial abnormalities falsely detected by SIS and the cost of the additional investigation. PMID:27363343

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men. PMID:10957749

  13. Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs among Older Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Young; Lee, Eunice E.; Kim, Mi Ja; Fogg, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Korean American women’s breast cancer screening rates are low, and the rates among older Korean American women are even lower. This article describes health beliefs related to older Korean American women’s screening behaviors, comparing them to beliefs of younger Korean American women. The 73 women age 65 and older had significantly different health beliefs than the 114 women between ages 40 and 64. Further, older women’s perceptions of the seriousness of the disease and benefits of and barriers to taking action to prevent the disease predated their screening behaviors. Interventions to change the health beliefs of older Korean American women are suggested. PMID:19715259

  14. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = −0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = −0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  15. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = -0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = -0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  16. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  17. Challenges in the Gynecologic Care of Premenopausal Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Laughlin, Shannon K.; Jensen, Jani R.; Akogyeram, Clement O.; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-01-01

    Premenopausal women with a new diagnosis of breast cancer are faced with many challenges. Providing health care for issues such as gynecologic comorbidities, reproductive health concerns, and vasomotor symptom control can be complicated because of the risks of hormone treatments and the adverse effects of adjuvant therapies. It is paramount that health care professionals understand and be knowledgeable about hormonal and nonhormonal treatments and their pharmacological parameters so they can offer appropriate care to women who have breast cancer, with the goal of improving quality of life. Articles for this review were identified by searching the PubMed database with no date limitations. The following search terms were used: abnormal uterine bleeding, physiologic sex steroids, endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic sterilization, fertility preservation in endometrial cancer, tranexamic acid and breast cancer, menorrhagia treatment and breast cancer, abnormal uterine bleeding and premenopausal breast cancer, levonorgestrel IUD and breast cancer, tamoxifen and gynecologic abnormalities, tamoxifen metabolism, hormones and breast cancer risk, contraception and breast cancer, pregnancy and breast cancer, and breast cancer and infertility treatment. PMID:21307388

  18. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women. PMID:24832215

  19. Significance of Ovarian Function Suppression in Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer in Pre-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Scharl, A.; Salterberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian function suppression (OFS) for treating breast cancer in pre-menopausal women was introduced for the first time in the late 19th century as bilateral oophorectomy. It was not until the 1960s that the oestrogen receptor was identified and a test for detecting endocrine sensitivity of the breast cancer was developed. A weakness of early trials on OFS for breast cancer treatment is therefore their failure to take receptor sensitivity into account when selecting participants. A meta-analysis performed in the early 1990s first proved that adjuvant OFS significantly improved the cure rate of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre-menopausal women regardless of whether it was carried out through oophorectomy, radiation-induced ablation or drug therapy. In the 1970s, tamoxifen was synthesized. It became one of the most important cancer drugs and today constitutes the gold standard for endocrine adjuvant therapy. Taking tamoxifen for a five-year period lowers mortality by 30 % over 15 years. Ten years of tamoxifen therapy reduces mortality even further, with increased side effects, however. Research over the past ten years has proven that for post-menopausal women, aromatase inhibitors have benefits over tamoxifen. Current trial results have rekindled the debate about the combination of OFS with tamoxifen or with aromatase inhibitors for adjuvant breast cancer treatment of pre-menopausal women. These trials have reported an improvement in disease-free survival in patients with a high risk of recurrence when they are treated with a combination of OFS plus tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, especially in women younger than 35. However, combination therapy causes significantly more side effects, which could negatively impact compliance. Endocrine treatments administered over a period of many years show waning compliance, which tends to be only around 50 % after five years. Inadequate compliance compromises efficacy and increases the risk of mortality. For

  20. Ovarian failure and cancer treatment: Incidence and interventions for premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Ovarian failure may be a long-term consequence of cancer treatment for premenopausal women. Caused by several treatments, including radiation therapy and the alkylating agents, it produces signs and symptoms associated with menopause: hot flashes, amenorrhea, dyspareunia, loss of libido, and irritability. Critical factors that determine ovarian functioning after treatment for cancer are the patient's age at the time of therapy, the amount of radiation that the ovaries received, and the dose of the antineoplastic agent(s). Medical interventions, such as hormonal therapy and surgical repositioning of the ovaries, may maintain ovarian function for some women. Nursing intervention includes assessment, education, and counseling. Counseling focuses on how the prematurely menopausal patient feels about herself as indicated by self-esteem, body image, and sexuality.

  1. Should we recommend hysterectomy more often to premenopausal and climacteric women?

    PubMed

    Qvigstad, Erik; Langebrekke, Anton

    2011-08-01

    In developed countries, women live on average over 30 years as postmenopausal. In the premenopausal and climacteric period, abnormal uterine bleeding and other symptoms may occur. In addition, endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, and possible hormone replacement therapy is much more beneficial among women with prior hysterectomy. With this background and the recommended use of minimally invasive surgical techniques, we argue in favor of more liberal hysterectomy practice before and around the menopause. Many will disagree, because for many years we have argued to save the uterus, but considering pros and cons with the patient in focus, we discuss the topic and advertise for studies to support our view. PMID:21615359

  2. Transdermal contraception and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Cherney, David; Miller, Judith; Ahmed, Sofia B; Lai, Vesta; Dunn, Sheila; Pun, Nicole; Moineddin, Rahim; Hladunewich, Michelle A

    2015-03-15

    The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) through first-pass hepatic metabolism. Although usually benign, RAAS activation may have detrimental effects on renal and hemodynamic function in some women. Since combined hormonal contraception with the transdermal patch (EVRA) does not undergo first-pass hepatic metabolism, we hypothesized that the RAAS response would be different from that of OCP subjects. Thirty-five nonsmoking, premenopausal women (15 control subjects, 10 OCP subjects, and 10 contraceptive patch subjects) without evidence of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or diabetes were studied. Baseline angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and plasma renin activity were assessed along with hormonal and hemodynamic responses to simulated orthostatic stress using incremental lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -15, -25, and -40 mmHg). Baseline levels of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, and plasma renin activity were significantly higher in OCP subjects compared with normotensive control and contraceptive patch subjects (P < 0.05), whereas aldosterone was significantly higher in OCP versus control subjects only (P < 0.05). Plasma renin levels were significantly lower at baseline in contraceptive patch subjects compared with normotensive control and OCP subjects (P < 0.05). In response to LBNP, increases in renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were attenuated in contraceptive patch subjects in conjunction with an exaggerated decline in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.05 vs. control and OCP subjects). The contraceptive patch in healthy premenopausal women is associated with an impaired ability to maintain blood pressure in response to LBNP, possibly due to insensitivity of the endogenous RAAS. Further evaluation may be beneficial in women with kidney disease. PMID:25587124

  3. The effects of ethinylestradiol and progestins ("the pill") on cognitive function in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Andrea; Wu, YeeWen Candace; Williams, Amy S; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs), often referred to as "the pill", are the most commonly employed form of reversible contraception. OCs are comprised of combined synthetic estrogen and progestin, which work to suppress ovulation and subsequently protect against pregnancy. To date, almost 200 million women have taken various formulations of OC, making it one of the most widely consumed classes of medication in the world. While a substantial body of literature has been dedicated to understanding the physical effects of OCs, much less is known about the long term consequences of OC use on brain anatomy and the associated cognitive effects. Accumulating evidence suggests that sex hormones may significantly affect human cognition. This phenomenon has been commonly studied in older populations, such as in post-menopausal women, while research in healthy, pre-menopausal women remains limited. The current review focused on the effects of OCs on human cognition, with the majority of studies comparing pre-menopausal OC users to naturally cycling women. Human neuroimaging data and animal studies are also described herein. Taken together, the published findings on OC use and human cognition are varied. Of those that do report positive results, OC users appear to have improved verbal memory, associative learning and spatial attention. We recommend future research to employ blinding procedures and randomised designs. Further, more detailed information pertaining to the specific generation and phasic type of OCs, as well as menstrual cycle phase of the OC non-users should be considered to help unmask the potential impact of OC use on human cognition. PMID:25266552

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Terryl J; Sisti, Julia S; Hankinson, Susan E; Xu, Xia; Eliassen, A Heather; Ziegler, Regina

    2016-02-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the associations of usual total alcohol and wine intake with a comprehensive profile of mid-luteal phase urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (referred to jointly as EM) in a sample of 603 premenopausal women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). A total of 15 individual EM (pmol/mg creatinine) were measured by a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with high accuracy and reproducibility. We used linear mixed models to calculate the adjusted geometric means of individual EM, EM grouped by metabolic pathways, and pathway ratios by category of alcohol intake with non-drinkers of alcohol as the referent. Total alcohol intake was not associated with total EM but was positively associated with estradiol (26% higher among women consuming >15 g/day vs. non-drinkers; P trend = 0.03). Wine consumption was positively associated with a number of EM measures including estradiol (22% higher among women consuming ≥ 5 drinks/week vs. non-drinkers, P trend < 0.0001). In conclusion, the total alcohol intake was positively and significantly associated with urinary estradiol levels. Some differences in urinary estrogen metabolites were observed with wine drinking, when compared with non-drinkers. This study strengthens the evidence that alcohol consumption might play a role in breast cancer and other estrogen-related conditions. Additional studies of premenopausal women are needed to further explore the association of alcohol, particularly the specific types of alcohol, on patterns of estrogen metabolism in blood, urine, and tissue. PMID:26728472

  5. Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and subsequent risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Eliassen, A Heather; Spiegelman, Donna; Xu, Xia; Keefer, Larry K; Veenstra, Timothy D; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-02-01

    Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolism are hypothesized to be associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk but evidence is limited. We examined 15 urinary estrogens/estrogen metabolites and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). From 1996 to 1999, urine was collected from 18,521 women during the mid-luteal menstrual phase. Breast cancer cases (N = 247) diagnosed between collection and June 2005 were matched to two controls each (N = 485). Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted for creatinine level. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Higher urinary estrone and estradiol levels were strongly significantly associated with lower risk (top vs. bottom quartile RR: estrone = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.88; estradiol = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). Generally inverse, although nonsignificant, patterns also were observed with 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathway estrogen metabolites. Inverse associations generally were not observed with 16-pathway estrogen metabolites and a significant positive association was observed with 17-epiestriol (top vs. bottom quartile RR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.81; P(trend) = 0.01). In addition, there was a significant increased risk with higher 16-pathway/parent estrogen metabolite ratio (comparable RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.99-2.62; P(trend) = 0.04). Other pathway ratios were not significantly associated with risk except parent estrogen metabolites/non-parent estrogen metabolites (comparable RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96; P(trend) = 0.03). These data suggest that most mid-luteal urinary estrogen metabolite concentrations are not positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The inverse associations with parent estrogen metabolites and the parent estrogen metabolite/non-parent estrogen metabolite ratio

  6. Vasomotor symptoms in infertile premenopausal women: a hitherto unappreciated risk for low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Lubna; Norian, John; Zeitlian, Gohar; Bevilacqua, Kris; Freeman, Ruth; Santoro, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in a population of premenopausal infertile women and to determine if VMS associate with enhanced bone turnover and low bone mineral density (BMD). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic infertility practice. Patients 82 premenopausal infertile but otherwise healthy women attending for routine infertility care. Intervention BMD testing, general health and profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaires, serum samples (cycle days 1–3). Main Outcome Measures VMS, specifically hot flashes-HF and night sweats-NS; BMD-Z score, BMD categorized as “Low” (Z ≤ −1.0 ) or “Normal” (Z > −1.0); ovarian reserve assessment (biochemical and ovarian dimensions on transvaginal ultrasound); serum markers of bone turnover (NTX, TRAP, BSAP) and ovarian reserve (FSH, Estradiol and Inhibin B). Multivariable regression analyses determined the associations between VMS, BMD and bone turnover (individual markers and composite turnover score). Results The prevalence of VMS was 12% in this relatively young population (mean age 34.53 ± SD 4.32). Symptomatic women were significantly more likely to report sleep disturbances (p<0.01), exhibit evidence of low BMD (p<0.01), enhanced bone turnover and poorer ovarian reserve parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed HF (p<0.01) and NS (p<0.01) as independent correlates to low BMD after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve status. Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated that NS, but not HF, predicted higher bone turnover (p= 0.02) after adjusting for age, smoking, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve. Conclusions We demonstrate, in a premenopausal population of infertile women, evidence of morbid accompaniments to VMS, including sleep disturbances and evidence of low BMD. Our data further suggest a state of enhanced bone turnover in association with VMS, specifically in those

  7. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  8. A-FABP concentration is more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in premenopausal than in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Anna; Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  9. Challenges in Treating Premenopausal Women with Endocrine-Sensitive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Azim, Hatem A; Davidson, Nancy E; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    For the hundreds of thousands of premenopausal women who are diagnosed annually with endocrine-sensitive breast cancer, treatment strategies are complex. For many, chemotherapy may not be necessary, and endocrine therapy decision making is paramount. Options for adjuvant endocrine regimens include tamoxifen for 5 years, tamoxifen for 10 years, ovarian function suppression (OFS) plus tamoxifen for 5 years, and OFS plus an aromatase inhibitor for 5 years. There are modest differences in efficacy between these regimens, with a benefit from OFS most obvious among patients with higher-risk disease; therefore, choosing which should be used for a given patient requires consideration of expected toxicities and patient preferences. An aromatase inhibitor cannot be safely prescribed without OFS in this setting. Additional research is needed to determine whether genomic tests such as Prosigna and Endopredict can help with decision making about optimal duration of endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients. Endocrine therapy side effects can include hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, osteoporosis, and infertility, all of which may impair quality of life and can encourage nonadherence with treatment. Ovarian function suppression worsens menopausal side effects. Hot flashes tend to be worse with tamoxifen/OFS, whereas sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis tend to be worse with aromatase inhibitors/OFS. Pregnancy is safe after endocrine therapy, and some survivors can conceive naturally. Still, embryo or oocyte cryopreservation should be considered at the time of diagnosis for patients with endocrine-sensitive disease who desire future childbearing, particularly if they will undergo chemotherapy. PMID:27249683

  10. Korean American Women and Mammogram Uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunice E; Nandy, Karabi; Szalacha, Laura; Park, HanJong; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Lee, Jongwon; Menon, Usha

    2016-02-01

    A high percentage of Korean American (KA) women have never had a mammogram, which puts them at greater risk for late-stage breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare health beliefs and spousal support about breast cancer and screening between KA women with and without a history of mammogram completion. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 428 non-adherent married KA women. KA women who never had a mammogram were younger, had less access to health care, had less knowledge, and had lower perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and spousal support, and higher perceived barriers to breast cancer screening compared to women who had had a mammogram. Assessing differing characteristics between the two groups of KA women may lead to a better understanding of the variables influencing mammography screening in this population and possibly increase early screening. PMID:25669627

  11. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Mohr, M; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M; Nielsen, H P; Mortensen, J; Weihe, P; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21; FTG) and a control group (n = 20; CON). FTG performed 45 ± 1 1-h small-sided football training sessions during the 15-week intervention period. BP, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. After 15 weeks, systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, were lowered more (P < 0.05) in FTG (-12 ± 3 and -6 ± 2 mmHg) than in CON (-1 ± 1 and 1 ± 2 mmHg). Total body fat mass decreased more (P < 0.05) in FTG than in CON during the 15-week intervention period (-2.3 ± 0.5 kg vs 0.4 ± 0.3 kg). After 15 weeks, both total cholesterol (-0.4 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 0.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L) and triglyceride (-0.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 0.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L) were lowered more (P < 0.05) in FTG than in CON. Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 test performance increased more (P < 0.05) in FTG than in CON (111 ± 18% vs 1 ± 3%) during the 15-week intervention period. In conclusion, short-term football training resulted in a marked reduction in BP and induced multiple improvements in fitness and cardiovascular health profile of untrained, premenopausal women with mild hypertension. PMID:24944131

  12. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

  13. Gender specific differences in the kinetics of TRL, IDL and LDL apolipoprotein B-100 in men and premenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate mechanisms underlying gender differences in serum lipoprotein concentrations, the kinetic behavior of apoB-100 was assessed. Twenty subjects (<50 years; n=12 men and n=8 premenopausal women) were provided a standardized Western diet for 4-6 weeks, at the end of which the kinetics of a...

  14. Chronic dietary fiber supplementation with wheat dextrin does not inhibit calcium and magnesium absorption in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover clinical study examined the effect of chronic wheat dextrin intake on calcium and magnesium absorption. Forty premenopausal and post menopausal women (mean +/- SD age 49.9 +/- 9.8 years)consumed wheat dextrin or placebo (15 g/day) for 2 weeks prior to 4...

  15. Reduced progesterone levels explain the reduced risk of breast cancer in obese premenopausal women: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between obesity and breast cancer is fundamental to our knowledge of the etiology of this malignancy; changes in the composition of the hormonal milieu are implicit in this process. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by aromatase in the gonads and in peripheral tissues, principally, adipose tissue. Obesity in women, regardless of their age, leads to more aromatase and more extra-glandular estrogen production. In postmenopausal women, in whom ovarian estrogen production is absent, the increased incidence of breast cancer in women with high body mass index has been attributed to the relatively high plasma levels of estradiol from subcutaneous fat. In contrast, obesity in premenopausal women is associated with a previously unexplained reduced incidence of breast cancer. In obese premenopausal women, the cumulative effect of higher levels of estrogens synthesized in the peripheral tissues, together with ovarian estrogen production, results in a negative feedback on the hypothalamic pituitary controlled release of gonadotrophins and a resultant diminution in ovarian steroid production. As a consequence, the normal balance of estrogen and progesterone levels is disrupted: while estrogen levels are normalized, progesterone production is markedly decreased. Progesterone is a promoter of proliferation in the breast. The low levels of progesterone in obese premenopausal women are consistent with, and we propose, are responsible for, the reduction in breast cancer incidence in these women. PMID:25414027

  16. Dietary calcium and bone mineral density in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chong, H C; Chee, S S; Goh, E M L; Chow, S K; Yeap, S S

    2007-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on corticosteroids (CS). The secondary aim was to identify other risk factors for osteoporosis in these patients. A cross-sectional sample of patients attending the SLE Clinic at a teaching hospital was recruited. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Daily dietary calcium intake was assessed using a structured validated food frequency questionnaire, in which patients were asked to estimate their food intake based on their recent 2-month dietary habits. Sixty subjects were recruited with a mean age of 33.70+/-8.46 years. The median duration of CS use was 5.5 years (range 0.08-24). The median cumulative dose of steroids was 17.21 g (range 0.16-91.37). The median daily dietary calcium intake was 483 mg (range 78-2101). There was no significant correlation between calcium intake and BMD, even after correcting for CS use. There were also no correlations between BMD and the duration of SLE, cumulative CS use, duration of CS use, smoking, alcohol intake, and SLE disease activity index score. Twenty-eight (46.7%) patients had normal BMD, 28 (46.7%) had osteopenia, and four (6.6%) had osteoporosis. Duration of SLE significantly correlated with cumulative CS dosage. In conclusion, 6.7% of these Asian premenopausal SLE women had osteoporosis and only 46.7% had normal BMD. Daily dietary calcium intake did not correlate with BMD. PMID:16565892

  17. Bone mineral loss induced by anticancer treatment for gynecological malignancies in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Keina; Tanabe, Akiko; Maruoka, Risa; Nakamura, Kiyoko; Takai, Masaaki; Sekijima, Tatsuharu; Tunetoh, Satoshi; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although surgical menopause may increase the risks of osteoporosis, few studies have investigated the influence of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of treatments for gynecological malignancies on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This study enrolled 35 premenopausal women (15 ovarian cancers (OCs), 9 endometrial cancers (ECs), and 11 cervical cancers (CCs)) who underwent surgical treatment that included bilateral oophorectomy with or without adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in OC and EC patients, or concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) in CC patients according to the established protocols at the Osaka Medical College Hospital between 2006 and 2008. The BMD of the lumbar spine (L1–L4) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and urine cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were assessed for evaluation of bone resorption and bone formation respectively. These assessments were performed at baseline and 12 months after treatment. Results Although the serum BAP was significantly increased only in the CC group, a rapid increase in the bone resorption marker urinary NTx was observed in all groups. The BMD, 12 months after CCRT was significantly decreased in the CC group at 91.9±5.9% (P<0.05 in comparison to the baseline). Conclusion This research suggests that anticancer therapies for premenopausal women with gynecological malignancies increase bone resorption and may reduce BMD, particularly in CC patients who have received CCRT. Therefore, gynecologic cancer survivors should be educated about these potential risks and complications. PMID:23781313

  18. Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Anna Z; Mumford, Sunni L; Mendola, Pauline; Perkins, Neil J; Rotman, Yaron; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2015-01-01

    Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels, but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women apparently has not been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/L, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Each twofold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each twofold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A twofold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function. PMID:25424620

  19. Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Anna Z.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Mendola, Pauline; Perkins, Neil J.; Rotman, Yaron; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2014-01-01

    Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women has not apparently been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n=259) were followed for up to two menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/l, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/l, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73m2). Each 2-fold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each 2-fold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A 2-fold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function. PMID:25424620

  20. Body Size in Relation to Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites (EM) among Premenopausal Women during the Luteal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Eliassen, A. Heather; Xu, Xia; Matthews, Charles E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen metabolism profiles may play an important role in the relationship between body size and breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we observed inverse associations between current body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of parent estrogens (estrone and estradiol) among premenopausal women during both follicular and luteal phases. Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), we assessed whether height, current BMI, and BMI at age 18 were associated with the urinary concentrations of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly referred to as EM) measured during the luteal phase among 603 premenopausal women. We observed inverse associations with total EM for height (Ptrend=0.01) and current BMI (Ptrend=0.01), but not BMI at age 18 (Ptrend=0.26). Six EMs were 18–27% lower in women with a height 68+ inches versus ≤62 inches, primarily in the methylated catechol pathway (Ptrend=0.04). Eight EMs were 18–50% lower in women with a BMI of 30+ versus <20, primarily in the 2-catechol and methylated catechol pathways (Ptrend<0.001 for both). Our results suggest that height and current BMI are associated with estrogen metabolism profiles in premenopausal women. Further studies with timed urine and blood collections are required to confirm and extend our findings. PMID:23011724

  1. Variation in Inflammatory Cytokine/Growth-Factor Genes and Mammographic Density in Premenopausal Women Aged 50–55

    PubMed Central

    Ozhand, Ali; Lee, Eunjung; Wu, Anna H.; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Akslen, Lars A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Ursin, Giske

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) has been found to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Although data from twin studies suggest that MD has a strong genetic component, the exact genes involved remain to be identified. Alterations in stromal composition and the number of epithelial cells are the most predominant histopathological determinants of mammographic density. Interactions between the breast stroma and epithelium are critically important in the maturation and development of the mammary gland and the cross-talk between these cells are mediated by paracrine growth factors and cytokines. The potential impact of genetic variation in growth factors and cytokines on MD is largely unknown. Methods We investigated the association between 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 cytokine/growth-factor genes (FGFR2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, TGFB1, TNF, VEGF, IL6) and percent MD in 301 premenopausal women (aged 50 to 55 years) participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated the suggestive associations in 216 premenopausal Singapore Chinese Women of the same age. Results We found statistically significant associations between 9 tagging SNPs in the IL6 gene and MD in Norwegian women; the effect ranged from 3–5% in MD per variant allele (p-values = 0.02 to 0.0002). One SNP in the IL6 (rs10242595) significantly influenced MD in Singapore Chinese women. Conclusion Genetic variations in IL6 may be associated with MD and therefore may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. PMID:23762340

  2. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and ovarian reserve in pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jukic, Anne Marie Z.; Steiner, Anne Z.; Baird, Donna D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D has been linked to anti-Müllerian hormone levels, suggesting a possible association with greater ovarian reserve, but large population-based studies are lacking. Our objective was to explore the association between vitamin D and FSH in premenopausal women. Methods The Uterine Fibroid Study (1996 – 1999) enrolled randomly-selected 30 – 49 year-old members of a Washington D. C. health plan (N=1430). Women provided a blood and urine sample in addition to questionnaire data. The vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in stored plasma samples. Urinary FSH (mIU/mg creatinine) was measured with an immunofluorometric assay. To obtain baseline measures, this investigation was limited to urine samples collected in the first 5 days of the menstrual cycle or 5 days prior to menses onset. Additionally, post-menopausal women and women using oral contraceptives were excluded, leaving 527 women in our analysis. FSH was creatinine-adjusted, normalized by log-transformation, and then modeled with multivariable linear regression. Results The median 25(OH)D level was 12 ng/mL, with approximately 75% of participants below the recommended level of 20 ng/mL. FSH and 25(OH)D were inversely related. For an increase of 10 ng/mL in 25(OH)D, urinary FSH decreased 14% (95% Confidence Interval: −23%, −5%), p=0.003. Conclusions Vitamin D is inversely related to FSH. This is consistent with literature relating low vitamin D with lower anti-Müllerian hormone. Prospective studies should investigate whether low levels of vitamin D contribute to decreased ovarian reserve. PMID:25093721

  3. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  4. Association between plasma zinc concentration and zinc kinetic parameters in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Egger, Norman G; Ramanujam, V M Sadagopa; Alcock, Nancy W; Dayal, Hari H; Penland, James G; Sandstead, Harold H

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure relationships between plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations and Zn kinetic parameters and to measure relationships of Zn status with taste acuity, food frequency, and hair Zn in humans. The subjects were 33 premenopausal women not taking oral contraceptives and dietary supplements containing iron and Zn. Main outcomes were plasma Zn concentrations, Zn kinetic parameters based on the three-compartment mammillary model using 67Zn as a tracer, electrical taste detection thresholds, and food frequencies. Lower plasma Zn was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with smaller sizes of the central and the lesser peripheral Zn pools, faster disappearance of tracer from plasma, and higher transfer rate constants from the lesser peripheral pool to the central pool and from the central pool to the greater peripheral pool. The break points in the plasma Zn-Zn kinetics relationship were found between 9.94 and 11.5 micromol/l plasma Zn. Smaller size of the lesser peripheral pool was associated with lower frequency of beef consumption and higher frequency of bran breakfast cereal consumption. Hypozincemic women with plasma Zn <10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml had decreased thresholds of electrical stimulation for gustatory nerves. Our results based on Zn kinetics support the conventional cutoff value of plasma Zn (10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml) between normal and low Zn status. PMID:12865259

  5. Comparison of DXA and CT in the assessment of body composition in premenopausal women with obesity and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bredella, Miriam A; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J; Torriani, Martin; Brick, Danielle J; Gerweck, Anu V; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2010-11-01

    Accurate methods for assessing body composition in subjects with obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) are important for determination of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and to monitor therapeutic interventions. The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring abdominal and thigh fat, and thigh muscle mass in premenopausal women with obesity, AN, and normal weight compared to computed tomography (CT). In addition, we wanted to assess the impact of hydration on DXA-derived measures of body composition by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We studied a total of 91 premenopausal women (34 obese, 39 with AN, and 18 lean controls). Our results demonstrate strong correlations between DXA- and CT-derived body composition measurements in AN, obese, and lean controls (r = 0.77-0.95, P < 0.0001). After controlling for total body water (TBW), the correlation coefficients were comparable. DXA trunk fat correlated with CT visceral fat (r = 0.51-0.70, P < 0.0001). DXA underestimated trunk and thigh fat and overestimated thigh muscle mass and this error increased with increasing weight. Our study showed that DXA is a useful method for assessing body composition in premenopausal women within the phenotypic spectrum ranging from obesity to AN. However, it is important to recognize that DXA may not accurately assess body composition in markedly obese women. The level of hydration does not significantly affect most DXA body composition measurements, with the exceptions of thigh fat. PMID:20111013

  6. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fassio, A; Idolazzi, L; Jaber, M A; Dartizio, C; Viapiana, O; Rossini, M; Gatti, D

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD) values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI) the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself. PMID:27608794

  7. Mobile Phone App Aimed at Improving Iron Intake and Bioavailability in Premenopausal Women: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Lynn; Lim, Karen; Byrne, Linda K; Nowson, Caryl; Rigo, Manuela; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Booth, Alison O

    2015-01-01

    Background Low iron intake can lead to iron deficiency, which can result in impaired health and iron-deficiency anemia. A mobile phone app, combining successful dietary strategies to increase bioavailable iron with strategies for behavior change, such as goal setting, monitoring, feedback, and resources for knowledge acquisition, was developed with the aim to increase bioavailable iron intake in premenopausal women. Objective To evaluate the content, usability, and acceptability of a mobile phone app designed to improve intake of bioavailable dietary iron. Methods Women aged 18-50 years with an Android mobile phone were invited to participate. Over a 2-week period women were asked to interact with the app. Following this period, semistructured focus groups with participants were conducted. Focus groups were audio recorded and analyzed via an inductive open-coding method using the qualitative analysis software NVivo 10. Themes were identified and frequency of code occurrence was calculated. Results Four focus groups (n=26) were conducted (age range 19-36 years, mean 24.7, SD 5.2). Two themes about the app’s functionality were identified (frequency of occurrence in brackets): interface and design (134) and usability (86). Four themes about the app’s components were identified: goal tracker (121), facts (78), photo diary (40), and games (46). A number of suggestions to improve the interface and design of the app were provided and will inform the ongoing development of the app. Conclusions This research indicates that participants are interested in iron and their health and are willing to use an app utilizing behavior change strategies to increase intake of bioavailable iron. The inclusion of information about the link between diet and health, monitoring and tracking of the achievement of dietary goals, and weekly reviews of goals were also seen as valuable components of the app and should be considered in mobile health apps aimed at adult women. PMID:26416479

  8. Adherence to Cancer Prevention Recommendations and Antioxidant and Inflammatory Status in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Cooney, Robert V.; Franke, Adrian A.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund & American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasize recommendations to improve individual behavior including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant based diet, and minimizing the consumption of calorie dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats, and alcohol. In this study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol, and urinary F2-isoprostane. The statistical analysis applied linear regression across categories of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations. Overall, 72 women were classified as low (≤4), 150 as moderate (5–6), and 53 as high adherers (≥7). The unadjusted means for CRP were 2.7, 2.0, and 1.7 mg/L for low, moderate, and high adherers (ptrend=0.03); this association was strengthened after adjustment for confounders (ptrend=0.006). The respective values for serum γ-tocopherol were 1.97, 1.63, and 1.45 μg/mL (ptrend=0.02 before and ptrend=0.03 after adjustment). Only for urinary F2-isoprostane, the lower values in high adherers (16.0, 14.5, and 13.3 ng/mL) did not reach statistical significance (ptrend=0.18). In an analysis by body mass index (BMI), overweight and obese women had higher biomarker levels than normal weight women; the trend was significant for CRP (ptrend<0.001) and γ-tocopherol (ptrend=0.003) but not for F2-isoprostane (ptrend=0.14). These findings suggest that both adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines and normal BMI status are associated with lower levels of biomarkers that indicate oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26051510

  9. The Effect of Raloxifene on Mammographic Density and Breast MRI in Premenopausal Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Orzano-Birgani, Jennifer; Chow, Catherine K.; Venzon, David; Yao, Jianhua; Galbo, Claudia E.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Prindiville, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. MD and breast MRI volume (MRIV) assess the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the breast. MD and MRIV can be modulated with hormonal interventions, suggesting that these imaging modalities may be useful as surrogate endpoint biomarkers for breast cancer chemoprevention trials. We evaluated the effect of raloxifene on MD and MRIV in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Mammograms and MRIs were obtained at baseline and after one and two years of raloxifene 60 mg by mouth daily for 27 premenopausal women. Mammographic percent dense area was calculated using a semi-quantitative thresholding technique. T1 weighted spoiled gradient-echo MRI with fat suppression was used to determine breast MRIV using a semiautomatic method. Mean change in MD and median change in MRIV were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results No significant change in MD was seen after treatment with raloxifene. Mean change after one year was 1% (95% CI -3 to +5) and after two years was 1% (95% CI -2 to +5). MRIV decreased on raloxifene. Median relative change in MRIV after one year was -17% (95% CI % -28 to -9; p=0.0017) and after two years was -16% (95% CI -31 to -4; p=0.0004). Conclusions In high risk premenopausal women MD did not change on raloxifene, while MRIV significantly declined. Our findings suggest that MRIV is a promising surrogate biomarker in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer and should be investigated further in breast cancer prevention trials. PMID:18583470

  10. Endometrial evaluation with transvaginal ultrasonography for the screening of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in premenopausal and perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to determine clinical factors and sonographic findings associated with endometrial hyperplasia or cancer (EH+) in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. Methods A total of 14,340 transvaginal ultrasonography examinations of 9,888 healthy premenopausal and perimenopausal women were included in this retrospective study. One hundred sixty-two subjects underwent endometrial biopsy based on abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), sonographic endometrial abnormalities (thickened endometrium, endometrial mass, or endometrial stripe abnormality), or both. The clinical factors and sonographic endometrial abnormalities were evaluated with regard to EH+. Results Histologically verified EH+ was found in fourteen subjects (8.6%); ten cases of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) without atypia, three cases of EH with atypia (AEH), and one case of endometrial cancer. Neither clinical factors nor AUB were associated with EH+ (P=0.32) or AEH+ (P=0.72). Of sonographic findings, endometrial stripe abnormality was significantly associated with EH+ (P=0.003) and marginally associated with AEH+ (P=0.05), but a thickened endometrium was not associated with EH+ (P=0.43). Conclusion Endometrial stripe abnormality is a significant factor to predict EH+ in healthy premenopausal and perimenopausal women with and without AUB. However, simple measurement of endometrial thickness has a limited role in this capacity. PMID:27200309

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor in premenopausal women--indicator of the best time for breast cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Heer, K.; Kumar, H.; Speirs, V.; Greenman, J.; Drew, P. J.; Fox, J. N.; Carleton, P. J.; Monson, J. R.; Kerin, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Timing of surgery in premenopausal patients with breast cancer remains controversial. Angiogenesis is essential for tumour growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent angiogenic cytokines. We aimed to determine whether the study of VEGF in relation to the menstrual cycle could help further the understanding of this issue of surgical intervention. Fourteen premenopausal women were recruited, along with three post-menopausal women, a woman on an oral contraceptive pill and a single male subject. Between eight and 11 samples were taken per person, over one menstrual cycle (over 1 month in the five controls) and analysed for sex hormones and VEGF165. Serum VEGF was significantly lower in the luteal phase and showed a significant negative correlation with progesterone in all 14 premenopausal women. No inter-sample variations of VEGF were noted in the controls. Serum from both phases of the cycle from one subject was added to MCF-7 breast cancer cells; VEGF expression in the supernatant was lower in the cells to which the luteal phase serum was added. The lowering of a potent angiogenic cytokine in the luteal phase suggests a possible decreased potential for micrometastasis establishment in that phase. This fall in VEGF may be an effect of progesterone and should be the focus of future studies. PMID:9820181

  12. IGF-I Polymorphism is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy and Performance Among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barba A.; Fernández, José R.

    2007-01-01

    Background We undertook this study to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I189, on body composition, exercise performance and exercise economy, after controlling for the independent effect of race as assessed by African genetic admixture (AFADM). Methods A total of 114 premenopausal sedentary women were genotyped for IGF-I189, obtaining measures of fat mass, lean body mass, VO2 during cycling and stairclimbing, time on treadmill and leg strength. A quantitative value for AFADM was derived from genotypic information of approximately 40 ancestry informative markers and used as covariate in statistical models. Results After adjusting for AFADM, IGF-I189 was negatively associated with lean body mass (p = 0.029) and lean leg mass (p = 0.050). Leg strength was not associated with the presence/absence of IGF-I189 (p = 0.380), but carriers of the allele demonstrated a longer time on the treadmill (p = 0.015) after adjusting for AFADM. There was also a negative relationship between oxygen uptake during cycling and presence of the IGF-I189 independent of AFADM (p = 0.010). Conclusion Independent of AFADM, individuals with IGF-I189 are more likely to have low leg lean mass and to perform better in activities requiring exercise economy and endurance performance. PMID:17174724

  13. The relationship of anthropometric measures to radiological features of the breast in premenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. F.; Lockwood, G. A.; Byng, J. W.; Little, L. E.; Yaffe, M. J.; Tritchler, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied 273 premenopausal women recruited from mammography units who had different degrees of density of the breast parenchyma on mammography, in whom we measured height, weight and skinfold thicknesses. Mammograms were digitized to high spatial resolution by a scanning densitometer and images analysed to measure the area of dense tissue and the total area of the breast. Per cent density and the area of non-dense tissue were calculated from these measurements. We found that the mammographic measures had different associations with body size. Weight and the Quetelet index of obesity were strongly and positively associated with the area of non-dense tissue and with the total area of the breast, but less strongly and negatively correlated with the area of dense tissue. We also found a strong inverse relationship between the areas of radiologically dense and non-dense breast tissue. Statistical models containing anthropometric variables explained up to 8% of the variance in dense area, but explained up to 49% of the variance in non-dense area and 43% of variance in total area. These results suggest that aetiological studies in breast cancer that use mammographic density should consider dense and non-dense tissues separately. In addition to per cent density, methods should be examined that combine information from these two tissues. Images Figure 1 PMID:9820186

  14. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  15. Effect of a 1-week, eucaloric, moderately high-fat diet on peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Branis, Natalia M; Etesami, Marjan; Walker, Ryan W; Berk, Evan S; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a weight-maintaining, moderate (50%) high-fat diet is deleterious to insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women. Design/setting/participants 23 African-American and non-Hispanic white, healthy, overweight, and obese premenopausal women recruited in New York City, USA, fed either a eucaloric, 1-week long high-fat (50% of total Kcal from fat) diet or a eucaloric, 1-week long low-fat (30% of total Kcal from fat) diet, assigned in a randomized crossover design. Main outcome measures Peripheral insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m2/min) clamp measured during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, at the end of each diet period. Results Peripheral insulin sensitivity (mg kg/fat-free mass/min (µU/mL)×10−1) was not decreased after the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet (0.09±0.01 vs 0.08±0.01, p=0.09, respectively) in the combined group of African-American and white women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.6). Metabolic flexibility (change in substrate utilization, ΔNPRQ, in response to insulin during the clamp) was similarly unaltered by the diet (0.12±0.01 vs 0.11, p=0.48, for the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet, respectively) in the combined group of women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.9). African–American women had a lower insulin clearance compared with the white women, regardless of the diet (p<0.05). Conclusions We conclude that a short term (1 week), moderate (50%), eucaloric high-fat diet does not lower peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy, overweight and obese premenopausal women. PMID:26203360

  16. Effect of a soymilk supplement containing isoflavones on urinary F2 isoprostane levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Sukwan; Anderson, Karl E; Nagamani, Manubai; Grady, James J; Lu, Lee-Jane W

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated soy diets with reduced risk of breast and some other cancers, and oxidative cellular damage may contribute to the development of these and other diseases. We tested the effect of a soymilk supplement rich in isoflavones on a measure of cellular lipid peroxidation in a controlled feeding study. Eight premenopausal women consumed a constant diet that included soymilk containing 113-207 mg/day total isoflavones and 4 mo later a constant soy diet low (<5 mg/day) in isoflavones, both for a complete menstrual cycle. The average daily urinary excretions of daidzein and genistein were 24.6 +/- 10.1 and 9.2 +/- 6.1 mg/day, respectively, during the high-isoflavone soy diet and were below the detection limit during the low-isoflavone diet. F2 isoprostane 8-iso-PGF-2alpha excretion varied widely within and between subjects, and the group mean was not significantly different during the high- and low-isoflavone soy diet (7.67 +/- 1.13 and 8.65 +/- 1.18 nmol/12 h, mean +/- SD, respectively). However, individual changes in 8-iso-PGF-2alpha between the two soymilk drinks were significantly associated with age (r = -0.87; P = 0.006) and several measures of isoflavone exposure, namely, daidzein dose (r = 0.81; P = 0.015), combined daidzein and genistein dose (r = 0.77; P = 0.03), and total urinary excretion of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) (r = 0.71; P = 0.05). The findings suggest that soy isoflavones may reduce lipid peroxidation in an age-dependent manner, with greater effects in older women, and with lower doses of isoflavones. PMID:16351509

  17. Leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation to premenopausal breast cancer incidence and grade in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fangyi; Kraft, Peter; Rice, Megan; Michels, Karin B

    2012-01-01

    Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study II. We also examined associations between these SNPs and circulating leptin (among 910 women) and breast cancer grade (among 267 patients). Permutation tests were performed to adjust for multiple testing. We did not detect a significant association between SNPs in the LEP or LEPR gene and either breast cancer incidence or plasma leptin levels. Among cases, 14 SNPs of the LEPR gene were significantly associated with cancer grade, and rs1137101 (Q223R) survived multiple testing adjustment (adjusted P = 0.04). The G carriers of rs1137101 were more likely to have poorly differentiated than well-differentiated cancers. Our data suggest that common genetic variation in the LEP or LEPR gene has no strong association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The LEPR gene might be associated with breast cancer grade. PMID:21947707

  18. Leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation to premenopausal breast cancer incidence and grade in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fangyi; Kraft, Peter; Rice, Megan; Michels, Karin B.

    2012-01-01

    Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses’ Health Study II. We also examined associations between these SNPs and circulating leptin (among 910 women) and breast cancer grade (among 267 patients). Permutation tests were performed to adjust for multiple testing. We did not detect a significant association between SNPs in the LEP or LEPR gene and either breast cancer incidence or plasma leptin levels. Among cases, 14 SNPs of the LEPR gene were significantly associated with cancer grade, and rs1137101 (Q223R) survived multiple testing adjustment (adjusted P = 0.04). The G carriers of rs1137101 were more likely to have poorly differentiated than well-differentiated cancers. Our data suggest that common genetic variation in the LEP or LEPR gene has no strong association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The LEPR gene might be associated with breast cancer grade. PMID:21947707

  19. A hypothesized model of Korean women's responses to abuse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghan; Harwood, Jake

    2004-07-01

    Many abused married Korean women have a strong desire to leave their abusive husbands but remain in the abusive situations because of the strong influence of their sociocultural context. The article discusses Korean women's responses to spousal abuse in the context of patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theory. Age, education, and income as component elements share common effects on the emergent variable, sociostructural power. Gender role attitudes, traditional family ideology, individualism/collectivism, marital satisfaction, and marital conflict predict psychological-relational power as a latent variable. Sociostructural, patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theories are reconceptualized to generate the model of Korean women's responses to abuse. PMID:15189642

  20. Phase II Trial of Goserelin and Exemestane Combination Therapy in Premenopausal Women With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Xu, Binghe; Yuan, Peng; Ma, Fei; Li, Qing; Zhang, Pin; Cai, Ruigang; Fan, Ying; Luo, Yang; Li, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A promising option as the treatment of choice for premenopausal patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) could be the combination of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog and an aromatase inhibitor. However, no prospective studies on the efficacy of goserelin with exemestane in locally advanced or MBC premenopausal breast cancer patients have been reported. We present the phase II trial of goserelin plus exemestane in a total of 44 premenopausal women with locally advanced or MBC. All patients received a subcutaneous injection of 3.6 mg goserelin every 4 weeks along with 25 mg exemestane daily. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). The second end point included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), and clinical benefit rate (CBR) based on complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) for ≥6 months. The median PFS was 13 months (range: 2–42 months). The median DOR was 8 months (range: 2–40 months). Two patients achieved CR (4.5%), and 15 patients experienced PR (34.1%). Fifteen patients (34.1%) had SD ≥6 months. The ORR was 38.6%, and the CBR was 65.9%. Primary progressive disease occurred in 15 patients (34.1%). Five patients (11.4%) died during the study period. Because a few patients have died, the median OS has not been reached. Drug therapy was well tolerated. The most frequent grade-3 adverse events were arthralgia (18.2%), skin rash (6.8%), and myalgia (4.5%). No participants withdrew from the study due to drug toxicity. This study suggested that goserelin and exemestane might be highly effective and well-tolerated regimens in premenopausal women with hormone-responsive, locally advanced or MBC. PMID:26131799

  1. Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations and antioxidant and inflammatory status in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-07-14

    For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasise recommendations to improve individual behaviour, including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant-based diet, and minimising the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats and alcohol. In the present study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane. The statistical analysis applied linear regression across categories of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations. Overall, seventy-two women were classified as low ( ≤ 4), 150 as moderate (5-6), and fifty-three as high adherers ( ≥ 7). The unadjusted means for CRP were 2.7, 2.0 and 1.7 mg/l for low, moderate and high adherers (P trend= 0.03); this association was strengthened after adjustment for confounders (P trend= 0.006). The respective values for serum γ-tocopherol were 1.97, 1.63 and 1.45 μg/ml (P trend= 0.02 before and P trend= 0.03 after adjustment). Only for urinary F2-isoprostane, the lower values in high adherers (16.0, 14.5, and 13.3 ng/ml) did not reach statistical significance (P trend= 0.18). In an analysis by BMI, overweight and obese women had higher biomarker levels than normal weight women; the trend was significant for CRP (P trend< 0.001) and γ-tocopherol (P trend= 0.003) but not for F2-isoprostane (P trend= 0.14). These findings suggest that both adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines and normal BMI status are associated with lower levels of biomarkers that indicate oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26051510

  2. Association of SLC2A9 genotype with phenotypic variability of serum urate in pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Topless, Ruth K.; Flynn, Tanya J.; Cadzow, Murray; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Black, Michael A.; Merriman, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    The SLC2A9 gene, that encodes a renal uric acid reuptake transporter, has genetic variants that explain ∼3% of variance in urate levels. There are previous reports of non-additive interaction between SLC2A9 genotype and environmental factors which influence urate control. Therefore, our aim was to further investigate the general phenomenon that such non-additive interactions contribute to genotype-specific association with variance at SLC2A9. Data from 14135 European individuals were used in this analysis. The measure of variance was derived from a ranked inverse normal transformation of residuals obtained by regressing known urate-influencing factors (sex, age, and body mass index) against urate. Variant rs6449173 showed the most significant effect on serum urate variance at SLC2A9 (P = 7.9 × 10-14), which was maintained after accounting for the effect on average serum urate levels (P = 0.022). Noting the stronger effect in a sub-cohort that consisted of pre-menopausal women and younger men, the participants were stratified into males and pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. This revealed a strong effect on variance in pre-menopausal women (P = 3.7 × 10-5) with a weak effect in post-menopausal women (P = 0.032) and no effect in men (P = 0.22). The T-allele of rs6449173, which associates with increased urate levels, was associated with the greater variance in urate. There was a non-additive interaction between rs6449173 genotype and female gender in control of serum urate levels that was driven by a greater increase in urate levels associated with the T-allele in women. Female hormones, and/or other factors they influence or are associated with (such as iron levels, temperature, testosterone) interact with SLC2A9 genotype in women to determine urate levels. The association of SLC2A9 with greater variance in pre-menopausal women may reflect the cyclical changes resulting from menstruation. PMID:26528330

  3. Significant bone microarchitecture impairment in premenopausal women with active celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Costa, Florencia; Longobardi, Vanesa; Longarini, Gabriela; Mazure, Roberto Martín; Moreno, María Laura; Vázquez, Horacio; Silveira, Fernando; Niveloni, Sonia; Smecuol, Edgardo; Temprano, María de la Paz; Hwang, Hui Jer; González, Andrea; Mauriño, Eduardo César; Bogado, Cesar; Zanchetta, Jose R; Bai, Julio César

    2015-07-01

    Patients with active celiac disease (CD) are more likely to have osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) permits three-dimensional exploration of bone microarchitectural characteristics measuring separately cortical and trabecular compartments, and giving a more profound insight into bone disease pathophysiology and fracture. We aimed to determine the volumetric and microarchitectural characteristics of peripheral bones-distal radius and tibia-in an adult premenopausal cohort with active CD assessed at diagnosis. We prospectively enrolled 31 consecutive premenopausal women with newly diagnosed CD (median age 29 years, range: 18-49) and 22 healthy women of similar age (median age 30 years, range 21-41) and body mass index. Compared with controls, peripheral bones of CD patients were significantly lower in terms of total volumetric density mg/cm(3) (mean ± SD: 274.7 ± 51.7 vs. 324.7 ± 45.8, p 0.0006 at the radius; 264.4 ± 48.7 vs. 307 ± 40.7, p 0.002 at the tibia), trabecular density mg/cm(3) (118.6 ± 31.5 vs. 161.9 ± 33.6, p<0.0001 at the radius; 127.9 ± 28.7 vs. 157.6 ± 15.6, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); bone volume/trabecular volume ratio % (9.9 ± 2.6 vs. 13.5 ± 2.8, p<0.0001 at the radius; 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); number of trabeculae 1/mm (1.69 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.26, p 0.009 at the radius; 1.53 ± 0.32 vs. 1.80 ± 0.26, p 0.002 at the tibia); and trabecular thickness mm (0.058 ± 0.010 vs. 0.071 ± 0.008, p < 0.0001 at the radius with no significant difference at the tibia). Cortical density was significantly lower in both regions (D comp mg/cm(3) 860 ± 57.2 vs. 893.9 ± 43, p 0.02; 902.7 ± 48.7 vs. 932.6 ± 32.6, p 0.01 in radius and tibia respectively). Although cortical thickness was lower in CD patients, it failed to show any significant inter-group difference (a-8% decay with p 0.11 in both bones). Patients with symptomatic CD (n = 22) had

  4. Association of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism with BMD and Homocysteine in Premenopausal North Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Ankur; Polipalli, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Sangeeta; Kapoor, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Osteoporosis (OP) is a common nutrigenomic disease associated with various genetic components. Observational studies have indicated that mildly elevated homocysteine was a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Yet there is no clear biologic mechanism for an effect of homocysteine on bone.The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and to verify the association of these polymorphisms with bone mineral density and homocysteine in premenopausal women of northern India. Material and Methods: We included 402 north Indian patients with altered BMD, both Osteopenic (OPN) and Osteoporosis, and normal controls. Genotype identification for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method, correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Homocysteine (Hcy), Folate and Vitamin B12. Results: The study groups did not differ in terms of age, weight and body mass indices. Prevalence of Genotype frequencies (GFs) for MTHFRC677T OP were (n: 402): CC 361 (89.8%), CT 25 (6.22%), TT 16 (3.98%) and that for MTHFR A1298C were (n: 402) AA 353(87.81%), AC 29(7.21%), CC 20(4.98%). Folate was significantly lower in the OP group than those in both the other groups, while there was no significant difference in Hcy in the OP group relative to OPN, as compared to controls. Conclusion: The GFs for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were not different between both groups. In conclusion, polymorphism of the MTHFR 677T is associated with small differences in BMD with folate levels. Further, more investigations should be done in larger studies for other epigenetic pathways, that may increase the risk of Osteoporosis. PMID:24551672

  5. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation versus abdominal hysterectomy for presumed fibroids in premenopausal women: a decision analysis

    PubMed Central

    SIEDHOFF, Matthew T.; WHEELER, Stephanie B.; RUTSTEIN, Sarah E.; GELLER, Elizabeth J.; DOLL, Kemi M.; WU, Jennifer M.; CLARKE-PEARSON, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To model outcomes in laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation compared to abdominal hysterectomy for the presumed fibroid uterus, examining short-and long-term complications, as well as mortality. Study Design A decision tree was constructed to compare outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for presumed fibroids over a 5-year time horizon. Parameter and quality of life utility estimates were determined from published literature for postoperative complications, leiomyosarcoma incidence, death related to leiomyomsarcoma, and procedure-related death. Results The decision analysis predicted fewer overall deaths with laparoscopic hysterectomy compared to abdominal hysterectomy (98 vs. 103 per 100,000). While there were more deaths from leiomyosarcoma following laparoscopic hysterectomy (86 vs. 71 per 100,000), there were more hysterectomy-related deaths with abdominal hysterectomy (32 vs. 12 per 100,000). The laparoscopic group had lower rates of transfusion (2,400 vs. 4,700 per 100,000), wound infection (1,500 vs 6,300 per 100,000), venous thromboembolism (690 vs. 840 per 100,000) and incisional hernia (710 vs. 8,800 per 100,000), but a higher rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence (640 vs. 290 per 100,000). Laparoscopic hysterectomy resulted in more quality-adjusted life years (499,171 vs. 490,711 over five years). Conclusion The risk of leiomyosarcoma morcellation is balanced by procedure-related complications associated with laparotomy, including death. This analysis provides patients and surgeons with estimates of risk and benefit, upon which patient-centered decisions can be made. PMID:25817518

  6. The Role of Ovarian Suppression in Premenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sarika; Santa-Maria, Cesar Augusto; Gradishar, William J

    2015-07-01

    The optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer is yet to be elucidated. Studies have demonstrated that women who experience cessation of ovarian function after chemotherapy (chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea) may experience improved survival. These findings, however, have not been replicated when pharmacologic or surgical interventions have been used to stop ovarian function (eg, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, oophorectomy, or ovarian irradiation) in combination with an endocrine agent such as tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. Recent large phase III clinical trials, including the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group trial (ABCSG-12), Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT), and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT), did not demonstrate an improvement in disease-free survival with ovarian suppression in the overall population. However, subgroup analyses suggest that women at high risk for recurrence, including very young women or those who have received chemotherapy, may benefit from the addition of ovarian suppression. Still, toxicity and adverse effects on patient-reported outcomes were more frequent in patients who received ovarian suppression; these included more menopausal and sexual dysfunction symptoms, diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis. This review will summarize the experience with ovarian suppression in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of premenopausal early-stage breast cancer and offer recommendations for clinical management. PMID:26178334

  7. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Duchaine, Caroline S.; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

  8. The experience of Korean immigrant women adjusting to Canadian society.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-09-01

    The acculturation process is an important factor in the experience of all immigrants. Although previous studies have indicated the challenges faced by Korean immigrants, little attention has been paid to Korean women's immigration experiences. A focused ethnography was used to examine midlife and older Korean immigrant women's experiences following their immigration to Canada. Fifteen women were interviewed in a city in Western Canada. The findings showed that in coming to Canada, women focused on caring for their children and often sacrificed their personal dreams. They had to be employed to support their families, and received support from family and government. Women participated regularly in a Korean Church and drew on their Christian faith to ease their adjustment. They retained hopes for the future including good health and a better life for their children. Most women indicated that it was difficult to integrate into Canadian society but they never gave up on their adjustment to a new culture. In this manuscript, the adjustment experience of the immigrant women is discussed in the context of an acculturation framework. The findings will enhance health professionals' awareness of adjustment patterns and associated challenges to Korean immigrant women's quality of life. PMID:25096026

  9. Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

    2008-09-01

    American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

  10. Orthotopic genital sparing radical cystectomy in pre-menopausal women with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Moursy, Essam ElDin S.; Eldahshoursy, Mohammed Z.; Gamal, Wael M.; Badawy, Abdelbasset A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive cancer bladder is a life-threatening disease that is best treated with radical cystectomy and a suitable urinary diversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome, voiding and sexual functions after genital sparing radical cystectomy with orthotopic bladder reconstruction in pre-menopausal women with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: 18 pre-menopausal women who underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion with preservation of genital organs were included for this study. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically to assess their oncological outcome in addition to their voiding and sexual function. Results: Mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and the median follow-up after surgery was 70 months. One patient was lost to follow-up at 12 months post-operatively. The surgery was completed as planned in all patients, with a mean operative time of 290 min and an average blood loss of 750 mL. 14 patients were able to void satisfactorily, being continent day and night, while four patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Sexual life remained unchanged in 15 cases, while three patients reported dysparunea. Till the last follow-up, there was no local recurrence while distant metastases were detected in three cases, two of whom died. Conclusions: Genital sparing cystectomy is a valid option for managing carefully selected women with muscle-invasive bladder cancer with good functional and sexual outcomes. PMID:26941498

  11. Insulin is an important risk factor of endometrial cancer among premenopausal women: a case-control study in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yanli; Cheng, Shijie; Hou, Jianqing; Zuo, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Xia, Min; Mu, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the article was to evaluate the important role played by insulin in the development of endometrial cancer (EC) among Chinese premenopausal women. In this study, 128 endometrial cancer patients and 294 controls who were all premenopausal were included. Baseline characteristics data were collected and serum insulin, C-peptide, sex hormone-binding globulin, C-reaction protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured. Paired t test, χ(2) test, Spearman correlation coefficients, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used in data analysis. Furthermore, insulin levels were categorized into quartiles, and likelihood ratio was calculated for the four categories. Blood insulin levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.001). Factor analysis identified insulin (OR = 2.46; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-3.91; P < 0.001) as the independent risk factor of EC. When insulin levels were categorized into quartiles, we found that insulin was positively associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR comparing extreme quartiles (HR q4-q1) = 4.44; 95 % CI = 2.59-7.62; P trend = 0.025]. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), this association was attenuated, but still significant. In conclusion, insulin plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of EC among premenopausal women. Treatment targeting down-regulation of blood insulin levels seems effective in the prevention of this malignancy. PMID:26511973

  12. Expression of Extracellular Matrix-Remodeling Proteins Is Altered in Vaginal Tissue of Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Alarab, May; Kufaishi, Hala; Lye, Stephen; Drutz, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The molecular etiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is complex and not well understood. We compared the expression/activity of extracellular matrix (ECM)-processing (procollagen I N-proteinase/ a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs [ADAMTS]-2,-3,-14) and ECM-degrading (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -12) enzymes and their natural tissue inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP]-1,-2,-3,-4) in vaginal tissues from premenopausal women with advanced POP (POP-Q stage ≥ 3) and asymptomatic controls (POP-Q = 0). Study Design: We sampled the anterior vaginal wall of 36 premenopausal women (17 patients with POP and 19 controls) undergoing total hysterectomy. Exclusion criteria include steroid therapy, malignancy, previous pelvic surgery, and connective tissue diseases. Total RNAs and proteins were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and Luminex assay; MMPs activity was analyzed by zymography and tissue localization by immunohistochemistry. Results: The MMP-2 gelatinase activity as well as expression of 58-kDa isoform of ADAMTS-2 was upregulated in patients with POP, irrespective of menstrual phase status, secretory or proliferative, when compared to controls (P < .05). The TIMP-1-4 gene and TIMP-1 protein expression were significantly (P < .05) reduced, whereas protein expression of MMP-12 (pro and active forms) was significantly increased in vaginal biopsies of patients with POP in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle compared to corresponding controls. Analyses of MMP-12, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-2 tissue immunostaining indicate similar localization in the vaginal specimens from control and patients with POP. Conclusion: Expression of ECM-remodeling proteins is altered in the vagina of premenopausal patients with severe POP. We speculate that dysregulation of MMP/TIMP complexes and ADAMTS-2 proteins may cause connective tissue defects, which result in weakened vaginal

  13. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area. PMID:25503962

  14. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989–1990 (NHS) or 1996–1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Results Among 1124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p-trends=0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference=3.01 percentage points, 95%CI: 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p-trend=0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Impact Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area. PMID:25503962

  15. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life. PMID:25792237

  16. Amenorrhea in premenopausal women on the doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-followed-by-docetaxel arm of NSABP B-30 trial

    PubMed Central

    Land, Stephanie R.; Ritter, Marcie W.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Cecchini, Reena S.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Wolmark, Norman; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    The NSABP B-30 trial addresses whether amenorrhea after adjuvant chemotherapy increases survival. Preliminary to the trial outcome analysis, we examined the incidence of amenorrhea and its relationship to symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in the standard-care arm of this adjuvant breast cancer trial. Premenopausal women treated on the doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-followed-by-docetaxel arm were included. Questionnaires assessing menstrual history, QOL, and symptoms were administered at baseline, day 1 of cycle 4 (or 9 weeks from start of chemotherapy for those who stopped chemotherapy early), and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Seven hundred and eight patients were evaluable for the analysis, with median potential follow-up of 57.5 months. Of these, 321 patients also participated in the QOL substudy. Of the 708 patients, 83% reported ≥1 episode of amenorrhea for ≥6 months. The estimated rate of resumption of menses at 24 months was 45.3% for women<40 years, 10.9% for women 40–50, and 3.2% for women >50 years. Those treated with tamoxifen were more likely to become amenorrheic (p = 0.003). Menstrual status was not significantly associated with QOL or symptoms. Prolonged amenorrhea is associated with a regimen that contains doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel, and is age dependent and impacted by tamoxifen use. Vasomotor symptoms are common in this patient population but are not associated with menstrual status. These results can be used to inform premenopausal women about the risk and time course of amenorrhea associated with this common adjuvant therapy regimen, along with the effects on symptoms and QOL. PMID:18302020

  17. Habitual dietary isoflavone intake is associated with decreased C-reactive protein concentrations among healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Filiberto, Amanda C; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Yeung, Edwina H; Perkins, Neil J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2013-06-01

    Isoflavones have been associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, but existing research focused on very high isoflavone intakes, as seen in Asian populations, as well as on risk factor reductions primarily in postmenopausal women. We investigated whether habitual low isoflavone intake among premenopausal women was associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a commonly used biomarker associated with prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women. Between 2005 and 2007, 259 healthy, regularly menstruating women were enrolled in the BioCycle Study, and followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles. CRP was measured in serum at up to 16 clinic visits, timed to phases of the women's menstrual cycle. Diet was assessed up to 4 times per cycle by using 24-h recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure weights estimated the association between CRP and quartiles of isoflavone intake adjusted for age, race, BMI, cycle phase, total energy intake, total fiber, total whole grains, and phase-specific hormone concentrations including estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Compared with the lowest quartile of total isoflavone intake, women in the highest quartile had, on average, 27% lower serum CRP concentrations (95% CI: -35, -21%). Our results suggest that dietary isoflavone intakes at levels characteristic of the U.S. population are associated with decreased serum CRP concentrations, a factor associated with beneficial effects on inflammation, and subsequently may have the potential to improve health status among young women. PMID:23616515

  18. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  19. Relationship Between Reproductive History, Anthropometrics, Lifestyle Factors, and the Likelihood of Persistent Chemotherapy-Related Amenorrhea in Women with Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abusief, Mary E.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Weeks, Jane C.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between patient characteristics at diagnosis of premenopausal breast cancer including gravidity, parity, age at menarche, age at first birth, alcohol use, smoking history, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) with the development of persistent chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) in follow-up. Design Retrospective Cohort Setting Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) Patients Premenopausal women with breast cancer Methods We identified all premenopausal women who received standard adjuvant chemotherapy from 1997-2005 for whom menstrual data were available. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluating persistent amenorrhea at ≥ 6 month after completing chemotherapy were conducted. Results 431 women met eligibility criteria and had ≥ 6 month follow-up. Women with older (age >13 years) versus younger (12-13 years) age at menarche were more than twice as likely to remain amenorreheic (p-value, test for linear trend = 0.03). Current smokers had 2.4 greater odds of CRA versus never smokers, although this association was not statistically significant (95% CI=0.86-6.75). Discussion Few identifiable factors contribute to the variability in CRA among premenopausal women following adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Further research to improve the prediction of CRA, premature menopause and infertility in young breast cancer survivors is warranted. PMID:22192139

  20. Parity and Risk of Death from Gallbladder Cancer among a Cohort of Premenopausal Parous Women in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Te-Fu; Wu, Chen-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has been done on the etiology of gallbladder cancer (GC). This cohort study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between parity and risk of death from GC. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of death from GC associated with parity. There were 257 GC deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of GC was 0.73 cases per 100,000 person-years. As compared with women who had given birth to only one child, the adjusted HR was 1.20 (95% CI = 0.79–1.83) for women who had two children, 1.47 (95% CI = 0.95–2.29) for women who had three children, and 1.68 (95% CI = 0.99–2.85) for women with four or more births. There was a significant increasing trend in the adjusted HRs for GC with increasing parity. The findings suggested that premenopausal women of higher parity may increase the risk of death from GC. PMID:25664696

  1. Uptake of tamoxifen in consecutive premenopausal women under surveillance in a high-risk breast cancer clinic

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L S; Evans, D G; Wiseman, J; Fox, J; Greenhalgh, R; Affen, J; Juraskova, I; Stavrinos, P; Dawe, S; Cuzick, J; Howell, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Randomised trials of tamoxifen versus placebo indicate that tamoxifen reduces breast cancer risk by approximately 33%, yet uptake is low. Approximately 10% of women in our clinic entered the IBIS-I prevention trial. We assess the uptake of tamoxifen in a consecutive series of premenopausal women not in a trial and explore the reasons for uptake through interviews. Methods: All eligible women between 33 and 46 years at ⩾17% lifetime risk of breast cancer and undergoing annual mammography in our service were invited to take a 5-year course of tamoxifen. Reasons for accepting (n=15) or declining (n=15) were explored using semi-structured interviews. Results: Of 1279 eligible women, 136 (10.6%) decided to take tamoxifen. Women >40 years (74 out of 553 (13.4%)) and those at higher non-BRCA-associated risk were more likely to accept tamoxifen (129 out of 1109 (11.6%)). Interviews highlighted four themes surrounding decision making: perceived impact of side effects, the impact of others' experience on beliefs about tamoxifen, tamoxifen as a ‘cancer drug', and daily reminder of cancer risk. Conclusions: Tamoxifen uptake was similar to previously ascertained uptake in a randomised controlled trial (IBIS-I). Concerns were similar in women who did or did not accept tamoxifen. Decision making appeared to be embedded in the experience of significant others. PMID:24594998

  2. Ovarian Function, Not Age, Predicts the Benefit from Ovarian Suppression or Ablation for Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Shusen; Shi, Yanxia; An, Xin; Xu, Fei; Yuan, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    The role of adjuvant ovarian suppression or ablation (OS/OA) in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to examine which patients might benefit from the addition of OS/OA to tamoxifen. We analyzed the data of 2065 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive invasive ductal carcinomas who were treated at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center from 2000 to 2008. The five-year disease-free survival rate (DFSR) and overall survival rate (OSR) were compared by menstrual status and treatment. Compared with patients older than forty years of age, patients younger than forty years old had significant lower DFSRs and OSRs. The addition of OS/OA to tamoxifen increased the DFSR and OSR of patients with normal menstrual cycles after chemotherapy, regardless of their age at diagnosis. Patients with normal menstrual cycles after chemotherapy are the main beneficiaries of an adjuvant OS/OA. PMID:26866810

  3. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  4. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women.

    PubMed

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R; Beck, Kathryn L; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C; O'Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm²), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16-45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm². Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  5. Associations of Premenopausal Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy With Breast Cancer Among Black and White Women: The Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Nichols, Hazel B; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Black women experience higher rates of hysterectomy than other women in the United States. Although research indicates that premenopausal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy decreases the risk of breast cancer in black women, it remains unclear how hysterectomy without ovary removal affects risk, whether menopausal hormone therapy use attenuates inverse associations, and whether associations vary by cancer subtype. In the population-based, case-control Carolina Breast Cancer Study of invasive breast cancer in 1,391 black (725 cases, 666 controls) and 1,727 white (939 cases, 788 controls) women in North Carolina (1993-2001), we investigated the associations of premenopausal hysterectomy and oophorectomy with breast cancer risk. Compared with no history of premenopausal surgery, bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy without oophorectomy were associated with lower odds of breast cancer (for bilateral oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77; for hysterectomy without oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.84). Estimates did not vary by race and were similar for hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative cancers. Use of estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy did not attenuate the associations. Premenopausal hysterectomy, even without ovary removal, may reduce the long-term risk of hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative breast cancers. Varying rates of hysterectomy are a potentially important contributor to differences in breast cancer incidence among racial/ethnic groups. PMID:27555487

  6. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study. PMID:21514299

  7. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lomagno, Karla A.; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Byrne, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Cranberries vs Antibiotics to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bosmans, Judith E.; Beerepoot, Mariëlle A. J.; Prins, Jan M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and result in an enormous economic burden. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic agents to prevent UTIs. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cranberry prophylaxis compared to antibiotic prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) over a 12 month period in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs. Materials and Methods An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized trial. Primary outcome was the number of UTIs during 12 months. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction and quality of life. Healthcare utilization was measured using questionnaires. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the treatments. Results Cranberry prophylaxis was less effective than TMP-SMX prophylaxis, but the differences in clinical outcomes were not statistically significant. Costs after 12 months in the cranberry group were statistically significantly higher than in the TMP-SMX group (mean difference €249, 95% confidence interval 70 to 516). Cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that cranberry prophylaxis to prevent UTIs is less effective and more expensive than (dominated by) TMP-SMX prophylaxis. Conclusion In premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, cranberry prophylaxis is not cost-effective compared to TMP-SMX prophylaxis. However, it was not possible to take into account costs attributed to increased antibiotic resistance within the framework of this randomized trial; modeling studies are recommended to investigate these costs. Moreover, although we based the dosage of cranberry extract on available evidence, this may not be the optimal dosage. Results may change when this optimal dosage is identified. Trial Registration ISRCTN.org ISRCTN50717094 PMID:24705418

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 in a 2-year soya intervention among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Franke, Adrian A; Kaaks, Rudolph

    2005-09-01

    Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5-22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0.04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0.06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels. PMID:16176606

  10. Increasing iron and zinc in pre-menopausal women and its effects on mood and cognition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lomagno, Karla A; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nowson, Caryl A; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  11. Relationship of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in cortical and cancellous bone within the iliac crest of healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Dempster, D W; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Fratzl, P; Silverberg, S J; Shane, E; Cohen, A; Stein, E; Nickolas, T L; Recker, R R; Lappe, J; Bilezikian, J P; Klaushofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25-48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.Ca(Width)), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.Ca(Mean)). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(High)) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(Low)). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  12. Parity and Risk of Death From Lung Cancer Among a Cohort of Premenopausal Parous Women in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Ho, Shu-Chen; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined the association between parity and risk of lung cancer. Methods The study cohort consisted of all women with a record of a first singleton birth in the Taiwanese Birth Register between 1978 and 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009. Follow-up was terminated when the mother died, when she reached age 50 years, or on 31 December 2009, whichever occurred first. The vital status of mothers was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for death from lung cancer associated with parity. Results There were 1375 lung cancer deaths during 32 243 637.08 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of lung cancer was 4.26 cases per 100 000 person-years. As compared with women who had given birth to only 1 child, the adjusted HR was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.94–1.35) for women who had 2 children, 1.10 (0.91–1.33) for those who had 3 children, and 1.22 (0.96–1.54) for those who had 4 or more children. Conclusions The findings suggest that premenopausal women of higher parity tended to have an increased risk of lung cancer, although the trend was not statistically significant. PMID:22522149

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Korean Immigrant Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Lee, Dal Yob; Koo, Young Ran; Yoo, Sung-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Postimmigration adjustment experiences of 10 Korean immigrant women were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Seven domains emerged: general life conditions; gender role; changes in family dynamics; ethnic/national identity, cultural competency, and belongingness; value changes; racial relationships; and support systems and…

  14. Vitamin D Repletion in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon-Sok; Chung, Dong Jin; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Koh, Jung-Min; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Nino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Up to 71% of South Korean postmenopausal women have vitamin D deficiency {serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] level <50 nmol/L}. Data on vitamin D supplementation was collected during the screening phase of an efficacy/safety study of denosumab in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This report describes the effect of vitamin D supplementation on repletion to 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/L in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods Vitamin D levels of Korean postmenopausal women (60–90 years old) were measured by extracting 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from serum samples via protein precipitation and using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Calibration curves were constructed from the mass chromatograms to obtain total vitamin D levels. Subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were supplemented with 1000 IU of vitamin D tablets during the 2.5-month-long screening period. Dose, frequency, and duration were determined by the investigator. If repletion was achieved (≥50 nmol/L) on retest, subjects were eligible to be rescreened for study entry. Results Of 371 subjects screened, 191 (52%) required vitamin D supplementation, and 88% (168 of 191) were successfully repleted. More than half of the subjects (58%) who were successfully repleted received doses of 2000 IU daily. The mean time to successful repletion was 31 days (standard deviation 8.4 days; range 11–48 days). Conclusion Supplementation with daily median doses of 2000 IU vitamin D successfully repleted 88% of Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis within 48 days to a serum vitamin D level of 50 nmol/L. PMID:27189286

  15. Perceived threat predictor of calcium-rich foods in the women of premenopausal age Isfahan - Iran in 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Hoseini, Marjan; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: During women lives, frequently face the challenge of calcium reduction and absorption. Decreased calcium absorption followed by a decrease in estrogen at perimenopausal ages, low average per capita calcium intake among women, wrong nutritional behavior, household income reductions and make them more susceptible to osteoporosis and related complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the health belief model constructs and consuming calcium-rich foods in menopausal age women. Materials and Methods: This study was descriptive-correlation study. The questionnaires were completed by 210 menopausal women who had referred to health centers. The research data were analyzed using: Frequency distribution, mean score, Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression. Significant level of P < 0/05 were considered. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the scores for perceived susceptibility and severity of the threats of consumption and complications of inadequate intake were respectively: (62.1 and 38.9, and 60.2 and 39.9) and (59.6 and 37.9 and 56.3 and 36.5). The relationship between the number of units of calcium intake with perceived susceptibility and severity calcium intake and complications caused by the inadequate intake of calcium were (P < 0.001, r = 0.581, r = 0.651) and (P < 0.001, r = 0.634, r = 0.567). Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that perceived threat is the prognostic factor for the intake of calcium-rich foods and the increase of perceived threat in the health promotion programs may be associated with the increase in the consumption of calcium-rich foods in the women of premenopausal age. PMID:26793252

  16. Health experiences of Korean immigrant women in retirement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-01-01

    In this focused ethnographic study, we explored the health experiences of 15 Korean immigrant women after retirement in an urban center in Western Canada. Almost all women began their lives in Canada without adequate personal finances, making their employment essential for supporting their families financially. Most women lived with more than two chronic diseases, attributed to long hours and difficult work conditions. They experienced improved psychological health after retiring, irrespective of positive or negative changes in their physical health. Spiritual faith and exercise were important strategies to maintain and enhance their health and to postpone and manage chronic diseases. PMID:25186924

  17. Genetic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Homocysteine Concentrations and the Distribution of Folate Derivatives in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Carolyn M.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Baido, Shirley F.; Blair, Ian A.; Von Feldt, Joan M.; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low folate and high homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations are associated with pregnancy-related pathologies such as spina bifida. Polymorphisms in folate/Hcy metabolic enzymes may contribute to this potentially pathogenic biochemical phenotype. Methods The study comprised 26 Caucasian and 23 African-American premenopausal women. Subjects gave fasting blood samples for biochemical phenotyping and genotyping. Total Hcy (tHcy) and both plasma and red blood cell (RBC) folate derivatives [i.e. tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methylTHF (5-MTHF), and 5,10-methenylTHF (5,10-MTHF)] were measured using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography, multiple reaction monitoring, mass spectrometry. Eleven polymorphisms from nine folate/Hcy pathway genes were genotyped. Tests of association between genetic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were applied. Results In African American women, tHcy concentrations were associated (p<0.05) with total RBC folate, RBC 5-MTHF, B12, and polymorphisms in methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). In Caucasian women, tHcy concentrations were not associated with total folate levels, but were associated (p<0.05) with RBC THF, ratios of RBC 5-MTHF: THF, and polymorphisms in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and MTR . In African Americans, folate derivative levels were associated with smoking, B12, and polymorphisms in MTR, TYMS, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and reduced folate carrier1 (RFC1). In Caucasians, folate derivative levels were associated with vitamin use, B12, and polymorphisms in MTHFR, TYMS, and RFC1. Conclusions Polymorphisms in the folate/Hcy pathway are associated with tHcy and folate derivative levels. In African American and Caucasian women, different factors are associated with folate/Hcy phenotypes and may contribute to race-specific differences in the risks of a range of pregnancy-related pathologies. PMID:20544798

  18. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  19. Reduction of DNA mismatch repair protein expression in airway epithelial cells of premenopausal women chronically exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Dutta, Anindita; Chowdhury, Saswati; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. This study examined whether chronic inhalation of biomass smoke causes change in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in the airway cells. For this, airway cells exfoliated in sputum were collected from 72 premenopausal nonsmoking rural women (median age 34 years) who cooked with biomass (wood, dung, crop residues) and 68 control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for the past 5 years or more. The levels of particulate matters with diameters less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in indoor air were measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in airway cells were measured by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Immunocytochemical assay revealed lower percentage of airway epithelial cells expressing MMR proteins mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in biomass-using women compared to LPG-using controls. Women who cooked with biomass had 6.7 times higher level of urinary t,t-MA, twofold increase in ROS generation, and 31 % depletion of SOD. Indoor air of biomass-using households had three times more particulate matters than that of controls. ROS, urinary t,t-MA, and particulate pollution in biomass-using kitchen had negative correlation, while SOD showed positive correlation with MSH2 and MLH1 expression. It appears that chronic exposure to biomass smoke reduces MMR response in airway epithelial cells, and oxidative stress plays an important role in the process. PMID:24146321

  20. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  1. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  2. Teaching about the Korean Comfort Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunduk

    2012-01-01

    During World War II, human rights violations against women took on gargantuan proportions of indescribable horror. The Japanese military engaged in the systematic abduction of women from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and other nations and confined them to military installations in Japanese-occupied territories to serve…

  3. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  4. The volume of nipple aspirate fluid is not affected by 6 months of treatment with soy foods in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A

    2011-04-01

    Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 μL of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume. PMID:21325473

  5. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  6. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40–79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  7. Effect of yoga on pain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and serotonin in premenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moseon; Moon, Woongjoon; Kim, Jaehee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P < 0.001), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) in the control group. Back flexibility was improved in the yoga group (P < 0.01). Serum BDNF increased in the yoga group (P < 0.01), whereas it tended to decrease in the control group (P = 0.05). Serum serotonin maintained in the yoga group, while it reduced (P < 0.01) in the control group. The depression level maintained in the yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P = 0.07). Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain. PMID:25120574

  8. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  9. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  10. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  11. Comparison of Korean and European women professional golfers' training time and perceptions of ideal training time.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Mi; Kim, Soon-Young; Kim, Sung-Hee

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Korean and European female professional golfer's reported practice hours and their different understandings about golf training. 55 Korean and 21 European female professional golfers were asked questions about average actual practice days per week, average actual practice hours per day, ideal practice days per week, and ideal practice hours per day. All the women participated in the Korean Female Masters Golf Tournament at the Korean Cyprus Golf course from 6-8 November in 2009. Korean female professional golfers reported practicing more hours, but both the Korean and European golfers reported actually practicing more hours than their ideal practice hours. PMID:21058589

  12. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women. PMID:27255073

  13. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  14. Low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in plasma, and reduced sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycaemia in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Malis, F; Zlnay, M; Killinger, Z; Kvetnansky, R; Huckova, M; Vigas, M; Macho, L; Koska, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathoadrenal system in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (0.1 IU/kg) was produced in 15 glucocorticoid-naive patients with long term RA with low disease activity and in 14 healthy women matched for age and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, Δ4-androstenedione (ASD), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), interleukin 6 (IL6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were analysed in plasma. Results: Patients had comparable responses of glucose, cortisol, ACTH, ASD, and 17OHP to hypoglycaemia, without any signs of hypothalamic insufficiency. Patients had lower basal DHEAS than controls (3.03 (0.37) µmol/l v 5.1 (0.9) µmol/l, respectively; p<0.05); borderline lower basal DHEA levels (p = 0.067); while the response of DHEA to hypoglycaemia was comparable to that of controls. Patients with RA had lower EPI (p = 0.005) and NE (p<0.001) responses to hypoglycaemia. TNFα and IL6 were higher (p<0.05) in patients with RA (TNFα 8 (2.8) pg/ml in RA v 1.1 (0.5) pg/ml in controls and IL6 15.1 (6.7) pg/ml v 1.4 (0.7) pg/ml). Conclusions: Lower basal DHEAS levels, without concomitant differences or changes in DHEA, ASD, 17OHP, and cortisol responses to hypoglycaemia in patients with RA, indicate an isolated decrease in adrenal androgen production. Significantly lower responses of EPI and NE to hypoglycaemia may suggest sympathoadrenal hyporeactivity in patients with RA. PMID:15647427

  15. The impact of supervised weight loss and intentional weight regain on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon, Mira; Liu, Ying; Petroski, Gregory F; Thomas, Tom R; Polotsky, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    What is the impact of intentional weight loss and regain on serum androgens in women? We conducted an ancillary analysis of prospectively collected samples from a randomized controlled trial. The trial involved supervised 10% weight loss (8.5 kg on average) with diet and exercise over 4-6 months followed by supervised intentional regain of 50% of the lost weight (4.6 kg on average) over 4-6 months. Participants were randomized prior to the partial weight regain component to either continuation or cessation of endurance exercise. Analytic sample included 30 obese premenopausal women (mean age of 40 ± 5.9 years, mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWAdp). Insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured in the original trial were reanalyzed for the current analytic sample. Insulin, HOMA, and QUICKI improved with weight loss and were maintained despite weight regain. Log-transformed SHBG significantly increased from baseline to weight loss, and then significantly decreased with weight regain. LogFAI and logVAT decreased similarly and increased with weight loss followed by weight regain. No changes were found in logT and LogHMWAdp. There was no significant difference in any tested parameters by exercise between the groups. SHBG showed prominent sensitivity to body mass fluctuations, as reduction with controlled intentional weight regain showed an inverse relationship to VAT and occurred despite stable HMWAdp and sustained improvements with insulin resistance. FAI showed opposite changes to SHBG, while T did not change significantly with weight. Continued exercise during weight regain did not appear to impact these findings. PMID:27192090

  16. The Impact of Dietary Folate Intake on Reproductive Function in Premenopausal Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Zhang, Cuilin; Pollack, Anna Z.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Folic acid is recommended to reproductive-aged women to prevent birth defects, though little is known about the effects of dietary intake on other reproductive outcomes. Improved pregnancy rates have been documented after folic acid supplement use, suggesting a possible link with ovulation, however research is limited. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dietary folate intake, hormone levels, and sporadic anovulation in healthy, regularly menstruating women. Methodology/Principal Findings The BioCycle study (2005–2007) prospectively followed 259 healthy women aged 18–44 years from the western New York region for up to 2 menstrual cycles. Total folate and specific sources of folate were assessed up to 4 times per cycle by 24-hour recall. Estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured in serum up to 8 times per cycle, timed using fertility monitors. Anovulation was defined as a cycle with peak progesterone concentration ≤5 ng/mL and no LH peak in the mid/late luteal phase. Higher intake of dietary folate (in dietary equivalents) across tertiles had a marginally significant association with greater luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.08). Higher intake of synthetic folate was significantly associated with higher luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.05). Specifically, women in the 3rd tertile of synthetic folate intake had, on average, 16.0% (95% CI, 0.5–33.8%) higher luteal progesterone levels compared to women in the 1st tertile. Moreover, consumption of synthetic folate was significantly and inversely associated with anovulation such that women in the 3rd tertile had a 64% (95% CI, 8–86%) decreased odds of anovulation compared to the women in the 1st tertile (P trend 0.03). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that a diet high in synthetic folate may be associated with increased progesterone levels and lower risk of sporadic anovulation. Further study of the effect of

  17. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care. PMID:24108090

  18. Neutrophilic inflammatory response and oxidative stress in premenopausal women chronically exposed to indoor air pollution from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirban; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-04-01

    The possibility of inflammation and neutrophil activation in response to indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use has been investigated. For this, 142 premenopausal, never-smoking women (median age, 34 years) who cook exclusively with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 126 age-matched control women who cook with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. The neutrophil count in blood and sputum was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in biomass users than the control group. Flow cytometric analysis revealed marked increase in the surface expression of CD35 (complement receptor-1), CD16 (F(C)γ receptor III), and β(2) Mac-1 integrin (CD11b/CD18) on circulating neutrophils of biomass users. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that they had 72%, 67%, and 54% higher plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12, respectively, and doubled neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8. Immunocytochemical study revealed significantly higher percentage of airway neutrophils expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase, while the serum level of nitric oxide was doubled in women who cooked with biomass. Spectrophotometric analysis documented higher myeloperoxidase activity in circulating neutrophils of biomass users, suggesting neutrophil activation. Flow cytometry showed excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes of biomass-using women, whereas their erythrocytes contained a depleted level of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indoor air of biomass-using households had two to four times more particulate matter with diameters of <10 μm (PM(10)) and <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) as measured by real-time laser photometer. After controlling potential confounders, rise in proinflammatory mediators among biomass users were positively associated with PM(10) and PM(2.5) in indoor air, suggesting a close relationship between IAP and neutrophil activation. Besides

  19. Body size across the life course and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in Black women, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993–2001

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI). PURPOSE This study investigated associations between measures of body size across the life course and breast cancer risk among Black and White women living in the U.S. South. METHODS We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina women aged 20–74 years. We assessed nine body size variables, including age 10 relative weight; age 18 BMI; adult weight gain; “reference” BMI 1 year before interview; and post-diagnosis measured BMI and abdominal obesity measures. RESULTS Among premenopausal Whites, heavier childhood relative weight was associated with decreased cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]=0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33–0.70]). Among premenopausal Blacks, greater adult waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk (waist OR=1.40 [1.00–1.97] and high tertile WHR OR=2.03 [1.29–3.19]), with associations for WHR in a similar direction in Whites. Among postmenopausal women, recalled body size was not associated with risk, except for increased risk associated with adult weight gain among White non-hormone therapy users. ER/PR status and hormone therapy use also modified other associations. DISCUSSION In this population, greater adult BMI was not associated with increased breast cancer risk, but some measures of early-life body size and abdominal obesity were associated with risk. PMID:24924530

  20. Validation of Different Instruments for Caffeine Measurement Among Premenopausal Women in the BioCycle Study

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Perkins, Neil J.; Ye, Aijun; Pollack, Anna Z.; Zhang, Cuilin; Porucznik, Christina A.; VanDerslice, James A.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Effects of caffeine on women's health are inconclusive, in part because of inadequate exposure assessment. In this study we determined 1) validity of a food frequency questionnaire compared with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) for measuring monthly caffeine and caffeinated beverage intakes; and 2) validity of the 24HDR compared with the prior day's diary record for measuring daily caffeinated coffee intake. BioCycle Study (2005–2007) participants, women (n = 259) aged 18–44 years from western New York State, were followed for 2 menstrual cycles. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at the end of each cycle, four 24HDRs per cycle, and daily diaries. Caffeine intakes reported for the food frequency questionnaires were greater than those reported for the 24HDRs (mean = 114.1 vs. 92.6mg/day, P = 0.01) but showed high correlation (r = 0.73, P < 0.001) and moderate agreement (К = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.57). Women reported less caffeinated coffee intake in their 24HDRs compared with their corresponding diary days (mean = 0.51 vs. 0.80 cups/day, P < 0.001) (1 cup = 237 mL). Although caffeine and coffee exposures were highly correlated, absolute intakes differed significantly between measurement tools. These results highlight the importance of considering potential misclassification of caffeine exposure. PMID:23462965

  1. Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P < 0.01) compared with patients with other proliferative diseases. Conclusions The presence of ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 in the surface epithelial ovarian cells and its derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical

  2. Enterolignan Producing Phenotypes are Associated with Increased Gut Microbial Diversity and Altered Composition in Premenopausal Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Lancaster, Samuel M.; Li, Fei; Tseng, Elizabeth; Beer, Karlyn; Atkinson, Charlotte; Wähälä, Kristiina; Copeland, Wade K.; Randolph, Timothy W.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignans in plant foods are metabolized by gut bacteria to the enterolignans, enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL). Enterolignans have biologic activities important to the prevention of cancer and chronic diseases. We examined the composition of the gut microbial community (GMC) as a contributor to human enterolignan exposure. Methods We evaluated the association between the GMC in stool, urinary enterolignan excretion, and diet from a 3-day food record in 115 premenopausal (ages 40–45 y) women in the United States. Urinary enterolignans were measured using GC/MS. The GMC was evaluated using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequences were aligned in SILVA (www.arb-silva.de). Operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic classification was performed and alpha and beta diversity in relationship to ENL production were assessed. Multivariate analysis and regression were used to model the association between enterolignan excretion and the GMC. Bacteria associated with ENL production were identified using univariate analysis and ridge regression. Results After adjusting for dietary fiber intake and adiposity, we found a significant positive association between ENL excretion and either the GMC (p=0.0007), or the diversity of the GMC (p=0.01). The GMC associated with high ENL production was distinct (UNIFRAC, p<0.003, MRPP) and enriched in Moryella spp., Acetanaerobacterium spp., Fastidiosipila spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Conclusion Diversity and composition of the GMC are associated with increased human exposure to enterolignans. Impact Differences in gut microbial diversity and composition explain variation in gut metabolic processes that impact environmental exposures and influences human health. PMID:25542830

  3. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  4. Chromium, selenium, and other trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Scythes, C A

    1984-04-01

    Daily Cr, Se, Ag, Cs, Rb, Sb, and Sc intakes of 84 Canadian women aged 30.3±6.1 yr (mean±SD) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were determined by analyses of 1-d food composites collected by the subjects. Aliquots of the homogenized food composites were freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation procedures following irradiation for 72h. In all cases, trace element concentrations in the food composites were non-Gaussian. Median daily intakes were: Cr, 47 μg; Se, 74 μg; Ag, 7.1 μg; Cs, 4.4 μg; Rb, 1.5 mg; Sb 2.0 μg; and Sc, 0.38 μg. Sixty percent and 24% of the subjects received daily Cr and Se intakes, respectively, below the US Food and Nutrition Board safe and adequate range. High Cr density diets were associated with a significantly higher consumption of cheese and dry legumes and nuts (p<0.05). In the high Se density diets, intakes of grain products and breakfast cereals were significantly higher (p<0.05), and intakes of potatoes, table fats, total fat, saturated fat, and oleic acid were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the low Se density diets. The low daily Cr intakes evident in this study may be cause for concern in view of the increasing evidence that women may be at greater risk for deficiency of Cr than men because of Cr depletion during pregnancy. PMID:24263851

  5. Utility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Man; Lv, Meng; Chen, Ling; Qin, Tian-Jie; Wang, Fan; Yang, Jiao; Liu, Pei-Jun; Yang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy are major concerns for premenopausal women with breast cancer. A potential ovarian function preservation strategy is administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists during adjuvant chemotherapy; however, studies of the clinical efficacy of GnRH agonists to protect chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage have shown mixed results. Objective This meta-analysis study was designed to estimate the efficacy of GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library databases searching, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, and the Wanfang Data) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published until September 2015. Only RCTs that examined the effect of GnRH agonists for chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The rate of spontaneous resumption of menses and spontaneous pregnancy were collected. All data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Stata 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Results Eleven RCTs with a total of 1,062 participants (GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy, n=541; chemotherapy alone, n=521) were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly greater number of women treated with GnRH agonist experienced spontaneous resumption of menses after the adjuvant chemotherapy, yielding a pooled odds ratio of 2.57 (versus chemotherapy alone, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.65, 4.01; P<0.0001). A subgroup analysis showed that addition of GnRH agonists significantly improved the resumption of menses rate in patients who were hormone-insensitive. However, the two treatment groups experienced similar spontaneous pregnancy (odds ratio =0.177; 95% CI=0

  6. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  7. Soy foods and urinary isoprostanes: results from a randomized study in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sen, Cherisse; Morimoto, Yukiko; Heak, Sreang; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-05-01

    In addition to their antiestrogenic effects, soy isoflavones may protect against cancer through alternate biological actions, for example, antioxidant properties. This randomized crossover study explored the relationship between dietary isoflavone intake through common soy foods and oxidative stress quantified by urinary isoprostane levels. Eighty-two women aged 39.2 ± 6.1 years were randomly selected to receive a high soy diet of 2 soy food servings per day and a low soy diet of <3 servings per week for 6 months each, separated by a 1-month washout period. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each dietary period. Urinary isoprostane levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and adjusted for creatinine levels. Mixed models using log-transformed values were applied to evaluate the effect of the high soy diet. Unadjusted isoprostane excretion levels were lower during the high rather than the low soy diet, but this effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.81). After adjustment for urinary creatinine, isoprostane excretion was slightly higher during the high soy diet (p = 0.02), an observation that was confirmed in a regression analysis between urinary isoflavones and isoprostanes during the high soy diet. The original association remained significant when restricted to adherent participants, however this effect disappeared after exclusion of three extreme values. In agreement with several previous reports, these findings do not support the hypothesis that soy exerts antioxidant effects, as measured by urinary isoprostane excretions, but additional markers of oxidative stress need to be investigated in future studies. PMID:22331037

  8. Contribution of ABCB1 and CYP2D6 genotypes to the outcome of tamoxifen adjuvant treatment in premenopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Argalácsová, S; Slanař, O; Vítek, P; Tesařová, P; Bakhouche, H; DraŽďáková, M; Bartošová, O; Zima, T; PertuŽelka, L

    2015-01-01

    Recent pre-clinical evidence suggests that the active metabolite of tamoxifen, endoxifen, is a substrate for efflux pump P-glycoprotein. The aim of our study was to evaluate, if the polymoprhisms within ABCB1 gene alter tamoxifen adjuvant treatment efficacy in premenopausal women. Totally 71 premenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer indicated for tamoxifen adjuvant treatment were followed retrospectively for median period of 56 months. The gentic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and ABCB1 were analyzed and potential covariates as tumor grading, staging, age at the diagnosis, comedication, quantitative positivity of ER or PR were also evaluated. Cox proportional-hazards regression model indicated that patients carrying at least one variant allele in ABCB1 rs1045642 had significantly longer time to event survival compared to wild type subjects. Non-significant trend was noted for better treatment outcome of patients carrying at least one variant allele in the SNP rs2032582, while for the CYP2D6 polymorphism poor metabolizer phenotype resulted in worse outcome in comparison to extensive metabolizers subjects with HR of 4.04 (95 % CI 0.31-52.19). Similarly, patients using CYP2D6 inhibitors had non-significantly shorter time-to-event as compared to never users resulting in hazard ratio of 2.06 (95 % CI 0.40-10.63). ABCB1 polymorphisms may affect outcome of tamoxifen adjuvant treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patiens. This factor should be taken into account in addition to the CYP2D6 polymorphism or phenotypic inhibition of CYP2D6 activity. PMID:26681084

  9. Relationships existing between the serum cytokine levels and bone mineral density in women in the premenopausal period affected by Graves' disease with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betül; Altun, Armagan; Arikan, Ender; Guldiken, Sibel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2003-11-01

    We examined the relationships existing between serum cytokine levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in women of premenopausal age affected by Graves' disease with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The study population consisted of 21 women with untreated hyperthyroid Graves' disease (group H) (age, 36 +/- 2 years), eight women with untreated subclinical hyperthyroid status (group SH) (age, 33 +/- 5 years) and 10 healthy women (group N) (age, 35 +/- 3 years). The following measurements were made in all patients: free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), TSH receptor antibody (TRab), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2r), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-13 (IL-13). IL-2r and IL-8 levels significantly increased in group H compared with group SH (p < 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively) and group N (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). IL-4 and IL-13 levels tended to be lower in groups H and SH compared with group N, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. Bone mineral density was significantly reduced in only two areas of the femur in group H compared with group N. There was no difference in BMD between groups SH and N. There was no correlation between thyroid hormones, serum cytokine levels and BMD in either group. In conclusion, these results suggest that there were no relationships existing between the serum level of these cytokines and BMD in women of premenopausal age affected by Graves' disease with subclinical hyperthyroidism. PMID:14682468

  10. Gender-Specific Differences in the Kinetics of Nonfasting TRL, IDL, and LDL Apolipoprotein B-100 in Men and Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Matthan, Nirupa R.; Jalbert, Susan M.; Barrett, P. Hugh R.; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate mechanisms underlying gender differences in serum lipoprotein concentrations, the kinetic behavior of apoB-100 was assessed. Methods and Results Twenty subjects (<50 years; 12 men and 8 premenopausal women) were provided a Western diet for 4 to 6 weeks, after which the kinetics of apoB-100 in triglyceride-rich, intermediate-density, and low-density lipoprotein (TRL, IDL, and LDL) were determined in the fed state. Nonfasting plasma TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were 23%, 34%, and 57% lower, respectively, in the women compared with men. Plasma TRL and LDL apoB 100 pool sizes were lower by 40% and 30%, respectively. These differences were accounted for by higher TRL and LDL apoB 100 fractional catabolic rates (FCR), rather than differences in production rates (PR). Plasma TRL-C and LDL-C were positively correlated with TRL and LDL apoB 100 concentrations and pool size, and negatively correlated with TRL and LDL apoB 100 FCR (women: r=−0.59, P<0.01 and r=−0.54, P<0.04, and men: r=−0.43, P<0.05 and r=−0.44, P<0.05). No significant associations were observed between plasma TRL-C and LDL-C and PR. Conclusions These data suggest the mechanism for lower TRL-C and LDL-C concentrations in women was determined predominantly by higher TRL and LDL FCR rather than lower PR. This could explain, in part, the lower CVD risk in premenopausal women relative to men. PMID:18658047

  11. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  12. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Materials and Methods Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Results Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Conclusion Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. PMID:26727718

  13. Effectiveness of antidepressant treatments in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal women: a pilot study on differential effects of sex hormones on antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Pae, Chi-Un; Mandelli, Laura; Kim, Tae-Suk; Han, Changsu; Masand, Prakash S; Marks, David M; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-03-01

    The incidence or recurrence of major depression is greatly increased in women during the transition to and after menopause and hormonal changes occurring during these periods are thought to play an important role in depressive recurrence. It has been also suggested that a chronic hypoestrogenic state may reduce the response to antidepressant drugs, but whether or not, and the extent to which hormonal changes related to menopause influence the response to antidepressant drugs, is yet to be determined. Thirty-nine female patients (n=17 in pre-menopause; n=22 in post-menopause) with major depressive disorder (MDD) based on DSM-IV criteria, who were not on hormonal replacement therapy, participated in the study in order to prospectively evaluate the effect of menopausal status and its hormonal correlates on the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment for 6weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 item (HAMD), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impression Severity scale (CGI-S) were administered at baseline, week 1, week 3, and week 6. The CGI-I scale was also assessed at weeks 1, 3, and 6. After controlling for age, age at onset, baseline symptom severity, antidepressant dosage and hormonal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2), post-menopausal women showed a poor response to antidepressants over 6weeks of treatment, compared to the response of pre-menopausal women. Old age and high levels of FSH were also associated with the efficacy of antidepressants in post-menopausal women. In conclusion, sex hormones are known to interact with serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Despite methodological limitations, our study suggests that menopausal status and old age are predictors of a poor response to antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, the FSH may interfere with the mechanism of action of the antidepressant agents. Hence, larger, randomized and controlled

  14. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; Bemben, Michael G.; Knehans, Allen W.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either to a Yoga group (YE, n = 16) or a control group (CON, n = 18). Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga-based Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months, and the session intensity was progressively increased by adding the number of sun salutations (SS). Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, Bone ALP) and bone resorption (Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase-5b, TRAP5b) markers were assessed at baseline and after 8 months. aBMD of total body, lumbar spine and dual proximal femur and tibia bone characteristics were measured using DXA and peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), respectively. We found that the serum Bone ALP concentrations were maintained in YE, but significantly (p = 0.005) decreased in CON after the 8 month intervention, and there were significant (p = 0.002) group differences in Bone ALP percent changes (YE 9.1 ± 4.0% vs. CON -7.1 ± 2.3%). No changes in TRAP5b were found in either group. The 8-month Yoga program did not increase aBMD or tibia bone strength variables. Body composition results showed no changes in weight, fat mass, or % fat, but small significant increases in bone free lean body mass occurred in both groups. The findings of this study

  15. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out. The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Methods/design Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. Discussion This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body

  16. The Role of Leisure Engagement for Health Benefits Among Korean Older Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Irwin, Lori; Kim, May; Chin, Seungtae; Kim, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine the benefits of leisure to older Korean women. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, in this study we identified three categories of benefits from leisure activities: (a) developing social connections, (b) enhancing psychological well-being, and (c) improving physical health. The findings of this study demonstrate that involvement in leisure activities offers substantial physical, psychological, and social benefits for older Korean women. The results also suggest that these benefits can provide an opportunity for older Korean adults to improve their health and well-being, which, in turn, may help promote successful aging. PMID:26252796

  17. Adjuvant Surgical Oophorectomy Plus Tamoxifen in Premenopausal Women With Operable Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: A Global Treatment Option.

    PubMed

    Love, Richard R

    2016-08-01

    One third of annual new cases of breast cancer globally are now hormone receptor-positive tumors in premenopausal women from low- and middle-income countries. For this subgroup of women with breast cancer, high-income country guidelines suggest impractical and unaffordable adjuvant treatments. The balance of clinical trial evidence now suggests that surgical oophorectomy plus tamoxifen is a safe and practical treatment for these women in low- and middle-income countries. Additionally, new randomized trial data suggest that women in the second half of an anovulatory cycle benefit minimally from surgical oophorectomy done at this time, which implies that regularly cycling women will benefit more than has been shown from this procedure. Allred scoring of levels of hormone receptors is a practical and inexpensive approach to the assessment of magnitudes of response to oophorectomy plus tamoxifen. These circumstances suggest that more detailed consideration of this option should characterize clinical practice guidelines in high-income countries because of their global impact. PMID:27117241

  18. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population. PMID:18394511

  19. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  20. Differences of bone mineral mass, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical and structural parameters and derived strength of the tibia between premenopausal and postmenopausal women of different age groups: a peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) study.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, K D; Zoubos, A B; Papaioannou, N A; Mastrokalos, D; Galanos, A; Papagelopoulos, P J; Skarantavos, G

    2016-01-01

    Menopause constitutes a significant cause of bone loss, and it is currently debated whether bone mass is preserved or begins to decline substantially before that time in women. We used pQCT of the tibia to estimate differences of bone mineral mass, bone geometry and derived strength between premenopausal and postmenopausal Caucasian women of different age-groups per decade of age (20-79y). For each individual, we assessed total, trabecular and cortical bone mineral content (BMC, mg) and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm3); total and cortical cross-sectional areas (CSA, mm2); periosteal circumference (PERI_C, mm); endosteal circumference (ENDO_C, mm); mean cortical thickness (CRT_THK, mm); and Stress-Strain Index (SSI) . Comparisons were made both between premenopausal (N=84) and postmenopausal (N=231) women as distinct groups, and among women of the different age-groups. Our results indicated that premenopausal women had significantly higher trabecular and cortical BMC and vBMD, with higher cortical CSA, CRT_THK and SSI than postmenopausal women. Moreover, significant differences of trabecular but not cortical BMC, vBMD or SSI were found between women of the younger (<48y) age-groups. PERI_C, ENDO_C displayed lower values in the 20-29y group and higher values in the 70-79y group, denoting significant differences of bone geometry with aging. PMID:27282455

  1. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  2. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women. PMID:22311294

  3. Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon

    2012-01-01

    Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (∼10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ∼45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women. PMID:22252942

  4. Factors Influencing Help-Seeking Behavior among Battered Korean Women in Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…

  5. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  6. A survey of Hwa-Byung in middle-age Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, H S; Kang, H C; Kim, J W

    2001-04-01

    Hwa-Byung (HB) has been categorized as a Korean culture-bound syndrome that refers to insidious, long-standing, serious discontent that is projected into the body and is manifested by numerous symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, panic, palpitations, dyspnea, and others. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of HB in Korean women, validate the predominant symptoms of HB, and validate the related sociodemographic factors and lifestyle factors that differentiate women with HB from those without HB. A total of 2,807 women ages 41 to 65 years were recruited from seven metropolitan areas and six provinces in Korea. The prevalence rate of women who designated themselves as having experienced HB was 4.95%. The rates were higher in women of low socioeconomic status, living in rural areas, among the divorced or separated, smokers, and drinkers. A set of 31 HB symptoms differentiated the potential HB women from the non-HB women. PMID:11989228

  7. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24040778

  8. Beliefs, practices, and experiences of Korean women in relation to childbirth.

    PubMed

    Park, K J; Peterson, L M

    1991-01-01

    Korean women's health beliefs and childbirth experiences in the United States were examined. A convenience sampling procedure was used, and face-to-face interviews were conducted in Korean. Interviews were audiotaped, typed, and translated from Korean to English. These women had a holistic concept of health. Some practices were influence by ancient Chinese medicine. Childbirth experiences indicated that language is a barrier requiring specific interventions. Recommendations include (a) development of an assessment tool with which health-care professionals can identify individual health beliefs early in pregnancy; (b) development of a bilingual pamphlet about medical terms and the U.S. health-care system; (c) development of a short bilingual dictionary of common foods for use in menu selection during hospitalization; and (d) provision of English practice periods based on anticipatory guidance principles to prepare women to ask for specific assistance. PMID:2022535

  9. Premenopausal osteoporosis, an overlooked consequence of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Many young women with anorexia nervosa develop premenopausal osteoporosis. In particular, female athletes have a much higher incidence of disordered eating than their peers and therefore are at a much higher risk of stress fractures and other traumatic bone pathology. This review summarizes factors affecting the development of premenopausal osteoporosis in these patients and identifies potential targets for intervention. PMID:21199907

  10. A feminist critique of research on menopausal experience of Korean women.

    PubMed

    Im, E O; Meleis, A I; Park, Y S

    1999-10-01

    Despite the increasing number of studies on the menopausal experience of Asian women, the focus of the studies has been on simple comparisons of their symptoms with Western women's and other disease-oriented research topics. To propose directions for future research on menopause, we analyzed and critiqued 158 studies on the menopausal experience of a group of Asian women-Korean women. The studies were retrieved through a search of computerized databases in the United States and South Korea, and they were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued with a feminist perspective. Many of the studies have problems with (a) conceptualization, including ethnocentric and androcentric views of menopause, biomedical perspectives, and language difficulties; (b) research methods, such as inadequate instruments, passive relationships between researchers and research participants, culturally inappropriate communication styles, inadequate study designs, and homogeneous research participants; and (c) interpretation and communication of study findings. These issues undermine the conclusions drawn about the nature of the menopausal experience of Korean women. PMID:10520193

  11. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium) versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium) was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001). There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance. PMID:24772062

  12. Evaluation of estradiol administration on the discriminative-stimulus and subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kendall, Sherie L.; Babalonis, Shanna; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that estradiol might be responsible for the enhanced response to psychostimulants sometimes observed in females. In this study, 10 healthy pre-menopausal women who were using oral, hormone-based birth control learned to discriminate 15 mg/70 kg oral d-amphetamine from placebo. Once a discrimination criterion was met (i.e., ≥ 80% correct responding at the final time point for five consecutive sessions), a range of doses of oral d-amphetamine (0, 3.125, 7.5 and 15 mg/70 kg) was tested alone and in combination with sublingual estradiol (0 and 0.25 mg). Test sessions were conducted during the oral contraception placebo phase when levels of both estradiol and progesterone were at their lowest. d-Amphetamine functioned as a discriminative stimulus and produced prototypical stimulant effects (e.g., increased positive subject-rated drug effects, elevated cardiovascular measures). Estradiol enhanced the discriminative-stimulus effects of the low dose, but not higher doses of d-amphetamine. Estradiol also enhanced d-amphetamine effects on a subset of subjective-report ratings (i.e., VAS Like Drug and total score on the Stimulant subscale of the Adjective-Rating Scale). These findings provide limited support for the notion that estradiol increases sensitivity to the psychostimulant effects of drugs such as d-amphetamine. PMID:17544491

  13. Factors Associated with Adiposity, Lipid Profile Disorders and the Metabolic Syndrome Occurrence in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Rębak, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the dependencies between a woman’s menopausal status and adiposity, lipid profile and metabolic syndrome occurrence, as well as finding out whether the correlations between the socio-demographic profile and lifestyle elements and adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS are the same before and after menopause. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3636 women, aged between 40–59, which involved a questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples, on the basis of which the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose was estimated. Before menopause, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.08; %BFβ = 0.07; WCβ = 0.06) was characteristic for women living in a stable relationship than for single women. Women who smoked in the past were characterized by a higher BMI (β = 0.09) and WC (β = 0.06) in comparison with women who have never smoked, while after menopause a greater adiposity (%BFβ = 0.12) and a worse lipid profile (TCβ = 0.08; LDLβ = 0.07; HDLβ = -0.05; TGβ = 0.14) were present in women currently smoking, in comparison to women who have never smoked. After menopause, in women who had two or more children, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.07 and 0.09; %BFβ = 0.05 and 0.07) and a higher risk of MetS (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03–1.44) was observed compared to nulliparous women, than before menopause. In women with a higher level of education, the risk of MetS after menopause was significantly lower compared with women with a lower level of education (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.61–0.90). Physical activity after menopause had a higher influence on the decrease in the women’s adiposity (BMIβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; %BFβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; WCβ = -0.14 v. -0.08), than before menopause. In women not undergoing hormone replacement therapy, some of the socio-demographic factors and lifestyle elements affected adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS differently before and after

  14. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    PubMed

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P < 0.01) and Independent Christian women (OR 4.87 P < 0.01) showed stronger associations to heavy alcohol consumption when compared to Conservative Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon. PMID:21286816

  15. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery. PMID:11314500

  16. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. PMID:24848345

  17. CONSUMING A BALANCED HIGH FAT DIET FOR 16 WEEKS IMPROVES BODY COMPOSITION, INFLAMMATION AND VASCULAR FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN OBESE PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Heidi J.; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D.; Muldowney, James A.; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. PMID:24559846

  18. Coping with Breast Cancer: Reflections from Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Nuñez, Alicia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Lim, Jung-Won; Flores, Katrina; Nápoles, Anna María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study identified and compared the coping strategies of Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Chinese- (n = 21), Korean- (n = 11), and Mexican-American (n = 9) BCS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated for thematic content analysis of coping experiences and strategies. Results Women reported the use of eight coping strategies (religious/spiritual, benefit finding, fatalism, optimism, fighting spirit, information seeking, denial, and self-distraction). Among Chinese-American BCS, benefit finding was the most referenced coping strategy, whereas religious/spiritual coping was most frequently reported among Korean- and Mexican-American BCS. Denial and self-distraction were the least cited strategies. Conclusions Survivors draw upon new found inner strength to successfully integrate their cancer experience into their lives. Coping models must consider the diversity of cancer survivors and the variability in coping strategies among cultural ethnic minority BCS. PMID:26389720

  19. The silicon supplement ‘Monomethylsilanetriol’ is safe and increases the body pool of silicon in healthy Pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monomethylsilanetriol (MMST) has been used for decades as an oral silicon supplement for bone and connective tissue health, although there are no formal data on its in vivo utilisation or safety following sustained dosing. Methods To investigate whether MMST contributes to the body pool of silicon and, secondly, to establish its safety following 4 weeks’ supplementation in humans, twenty-two healthy pre-menopausal women (22–38 years) were recruited and supplemented with MMST at the maximum daily recommended dose (10.5 mg Si/day) for 4 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over design (i.e. 8 weeks in total). Fasting serum and urine samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the 4-week supplementation/placebo periods for analysis of total silicon by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, MMST by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and full serum biochemistry. Participants also reported on, by questionnaire, their health, well-being and quality of life at 0, 4 and 8 weeks. Results Overall, 4-weeks supplementation with MMST significantly increased total fasting Si concentrations in serum and urine (P ≤ 0.003; paired t-test). MMST was semi-quantifiable in serum and quantifiable in urine, but only accounted for ca. 50% and 10%, respectively, of the increased total-Si concentration. There were no reported adverse effects (i.e. changes to health and well-being) or serum biochemical changes with MMST versus placebo. Conclusions Our data indicate that oral MMST is safe, is absorbed and undergoes sufficient metabolism in vivo to raise fasting serum silicon levels, consistent with other well absorbed forms of dietary silicon (e.g. orthosilicic acid). It thus appears to be a suitable silicon supplement. PMID:23622499

  20. Modulation of the discriminative stimulus effects of triazolam across the menstrual cycle phase in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Babalonis, Shanna; Emurian, Cleeve S.; Martin, Catherine A.; Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that changes in progesterone levels across menstrual cycle phases modulate the behavioral effects of sedative drugs acting at GABAA receptor sites. In this study, seven healthy women learned to discriminate triazolam (0.25 mg/70 kg) from placebo. After acquiring the discrimination, a range of triazolam doses (0.00, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.25 mg/70 kg) was tested during the early follicular and mid-luteal menstrual cycle phases. During the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone levels were elevated, 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as the active triazolam training dose (0.25 mg/70 kg), whereas 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as placebo during the early follicular phase, when progesterone levels were low. Triazolam engendered prototypical sedative effects on subjective effect, performance and cardiovascular measures that were generally independent of cycle phase. These results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of the positive GABAA modulator, triazolam, are sensitive to menstrual cycle phase in healthy adult women. PMID:18178039

  1. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  2. The use of nomegestrol acetate in rapid preparation of endometrium before operative hysteroscopy in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Florio, Pasquale; Imperatore, Alberto; Litta, Pietro; Franchini, Mario; Calzolari, Stefano; Angioni, Stefano; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bruni, Luca; Petraglia, Felice

    2010-12-01

    The presence of a thin endometrium has an important role in allowing the best conditions for hysteroscopic surgery. Here, we explored the efficacy of a 14-day administration of nomegestrol acetate, a progestogen with high progestogen potency effects, in rapid endometrial preparation to operative hysteroscopy. A total of 86 fertile women selected for operative hysteroscopy received for 14 days either 5mgday(-1) of nomegestrol acetate (n=43; group A) or 4mgday(-1) of folic acid (n=43; group B), starting on day 1 of the subsequent menstrual cycle. Before treatments on days 12-14 of the menstrual cycle, all patients underwent endometrial thickness measurement; ultrasonography of the ovaries to measure the appearance of a dominant follicle; diagnostic hysteroscopy with endometrial biopsy; plasma estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels measurements. On the day of surgery, patients repeated endometrial and ovarian ultrasonography and, E2, P, LH and FSH measurement. At enrolment, endometrial thickness, mean follicular diameter and E2, P, LH and FSH concentrations did not differ between groups. At the time of operative hysteroscopy (i.e., after 14 days' treatment) group A, but not group B, showed significant (all P<0.001) reduction of endometrial thickness, mean diameter of dominant follicle, E2, P and LH concentrations. Endometrial preparation was judged more effective in group A than B, since the endometrial mucosa in all of the women of group A appeared to be very thin, hypotrophic, regular and pale. In conclusion, administration of nomegestrol acetate was effective in reducing endometrial thickness, also acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, thus allowing highly favourable operative hysteroscopic conditions. PMID:20566359

  3. Cultural and Social Network Predictors of Drinking among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Chambers, Christina D.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Reyes, Washington; Kang, Sunny W.; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women’s drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents reported any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking volume (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days), level of acculturation, and described their social network by assessing who encouraged or discouraged drinking (drinking support) or drank (drinking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. About 70% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 67 to 74) of Korean American women reported any lifetime drinking and current drinkers drank 1.18 (95%CI, 1.07 to 1.28) drinks on drinking days. Acculturation was not significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking volume, while models and support for drinking were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking more on drinking days. Each additional encourager, or one fewer discourager, for drinking in women’s social networks was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 1 to 3) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.25 (95%CI, −0.53 to 1.18) more drinks on drinking days. Each additional drinker in women’s networks was associated with a 4% (95%CI, 1 to 8) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.26 (95%CI, −0.05 to 0.60) more drinks on drinking days. Korean American women’s drinking appears to be strongly related to their social networks, though how women take on traits of their new environment was not. PMID:20843638

  4. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  5. The conceptual structure of hwa-byung in middle-aged Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna; Kim, Jong-Woo

    2002-06-01

    The term hwa-byung (HB) as a culture-bound syndrome of Koreans has been used to refer to certain types of symptom complexes. However, there is an ambiguity in relation to what sorts of experiences and personal attributes can be identified for describing HB. Our study was designed to reexamine the conceptual structure of HB through a qualitative analysis of interview data with six middle-aged women experiencing HB. The emerging common themes of HB were identified in three dimensions: (a) those related to personal attributes or life situations such as quick-temperedness, strong commitment to traditional values, a hard or unhappy life, and conflicted marital relationship; (b) those related to experiential accounts such as deep sorrow (hahn in Korean), a feeling of victimization, anger, and enduring; and (c) HB symptoms. "Enduring" as one of the core concepts of HB viewed as the only way of life for these women needs further examination. PMID:12148916

  6. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles. PMID:23627346

  7. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  8. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10-24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  9. Knowledge and Beliefs Related to Cervical Cancer and Screening Among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunice E.; Fogg, Louis; Menon, Usha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine knowledge and health beliefs associated with cervical cancer screening among Korean American women. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean American women in the Chicago area. Age, marital status, income, knowledge of early detection method for cervical cancer, and perceived beliefs about benefits of and barriers to receiving Pap tests were all related to outcomes of ever having a Pap test and having had one in the preceding 3 years. Variables uniquely related to ever having a Pap test were education, employment status, fluency in English, and proportion of life spent in the United States. Variables uniquely related to having had the test during the preceding 3 years were having a usual source of care and regular checkups. Different intervention components are suggested for the groups of Korean American women who have never had a Pap smear and for those who have not had one in the preceding 3 years, in addition to common intervention strategies that aim to increase knowledge and perceived benefit and to decrease perceived barriers to receiving Pap tests. PMID:18539883

  10. Stages of change: Korean women's attitudes and barriers toward mammography screening.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Sun; Thomas, Eileen; Kwon, Bo Eun; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Jun, Eun Mi

    2008-02-01

    The positive and negative aspects of breast cancer screening were measured to gain insight into the barriers that prevent Korean women from participating in mammography screening. Breast cancer screening behaviors, attitudes, and barriers were identified from a convenience sample of 328 Korean women recruited in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Jeju, South Korea. Pros, cons, and decisional balance constructs of the transtheoretical model of behavior change were used to identify stages of change in attitude related to mammography screening. There were significant differences in pros (F = 5.175, p = .001) and cons (F = 3.357, p = .012) across the five stages of change for mammography. Participants indicated that the major barriers to mammography screening were, in order of frequency, the belief that an absence of symptoms meant there was no need for a breast examination, the high cost of breast cancer screening, lack of time, lack of information, embarrassment, fear about x-rays and test results, reliance on breast self-examination (BSE), and discomfort or pain. The benefits of breast cancer screening should be emphasized among Korean women. PMID:18350421

  11. Computational Discrimination of Breast Cancer for Korean Women Based on Epidemiologic Data Only.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiwon; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Boyoung; Bae, Jonghee; Lim, Min Hyuk; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K; Kim, Youdan; Kim, Sungwan

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cancer for Korean women and its incidence rate has been increasing annually. If early diagnosis were implemented with epidemiologic data, the women could easily assess breast cancer risk using internet. National Cancer Institute in the United States has released a Web-based Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool based on Gail model. However, it is inapplicable directly to Korean women since breast cancer risk is dependent on race. Also, it shows low accuracy (58%-59%). In this study, breast cancer discrimination models for Korean women are developed using only epidemiological case-control data (n = 4,574). The models are configured by different classification techniques: support vector machine, artificial neural network, and Bayesian network. A 1,000-time repeated random sub-sampling validation is performed for diverse parameter conditions, respectively. The performance is evaluated and compared as an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). According to age group and classification techniques, AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and calculation time of all models were calculated and compared. Although the support vector machine took the longest calculation time, the highest classification performance has been achieved in the case of women older than 50 yr (AUC = 64%). The proposed model is dependent on demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, and lifestyle habits without using any clinical or genetic test. It is expected that the model could be implemented as a web-based discrimination tool for breast cancer. This tool can encourage potential breast cancer prone women to go the hospital for diagnostic tests. PMID:26240478

  12. Exploring Religious Mechanisms for Healthy Alcohol Use: Religious Messages and Drinking Among Korean Women in California*

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang Sim, D. Eastern; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Method: Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews were completed, with 92% conducted in Korean. Respondents were asked about any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking rate (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days among current drinkers), and messages discouraging “excessive drinking” from religious leaders or congregants. Bivariable and multivariable regressions were used for analysis. Results: Approximately 70.4% of women reported any lifetime drinking, and drinkers drank a mean (SD) of 1.10 (1.22) drinks on drinking days. About 30.8%reported about 30.8% reported any exposure to religious leaders' messages discouraging excessive drinking, and 28.2% reported any exposure to similar messages from congregants. Each congregant's message was statistically significantly associated with a 5.1% lower probability (odds ratio = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.626, 0.959) of any lifetime drinking. Also, each congregant's message was associated with a 13.8% (B = -0.138; 95% CI: -0.306, 0.029) lower drinking rate, which was statistically significant after adjusting for covariates using a one-tailed test. Exposure to leaders' messages was not statistically significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking rate. Conclusions: Social reinforcement in the form of religious messages may be one mechanism by which religious institutions influence drinking behaviors. For Korean women, messages from congregants had a unique impact beyond the traditional religiosity indicators. These social mechanisms provide public health interventionists with religious pathways to improve drinking behaviors. PMID:19895765

  13. Mammographic Breast Density Evaluation in Korean Women Using Fully Automated Volumetric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to present mean breast density of Korean women according to age using fully automated volumetric assessment. This study included 5,967 screening normal or benign mammograms (mean age, 46.2 ± 9.7; range, 30–89 years), from cancer-screening program. We evaluated mean fibroglandular tissue volume, breast tissue volume, volumetric breast density (VBD), and the results were 53.7 ± 30.8 cm3, 383.8 ± 205.2 cm3, and 15.8% ± 7.3%. The frequency of dense breasts and mean VBD by age group were 94.3% and 19.1% ± 6.7% for the 30s (n = 1,484), 91.4% and 17.2% ± 6.8% for the 40s (n = 2,706), 72.2% and 12.4% ± 6.2% for the 50s (n = 1,138), 44.0% and 8.6% ± 4.3% for the 60s (n = 89), 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.8% for the 70s (n = 138), and 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.5% for the 80s (n = 12). The frequency of dense breasts was higher in younger women (n = 4,313, 92.3%) than older women (n = 1,654, 59.8%). Mean VBD decreased with aging or menopause, and was about 16% for 46-year-old-Korean women, much higher than in other countries. The proportion of dense breasts sharply decreases in Korean women between 40 and 69 years of age. PMID:26955249

  14. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Je; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bang, So-Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Young Mo; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Jisoo

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001), and mean number of live births was significantly lower in women with SLE (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Significantly more women with SLE made the decision not to have children compared with controls (54.5% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.031), and health-related concerns were the major cause of the decision. Other socio-demographic factors did not influence the decision to limit childbearing in SLE women. The disease-related concerns had significant impact on family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE. PMID:27134494

  15. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001), and mean number of live births was significantly lower in women with SLE (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Significantly more women with SLE made the decision not to have children compared with controls (54.5% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.031), and health-related concerns were the major cause of the decision. Other socio-demographic factors did not influence the decision to limit childbearing in SLE women. The disease-related concerns had significant impact on family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE. PMID:27134494

  16. Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su

    2013-01-01

    Background The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. Methods All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured from January 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled by interview using the OHBS. We also evaluated the women's general clinical characteristics. Results One hundred seventy-seven women were enrolled in the present study. In the present study, the barriers to calcium intake subscale had the lowest mean score (15.03±3.02), and the Benefit of Exercise subscale had the highest (23.02±3.03). The scores for participants in their 20s were significantly higher than scores for those in their 70s on the Benefits of Exercise subscale and Barriers to Exercise subscale (P=0.014 and P=0.022, respectively). Conclusions Education for health motivation to prevent osteoporosis is important for young women. Additional systematic education programs are needed for the general population. PMID:24524052

  17. Isoflavone supplementation influenced levels of triglyceride and luteunizing hormone in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyung; Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, Okhwa; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Young, Kwon Dae; Jeong, Yang Hye; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of soy-derived isoflavone on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sex hormones related to cardiovascular disease in Korean postmenopausal women. One hundred thirteen postmenopausal women were recruited from the Seoul metropolitan area. To confirm postmenopausal and gynecologic status, the subjects were clinically examined by a gynecologist using ultra sound and X-ray. Finally, 85 postmenopausal women whose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were higher than 40 IU/ml were enrolled. Subjects received either 70 mg isoflavone or placebo capsules daily for 12 weeks. As a result, the values of fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as those of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and FFA, were not different between the groups after supplementation. However, triglyceride (TG) levels in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of the placebo group (p = 0.0215). The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) significantly decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.027); however, the levels of FSH, estrone and estradiol were not changed after intervention. In conclusion, isoflavone supplement of 70 mg/day for 12 weeks decreased blood levels of TG and LH in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23475289

  18. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes. PMID:25912765

  19. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Korean Women with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Jang, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Moon-Young; Ko, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a retrospective survey of 163 pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes (n=13) and type 2 diabetes (n=150) treated from 2003 to 2010 at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center, Korea. We compared maternal characteristics as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes between groups. Results Differences in glycosylated hemoglobin between type 1 and type 2 diabetes were not significant. Birth weight (3,501±689.6 g vs. 3,366±531.4 g) and rate of major congenital malformations (7.7% vs. 5.6%) were not significantly different. However, women with type 1 diabetes had higher rates of preeclampsia (38.5% vs. 8.2%, P=0.006), large for gestational age (LGA; 46.2% vs. 20.4%, P=0.004), macrosomia (38.5% vs. 13.4%, P=0.032), and admission for neonatal care (41.7% vs. 14.8%, P=0.03) than women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Maternal and neonatal outcomes for women with type 1 diabetes were poorer than for women with type 2 diabetes, especially preeclampsia, LGA, macrosomia and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26301193

  20. Association of cortisol and the metabolic syndrome in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Park, Sat Byul; Blumenthal, James A; Lee, Soon Young; Georgiades, Anastasia

    2011-07-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related and have become increasingly prevalent in Korea. The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have previously been associated with increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity, but the associations have not been extensively examined in non-Caucasian populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between cortisol, adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in a Korean population. A total of 1,881 adults participated in the study between January 2001 and February 2008. Sociodemographic data were assessed by questionnaires. Body composition, clinic blood pressures as well as metabolic variables including glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed and analyzed in relation to cortisol levels. Mean age of the participants was 58.7 ± 10.8 yr. Higher levels of cortisol was associated with elevated blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in men, and between cortisol and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in women. There was an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome associated with higher cortisol levels in both men (P < 0.001) and women (P = 0.040) adjusting for age and body mass index. Higher cortisol levels are associated with several CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome, independent of overall of adiposity level, in Korean men and women. PMID:21738345

  1. Korean American Women's Experiences with Smoking and Factors Associated with Their Quit Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S.; Kim, Seongho; Seward, Gregory; Fortuna, Lisa; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Korean American women's experiences with smoking and tested the theory of planned behavior to identify factors associated with their intentions to quit smoking. It employed a mixed-methods research design, using qualitative and quantitative data. Participants were recruited via a combination of random (N = 49) and convenience (N = 45) sampling techniques. Women in this study initiated smoking at age of 23 on average, and nearly half smoked at indoor houses. They initiated smoking out of curiosity about the effect and belief that smoking would relieve their stress. Reasons for continued smoking were (a) to avoid nicotine withdrawal symptoms, (b) to cope with life stressors, including acculturative stress, and (c) to fulfill one's destiny as a lifetime smoker. Many attempted to quit due to health issues and pregnancy. Fear of disclosure and limited English proficiency were found to be major barriers to seeking help for quitting. Past-year quit attempt(s), attitudes toward quitting, and perceived family norm favoring quitting explained 25% of the variance in intentions to quit smoking (F[3,90] = 11.58, P < 0.001). Findings suggest that gender- and culture-specific intervention strategies are needed to assist Korean American women in smoking cessation. PMID:25938119

  2. Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms. PMID:20886700

  3. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  4. Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI-polymorphism in Finnish premenopausal and postmenopausal women: its association with bone mineral density, markers of bone turnover, and intestinal calcium absorption, with adjustment for lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Marika; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Outila, Terhi; Vanninen, Tarja; Ray, Carola; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2002-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Sixty percent to 80% of bone mass is suggested to be under polygenetic control, but the role of individual genes seems to be modest. Several studies have indicated that the vitamin D receptor ( VDR) gene has a role in the regulation of BMD and bone metabolism, but the results are very controversial. We studied the associations between BsmI-polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD and bone metabolism in 24 premenopausal (aged 22-45 years) and 69 postmenopausal (aged 48-65 years) Finnish women. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and bone turnover markers were measured, and the intestinal calcium absorption was investigated, using a method based on the absorption of non-radioactive strontium. The genotype distribution was 16%, BB; 34.5%, Bb; and 49.5%, bb, which differs from the genotype distribution found in other Caucasian populations, but is similar to earlier Finnish reports. The winter value of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OH-D) was highest for the BB genotype in both age groups (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]; premenopausal women P = 0.5, postmenopausal women P = 0.03, and for the groups combined P = 0.02). Lumbar spine BMD and intestinal strontium absorption were highest for the BB genotype in both age groups, but these results were nonsignificant. The markers of bone metabolism did not differ significantly between the VDR genotypes. The BB genotype had the best vitamin D status, which could explain the differences in calcium absorption between the genotypes. However, the conclusions of our study are limited because of the small number of subjects. PMID:12434167

  5. Insulin Resistance Distribution and Cut-Off Value in Koreans from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify the distribution and cut-off value of the ‘homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance’ (HOMA-IR) according to gender and menopausal status for metabolic syndrome in Koreans. Methods Data were from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. The subjects included adults aged 20 years or older. We excluded participants who had diabetes or fasting serum glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L. Finally, 11,121 subjects (4,911 men, 3,597 premenopausal women, 2,613 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results The mean HOMA-IR was 2.11 (2.07–2.15) for men, 2.0 (1.97–2.04) for premenopausal women, and 2.14 (2.2–2.19) for postmenopausal women. The first cut-off values in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were 2.23 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 66.9%), 2.39 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.4%), and 2.48 (sensitivity 51.9%, specificity 80.2%), respectively. Based on the first HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.9% in men, 13.7% in premenopausal women, and 51.6% in postmenopausal women. The second cut-off value was around 3.2 in all three groups. Based on the second HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.8% in men, 42.5% in premenopausal women, and 71.6% in postmenopausal women. Conclusion In conclusion, the first cut-off values for HOMA-IR were 2.2–2.5 and the second cut-off value was 3.2 in Korea. The distribution of HOMA-IR showed differences according to gender and menopausal status. When we apply HOMA-IR, we should consider gender, menopausal status, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27128847

  6. Marital power process of Korean men married to foreign women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyoung; Park, Gyeong Sook; Windsor, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study explored how Korean men married to migrant women construct meaning around married life. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 10 men who had had been married to migrant women for ≥ 2 years. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently using a grounded theory approach. The core category generated was the process of sustaining a family unit. The men came to understand the importance of a distribution of power within the family in sustaining the family unit. Constituting this process were four stages: recognizing an imbalance of power, relinquishing power, empowering, and fine-tuning the balance of power. This study provides important insight into the dynamics of marital power from men's point of view by demonstrating a link between the way people adjust to married life and the process by which married couples adjust through the distribution and redistribution of power. PMID:23171395

  7. Triglyceride Is a Useful Surrogate Marker for Insulin Resistance in Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Yun; Cho, Yeon Jean; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate lipid profiles and liver enzymes as surrogate markers used for recognizing insulin resistance in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods 458 women with PCOS were divided into two groups: non-obese with a body mass index (BMI)<25.0 kg/m2 and obese with a BMI≥25.0 kg/m2. Anthropometric measures and blood sampling for hormone assay, liver enzymes, lipid profiles and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were performed. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)≥2.5. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the power of serum markers. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of each confounding factor for HOMA-IR. Results In non-obese and obese groups, the ROC curve analyses demonstrated that the best marker for insulin resistance was triglyceride (TG), with the areas under the ROC curve of 0.617 and 0.837, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was the significant marker for insulin resistance with areas under the ROC curve of 0.698 in obese group, but not significant in non-obese group. TG and LDL-C were significantly associated with HOMA-IR in both non-obese and obese PCOS women by multiple linear regression analysis. The optimal cut-off points of TG≥68.5 was a marker for predicting insulin resistance in non-obese PCOS patients and TG≥100.5 in obese group. Conclusion TG can be used as a useful marker for insulin resistance in Korean women with PCOS, especially for obese patients. PMID:25837186

  8. Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage containing moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    NAGINO, Takayuki; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; MASUOKA, Norie; KAGA, Chiaki; ANBE, Michitoshi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; KAMACHI, Keiko; ISOZAKI, Mariko; SUZUKI, Chigusa; KASUGA, Chikako; TANAKA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the serum concentrations of genistein and total isoflavones were significantly higher, by about 1.4-fold, up to 5 hr after FSM intake compared with SM intake (each p<0.05), and that of daidzein tended to be higher after FSM intake. In addition, AUC analysis of total isoflavones for individual subjects revealed that 5 out of 7 subjects had higher AUC values after FSM intake compared with SM intake and that the 2 remaining subjects had similar AUC values. These 2 subjects had higher AUC values after SM intake (mean, 2,502 ± 348) than those of the other subjects (mean, 1,158 ± 269). These results indicate that the bioavailability of isoflavones, especially genistein, is enhanced after the intake of FSM containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones compared with intake of SM containing no isoflavone aglycones and that the enhancement is observed in healthy premenopausal Japanese women whose isoflavone absorption capacity is low after SM intake. PMID:26858926

  9. Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage containing moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Nagino, Takayuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Masuoka, Norie; Kaga, Chiaki; Anbe, Michitoshi; Miyazaki, Kouji; Kamachi, Keiko; Isozaki, Mariko; Suzuki, Chigusa; Kasuga, Chikako; Tanaka, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the serum concentrations of genistein and total isoflavones were significantly higher, by about 1.4-fold, up to 5 hr after FSM intake compared with SM intake (each p<0.05), and that of daidzein tended to be higher after FSM intake. In addition, AUC analysis of total isoflavones for individual subjects revealed that 5 out of 7 subjects had higher AUC values after FSM intake compared with SM intake and that the 2 remaining subjects had similar AUC values. These 2 subjects had higher AUC values after SM intake (mean, 2,502 ± 348) than those of the other subjects (mean, 1,158 ± 269). These results indicate that the bioavailability of isoflavones, especially genistein, is enhanced after the intake of FSM containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones compared with intake of SM containing no isoflavone aglycones and that the enhancement is observed in healthy premenopausal Japanese women whose isoflavone absorption capacity is low after SM intake. PMID:26858926

  10. Association between Health Behaviors and a Family History of Cancer among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Youngsun; Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health-related behaviors related to a family history of cancer (FHCA) among Korean women underwent cancer screening. Materials and Methods A total of 8,956 women who underwent cancer screenings during 2001-2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were analyzed. The association between health-related behaviors and a FHCA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.65), to be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65), and less likely to engage in regular exercise (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41). Combined effects of selected health behaviors for FHCA were significant, although no statistically significant interactions were observed between selected health behaviors. Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to simultaneously smoke and be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.31) and to simultaneously smoke and be physically inactive (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). Conclusion The study found that women with a FHCA exhibited unhealthy behaviors compared to women without FHCA. Higher emphasis on lifestyle modifications using a new standardized tool is strongly recommended for those with a FHCA, as well as individuals who are at high risk, together with their family members. PMID:26511810

  11. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  12. Efficacy and safety of a 24-day regimen of drospirenone-containing combined oral contraceptive in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayoung; Yoo, Ha-Na; Hyun, Hye Sun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, Doo-Seok

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the efficacy and safety of a 24-day regimen of drospirenone-containing combined oral contraceptive, and demonstrates that it is an effective and safe option for contraception, releasing symptom of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and acne in Korean women. PMID:26430665

  13. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  14. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and methods: This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2–4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required. PMID:27147781

  15. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS). Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7–24.6] and 7.7% (7.1–8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25–4.19) and 1.78 (0.96–3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years). Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive

  16. Vasomotor symptoms and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin-resistance in Korean postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Hui; Lee, Ju Hak; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Park, Hyun-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and insulin resistance, which can be postulated by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index. This study involved 1,547 Korean postmenopausal women (age, 45 to 65 years) attending a routine health check-up at a single institution in Korea from January 2010 to December 2012. A menopause rating scale questionnaire was used to assess the severity of VMS. The mean age of participants was 55.22±4.8 years and 885 (57.2%) reported VMS in some degree. The mean HOMA index was 1.79±0.96, and the HOMA index increased with an increase in severity of VMS (none, mild, moderate and severe) in logistic regression analysis (β=0.068, t=2.665, P =0.008). Insulin resistance needs to be considered to understand the linkage between VMS and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:26866035

  17. Variables Related to Career Success: Korean-American Women of Distinction Tell Their Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Susan Byungsook

    The goal of this research was to uncover the reasons for the unusual success of a small group of Korean-Americans in the American work arena. All had spent their childhood and formative years in Korea under the sole influence of Korean culture, attending the best high schools and colleges. Korean culture tends not to nurture some of the…

  18. Are Western Knee Designs Dimensionally Correct for Korean Women? A Morphometric Study of Resected Femoral Surfaces during Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Suk-Joo; Kang, Hyung Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the shape of the distal femur of Korean women compared with the prostheses currently available in Korea. Methods Morphometric data (5 parameters) were measured in 356 resected femurs of Korean women undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilizing the LCS knee implant (DePuy). The data were then compared with 5 additional contemporary TKA implant systems. Results Implant designs based on Caucasian population data do not ideally match the distal femoral morphology of Korean women. Overhang at the anterior mediolateral width was observed in 84.8% for the LCS while a gender-specific implant resulted in undercoverage of the bone in 86%. Posterior overhang was observed in up to 51.2%. Most implant designs have a narrower intercondylar notch than the morphologic data of Korean women. Conclusions Since there is some difference between the shape of distal femur of Korean women and that of the implants, surgeons should have this in mind when selecting an implant for a patient. These data may also be used as a guideline for future prosthetic design options for Korean women population. PMID:27583107

  19. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599

  20. Management of osteoporosis in a pre-menopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Ashok K

    2010-06-01

    There is no agreed definition of osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends using Z-score, and women with Z-scores of -2.0 or lower should be defined as having a bone density that is 'below the expected range for age'. The diagnosis is more readily made in the presence of a low-trauma fracture. The relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD) in young pre-menopausal women and its associated fracture risk is not the same as in older women with a low BMD. Between 50% and 90% of pre-menopausal women will have an underlying secondary cause, the most common being eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and use of glucocorticoids. Management should focus on identifying the underlying cause and treating it where possible. The use of pharmacological therapy under other circumstances should be considered carefully. Women with only low BMD and no other risk factors probably require no pharmacological intervention. Those with low BMD and secondary causes or with a severely low BMD, or those who have fragility fractures, may require treatment with anti-resorptive agents, which can include oestrogen, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, calcitriol or anabolic therapy with teriparatide. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) should be avoided as they cause further bone loss in menstruating women. Alendronate and risedronate have been licensed for use in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. These drugs accumulate in the human skeleton and have been shown to cross the placenta and accumulate in newborn rats. The effects on human pregnancy are unclear, although normal pregnancies have been reported. Pre-menopausal women with osteoporosis should be followed up until the BMD is stable, which can usually be ascertained by follow-up scans at 18-36-month intervals. PMID:20534366

  1. Evaluation and Management of the Premenopausal Woman with Low BMD

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) results in premenopausal women is particularly challenging, since the relationship between BMD and fracture risk is not the same as for postmenopausal women. In most cases, Z scores rather than T scores should be used to define “low BMD” in premenopausal women. The finding of low BMD in a premenopausal woman should prompt thorough evaluation for secondary causes of bone loss. If a secondary cause is found, management should focus on treatment of this condition. In a few cases where the secondary cause cannot be eliminated, treatment with a bone active agent to prevent bone loss should be considered. In women with no fractures and no known secondary cause, low BMD is associated with microarchitectural defects similar to young women with fractures; however, no longitudinal data are available to allow use of BMD to predict fracture risk. BMD is likely to be stable in these women with isolated low BMD, and pharmacologic therapy is rarely necessary. Assessment of markers of bone turnover and follow-up bone density measurements can help to identify those with an ongoing process of bone loss that may indicate a higher risk for fracture, and possible need for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:24091896

  2. Dietary calcium intake is associated with adiposity, metabolic profile, inflammatory state and blood pressure, but not with erythrocyte intracellular calcium and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Thaís; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2013-09-28

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 18–50 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP. A FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intake. Endothelial function was evaluated by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method, using Endo-PAT 2000®. Participants were allocated into two groups according to Ca intake: low-Ca group (LCG; n 32; < 600 mg/d) and high-Ca group (HCG; n 44; ≥ 600 mg/d). Women in the LCG compared with those in the HCG exhibited, after adjustments for potential confounders, higher values of BMI, waist circumference, waist:height ratio, percentage of body fat, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, diastolic and mean BP; and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Endothelial function assessed by PAT and [Ca2+]i was similar in both groups. Subjects in the HCG had lower OR for prevalent overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol < 600 mg/l and systolic BP >120 mmHg. The findings of the present study suggest that high Ca intake is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23411109

  3. Prevalence of daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes differs between Caucasian and Korean American women and girls.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Bin; Atkinson, Charlotte; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Jokela, Tuija; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, Wendy K; Lampe, Johanna W

    2006-05-01

    Interindividual differences in metabolism of the soy isoflavone, daidzein, to equol and O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) by human gut bacteria, have been associated with altered risk of cancer and other chronic diseases, according to some studies. Differences have been reported in the prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype among populations, with a higher prevalence in soy-consuming Asian populations than in Western populations. To date, prevalence of the daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in Asians, compared with Caucasians, has not been evaluated in the context of a standardized phenotyping method. We assessed the prevalence of equol- and ODMA-producer phenotypes in 91 Korean American (KA) women and girls living in the Seattle, Washington area and compared this with previous similarly collected prevalence data in Caucasian American (CA) women and girls (n = 222). We also compared the dietary habits of the 2 groups. Isoflavonoid concentrations in first-void morning urines, collected after a 3-d soy challenge, were used to establish equol-, and ODMA-producer phenotypes (>44 microg/L). The prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype was higher (51 vs. 36%; P = 0.015) and the ODMA-producer phenotype was lower (84 vs. 92%, P = 0.03) in KA than in CA women and girls. KAs consumed approximately 3 times more soy foods than the CAs, but no significant associations were found between the consumption of soy foods and equol-producer phenotype. Our findings support the reports that, compared with Western populations, Asian populations have a higher equol-producer prevalence. The additional observation that the prevalence of the ODMA-producer phenotype is lower in KAs suggests that daidzein-metabolizing patterns in general may differ between KAs and CAs. PMID:16614428

  4. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-08-01

    Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women.The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders.Three dietary patterns were identified: "traditional," "western," and "prudent." The "prudent" dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the "prudent" dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36-0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41-0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59-0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42-0.68). However, the "traditional" and "western" dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS.The "prudent" dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  5. Adjuvant exemestane versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with early breast cancer undergoing ovarian suppression: patient-reported outcomes in the TEXT and SOFT randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jürg; Luo, Weixiu; Ribi, Karin; Colleoni, Marco; Burstein, Harold J.; Tondini, Carlo; Pinotti, Graziella; Spazzapan, Simon; Ruhstaller, Thomas; Puglisi, Fabio; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Parmar, Vani; Regan, Meredith M.; Pagani, Olivia; Fleming, Gini F.; Francis, Prudence A.; Price, Karen N.; Coates, Alan S.; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Walley, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficacy analysis of the combined IBCSG TEXT and SOFT trials showed a significant disease-free survival benefit for exemestane plus ovarian function suppression (OFS) compared with tamoxifen +OFS. We present patient-reported outcomes from these trials. Methods Between 7 November 2003 and 7 April 2011, 4717 premenopausal patients with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer were enrolled in TEXT or SOFT to receive unblinded adjuvant treatment with 5 years of exemestane+OFS or tamoxifen+OFS. Chemotherapy use was optional. Randomization was performed via IBCSG’s internet-based system with the use of permuted blocks and was stratified by chemotherapy use and lymph nodes status. Patients completed a quality of life (QoL) form including several global and symptom-specific indicators at baseline, every 6 months for 24 months, then annually during years 3 to 6. Differences in change of QoL from baseline between the two treatments were tested at short-, mid-, and long-term using mixed-models for repeated measures, for each trial with and without chemotherapy and overall. The analysis was intention-to-treat using treatment as randomly assigned. At the time of analysis, the median follow-up was 5·7 years (IQR, 3·7 to 6·9 years), with treatment and follow-up of patients ongoing. Findings Patients reported considerable worsening from baseline in key endocrine symptoms. Those on tamoxifen+OFS were more affected by hot flushes and sweats over five years than those on exemestane+OFS, although these symptoms improved. Patients on exemestane+OFS reported more vaginal dryness, greater loss of sexual interest, and difficulties becoming aroused. These differences persisted over time. An increase in bone/joint pain was more pronounced, particularly in the short-term, in patients on exemestane+OFS. Changes of global QoL indicators from baseline were small and similar between treatments over the whole treatment period. Interpretation Overall, from a QoL perspective, there

  6. A dairy and fruit dietary pattern is associated with a reduced likelihood of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–10. The present cross-sectional analysis included 3735 postmenopausal women who completed a health interview, nutrition survey and a health examination including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The general characteristics and dietary intakes of the participants were obtained using a standardised questionnaire and a 24 h recall method, respectively. The BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; osteoporosis was defined based on the WHO T-score criteria. Overall, we identified four dietary patterns using factor analysis as follows: 'meat, alcohol and sugar', 'vegetables and soya sauce', 'white rice, kimchi and seaweed' and 'dairy and fruit', which accounted for 30·9% of the total variance in food intake (11·3, 7·7, 6·0 and 5·9%, respectively). The subjects in the highest quintile of the 'dairy and fruit' pattern showed a decreased risk of osteoporosis of the lumbar spine (53 %) compared with those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for covariates (OR 0·47, 95% CI 0·35, 0·65, P for trend<0·0001). In contrast, the 'white rice, kimchi and seaweed' dietary pattern was negatively associated with bone health (OR 1·40, 95% CI 1·03, 1·90, P for trend=0·0479). The present results suggest that an increased intake of dairy foods and fruits in the traditional Korean diet, based on white rice and vegetables, may decrease the risk of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23578480

  7. A qualitative study of quality of life and the experience of complementary and alternative medicine in Korean women with constipation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Warden, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Twelve percent of people worldwide report suffering from self-defined constipation. Women experience constipation three times more than men. Many people have used complementary and alternative medicine for constipation, but there is no qualitative research about this issue. The purpose of this article was to describe Korean women's experience of treating chronic constipation with complementary and alternative medicine. A qualitative descriptive approach used in-depth, semistructured interviews with 10 Korean women in the United States who had constipation. Four themes were identified: (1) subjective definition of constipation; (2) efforts to find the reason for constipation; (3) efforts to find solutions for constipation (subtheme: frequent use of enemas, laxatives, and suppositories; expectation and disappointment for complementary and alternative medicine; finding individually effective solutions for constipation); and (4) negative impact on quality of life (subtheme: mental discomfort, changed appetite, and difficult relationships with people).Ten women reported that they had used exercise, massage, yogurt, vegetables, seeds of tangles (seaweed), mineral oil, milk with plums, mixed rice, walnuts, grapefruits, apples, oranges, aloe, oatmeal, soymilk, sweet potatoes, ground flax seed, and alcohol as a strategy for relieving constipation. Participants had also used herbs, acupuncture, acupressure, moxibustion, cupping therapy, hand acupuncture, senna tea, and soy bean past fomentation. In conclusion, living with constipation is an irritable and uncomfortable experience, and it motivated these women to select a variety of methods to reduce constipation. PMID:21455044

  8. Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Andrea R.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8–16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8–16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain. PMID:21775530

  9. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Lee, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Siyeon; Jang, Young-Joon; Baek, Yoon-Jeong; Kang, Kwon-Yong

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118

  10. Correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among Korean-American Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40-65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support is associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry is associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449