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Sample records for korean premenopausal women

  1. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p<0.02). THb and malignancy index were the two best single predictors of malignancy, with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  2. Premenopausal bone health: osteoporosis in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Alice; Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    This article will discuss the diagnosis of osteoporosis in premenopausal women and the evaluation and management of those with low-trauma fractures and/or low bone mineral density. As secondary causes (glucocorticoid excess, anorexia nervosa, premenopausal estrogen deficiency, and celiac disease) are commonly the underlying cause of osteoporosis in this population, treatment of the underlying condition should be the focus of management. Additional management options, generally reserved for those with major or multiple fractures and/or ongoing bone loss, will also be described. PMID:24022503

  3. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Insang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Mi Na; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule) or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13 ± 2.87 to 23.98 ± 4.10, p = 0.015) and placebo treatment (from 20.06 ± 2.64 to 23.78 ± 3.28, p = 0.003). However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.702). KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:26798402

  4. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Insang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Mi Na; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule) or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13 ± 2.87 to 23.98 ± 4.10, p = 0.015) and placebo treatment (from 20.06 ± 2.64 to 23.78 ± 3.28, p = 0.003). However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.702). KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:26798402

  5. Increased risk of obesity related to total energy intake with the APOA5-1131T > C polymorphism in Korean premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyo Hee; Choi, Miok; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesized that triglyceride-raising apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5)-1131T > C may contribute to the increased risk of obesity associated with dietary intake in Korean premenopausal women whose minor allele frequency is higher than that in Western people. Genetically unrelated Korean premenopausal women (approximately 20-59 years, n = 1128) were genotyped for APOA5-1131T > C. Anthropometric, metabolic parameters and dietary intakes were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity risk (body mass index, ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) were calculated. Genotype distribution of APOA5-1131T > C of study subjects were like TT: 49.9%, TC: 40.8%, and CC: 9.3%. We found a significant interaction between APOA5-1131T > C and total energy intake (TEI) for obesity after adjusted for age, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (P < .001). The risk of obesity in CC homozygotes compared with T carriers (TT + TC) was significantly increased, when the subjects consume higher TEI (≥2001 kcal/d (8372 kJ/d), median value of the population) (OR, 2.495; 95% confidence intervals, 1.325-4.696; P = .005), particularly, when they maintain negative balance between total energy expenditure and TEI (total energy expenditure/TEI, <1) (OR, 2.917; 95% confidence intervals, 1.451-5.864; P = .003). The contributions of APOA5-1131CC homozygotes to obesity risk in those who consume higher TEI were all significantly high regardless of percentage of energy intake from dietary macronutrients. Whereas, no significant association was observed in those who consume lower TEI (<2001 kcal/d). In addition, serum levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A5 were associated with APOA5-1131T > C and TEI. These findings suggest that APOA5-1131CC homozygotes may influence the susceptibility of the individual to obesity, particularly, when they consume higher TEI, but the genetic effect may be attenuated, when people maintain low or adequate energy intake. PMID:25263629

  6. A review of osteoporosis management in younger premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    McLendon, Amber N; Woodis, C Brock

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the available evidence for osteoporosis treatments in young and premenopausal women. A review of articles evaluating the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis in young (age less than 50 years) or premenopausal women was conducted. Several trials evaluating the treatment of anorexia nervosa and use of hormone therapy in those women, the use of bisphosphonates in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer and the use of bisphosphonates, teriparatide and vitamin D in women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis are described. Limited data were found to support the treatment of osteoporosis in women with idiopathic osteoporosis or cystic fibrosis, or after kidney transplant. The evidence for treatment of osteoporosis in premenopausal women is not nearly as robust as that for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although fracture risk in the premenopausal population is low, women with secondary osteoporosis may benefit from treatment with various agents, depending upon the condition. PMID:24328599

  7. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  8. Influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Liu, Jieqiong; Gu, Ran; Hu, Yue; Liu, Fengtao; Yun, Miaomiao; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi

    2016-07-01

    Mammographic density is an independent strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, the influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. In the Southern Professional Women Breast Cancer Screening Project, we assessed the associations between mammographic density and its influential factors using multivariate logistic regression in premenopausal women adjusting for BMI, age, duration of breastfeeding, number of live births, and breast size. A total of 1699 premenopausal women aged 27 to 57 years, who had been screened by mammography, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Overall, 85.2% were categorized as having dense breasts (BI-RADS density 3 and 4) and 14.8% as having fatty breasts (BI-RADS density 1 and 2). In multivariate and logistic regression analysis, only BMI and age were significantly negatively correlated with mammographic density in premenopausal women (P<0.001). No significant associations between mammographic density and number of deliveries, breastfeeding duration, education level, family history of breast cancer, as well as breast size and sleep quality, were identified in the study. Age and BMI are negatively associated with mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women. Information on the influential factors of mammographic density in premenopausal women might provide meaningful insights into breast cancer prevention. PMID:26075657

  9. Higher levels of central adiposity in healthy premenopausal women with family histories of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Britton, Julie A; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2008-01-01

    Research strongly suggests that lower overall adiposity and higher central adiposity are independent risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer in the general population. We aimed to test the possibility that these factors may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A convenience sample of healthy women, ages 25-49, was recruited to yield three study groups: (1) Women with first-degree family histories of premenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed prior to age 50 (Group FH < 50, n = 39); (2) Women with first-degree family histories of postmenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed at age 50 or after (Group FH > or = 50, n = 33); and (3) Women without a history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (Group FH-, n = 132). Multinomial logistic regression analyses, including possible confounders, waist circumference, and BMI, revealed a lower BMI among FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.59-0.87), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60-0.95), and higher waist circumferences in FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.06-1.25), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.05-1.28). No group differences were seen for waist skinfold measures. These results support the possibility that differences in patterns of adiposity may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and suggest the importance of conducting large scale, population-based studies of the link between body size characteristics and familial breast cancer risk. PMID:18161037

  10. Treatment of Premenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) results in premenopausal women is particularly challenging, because the relationship between BMD and fracture risk is not the same as for postmenopausal women. Z scores rather than T scores should be used to define “low BMD” in premenopausal women. The finding of low BMD in a premenopausal woman should prompt an evaluation for secondary causes of bone loss. If a secondary cause is found, management should focus on treatment of this condition. In some cases in which the secondary cause cannot be addressed, such as glucocorticoid therapy or cancer chemotherapy, treatment with a bone-active agent to prevent bone loss should be considered. In women with no fractures and no known secondary cause, low BMD may not signify compromised bone strength. BMD is likely to remain stable in these women, and pharmacologic therapy is rarely justified. Assessment of markers of bone turnover and follow-up bone density measurements can help to identify those with an ongoing process of bone loss that may indicate a higher risk for fracture, and possible need for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:18430399

  11. Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Christiana M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Egleston, Brian L; Kahle, L L; Spittle, Cynthia S; Godwin, Andrew K; Brinton, Louise A; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2011-06-30

    Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clinical applications. PMID:21704216

  12. Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Christiana M.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Kahle, L.L.; Spittle, Cynthia S.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Brinton, Louise A.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clinical applications. PMID:21704216

  13. Body Iron Stores and Glucose Intolerance in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, M. Ángeles; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; San-Millán, José L.; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased serum ferritin levels and iron stores may be involved in the development of abnormal glucose tolerance in women presenting with obesity and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to study the determinants of serum ferritin levels in premenopausal women among indexes of insulin resistance, adiposity, hyperandrogenism, and genotypes pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, and iron metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 257 premenopausal women, classified depending on the presence or absence of PCOS, obesity, and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, underwent a complete metabolic evaluation, serum ferritin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements, and genotyping for proinflammatory and prooxidant variants and mutations in the HFE gene. RESULTS Serum ferritin concentrations were increased in women presenting with PCOS and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, independent of obesity. A stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.18, P < 0.0001) retained menstrual dysfunction (β = 0.14, P = 0.035), free testosterone (β = 0.14, P = 0.052), insulin sensitivity index (β = −0.12, P = 0.012), the His63Asp variant in HFE (β = 0.16, P = 0.008), and abnormal glucose tolerance (β = 0.15, P = 0.015) as significant predictors of the logarithm of ferritin levels, whereas CRP, haptoglobin, waist-to-hip ratio, or variants in the TNFα, TNFRSF1B, IL6, IL6ST, IL6Rα, PON1, and HFE Cys282Tyr mutation exerted no influence. CONCLUSIONS Androgen excess (partly because of hyperandrogenemia and partly because of menstrual dysfunction), insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance, and the HFE His63Asp variant correlate with ferritin levels in premenopausal women. PMID:19401444

  14. Voices of Korean American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hastick, Eda F.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses issues of race, gender, and the immigrant experience, focusing on Korean-American women. Highlights myths and stereotypes surrounding Asian Americans and issues of immigrant adaptation and survival. Presents excerpts from a conversation among three Korean-American women, discussing issues related to race relations and the traditional…

  15. The Association between Sleep Duration and Hypertension in Non-obese Premenopausal Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Yeon; Sung, En; Lee, Keun-Mi; Keum, Shin-Ho; Ryu, Sun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed that sleep duration is linked to both obesity and hypertension. Here, we evaluated the association between sleep duration and hypertension in obese and non-obese premenopausal women using representative national survey data from the Korean population. Methods A total of 4,748 subjects over 20 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were included. To control for risk factors, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of hypertension across the following sleep duration categories: <6, 6-8, and >8 h/d. Results Among the participants, 367 subjects (7.7%) had hypertension. Their mean sleep duration was 7 hours. In the non-obese subjects, after controlling for potential confounding variables, the odds ratio for hypertension was 1.86 fold greater in those with a sleep duration of <6 hours (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.03) as compared to those who slept for 6.8 hours. However, there was no association between sleep duration and the risk of hypertension in obese subjects. Long sleep duration (over 8 h/d) was not associated with hypertension in either the non-obese or the obese subjects in this study. Conclusion Short sleep duration (less than 6 h/d) may be a significant risk factor for hypertension in non-obese premenopausal women. However, there is no association between sleep duration and the risk of hypertension in obese women. PMID:27073613

  16. Urinary Cadmium and Mammographic Density in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. Methods In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS ®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40–45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium over a period of 20–30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Results Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urine cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): −2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each two-fold increase in urine cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (odds ratio(OR): 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82–2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of “extremely dense” (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14–2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Conclusions Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women. PMID:21327468

  17. Cortisol elimination from plasma in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Koska, J; Kovalancik, M; Killinger, Z; Payer, J; Vigas, M; Jezova, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Twelve premenopausal female patients with RA (39.8 (1.8) years) and nine healthy control women matched for age and body mass index (42 (3.3) years) were enrolled in the study. None of the patients had previously been receiving treatment with glucocorticoids. After dexamethasone suppression (2 mg by mouth) the evening before the study, 20 mg of hydrocortisone was given. Blood and saliva samples were drawn six hours after injection of hydrocortisone. Plasma and salivary cortisol were measured. Results: Dexamethasone administration suppressed plasma cortisol concentrations to an almost undetectable level in all subjects, except one with RA. In this subject, a raised concentration of plasma cortisol was verified by repeated analysis despite the fact that cortisol concentration in the saliva sample measured simultaneously was not raised. No significant difference in the disappearance curve of cortisol in plasma or in salivary cortisol levels was found between the patients with RA and the healthy controls. Conclusions: The profile of disappearance of total cortisol from plasma, and salivary cortisol levels during the elimination phase after its intravenous administration, are unchanged in premenopausal women with RA. Alterations in cortisol clearance are not likely to have a role in cortisol availability in patients with RA. PMID:12810434

  18. Outcome of hysterectomy for pelvic pain in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tay, S K; Bromwich, N

    1998-02-01

    The outcome of abdominal hysterectomy for pelvic pain in premenopausal women was studied retrospectively in 228 women. In 17 women, pelvic pain was the sole indication while in the others, pelvic pain was one of the contributory indications for hysterectomy. The most common surgical histopathological diagnoses were uterine leiomyoma (73.9%), uterine adenomyosis (40.4%), benign ovarian cyst (19.3%) and endometriosis (7.9%); 118 (51.8%) patients had single pathology and 48.2% had multiple pathologies. The agreement between operative clinical diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis was 66.1% for leiomyoma, 57.1% for uterine adenomyosis and 30% for endometriosis. The incidence of early postoperative complication was 20.6%, mainly minor morbidities including urinary tract infection (3.9%), wound infection (3.1%) and unexplained fever (6.0%). These complications significantly prolonged the duration of hospital stay from an average of 7 days to 9-17 days. Of 98 patients with pain as the sole or the most predominant indication for hysterectomy, 72% responded to an outcome survey 12 or more months after hysterectomy. Of these, 62 (87%) were satisfied with the operation, 8 were unsure and 1 was dissatisfied; 68 (95.8%) patients reported relief of their symptoms. Relief of symptoms did not correlate with the patient's report of her satisfaction with hysterectomy. Pain in the abdominal wound a year or more after surgery was one of the commonest reasons cited for dissatisfaction with hysterectomy. We conclude that in well-selected cases, hysterectomy is an appropriate and satisfactory treatment for premenopausal women with pelvic pain irrespective of clinical evidence of associated pathology. Effective measures to reduce postoperative complications and wound pain are needed to further improve the outcome of abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:9521396

  19. Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

  20. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, AZ; Mumford, SL; Wactawski-Wende, J; Yeung, E; Mendola, P; Mattison, DR; Schisterman, EF

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was, 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages. PMID:23122770

  1. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  2. Analysis of high risk factors and characteristics of coronary artery in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping; Yan, Peng; Liu, Xiangyong; Zhao, Debao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the high risk factors and coronary lesion features in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease (CAD) and provide guideline for diagnosis and therapy. Methods: 114 premenopausal women and 134 postmenopausal women were conducted coronary angiography in our hospital from September, 2012 to September, 2014. According to the results of coronary angiography, premenopausal and postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease were divided into two groups respectively, including 48 premenopausal women with CAD group, 66 premenopausal women with normal coronary artery group, 76 postmenopausal women with CAD group and 58 postmenopausal women with normal coronary artery group. Clinical characteristics and coronary lesion features were analyzed. Results: Incidence rates of hypertension disease and diabetes were higher in premenopausal women with CAD group than control group. Most of premenopausal women suffered from single vessel lesion and the length of impaired vessel was less than 20 mm, meanwhile, postmenopausal women easily confronted from double vessels or mutivessle lesion and the length of impaired vessel was more than 20 mm. Left anterior descending coronary artery lesion was common for premenopausal women. Conclusion: Hypertension disease and diabetes were the main high risk factors for premenopausal women and high triglyceride was the optimal predictable factor, furthermore, single vessel lesion and short artery lesion were common in premenopausal women, which often happened in the anterior descending coronary artery. PMID:26629175

  3. Equol production changes over time in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Pagano, Ian; Morimoto, Yukiko; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-04-01

    Equol (EQ) is a metabolite produced by gut bacteria through the chemical reduction of the soya isoflavone daidzein (DE), but only by 30-60% of the population. EQ is believed to provide benefits derived from soya intake and its production is widely viewed as a relatively stable phenomenon. In a randomised, cross-over intervention with soya foods, seventy-nine pre-menopausal women were challenged with a high-soya and a low-soya diet each for 6 months, separated by a 1-month washout period. Overnight urine was collected at three time points during each diet period and analysed for DE and EQ by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Remaining an EQ producer (EP) or non-producer (NP) or changing towards an EP or NP was assessed using an EQ:DE ratio of ≥0·018 combined with a DE threshold of ≥2 nmol/mg creatinine as a cut-off point. We observed 19 and 24% EP during the low-soya and high-soya diet periods, respectively, and found that 6-11% of our subjects changed EQ status 'within' each study period (on an average of 1·2 times), while 16% changed 'between' the two diet periods. The present finding challenges the widely held conviction that EQ production within an individual remains stable over time. The precise factors contributing to changes in EQ status, however, remain elusive and warrant further investigation. PMID:21920062

  4. Bicycle Riding, Walking, and Weight Gain in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Anne C.; Mekary, Rania A.; Feskanich, Diane; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Context No research has been conducted on bicycle riding and weight control in comparison to walking. Objective To assess the association between bicycle riding and weight control in premenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants This was a 16-year follow-up of 18, 414 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Main Outcome Measures Weight change between 1989 and 2005 was the primary outcome and odds of gaining >5% of baseline body weight (BBW) by 2005 the secondary outcome. Results At baseline, only 39% walked briskly while only 1.2% bicycled for ≥30 min/d. For a 30 min/d increase in activity between 1989 and 2005, weight gain was significantly less for brisk walking (−1.81 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.05,−1.56), bicycling (−1.59 kg; 95%CI= −2.09, −1.08), and other activities (−1.45 kg; 95%CI= −1.66, −1.24) but not for slow walking (+0.06 kg; 95%CI= −0.22, 0.35). Women who reported no bicycling in 1989 and increased to as little as 5 minutes/day in 2005 gained less weight (−0.74 kg; 95%CI= −1.41, −0.07, P-trend<0.01) than those who remained non-bikers. Normal weight women who bicycled ≥ 4 hours/week in 2005 had lower odds of gaining >5% of their BBW (Odds Ratio (OR) =0.74, 95%CI=0.56–0.98) compared with those who reported no bicycling; overweight/obese women had lower odds at 2–3 hours/week (OR=0.54, 95%CI=0.34–86). Conclusions Bicycling, similar to brisk walking, is associated with less weight gain and an inverse dose-response relationship exists, especially among overweight/obese women. Future research should focus on brisk walking but also on greater time spent bicycling. PMID:20585071

  5. Sources of Cadmium Exposure Among Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38–0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27–0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11–33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06 – 0.15 μg/g ) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. PMID:21333327

  6. Navigating the Challenges of Endocrine Treatments in Premenopausal Women with ER-Positive Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Colleoni, Marco; Munzone, Elisabetta

    2015-08-01

    Endocrine therapy is a key component of adjuvant treatment for premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors. It is commonly well tolerated, although side effects are a main concern in the selection of treatment options. Tamoxifen is still considered an adequate endocrine therapy in a large group of premenopausal patients (e.g. lower-risk patient, presence of co-morbidities, patient preference). Results of the SOFT and TEXT trials addressing new adjuvant endocrine treatment options in premenopausal patients were recently presented. Overall, in the SOFT study the premenopausal population did not benefit from the addition of ovarian function suppression (OFS). Nevertheless, for women at sufficient risk of recurrence to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and who maintained premenopausal estradiol, the addition of OFS to tamoxifen reduced the risk of recurrence. The magnitude of the effect was larger in younger patients. Moreover, in the SOFT and TEXT trials, adjuvant treatment with exemestane plus OFS, as compared with tamoxifen plus OFS, significantly improved disease-free survival, breast cancer-free interval and distant disease-free survival. However, premenopausal patients include heterogeneous subsets of women and tumors where costs and benefits of adjuvant endocrine therapy should be properly weighted. Issues specific for premenopausal patients, related to desire for pregnancy, family planning, safety, quality of life and subjective side effects, should be a priority in the therapeutic algorithm. Therefore, selecting the best-tolerated agent can enhance adherence to therapies and reduce the impact on quality of life and health status for these younger patients. PMID:26177891

  7. Analgesic use and patterns of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Oh, Hannah; Daugherty, Sarah E; Xu, Xia; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G; Eliassen, A Heather

    2014-04-01

    Analgesic use has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of some cancers, with inverse associations between analgesics and colon cancer, and suggestive inverse associations for breast cancer. Estrogen metabolites (EM) have genotoxic and estrogenic potential; genotoxicity may differ by hydroxylation pathway. Analgesic use may impact patterns of estrogen metabolism; effects of analgesics on disease risk could be mediated through these patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 603 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Frequency of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen use was reported via questionnaire; average frequency in 1997 and 1999 was calculated. Women provided urine samples between 1996 and 1999, collected during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Urinary EM were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We observed no association between analgesic use and estradiol, estrone, or specific pathways of estrogen metabolism. Women reporting more frequent aspirin use had lower methylated 2-catechols (e.g., 2-hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether, 2+ days/week vs. non-use: 0.95 vs. 1.21 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.07). Non-aspirin NSAID use was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (4+ days/week vs. non-use: 2.48 vs. 1.52 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.11). Acetaminophen use was positively associated with total EM (2+ days/week vs. non-use: 236 vs. 198 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.02, p trend = 0.11), 2-hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether (1.6 vs. 1.1 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference < 0.01, p trend = 0.02), and 16α-hydroxyestrone (17 vs. 12 pmol/mg creatinine; p difference = 0.01, p trend = 0.05). This study provides the first assessment of analgesic use and patterns of estrogen metabolism in women. While we observed some associations between analgesics and

  8. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  9. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  10. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained. PMID:26358933

  11. Improved adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine responsive disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldhirsch, Aron; Colleoni, Marco; Regan, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Results from two randomised global trials (SOFT & TEXT) designed to newly define the most effective components of adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine responsive disease, showed that for some, those with high risk of relapse, the use of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane together with ovarian function suppression with GnRH analogue (triptorelin) yielded the most favourable treatment outcome compared with tamoxifen. For women with low risk of relapse, treatment with tamoxifen was similar to ovarian function suppression together with either exemestane or tamoxifen. For women with intermediate risk of relapse, ovarian function suppression added to tamoxifen was not inferior to exemestane, while it resulted in superior outcomes compared to tamoxifen alone. Now, these trials provide critical information for the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal women with endocrine responsive breast cancer and are important for the development of future trials for further improvement of adjuvant endocrine therapies for the younger population. PMID:26082801

  12. Plasma CRP Levels in Premenopausal Women with Major Depression: A 12-Month Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ∼30–50% and ∼70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression. PMID:19408214

  13. CHANGES IN PLASMA MULLERIAN INHIBITING SUBSTANCE AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Faisal; Merhi, Zaher O; Ahmed, Safaa; Kuzbari, Oumar; Seifer, David B.; Minkoff, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Eight premenopausal women with cancer had blood drawn for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) before and three months after receiving chemotherapy. Unlike MIS, BDNF levels were not reduced following chemotherapy. PMID:21075370

  14. Aromatase inhibitor plus ovarian suppression as adjuvant therapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Figg, William D; Cook, Katherine; Clarke, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The goal of adjuvant hormonal therapy for breast cancer is to prevent recurrence by eradicating micrometastatic disease. Recent studies have shown that the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as adjuvant therapy improves outcomes for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer compared to adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen alone. The research question has been raised whether AIs would have similar improvements in disease-free survival (DFS) in premenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer. Combining 2 phase 3 clinical trials (n = 4,690), Pagani and colleagues randomized premenopausal women with ER-positive early breast cancer to exemestane plus ovarian suppression or tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression for a period of 5 y. After a median follow-up of 68 months, DFS was 91.1% in the AI group and 87.3% in the tamoxifen group. In premenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer, adjuvant treatment with exemestane plus ovarian suppression, as compared with tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression, significantly reduced recurrence. PMID:25535893

  15. The Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Korean Women: KNHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Bo Ok; Noe, Eun Bee; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin levels increase in postmenopausal women, and they are reported to be linked to major health problems. Here, we investigated the association between serum ferritin levels and insulin resistance (IR) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 6632 healthy Korean women (4357 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007–2010 were enrolled in the study. Serum ferritin values were divided into six groups for the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. IR and obesity indices were evaluated according to the six serum ferritin groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results The association between the IR indices and ferritin groups had a higher level of statistical significance in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. In addition, for the postmenopausal group, the estimates increased significantly in the sixth ferritin group compared to those in the first ferritin group. However, the association between the obesity indices and ferritin levels was not significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:27337113

  16. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to climacteric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Idun Berenice Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To compare fibromyalgia prevalence in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to the climacteric symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred and nine women were studied, who attended the gynecology consultation at the hospital. They were divided in two groups: group I (premenopausal, n = 113) and group II (postmenopausal, n = 96). In all of them, climacteric symptoms and fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were investigated; for the latter, the evaluations were done according to the 1990 and 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Results When groups I and II were compared, no differences were found in somatometry, medicament consumption and associated diseases. When analyzing the general group, the fibromyalgia prevalence was greater in the postmenopausal women. However, when comparing the groups according to climacteric symptoms, in group I, 29% of symptomatic women had fibromyalgia, while only 4% of asymptomatic ones (p < 0.002). In group II, 15.7% of symptomatic women, and 2.5% of asymptomatic ones had fibromyalgia (p < 0.02). In group I, the more common painful points were the lower back (45.5%), neck (35.7%), and upper back (32.1%). The more frequent symptoms were non-restful sleep (49%), followed by fatigue and cognitive symptoms (42% for each one). In group II, the more common painful points were the lower back (42%), neck (40%) and upper back (38.5%). The more frequent symptoms were fatigue (69.6%), cognitive symptoms (59.3%) and non-restful sleep (57%). Conclusions In premenopausal women, fibromyalgia was related to the presence of climacteric symptoms and in postmenopausal women – to their absence. PMID:26327850

  17. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  18. Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankita; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Schliep, Karen C; Perkins, Neil J; Kissell, Kerri A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether sexual activity was associated with reproductive function in the BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study that followed 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18 to 44years for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles in 2005-2007. Women were not attempting pregnancy nor using hormonal contraceptives. History of ever having been sexually active was assessed at baseline and frequency of sexual activity, defined as vaginal-penile intercourse, was self-reported daily throughout the study. Serum concentrations of estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and testosterone were measured up to 8times/cycle. Sporadic anovulation was identified using peak progesterone concentration. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between sexual activity and reproductive hormone concentrations and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations with sporadic anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress, and alcohol consumption and accounted for repeated measures within women. Elevated concentrations of estrogen (+14.6%, P<.01), luteal progesterone (+41.0%, P<.01) and mid-cycle LH (+23.4%, P<.01), but not FSH (P=.33) or testosterone (P=.37), were observed in sexually active women compared with sexually inactive women (no prior and no study-period sexual activity); sexually active women had lower odds of sporadic anovulation (adjusted odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.73). Among sexually active women, frequency of sexual activity was not associated with hormones or sporadic anovulation (all P>.23). Findings from our study suggest that ever having been sexually active is associated with improved reproductive function, even after controlling for factors such as age. PMID:24954690

  19. Cyclic endogenous estrogen and progesterone vary by mammographic density phenotypes in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Anita; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Flote, Vidar G.; Finstad, Sissi Espetvedt; McTiernan, Anne; Ursin, Giske; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ellison, Peter T.; Jasienska, Grazyna; Thune, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen and progesterone are key factors in the development of breast cancer, but it remains unclear whether these hormones are associated with mammographic density phenotypes in premenopausal women. We measured percent mammographic density, nondense area, and absolute mammographic density using computer-assisted breast density readings (Madena) from digitized mammograms taken on a scheduled day of the menstrual cycle (day 7–12) among 202 healthy, premenopausal women (Energy Balance and Breast cancer Aspects Study-I). Daily salivary concentrations of 17β-estradiol and progesterone throughout an entire menstrual cycle and fasting morning serum concentrations of hormones on 3 specific days of the menstrual cycle were assessed. Salivary and serum 17β-estradiol and progesterone were positively associated with percent mammographic density, we observed by 1 SD increase in overall salivary estradiol (β-value equal to 2.07, P=0.044), luteal salivary progesterone (β-value equal to 2.40, P=0.020). Women with above-median percent mammographic density had a 20% higher mean salivary 17β-estradiol level throughout the menstrual cycle. The odds ratio for having above-median percent mammographic density (>28.5%) per 1 SD increase in overall salivary 17β-estradiol was 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.13–2.45). Women in the top tertile of the overall average daily 17β-estradiol concentrations had an odds ratio of 2.54 (confidence interval 1.05–6.16) of above-median percent mammographic density compared with women in the bottom tertile. Our finding of a relationship between estrogen, progesterone, and percent mammographic density and not with other mammographic density phenotypes in premenopausal women is biologically plausible, but needs to be replicated in larger studies. PMID:25714648

  20. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (p<0.001). Serum iron (p<0.0001) and intact FGF23 (p<0.01) were higher in white women. C-terminal FGF23 did not differ between races. Phosphorus correlated with intact FGF23 (white women, r=0.120, p<0.0001; black women r=0.163, p<0.01). However, phosphorus correlated with C-terminal FGF23 only in black women (r=0.157, p<0.01). Intact FGF23 did not correlate with iron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, p<0.0001; black women r=-0.188, p<0.01), having a steeper slope at iron <50mcg/dl than ≥50mcg/dl. Longitudinal changes in iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, p<0.01) in white women; femur neck BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.119, p<0.0001) in black women. Both relationships were eliminated in weight-adjusted models. BMD did not correlate with FGF23. Serum iron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in

  1. Menstrual irregularity and bone mass in premenopausal women: Cross-sectional associations with testosterone and SHBG

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been few studies examining the associations between menstrual irregularity, androgens and bone mass in population-based samples of premenopausal women. This study aimed to describe the associations between menstrual pattern, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and bone mass in a population-based sample of premenopausal women. Methods Cross-sectional study (N = 382, mean age 31.5 years). Menstrual pattern was assessed by questionnaire, bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and androgen status was assessed by levels of serum testosterone, SHBG and the free androgen index (FAI). Results Women with irregular cycles (n = 41, 11%) had higher free androgen index (FAI, P = 0.01) and higher QUS measurements including speed of sound (SOS, 1%, P < 0.05), quantitative ultrasound index (QUI, 7%, p < 0.05), and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, 7%, p = 0.10). These associations persisted after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI). After further adjustment for hormonal factors (either testosterone, SHBG or FAI), the strength of the associations was moderately attenuated, however, women with irregular cycles still had a 6% increase in mean QUS. Total testosterone, FAI and SHBG were also associated with QUS measures (testosterone and FAI, r +0.11 to +0.21, all p < 0.05; SHBG r -0.14 to -0.16, all p < 0.05) and the associations remained significant after adjustment. Conclusion Irregular menstrual cycles were associated with higher bone mass in this population-based sample of premenopausal women suggesting menstrual disturbance should continue to be evaluated but may be less harmful for bone mass. The association between menstrual irregularity and bone mass was partially mediated by markers of androgen status especially free testosterone. PMID:21190585

  2. Effect of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in premenopausal and perimenopausal women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S L; Lebrun, C M

    2006-01-01

    Seventy five articles on the effect of oral contraceptives and other hormone replacement on bone density in premenopausal and perimenopausal women were reviewed. The evidence was appraised using the Oxford Centre for Evidence‐Based Medicine levels of evidence. There is good evidence for a positive effect of oral contraceptives on bone density in perimenopausal women, and fair evidence for a positive effect in “hypothalamic” oligo/amenorrhoeic premenopausal women. There is limited evidence for a positive effect in healthy and anorexic premenopausal women. In hypothalamic oligo/amenorrhoeic women, baseline bone density has been shown to be significantly lower than that in healthy controls, therefore the decision to treat is clinically more important. The ideal formulation(s) and duration of treatment remain to be determined by further longitudinal and prospective randomised controlled trials in larger subject populations. PMID:16371485

  3. Caffeine, coffee and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways and ratios by intake categories, and P-values for tests of linear trend. Results Compared to women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; P-trend=0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (P-trend=0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; P-trend=0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; P-trend=0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1–3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend=0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Impact Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. PMID:26063478

  4. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  5. Increased vitamin D and calcium intake associated with reduced mammographic breast density among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Lewis, Toni J; Sanderson, Maureen; Dupont, William D; Fletcher, Sarah; Egan, Kathleen M; Disher, Anthony C

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D has been identified as a weak protective factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (relative risk, ~0.9), whereas high breast density has been identified as a strong risk factor (relative risk, ~4-6). To test the hypothesis that there is an association between vitamin D intake, but not circulating vitamin D levels, and mammographic breast density among women in our study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 165 screening mammography patients at Nashville General Hospital's Breast Health Center, a public facility serving medically indigent and underserved women. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements) vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by the Harvard African American Food Frequency Questionnaire, and blood samples were analyzed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Average percent breast density for the left and right breasts combined was estimated from digitized films using an interactive thresholding method available through Cumulus software. After statistical adjustment for age, race, and body mass index, the results revealed that there were significant trends of decreasing breast density with increasing vitamin D and calcium intake among premenopausal but not among postmenopausal women. There was no association between serum vitamin D and breast density in premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Confirmation of our findings in larger studies may assist in clarifying the role of vitamin D in breast density. PMID:26321093

  6. Ovarian hyperstimulation in premenopausal women during adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for endocrine-dependent breast cancer: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    MADEDDU, CLELIA; GRAMIGNANO, GIULIA; KOTSONIS, PARASKEVAS; PARIBELLO, FRANCESCO; MACCIÒ, ANTONIO

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy is an integral component of care for endocrine-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this type of therapy is to counteract the production and the action of estrogens. The ovary is the primary site of estrogen production in premenopausal women, whereas, in postmenopausal women, the main source of estrogens is adipose tissue. Therefore, ovarian function suppression is an effective adjuvant strategy in premenopausal estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Similarly, the inhibition of estrogen action at the receptor site by tamoxifen has proven to be effective. To date, international consensus statements recommend tamoxifen (20 mg/day) for five years as the standard adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women. It should be noted that tamoxifen is a potent inducer of ovarian function and consequent hyperestrogenism in premenopausal women. In the present study, we report two cases of ovarian cyst formation with very high estrogen levels and endometrial hyperplasia during the administration of tamoxifen alone as adjuvant treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in premenopausal women. These cases suggest that in young premenopausal patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, ovarian suppression is an essential prerequisite for an adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen. In this context, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist treatment by suppressing effective ovarian function may lead to a hypoestrogenic status that may positively impact breast cancer prognosis and prevent the effects of tamoxifen at the gynecological level. It is important to reconsider the action of tamoxifen on ovarian function and include these specific effects of tamoxifen in the informed consent of premenopausal patients who are candidates for tamoxifen alone as adjuvant endocrine treatment. PMID:25120706

  7. Do Premenopausal Women with Major Depression Have Low Bone Mineral Density? A 36-Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Mistry, Sima; Nguyen, Vi T.; Eskandari, Farideh; Martinez, Pedro; Torvik, Sara; Reynolds, James C.; Gold, Philip W.; Sinai, Ninet; Csako, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested, but prospective evaluation in premenopausal women is lacking. Methods Participants of this prospective study were 21 to 45 year-old premenopausal women with MDD (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 44). We measured BMD at the anteroposterior lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, mid-distal radius, trochanter, and Ward's triangle, as well as serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), ionized calcium, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, and 24-hour urinary-free cortisol levels at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured at baseline. Results At baseline, BMD tended to be lower in women with MDD compared to controls and BMD remained stable over time in both groups. At baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months intact PTH levels were significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls. At baseline, ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in women with MDD compared to controls. At baseline and 12 months, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone formation, was significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls. Plasma ACTH was also higher in women with MDD at baseline and 6 months. Serum osteocalcin, urinary N-telopeptide, serum cortisol, and urinary free cortisol levels were not different between the two groups throughout the study. Conclusion Women with MDD tended to have lower BMD than controls over time. Larger and longer studies are necessary to extend these observations with the possibility of prophylactic therapy for osteoporosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00006180 PMID:22848407

  8. Do Premenopausal Hypothyroid Women on Levothyroxine Therapy Need Bone Status Monitoring?

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ruby P; Christy, Alap; Hegde, Anupama; Manjrekar, Poornima; D’Souza, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based case–control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30–45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and history into three groups of 25 euthyroid, 25 newly diagnosed hypothyroid, and 25 hypothyroid women on 100–200 μg of levothyroxine for a minimum of 5 years. The bone changes were evaluated and compared among the groups biochemically by estimating their plasma osteocalcin and serum calcium and phosphorus and radiologically by measuring their BMD by quantitative ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was conducted by using analysis of variance, Tukey’s test, and Pearson’s correlation using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. RESULTS Levels of plasma osteocalcin, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus in patients on long-term levothyroxine therapy were significantly higher than those in newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and in the euthyroid group. BMD showed definite features of osteopenia (T-score: −2.26 ± 0.5) among the women in the treatment group, while it was well within the normal range in the newly diagnosed and euthyroid women. A significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin levels and T-score. CONCLUSION Hypothyroid women on long-term levothyroxine therapy showed signs of increased bone turnover and increased resorptive changes, though not frank osteoporosis. Hence, it may be important to evaluate the bone status of patients on levothyroxine for >5 years. PMID:25861238

  9. Effect of misoprostol for cervical priming before gynecological procedures on nonpregnant premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Monimala; Chakraborty, Aparna; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Saha, Subhendu; Paul, Joydip; Das, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misoprostol is very effective in cervical ripening and is used for termination of pregnancy. A similar effect on the nonpregnant uterus will facilitate gynecological operations, and hence we assessed the effect of misoprostol on the nonpregnant uterus of premenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, 280 women were randomly allocated into two groups (12 women did not complete the intervention). Study (A) and control (B) group received 400 μg of misoprostol or 400 mg of metronidazole tablets (as a placebo) respectively in the posterior vaginal wall 6 h prior to gynecological procedures. Results: The mean cervical dilatation was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in misoprostol compared to placebo group (4.6 ± 0.96 mm vs. 3.6 ± 0.82 mm), benefit were also observed on secondary outcome measures which were need for further dilatation, time taken for further dilatation, ease of dilatation, subjective assessment of pain by visual analog scale. Only 3.61% patients complained of intolerable pain during dilatation in the study group while in control group 48.74% complained of intolerable pain and required anesthesia. Most common side effects of misoprostol were abdominal pain and mild vaginal bleeding. Conclusion: Misoprostol was effective in cervical ripening of nonpregnant premenopausal uterus to facilitate gynecological procedures. PMID:26604599

  10. Effect of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene on the Proliferative Activity of the Breast Epithelium in Premenopausal Women*

    PubMed Central

    Lucato, Miliana T; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Moreira, Marise AR; Bernardes-Junior, Júlio RM; Pinto, Sebastião A; Paulinelli, Regis R; Soares, Leonardo R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the effects of tamoxifen and raloxifene on the proliferative activity of normal breast tissue in premenopausal women as measured by Ki-67/MIB-1 expression. STUDY DESIGN A total of 48 women with benign breast nodules and a recommendation for surgical removal of the lesion took part in this study. They were randomized to use tamoxifen or raloxifene for 22 days, after which they were submitted to surgery. During the surgical procedure, a 1-cm fragment of normal breast tissue was removed to study Ki-67 expression. RESULTS The mean percentage ratios between immunolabeled and non-labeled cells were 2.02 ± 1.09 and 3.13 ± 3.23 for the tamoxifen and raloxifene groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the tamoxifen (n = 16) and raloxifene (n = 14) groups in relation to the immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 (P = 0.205). CONCLUSION The results of this study showed no difference between tamoxifen and raloxifene with respect to the potential of these drugs to reduce the proliferative activity of the normal breast epithelium in premenopausal women. PMID:25861235

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men. PMID:10957749

  12. Does the addition of saline infusion sonohysterography to transvaginal ultrasonography prevent unnecessary hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding?

    PubMed

    Short, John; Sharp, Benjamin; Elliot, Nikki; McEwing, Rachael; McGeoch, Graham; Shand, Brett; Holland, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    This observational case series in 65 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding evaluated whether transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) prevented unnecessary hysteroscopy. Although SIS indicated that hysteroscopy was unnecessary in eight women, this benefit was offset by the invasive nature of the scan, the number of endometrial abnormalities falsely detected by SIS and the cost of the additional investigation. PMID:27363343

  13. Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs among Older Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Young; Lee, Eunice E.; Kim, Mi Ja; Fogg, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Korean American women’s breast cancer screening rates are low, and the rates among older Korean American women are even lower. This article describes health beliefs related to older Korean American women’s screening behaviors, comparing them to beliefs of younger Korean American women. The 73 women age 65 and older had significantly different health beliefs than the 114 women between ages 40 and 64. Further, older women’s perceptions of the seriousness of the disease and benefits of and barriers to taking action to prevent the disease predated their screening behaviors. Interventions to change the health beliefs of older Korean American women are suggested. PMID:19715259

  14. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = -0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = -0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  15. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = −0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = −0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  16. Challenges in the Gynecologic Care of Premenopausal Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Laughlin, Shannon K.; Jensen, Jani R.; Akogyeram, Clement O.; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-01-01

    Premenopausal women with a new diagnosis of breast cancer are faced with many challenges. Providing health care for issues such as gynecologic comorbidities, reproductive health concerns, and vasomotor symptom control can be complicated because of the risks of hormone treatments and the adverse effects of adjuvant therapies. It is paramount that health care professionals understand and be knowledgeable about hormonal and nonhormonal treatments and their pharmacological parameters so they can offer appropriate care to women who have breast cancer, with the goal of improving quality of life. Articles for this review were identified by searching the PubMed database with no date limitations. The following search terms were used: abnormal uterine bleeding, physiologic sex steroids, endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic sterilization, fertility preservation in endometrial cancer, tranexamic acid and breast cancer, menorrhagia treatment and breast cancer, abnormal uterine bleeding and premenopausal breast cancer, levonorgestrel IUD and breast cancer, tamoxifen and gynecologic abnormalities, tamoxifen metabolism, hormones and breast cancer risk, contraception and breast cancer, pregnancy and breast cancer, and breast cancer and infertility treatment. PMID:21307388

  17. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women. PMID:24832215

  18. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  19. Significance of Ovarian Function Suppression in Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer in Pre-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Scharl, A.; Salterberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian function suppression (OFS) for treating breast cancer in pre-menopausal women was introduced for the first time in the late 19th century as bilateral oophorectomy. It was not until the 1960s that the oestrogen receptor was identified and a test for detecting endocrine sensitivity of the breast cancer was developed. A weakness of early trials on OFS for breast cancer treatment is therefore their failure to take receptor sensitivity into account when selecting participants. A meta-analysis performed in the early 1990s first proved that adjuvant OFS significantly improved the cure rate of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre-menopausal women regardless of whether it was carried out through oophorectomy, radiation-induced ablation or drug therapy. In the 1970s, tamoxifen was synthesized. It became one of the most important cancer drugs and today constitutes the gold standard for endocrine adjuvant therapy. Taking tamoxifen for a five-year period lowers mortality by 30 % over 15 years. Ten years of tamoxifen therapy reduces mortality even further, with increased side effects, however. Research over the past ten years has proven that for post-menopausal women, aromatase inhibitors have benefits over tamoxifen. Current trial results have rekindled the debate about the combination of OFS with tamoxifen or with aromatase inhibitors for adjuvant breast cancer treatment of pre-menopausal women. These trials have reported an improvement in disease-free survival in patients with a high risk of recurrence when they are treated with a combination of OFS plus tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, especially in women younger than 35. However, combination therapy causes significantly more side effects, which could negatively impact compliance. Endocrine treatments administered over a period of many years show waning compliance, which tends to be only around 50 % after five years. Inadequate compliance compromises efficacy and increases the risk of mortality. For

  20. Ovarian failure and cancer treatment: Incidence and interventions for premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Ovarian failure may be a long-term consequence of cancer treatment for premenopausal women. Caused by several treatments, including radiation therapy and the alkylating agents, it produces signs and symptoms associated with menopause: hot flashes, amenorrhea, dyspareunia, loss of libido, and irritability. Critical factors that determine ovarian functioning after treatment for cancer are the patient's age at the time of therapy, the amount of radiation that the ovaries received, and the dose of the antineoplastic agent(s). Medical interventions, such as hormonal therapy and surgical repositioning of the ovaries, may maintain ovarian function for some women. Nursing intervention includes assessment, education, and counseling. Counseling focuses on how the prematurely menopausal patient feels about herself as indicated by self-esteem, body image, and sexuality.

  1. Should we recommend hysterectomy more often to premenopausal and climacteric women?

    PubMed

    Qvigstad, Erik; Langebrekke, Anton

    2011-08-01

    In developed countries, women live on average over 30 years as postmenopausal. In the premenopausal and climacteric period, abnormal uterine bleeding and other symptoms may occur. In addition, endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, and possible hormone replacement therapy is much more beneficial among women with prior hysterectomy. With this background and the recommended use of minimally invasive surgical techniques, we argue in favor of more liberal hysterectomy practice before and around the menopause. Many will disagree, because for many years we have argued to save the uterus, but considering pros and cons with the patient in focus, we discuss the topic and advertise for studies to support our view. PMID:21615359

  2. The effects of ethinylestradiol and progestins ("the pill") on cognitive function in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Andrea; Wu, YeeWen Candace; Williams, Amy S; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs), often referred to as "the pill", are the most commonly employed form of reversible contraception. OCs are comprised of combined synthetic estrogen and progestin, which work to suppress ovulation and subsequently protect against pregnancy. To date, almost 200 million women have taken various formulations of OC, making it one of the most widely consumed classes of medication in the world. While a substantial body of literature has been dedicated to understanding the physical effects of OCs, much less is known about the long term consequences of OC use on brain anatomy and the associated cognitive effects. Accumulating evidence suggests that sex hormones may significantly affect human cognition. This phenomenon has been commonly studied in older populations, such as in post-menopausal women, while research in healthy, pre-menopausal women remains limited. The current review focused on the effects of OCs on human cognition, with the majority of studies comparing pre-menopausal OC users to naturally cycling women. Human neuroimaging data and animal studies are also described herein. Taken together, the published findings on OC use and human cognition are varied. Of those that do report positive results, OC users appear to have improved verbal memory, associative learning and spatial attention. We recommend future research to employ blinding procedures and randomised designs. Further, more detailed information pertaining to the specific generation and phasic type of OCs, as well as menstrual cycle phase of the OC non-users should be considered to help unmask the potential impact of OC use on human cognition. PMID:25266552

  3. Transdermal contraception and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Cherney, David; Miller, Judith; Ahmed, Sofia B; Lai, Vesta; Dunn, Sheila; Pun, Nicole; Moineddin, Rahim; Hladunewich, Michelle A

    2015-03-15

    The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) through first-pass hepatic metabolism. Although usually benign, RAAS activation may have detrimental effects on renal and hemodynamic function in some women. Since combined hormonal contraception with the transdermal patch (EVRA) does not undergo first-pass hepatic metabolism, we hypothesized that the RAAS response would be different from that of OCP subjects. Thirty-five nonsmoking, premenopausal women (15 control subjects, 10 OCP subjects, and 10 contraceptive patch subjects) without evidence of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or diabetes were studied. Baseline angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and plasma renin activity were assessed along with hormonal and hemodynamic responses to simulated orthostatic stress using incremental lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -15, -25, and -40 mmHg). Baseline levels of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, and plasma renin activity were significantly higher in OCP subjects compared with normotensive control and contraceptive patch subjects (P < 0.05), whereas aldosterone was significantly higher in OCP versus control subjects only (P < 0.05). Plasma renin levels were significantly lower at baseline in contraceptive patch subjects compared with normotensive control and OCP subjects (P < 0.05). In response to LBNP, increases in renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were attenuated in contraceptive patch subjects in conjunction with an exaggerated decline in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.05 vs. control and OCP subjects). The contraceptive patch in healthy premenopausal women is associated with an impaired ability to maintain blood pressure in response to LBNP, possibly due to insensitivity of the endogenous RAAS. Further evaluation may be beneficial in women with kidney disease. PMID:25587124

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Terryl J; Sisti, Julia S; Hankinson, Susan E; Xu, Xia; Eliassen, A Heather; Ziegler, Regina

    2016-02-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the associations of usual total alcohol and wine intake with a comprehensive profile of mid-luteal phase urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (referred to jointly as EM) in a sample of 603 premenopausal women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). A total of 15 individual EM (pmol/mg creatinine) were measured by a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with high accuracy and reproducibility. We used linear mixed models to calculate the adjusted geometric means of individual EM, EM grouped by metabolic pathways, and pathway ratios by category of alcohol intake with non-drinkers of alcohol as the referent. Total alcohol intake was not associated with total EM but was positively associated with estradiol (26% higher among women consuming >15 g/day vs. non-drinkers; P trend = 0.03). Wine consumption was positively associated with a number of EM measures including estradiol (22% higher among women consuming ≥ 5 drinks/week vs. non-drinkers, P trend < 0.0001). In conclusion, the total alcohol intake was positively and significantly associated with urinary estradiol levels. Some differences in urinary estrogen metabolites were observed with wine drinking, when compared with non-drinkers. This study strengthens the evidence that alcohol consumption might play a role in breast cancer and other estrogen-related conditions. Additional studies of premenopausal women are needed to further explore the association of alcohol, particularly the specific types of alcohol, on patterns of estrogen metabolism in blood, urine, and tissue. PMID:26728472

  5. Vasomotor symptoms in infertile premenopausal women: a hitherto unappreciated risk for low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Lubna; Norian, John; Zeitlian, Gohar; Bevilacqua, Kris; Freeman, Ruth; Santoro, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in a population of premenopausal infertile women and to determine if VMS associate with enhanced bone turnover and low bone mineral density (BMD). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic infertility practice. Patients 82 premenopausal infertile but otherwise healthy women attending for routine infertility care. Intervention BMD testing, general health and profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaires, serum samples (cycle days 1–3). Main Outcome Measures VMS, specifically hot flashes-HF and night sweats-NS; BMD-Z score, BMD categorized as “Low” (Z ≤ −1.0 ) or “Normal” (Z > −1.0); ovarian reserve assessment (biochemical and ovarian dimensions on transvaginal ultrasound); serum markers of bone turnover (NTX, TRAP, BSAP) and ovarian reserve (FSH, Estradiol and Inhibin B). Multivariable regression analyses determined the associations between VMS, BMD and bone turnover (individual markers and composite turnover score). Results The prevalence of VMS was 12% in this relatively young population (mean age 34.53 ± SD 4.32). Symptomatic women were significantly more likely to report sleep disturbances (p<0.01), exhibit evidence of low BMD (p<0.01), enhanced bone turnover and poorer ovarian reserve parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed HF (p<0.01) and NS (p<0.01) as independent correlates to low BMD after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve status. Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated that NS, but not HF, predicted higher bone turnover (p= 0.02) after adjusting for age, smoking, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve. Conclusions We demonstrate, in a premenopausal population of infertile women, evidence of morbid accompaniments to VMS, including sleep disturbances and evidence of low BMD. Our data further suggest a state of enhanced bone turnover in association with VMS, specifically in those

  6. Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and subsequent risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Eliassen, A Heather; Spiegelman, Donna; Xu, Xia; Keefer, Larry K; Veenstra, Timothy D; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-02-01

    Endogenous estrogens and estrogen metabolism are hypothesized to be associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk but evidence is limited. We examined 15 urinary estrogens/estrogen metabolites and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). From 1996 to 1999, urine was collected from 18,521 women during the mid-luteal menstrual phase. Breast cancer cases (N = 247) diagnosed between collection and June 2005 were matched to two controls each (N = 485). Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted for creatinine level. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Higher urinary estrone and estradiol levels were strongly significantly associated with lower risk (top vs. bottom quartile RR: estrone = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.88; estradiol = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). Generally inverse, although nonsignificant, patterns also were observed with 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathway estrogen metabolites. Inverse associations generally were not observed with 16-pathway estrogen metabolites and a significant positive association was observed with 17-epiestriol (top vs. bottom quartile RR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.81; P(trend) = 0.01). In addition, there was a significant increased risk with higher 16-pathway/parent estrogen metabolite ratio (comparable RR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.99-2.62; P(trend) = 0.04). Other pathway ratios were not significantly associated with risk except parent estrogen metabolites/non-parent estrogen metabolites (comparable RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96; P(trend) = 0.03). These data suggest that most mid-luteal urinary estrogen metabolite concentrations are not positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. The inverse associations with parent estrogen metabolites and the parent estrogen metabolite/non-parent estrogen metabolite ratio

  7. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  8. A-FABP concentration is more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in premenopausal than in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Anna; Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  9. Challenges in Treating Premenopausal Women with Endocrine-Sensitive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Azim, Hatem A; Davidson, Nancy E; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    For the hundreds of thousands of premenopausal women who are diagnosed annually with endocrine-sensitive breast cancer, treatment strategies are complex. For many, chemotherapy may not be necessary, and endocrine therapy decision making is paramount. Options for adjuvant endocrine regimens include tamoxifen for 5 years, tamoxifen for 10 years, ovarian function suppression (OFS) plus tamoxifen for 5 years, and OFS plus an aromatase inhibitor for 5 years. There are modest differences in efficacy between these regimens, with a benefit from OFS most obvious among patients with higher-risk disease; therefore, choosing which should be used for a given patient requires consideration of expected toxicities and patient preferences. An aromatase inhibitor cannot be safely prescribed without OFS in this setting. Additional research is needed to determine whether genomic tests such as Prosigna and Endopredict can help with decision making about optimal duration of endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients. Endocrine therapy side effects can include hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, osteoporosis, and infertility, all of which may impair quality of life and can encourage nonadherence with treatment. Ovarian function suppression worsens menopausal side effects. Hot flashes tend to be worse with tamoxifen/OFS, whereas sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis tend to be worse with aromatase inhibitors/OFS. Pregnancy is safe after endocrine therapy, and some survivors can conceive naturally. Still, embryo or oocyte cryopreservation should be considered at the time of diagnosis for patients with endocrine-sensitive disease who desire future childbearing, particularly if they will undergo chemotherapy. PMID:27249683

  10. Korean American Women and Mammogram Uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunice E; Nandy, Karabi; Szalacha, Laura; Park, HanJong; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Lee, Jongwon; Menon, Usha

    2016-02-01

    A high percentage of Korean American (KA) women have never had a mammogram, which puts them at greater risk for late-stage breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare health beliefs and spousal support about breast cancer and screening between KA women with and without a history of mammogram completion. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 428 non-adherent married KA women. KA women who never had a mammogram were younger, had less access to health care, had less knowledge, and had lower perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and spousal support, and higher perceived barriers to breast cancer screening compared to women who had had a mammogram. Assessing differing characteristics between the two groups of KA women may lead to a better understanding of the variables influencing mammography screening in this population and possibly increase early screening. PMID:25669627

  11. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Mohr, M; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M; Nielsen, H P; Mortensen, J; Weihe, P; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21; FTG) and a control group (n = 20; CON). FTG performed 45 ± 1 1-h small-sided football training sessions during the 15-week intervention period. BP, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. After 15 weeks, systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, were lowered more (P < 0.05) in FTG (-12 ± 3 and -6 ± 2 mmHg) than in CON (-1 ± 1 and 1 ± 2 mmHg). Total body fat mass decreased more (P < 0.05) in FTG than in CON during the 15-week intervention period (-2.3 ± 0.5 kg vs 0.4 ± 0.3 kg). After 15 weeks, both total cholesterol (-0.4 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 0.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L) and triglyceride (-0.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 0.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L) were lowered more (P < 0.05) in FTG than in CON. Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 test performance increased more (P < 0.05) in FTG than in CON (111 ± 18% vs 1 ± 3%) during the 15-week intervention period. In conclusion, short-term football training resulted in a marked reduction in BP and induced multiple improvements in fitness and cardiovascular health profile of untrained, premenopausal women with mild hypertension. PMID:24944131

  12. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

  13. Chronic dietary fiber supplementation with wheat dextrin does not inhibit calcium and magnesium absorption in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover clinical study examined the effect of chronic wheat dextrin intake on calcium and magnesium absorption. Forty premenopausal and post menopausal women (mean +/- SD age 49.9 +/- 9.8 years)consumed wheat dextrin or placebo (15 g/day) for 2 weeks prior to 4...

  14. Gender specific differences in the kinetics of TRL, IDL and LDL apolipoprotein B-100 in men and premenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate mechanisms underlying gender differences in serum lipoprotein concentrations, the kinetic behavior of apoB-100 was assessed. Twenty subjects (<50 years; n=12 men and n=8 premenopausal women) were provided a standardized Western diet for 4-6 weeks, at the end of which the kinetics of a...

  15. Reduced progesterone levels explain the reduced risk of breast cancer in obese premenopausal women: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between obesity and breast cancer is fundamental to our knowledge of the etiology of this malignancy; changes in the composition of the hormonal milieu are implicit in this process. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by aromatase in the gonads and in peripheral tissues, principally, adipose tissue. Obesity in women, regardless of their age, leads to more aromatase and more extra-glandular estrogen production. In postmenopausal women, in whom ovarian estrogen production is absent, the increased incidence of breast cancer in women with high body mass index has been attributed to the relatively high plasma levels of estradiol from subcutaneous fat. In contrast, obesity in premenopausal women is associated with a previously unexplained reduced incidence of breast cancer. In obese premenopausal women, the cumulative effect of higher levels of estrogens synthesized in the peripheral tissues, together with ovarian estrogen production, results in a negative feedback on the hypothalamic pituitary controlled release of gonadotrophins and a resultant diminution in ovarian steroid production. As a consequence, the normal balance of estrogen and progesterone levels is disrupted: while estrogen levels are normalized, progesterone production is markedly decreased. Progesterone is a promoter of proliferation in the breast. The low levels of progesterone in obese premenopausal women are consistent with, and we propose, are responsible for, the reduction in breast cancer incidence in these women. PMID:25414027

  16. Dietary calcium and bone mineral density in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chong, H C; Chee, S S; Goh, E M L; Chow, S K; Yeap, S S

    2007-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on corticosteroids (CS). The secondary aim was to identify other risk factors for osteoporosis in these patients. A cross-sectional sample of patients attending the SLE Clinic at a teaching hospital was recruited. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Daily dietary calcium intake was assessed using a structured validated food frequency questionnaire, in which patients were asked to estimate their food intake based on their recent 2-month dietary habits. Sixty subjects were recruited with a mean age of 33.70+/-8.46 years. The median duration of CS use was 5.5 years (range 0.08-24). The median cumulative dose of steroids was 17.21 g (range 0.16-91.37). The median daily dietary calcium intake was 483 mg (range 78-2101). There was no significant correlation between calcium intake and BMD, even after correcting for CS use. There were also no correlations between BMD and the duration of SLE, cumulative CS use, duration of CS use, smoking, alcohol intake, and SLE disease activity index score. Twenty-eight (46.7%) patients had normal BMD, 28 (46.7%) had osteopenia, and four (6.6%) had osteoporosis. Duration of SLE significantly correlated with cumulative CS dosage. In conclusion, 6.7% of these Asian premenopausal SLE women had osteoporosis and only 46.7% had normal BMD. Daily dietary calcium intake did not correlate with BMD. PMID:16565892

  17. Bone mineral loss induced by anticancer treatment for gynecological malignancies in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Keina; Tanabe, Akiko; Maruoka, Risa; Nakamura, Kiyoko; Takai, Masaaki; Sekijima, Tatsuharu; Tunetoh, Satoshi; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although surgical menopause may increase the risks of osteoporosis, few studies have investigated the influence of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of treatments for gynecological malignancies on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This study enrolled 35 premenopausal women (15 ovarian cancers (OCs), 9 endometrial cancers (ECs), and 11 cervical cancers (CCs)) who underwent surgical treatment that included bilateral oophorectomy with or without adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in OC and EC patients, or concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) in CC patients according to the established protocols at the Osaka Medical College Hospital between 2006 and 2008. The BMD of the lumbar spine (L1–L4) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and urine cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were assessed for evaluation of bone resorption and bone formation respectively. These assessments were performed at baseline and 12 months after treatment. Results Although the serum BAP was significantly increased only in the CC group, a rapid increase in the bone resorption marker urinary NTx was observed in all groups. The BMD, 12 months after CCRT was significantly decreased in the CC group at 91.9±5.9% (P<0.05 in comparison to the baseline). Conclusion This research suggests that anticancer therapies for premenopausal women with gynecological malignancies increase bone resorption and may reduce BMD, particularly in CC patients who have received CCRT. Therefore, gynecologic cancer survivors should be educated about these potential risks and complications. PMID:23781313

  18. Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Anna Z; Mumford, Sunni L; Mendola, Pauline; Perkins, Neil J; Rotman, Yaron; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2015-01-01

    Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels, but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women apparently has not been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/L, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Each twofold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each twofold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A twofold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function. PMID:25424620

  19. Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Anna Z.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Mendola, Pauline; Perkins, Neil J.; Rotman, Yaron; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2014-01-01

    Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women has not apparently been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n=259) were followed for up to two menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/l, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/l, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73m2). Each 2-fold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each 2-fold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A 2-fold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function. PMID:25424620

  20. Body Size in Relation to Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites (EM) among Premenopausal Women during the Luteal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Eliassen, A. Heather; Xu, Xia; Matthews, Charles E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen metabolism profiles may play an important role in the relationship between body size and breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we observed inverse associations between current body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of parent estrogens (estrone and estradiol) among premenopausal women during both follicular and luteal phases. Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), we assessed whether height, current BMI, and BMI at age 18 were associated with the urinary concentrations of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly referred to as EM) measured during the luteal phase among 603 premenopausal women. We observed inverse associations with total EM for height (Ptrend=0.01) and current BMI (Ptrend=0.01), but not BMI at age 18 (Ptrend=0.26). Six EMs were 18–27% lower in women with a height 68+ inches versus ≤62 inches, primarily in the methylated catechol pathway (Ptrend=0.04). Eight EMs were 18–50% lower in women with a BMI of 30+ versus <20, primarily in the 2-catechol and methylated catechol pathways (Ptrend<0.001 for both). Our results suggest that height and current BMI are associated with estrogen metabolism profiles in premenopausal women. Further studies with timed urine and blood collections are required to confirm and extend our findings. PMID:23011724

  1. Variation in Inflammatory Cytokine/Growth-Factor Genes and Mammographic Density in Premenopausal Women Aged 50–55

    PubMed Central

    Ozhand, Ali; Lee, Eunjung; Wu, Anna H.; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Akslen, Lars A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Ursin, Giske

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) has been found to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Although data from twin studies suggest that MD has a strong genetic component, the exact genes involved remain to be identified. Alterations in stromal composition and the number of epithelial cells are the most predominant histopathological determinants of mammographic density. Interactions between the breast stroma and epithelium are critically important in the maturation and development of the mammary gland and the cross-talk between these cells are mediated by paracrine growth factors and cytokines. The potential impact of genetic variation in growth factors and cytokines on MD is largely unknown. Methods We investigated the association between 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 cytokine/growth-factor genes (FGFR2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, TGFB1, TNF, VEGF, IL6) and percent MD in 301 premenopausal women (aged 50 to 55 years) participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated the suggestive associations in 216 premenopausal Singapore Chinese Women of the same age. Results We found statistically significant associations between 9 tagging SNPs in the IL6 gene and MD in Norwegian women; the effect ranged from 3–5% in MD per variant allele (p-values = 0.02 to 0.0002). One SNP in the IL6 (rs10242595) significantly influenced MD in Singapore Chinese women. Conclusion Genetic variations in IL6 may be associated with MD and therefore may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. PMID:23762340

  2. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and ovarian reserve in pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jukic, Anne Marie Z.; Steiner, Anne Z.; Baird, Donna D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D has been linked to anti-Müllerian hormone levels, suggesting a possible association with greater ovarian reserve, but large population-based studies are lacking. Our objective was to explore the association between vitamin D and FSH in premenopausal women. Methods The Uterine Fibroid Study (1996 – 1999) enrolled randomly-selected 30 – 49 year-old members of a Washington D. C. health plan (N=1430). Women provided a blood and urine sample in addition to questionnaire data. The vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in stored plasma samples. Urinary FSH (mIU/mg creatinine) was measured with an immunofluorometric assay. To obtain baseline measures, this investigation was limited to urine samples collected in the first 5 days of the menstrual cycle or 5 days prior to menses onset. Additionally, post-menopausal women and women using oral contraceptives were excluded, leaving 527 women in our analysis. FSH was creatinine-adjusted, normalized by log-transformation, and then modeled with multivariable linear regression. Results The median 25(OH)D level was 12 ng/mL, with approximately 75% of participants below the recommended level of 20 ng/mL. FSH and 25(OH)D were inversely related. For an increase of 10 ng/mL in 25(OH)D, urinary FSH decreased 14% (95% Confidence Interval: −23%, −5%), p=0.003. Conclusions Vitamin D is inversely related to FSH. This is consistent with literature relating low vitamin D with lower anti-Müllerian hormone. Prospective studies should investigate whether low levels of vitamin D contribute to decreased ovarian reserve. PMID:25093721

  3. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  4. Association between plasma zinc concentration and zinc kinetic parameters in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Egger, Norman G; Ramanujam, V M Sadagopa; Alcock, Nancy W; Dayal, Hari H; Penland, James G; Sandstead, Harold H

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure relationships between plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations and Zn kinetic parameters and to measure relationships of Zn status with taste acuity, food frequency, and hair Zn in humans. The subjects were 33 premenopausal women not taking oral contraceptives and dietary supplements containing iron and Zn. Main outcomes were plasma Zn concentrations, Zn kinetic parameters based on the three-compartment mammillary model using 67Zn as a tracer, electrical taste detection thresholds, and food frequencies. Lower plasma Zn was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with smaller sizes of the central and the lesser peripheral Zn pools, faster disappearance of tracer from plasma, and higher transfer rate constants from the lesser peripheral pool to the central pool and from the central pool to the greater peripheral pool. The break points in the plasma Zn-Zn kinetics relationship were found between 9.94 and 11.5 micromol/l plasma Zn. Smaller size of the lesser peripheral pool was associated with lower frequency of beef consumption and higher frequency of bran breakfast cereal consumption. Hypozincemic women with plasma Zn <10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml had decreased thresholds of electrical stimulation for gustatory nerves. Our results based on Zn kinetics support the conventional cutoff value of plasma Zn (10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml) between normal and low Zn status. PMID:12865259

  5. Comparison of DXA and CT in the assessment of body composition in premenopausal women with obesity and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bredella, Miriam A; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J; Torriani, Martin; Brick, Danielle J; Gerweck, Anu V; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2010-11-01

    Accurate methods for assessing body composition in subjects with obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) are important for determination of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and to monitor therapeutic interventions. The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring abdominal and thigh fat, and thigh muscle mass in premenopausal women with obesity, AN, and normal weight compared to computed tomography (CT). In addition, we wanted to assess the impact of hydration on DXA-derived measures of body composition by using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We studied a total of 91 premenopausal women (34 obese, 39 with AN, and 18 lean controls). Our results demonstrate strong correlations between DXA- and CT-derived body composition measurements in AN, obese, and lean controls (r = 0.77-0.95, P < 0.0001). After controlling for total body water (TBW), the correlation coefficients were comparable. DXA trunk fat correlated with CT visceral fat (r = 0.51-0.70, P < 0.0001). DXA underestimated trunk and thigh fat and overestimated thigh muscle mass and this error increased with increasing weight. Our study showed that DXA is a useful method for assessing body composition in premenopausal women within the phenotypic spectrum ranging from obesity to AN. However, it is important to recognize that DXA may not accurately assess body composition in markedly obese women. The level of hydration does not significantly affect most DXA body composition measurements, with the exceptions of thigh fat. PMID:20111013

  6. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fassio, A; Idolazzi, L; Jaber, M A; Dartizio, C; Viapiana, O; Rossini, M; Gatti, D

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD) values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI) the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself. PMID:27608794

  7. Adherence to Cancer Prevention Recommendations and Antioxidant and Inflammatory Status in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Cooney, Robert V.; Franke, Adrian A.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund & American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasize recommendations to improve individual behavior including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant based diet, and minimizing the consumption of calorie dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats, and alcohol. In this study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol, and urinary F2-isoprostane. The statistical analysis applied linear regression across categories of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations. Overall, 72 women were classified as low (≤4), 150 as moderate (5–6), and 53 as high adherers (≥7). The unadjusted means for CRP were 2.7, 2.0, and 1.7 mg/L for low, moderate, and high adherers (ptrend=0.03); this association was strengthened after adjustment for confounders (ptrend=0.006). The respective values for serum γ-tocopherol were 1.97, 1.63, and 1.45 μg/mL (ptrend=0.02 before and ptrend=0.03 after adjustment). Only for urinary F2-isoprostane, the lower values in high adherers (16.0, 14.5, and 13.3 ng/mL) did not reach statistical significance (ptrend=0.18). In an analysis by body mass index (BMI), overweight and obese women had higher biomarker levels than normal weight women; the trend was significant for CRP (ptrend<0.001) and γ-tocopherol (ptrend=0.003) but not for F2-isoprostane (ptrend=0.14). These findings suggest that both adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines and normal BMI status are associated with lower levels of biomarkers that indicate oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26051510

  8. Mobile Phone App Aimed at Improving Iron Intake and Bioavailability in Premenopausal Women: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Lynn; Lim, Karen; Byrne, Linda K; Nowson, Caryl; Rigo, Manuela; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Booth, Alison O

    2015-01-01

    Background Low iron intake can lead to iron deficiency, which can result in impaired health and iron-deficiency anemia. A mobile phone app, combining successful dietary strategies to increase bioavailable iron with strategies for behavior change, such as goal setting, monitoring, feedback, and resources for knowledge acquisition, was developed with the aim to increase bioavailable iron intake in premenopausal women. Objective To evaluate the content, usability, and acceptability of a mobile phone app designed to improve intake of bioavailable dietary iron. Methods Women aged 18-50 years with an Android mobile phone were invited to participate. Over a 2-week period women were asked to interact with the app. Following this period, semistructured focus groups with participants were conducted. Focus groups were audio recorded and analyzed via an inductive open-coding method using the qualitative analysis software NVivo 10. Themes were identified and frequency of code occurrence was calculated. Results Four focus groups (n=26) were conducted (age range 19-36 years, mean 24.7, SD 5.2). Two themes about the app’s functionality were identified (frequency of occurrence in brackets): interface and design (134) and usability (86). Four themes about the app’s components were identified: goal tracker (121), facts (78), photo diary (40), and games (46). A number of suggestions to improve the interface and design of the app were provided and will inform the ongoing development of the app. Conclusions This research indicates that participants are interested in iron and their health and are willing to use an app utilizing behavior change strategies to increase intake of bioavailable iron. The inclusion of information about the link between diet and health, monitoring and tracking of the achievement of dietary goals, and weekly reviews of goals were also seen as valuable components of the app and should be considered in mobile health apps aimed at adult women. PMID:26416479

  9. The Effect of Raloxifene on Mammographic Density and Breast MRI in Premenopausal Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Orzano-Birgani, Jennifer; Chow, Catherine K.; Venzon, David; Yao, Jianhua; Galbo, Claudia E.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Prindiville, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. MD and breast MRI volume (MRIV) assess the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the breast. MD and MRIV can be modulated with hormonal interventions, suggesting that these imaging modalities may be useful as surrogate endpoint biomarkers for breast cancer chemoprevention trials. We evaluated the effect of raloxifene on MD and MRIV in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Mammograms and MRIs were obtained at baseline and after one and two years of raloxifene 60 mg by mouth daily for 27 premenopausal women. Mammographic percent dense area was calculated using a semi-quantitative thresholding technique. T1 weighted spoiled gradient-echo MRI with fat suppression was used to determine breast MRIV using a semiautomatic method. Mean change in MD and median change in MRIV were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results No significant change in MD was seen after treatment with raloxifene. Mean change after one year was 1% (95% CI -3 to +5) and after two years was 1% (95% CI -2 to +5). MRIV decreased on raloxifene. Median relative change in MRIV after one year was -17% (95% CI % -28 to -9; p=0.0017) and after two years was -16% (95% CI -31 to -4; p=0.0004). Conclusions In high risk premenopausal women MD did not change on raloxifene, while MRIV significantly declined. Our findings suggest that MRIV is a promising surrogate biomarker in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer and should be investigated further in breast cancer prevention trials. PMID:18583470

  10. Endometrial evaluation with transvaginal ultrasonography for the screening of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in premenopausal and perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to determine clinical factors and sonographic findings associated with endometrial hyperplasia or cancer (EH+) in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. Methods A total of 14,340 transvaginal ultrasonography examinations of 9,888 healthy premenopausal and perimenopausal women were included in this retrospective study. One hundred sixty-two subjects underwent endometrial biopsy based on abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), sonographic endometrial abnormalities (thickened endometrium, endometrial mass, or endometrial stripe abnormality), or both. The clinical factors and sonographic endometrial abnormalities were evaluated with regard to EH+. Results Histologically verified EH+ was found in fourteen subjects (8.6%); ten cases of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) without atypia, three cases of EH with atypia (AEH), and one case of endometrial cancer. Neither clinical factors nor AUB were associated with EH+ (P=0.32) or AEH+ (P=0.72). Of sonographic findings, endometrial stripe abnormality was significantly associated with EH+ (P=0.003) and marginally associated with AEH+ (P=0.05), but a thickened endometrium was not associated with EH+ (P=0.43). Conclusion Endometrial stripe abnormality is a significant factor to predict EH+ in healthy premenopausal and perimenopausal women with and without AUB. However, simple measurement of endometrial thickness has a limited role in this capacity. PMID:27200309

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor in premenopausal women--indicator of the best time for breast cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Heer, K.; Kumar, H.; Speirs, V.; Greenman, J.; Drew, P. J.; Fox, J. N.; Carleton, P. J.; Monson, J. R.; Kerin, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Timing of surgery in premenopausal patients with breast cancer remains controversial. Angiogenesis is essential for tumour growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent angiogenic cytokines. We aimed to determine whether the study of VEGF in relation to the menstrual cycle could help further the understanding of this issue of surgical intervention. Fourteen premenopausal women were recruited, along with three post-menopausal women, a woman on an oral contraceptive pill and a single male subject. Between eight and 11 samples were taken per person, over one menstrual cycle (over 1 month in the five controls) and analysed for sex hormones and VEGF165. Serum VEGF was significantly lower in the luteal phase and showed a significant negative correlation with progesterone in all 14 premenopausal women. No inter-sample variations of VEGF were noted in the controls. Serum from both phases of the cycle from one subject was added to MCF-7 breast cancer cells; VEGF expression in the supernatant was lower in the cells to which the luteal phase serum was added. The lowering of a potent angiogenic cytokine in the luteal phase suggests a possible decreased potential for micrometastasis establishment in that phase. This fall in VEGF may be an effect of progesterone and should be the focus of future studies. PMID:9820181

  12. The relationship of anthropometric measures to radiological features of the breast in premenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. F.; Lockwood, G. A.; Byng, J. W.; Little, L. E.; Yaffe, M. J.; Tritchler, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied 273 premenopausal women recruited from mammography units who had different degrees of density of the breast parenchyma on mammography, in whom we measured height, weight and skinfold thicknesses. Mammograms were digitized to high spatial resolution by a scanning densitometer and images analysed to measure the area of dense tissue and the total area of the breast. Per cent density and the area of non-dense tissue were calculated from these measurements. We found that the mammographic measures had different associations with body size. Weight and the Quetelet index of obesity were strongly and positively associated with the area of non-dense tissue and with the total area of the breast, but less strongly and negatively correlated with the area of dense tissue. We also found a strong inverse relationship between the areas of radiologically dense and non-dense breast tissue. Statistical models containing anthropometric variables explained up to 8% of the variance in dense area, but explained up to 49% of the variance in non-dense area and 43% of variance in total area. These results suggest that aetiological studies in breast cancer that use mammographic density should consider dense and non-dense tissues separately. In addition to per cent density, methods should be examined that combine information from these two tissues. Images Figure 1 PMID:9820186

  13. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  14. IGF-I Polymorphism is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy and Performance Among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barba A.; Fernández, José R.

    2007-01-01

    Background We undertook this study to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I189, on body composition, exercise performance and exercise economy, after controlling for the independent effect of race as assessed by African genetic admixture (AFADM). Methods A total of 114 premenopausal sedentary women were genotyped for IGF-I189, obtaining measures of fat mass, lean body mass, VO2 during cycling and stairclimbing, time on treadmill and leg strength. A quantitative value for AFADM was derived from genotypic information of approximately 40 ancestry informative markers and used as covariate in statistical models. Results After adjusting for AFADM, IGF-I189 was negatively associated with lean body mass (p = 0.029) and lean leg mass (p = 0.050). Leg strength was not associated with the presence/absence of IGF-I189 (p = 0.380), but carriers of the allele demonstrated a longer time on the treadmill (p = 0.015) after adjusting for AFADM. There was also a negative relationship between oxygen uptake during cycling and presence of the IGF-I189 independent of AFADM (p = 0.010). Conclusion Independent of AFADM, individuals with IGF-I189 are more likely to have low leg lean mass and to perform better in activities requiring exercise economy and endurance performance. PMID:17174724

  15. Effect of a 1-week, eucaloric, moderately high-fat diet on peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Branis, Natalia M; Etesami, Marjan; Walker, Ryan W; Berk, Evan S; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a weight-maintaining, moderate (50%) high-fat diet is deleterious to insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women. Design/setting/participants 23 African-American and non-Hispanic white, healthy, overweight, and obese premenopausal women recruited in New York City, USA, fed either a eucaloric, 1-week long high-fat (50% of total Kcal from fat) diet or a eucaloric, 1-week long low-fat (30% of total Kcal from fat) diet, assigned in a randomized crossover design. Main outcome measures Peripheral insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m2/min) clamp measured during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, at the end of each diet period. Results Peripheral insulin sensitivity (mg kg/fat-free mass/min (µU/mL)×10−1) was not decreased after the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet (0.09±0.01 vs 0.08±0.01, p=0.09, respectively) in the combined group of African-American and white women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.6). Metabolic flexibility (change in substrate utilization, ΔNPRQ, in response to insulin during the clamp) was similarly unaltered by the diet (0.12±0.01 vs 0.11, p=0.48, for the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet, respectively) in the combined group of women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.9). African–American women had a lower insulin clearance compared with the white women, regardless of the diet (p<0.05). Conclusions We conclude that a short term (1 week), moderate (50%), eucaloric high-fat diet does not lower peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy, overweight and obese premenopausal women. PMID:26203360

  16. Effect of a soymilk supplement containing isoflavones on urinary F2 isoprostane levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Sukwan; Anderson, Karl E; Nagamani, Manubai; Grady, James J; Lu, Lee-Jane W

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated soy diets with reduced risk of breast and some other cancers, and oxidative cellular damage may contribute to the development of these and other diseases. We tested the effect of a soymilk supplement rich in isoflavones on a measure of cellular lipid peroxidation in a controlled feeding study. Eight premenopausal women consumed a constant diet that included soymilk containing 113-207 mg/day total isoflavones and 4 mo later a constant soy diet low (<5 mg/day) in isoflavones, both for a complete menstrual cycle. The average daily urinary excretions of daidzein and genistein were 24.6 +/- 10.1 and 9.2 +/- 6.1 mg/day, respectively, during the high-isoflavone soy diet and were below the detection limit during the low-isoflavone diet. F2 isoprostane 8-iso-PGF-2alpha excretion varied widely within and between subjects, and the group mean was not significantly different during the high- and low-isoflavone soy diet (7.67 +/- 1.13 and 8.65 +/- 1.18 nmol/12 h, mean +/- SD, respectively). However, individual changes in 8-iso-PGF-2alpha between the two soymilk drinks were significantly associated with age (r = -0.87; P = 0.006) and several measures of isoflavone exposure, namely, daidzein dose (r = 0.81; P = 0.015), combined daidzein and genistein dose (r = 0.77; P = 0.03), and total urinary excretion of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) (r = 0.71; P = 0.05). The findings suggest that soy isoflavones may reduce lipid peroxidation in an age-dependent manner, with greater effects in older women, and with lower doses of isoflavones. PMID:16351509

  17. Leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation to premenopausal breast cancer incidence and grade in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fangyi; Kraft, Peter; Rice, Megan; Michels, Karin B

    2012-01-01

    Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study II. We also examined associations between these SNPs and circulating leptin (among 910 women) and breast cancer grade (among 267 patients). Permutation tests were performed to adjust for multiple testing. We did not detect a significant association between SNPs in the LEP or LEPR gene and either breast cancer incidence or plasma leptin levels. Among cases, 14 SNPs of the LEPR gene were significantly associated with cancer grade, and rs1137101 (Q223R) survived multiple testing adjustment (adjusted P = 0.04). The G carriers of rs1137101 were more likely to have poorly differentiated than well-differentiated cancers. Our data suggest that common genetic variation in the LEP or LEPR gene has no strong association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The LEPR gene might be associated with breast cancer grade. PMID:21947707

  18. Leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation to premenopausal breast cancer incidence and grade in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fangyi; Kraft, Peter; Rice, Megan; Michels, Karin B.

    2012-01-01

    Body mass is inversely related to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Leptin, an essential cytokine regulating food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and fat metabolism may be part of the mechanistic pathway. We investigated 50 tagging and candidate SNPs in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes for associations with premenopausal breast cancer incidence using 405 cases and 810 controls nested within the Nurses’ Health Study II. We also examined associations between these SNPs and circulating leptin (among 910 women) and breast cancer grade (among 267 patients). Permutation tests were performed to adjust for multiple testing. We did not detect a significant association between SNPs in the LEP or LEPR gene and either breast cancer incidence or plasma leptin levels. Among cases, 14 SNPs of the LEPR gene were significantly associated with cancer grade, and rs1137101 (Q223R) survived multiple testing adjustment (adjusted P = 0.04). The G carriers of rs1137101 were more likely to have poorly differentiated than well-differentiated cancers. Our data suggest that common genetic variation in the LEP or LEPR gene has no strong association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The LEPR gene might be associated with breast cancer grade. PMID:21947707

  19. A hypothesized model of Korean women's responses to abuse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghan; Harwood, Jake

    2004-07-01

    Many abused married Korean women have a strong desire to leave their abusive husbands but remain in the abusive situations because of the strong influence of their sociocultural context. The article discusses Korean women's responses to spousal abuse in the context of patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theory. Age, education, and income as component elements share common effects on the emergent variable, sociostructural power. Gender role attitudes, traditional family ideology, individualism/collectivism, marital satisfaction, and marital conflict predict psychological-relational power as a latent variable. Sociostructural, patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theories are reconceptualized to generate the model of Korean women's responses to abuse. PMID:15189642

  20. Phase II Trial of Goserelin and Exemestane Combination Therapy in Premenopausal Women With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Xu, Binghe; Yuan, Peng; Ma, Fei; Li, Qing; Zhang, Pin; Cai, Ruigang; Fan, Ying; Luo, Yang; Li, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A promising option as the treatment of choice for premenopausal patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) could be the combination of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog and an aromatase inhibitor. However, no prospective studies on the efficacy of goserelin with exemestane in locally advanced or MBC premenopausal breast cancer patients have been reported. We present the phase II trial of goserelin plus exemestane in a total of 44 premenopausal women with locally advanced or MBC. All patients received a subcutaneous injection of 3.6 mg goserelin every 4 weeks along with 25 mg exemestane daily. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). The second end point included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), and clinical benefit rate (CBR) based on complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) for ≥6 months. The median PFS was 13 months (range: 2–42 months). The median DOR was 8 months (range: 2–40 months). Two patients achieved CR (4.5%), and 15 patients experienced PR (34.1%). Fifteen patients (34.1%) had SD ≥6 months. The ORR was 38.6%, and the CBR was 65.9%. Primary progressive disease occurred in 15 patients (34.1%). Five patients (11.4%) died during the study period. Because a few patients have died, the median OS has not been reached. Drug therapy was well tolerated. The most frequent grade-3 adverse events were arthralgia (18.2%), skin rash (6.8%), and myalgia (4.5%). No participants withdrew from the study due to drug toxicity. This study suggested that goserelin and exemestane might be highly effective and well-tolerated regimens in premenopausal women with hormone-responsive, locally advanced or MBC. PMID:26131799

  1. Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations and antioxidant and inflammatory status in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-07-14

    For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasise recommendations to improve individual behaviour, including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant-based diet, and minimising the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats and alcohol. In the present study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane. The statistical analysis applied linear regression across categories of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations. Overall, seventy-two women were classified as low ( ≤ 4), 150 as moderate (5-6), and fifty-three as high adherers ( ≥ 7). The unadjusted means for CRP were 2.7, 2.0 and 1.7 mg/l for low, moderate and high adherers (P trend= 0.03); this association was strengthened after adjustment for confounders (P trend= 0.006). The respective values for serum γ-tocopherol were 1.97, 1.63 and 1.45 μg/ml (P trend= 0.02 before and P trend= 0.03 after adjustment). Only for urinary F2-isoprostane, the lower values in high adherers (16.0, 14.5, and 13.3 ng/ml) did not reach statistical significance (P trend= 0.18). In an analysis by BMI, overweight and obese women had higher biomarker levels than normal weight women; the trend was significant for CRP (P trend< 0.001) and γ-tocopherol (P trend= 0.003) but not for F2-isoprostane (P trend= 0.14). These findings suggest that both adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines and normal BMI status are associated with lower levels of biomarkers that indicate oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26051510

  2. Association of SLC2A9 genotype with phenotypic variability of serum urate in pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Topless, Ruth K.; Flynn, Tanya J.; Cadzow, Murray; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Black, Michael A.; Merriman, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    The SLC2A9 gene, that encodes a renal uric acid reuptake transporter, has genetic variants that explain ∼3% of variance in urate levels. There are previous reports of non-additive interaction between SLC2A9 genotype and environmental factors which influence urate control. Therefore, our aim was to further investigate the general phenomenon that such non-additive interactions contribute to genotype-specific association with variance at SLC2A9. Data from 14135 European individuals were used in this analysis. The measure of variance was derived from a ranked inverse normal transformation of residuals obtained by regressing known urate-influencing factors (sex, age, and body mass index) against urate. Variant rs6449173 showed the most significant effect on serum urate variance at SLC2A9 (P = 7.9 × 10-14), which was maintained after accounting for the effect on average serum urate levels (P = 0.022). Noting the stronger effect in a sub-cohort that consisted of pre-menopausal women and younger men, the participants were stratified into males and pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. This revealed a strong effect on variance in pre-menopausal women (P = 3.7 × 10-5) with a weak effect in post-menopausal women (P = 0.032) and no effect in men (P = 0.22). The T-allele of rs6449173, which associates with increased urate levels, was associated with the greater variance in urate. There was a non-additive interaction between rs6449173 genotype and female gender in control of serum urate levels that was driven by a greater increase in urate levels associated with the T-allele in women. Female hormones, and/or other factors they influence or are associated with (such as iron levels, temperature, testosterone) interact with SLC2A9 genotype in women to determine urate levels. The association of SLC2A9 with greater variance in pre-menopausal women may reflect the cyclical changes resulting from menstruation. PMID:26528330

  3. Significant bone microarchitecture impairment in premenopausal women with active celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Costa, Florencia; Longobardi, Vanesa; Longarini, Gabriela; Mazure, Roberto Martín; Moreno, María Laura; Vázquez, Horacio; Silveira, Fernando; Niveloni, Sonia; Smecuol, Edgardo; Temprano, María de la Paz; Hwang, Hui Jer; González, Andrea; Mauriño, Eduardo César; Bogado, Cesar; Zanchetta, Jose R; Bai, Julio César

    2015-07-01

    Patients with active celiac disease (CD) are more likely to have osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) permits three-dimensional exploration of bone microarchitectural characteristics measuring separately cortical and trabecular compartments, and giving a more profound insight into bone disease pathophysiology and fracture. We aimed to determine the volumetric and microarchitectural characteristics of peripheral bones-distal radius and tibia-in an adult premenopausal cohort with active CD assessed at diagnosis. We prospectively enrolled 31 consecutive premenopausal women with newly diagnosed CD (median age 29 years, range: 18-49) and 22 healthy women of similar age (median age 30 years, range 21-41) and body mass index. Compared with controls, peripheral bones of CD patients were significantly lower in terms of total volumetric density mg/cm(3) (mean ± SD: 274.7 ± 51.7 vs. 324.7 ± 45.8, p 0.0006 at the radius; 264.4 ± 48.7 vs. 307 ± 40.7, p 0.002 at the tibia), trabecular density mg/cm(3) (118.6 ± 31.5 vs. 161.9 ± 33.6, p<0.0001 at the radius; 127.9 ± 28.7 vs. 157.6 ± 15.6, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); bone volume/trabecular volume ratio % (9.9 ± 2.6 vs. 13.5 ± 2.8, p<0.0001 at the radius; 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); number of trabeculae 1/mm (1.69 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.26, p 0.009 at the radius; 1.53 ± 0.32 vs. 1.80 ± 0.26, p 0.002 at the tibia); and trabecular thickness mm (0.058 ± 0.010 vs. 0.071 ± 0.008, p < 0.0001 at the radius with no significant difference at the tibia). Cortical density was significantly lower in both regions (D comp mg/cm(3) 860 ± 57.2 vs. 893.9 ± 43, p 0.02; 902.7 ± 48.7 vs. 932.6 ± 32.6, p 0.01 in radius and tibia respectively). Although cortical thickness was lower in CD patients, it failed to show any significant inter-group difference (a-8% decay with p 0.11 in both bones). Patients with symptomatic CD (n = 22) had

  4. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation versus abdominal hysterectomy for presumed fibroids in premenopausal women: a decision analysis

    PubMed Central

    SIEDHOFF, Matthew T.; WHEELER, Stephanie B.; RUTSTEIN, Sarah E.; GELLER, Elizabeth J.; DOLL, Kemi M.; WU, Jennifer M.; CLARKE-PEARSON, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To model outcomes in laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation compared to abdominal hysterectomy for the presumed fibroid uterus, examining short-and long-term complications, as well as mortality. Study Design A decision tree was constructed to compare outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for presumed fibroids over a 5-year time horizon. Parameter and quality of life utility estimates were determined from published literature for postoperative complications, leiomyosarcoma incidence, death related to leiomyomsarcoma, and procedure-related death. Results The decision analysis predicted fewer overall deaths with laparoscopic hysterectomy compared to abdominal hysterectomy (98 vs. 103 per 100,000). While there were more deaths from leiomyosarcoma following laparoscopic hysterectomy (86 vs. 71 per 100,000), there were more hysterectomy-related deaths with abdominal hysterectomy (32 vs. 12 per 100,000). The laparoscopic group had lower rates of transfusion (2,400 vs. 4,700 per 100,000), wound infection (1,500 vs 6,300 per 100,000), venous thromboembolism (690 vs. 840 per 100,000) and incisional hernia (710 vs. 8,800 per 100,000), but a higher rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence (640 vs. 290 per 100,000). Laparoscopic hysterectomy resulted in more quality-adjusted life years (499,171 vs. 490,711 over five years). Conclusion The risk of leiomyosarcoma morcellation is balanced by procedure-related complications associated with laparotomy, including death. This analysis provides patients and surgeons with estimates of risk and benefit, upon which patient-centered decisions can be made. PMID:25817518

  5. Association of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism with BMD and Homocysteine in Premenopausal North Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Ankur; Polipalli, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Sangeeta; Kapoor, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Osteoporosis (OP) is a common nutrigenomic disease associated with various genetic components. Observational studies have indicated that mildly elevated homocysteine was a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Yet there is no clear biologic mechanism for an effect of homocysteine on bone.The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and to verify the association of these polymorphisms with bone mineral density and homocysteine in premenopausal women of northern India. Material and Methods: We included 402 north Indian patients with altered BMD, both Osteopenic (OPN) and Osteoporosis, and normal controls. Genotype identification for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method, correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Homocysteine (Hcy), Folate and Vitamin B12. Results: The study groups did not differ in terms of age, weight and body mass indices. Prevalence of Genotype frequencies (GFs) for MTHFRC677T OP were (n: 402): CC 361 (89.8%), CT 25 (6.22%), TT 16 (3.98%) and that for MTHFR A1298C were (n: 402) AA 353(87.81%), AC 29(7.21%), CC 20(4.98%). Folate was significantly lower in the OP group than those in both the other groups, while there was no significant difference in Hcy in the OP group relative to OPN, as compared to controls. Conclusion: The GFs for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were not different between both groups. In conclusion, polymorphism of the MTHFR 677T is associated with small differences in BMD with folate levels. Further, more investigations should be done in larger studies for other epigenetic pathways, that may increase the risk of Osteoporosis. PMID:24551672

  6. The Role of Ovarian Suppression in Premenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sarika; Santa-Maria, Cesar Augusto; Gradishar, William J

    2015-07-01

    The optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer is yet to be elucidated. Studies have demonstrated that women who experience cessation of ovarian function after chemotherapy (chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea) may experience improved survival. These findings, however, have not been replicated when pharmacologic or surgical interventions have been used to stop ovarian function (eg, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, oophorectomy, or ovarian irradiation) in combination with an endocrine agent such as tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. Recent large phase III clinical trials, including the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group trial (ABCSG-12), Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT), and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT), did not demonstrate an improvement in disease-free survival with ovarian suppression in the overall population. However, subgroup analyses suggest that women at high risk for recurrence, including very young women or those who have received chemotherapy, may benefit from the addition of ovarian suppression. Still, toxicity and adverse effects on patient-reported outcomes were more frequent in patients who received ovarian suppression; these included more menopausal and sexual dysfunction symptoms, diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis. This review will summarize the experience with ovarian suppression in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of premenopausal early-stage breast cancer and offer recommendations for clinical management. PMID:26178334

  7. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Duchaine, Caroline S.; Diorio, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

  8. The experience of Korean immigrant women adjusting to Canadian society.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-09-01

    The acculturation process is an important factor in the experience of all immigrants. Although previous studies have indicated the challenges faced by Korean immigrants, little attention has been paid to Korean women's immigration experiences. A focused ethnography was used to examine midlife and older Korean immigrant women's experiences following their immigration to Canada. Fifteen women were interviewed in a city in Western Canada. The findings showed that in coming to Canada, women focused on caring for their children and often sacrificed their personal dreams. They had to be employed to support their families, and received support from family and government. Women participated regularly in a Korean Church and drew on their Christian faith to ease their adjustment. They retained hopes for the future including good health and a better life for their children. Most women indicated that it was difficult to integrate into Canadian society but they never gave up on their adjustment to a new culture. In this manuscript, the adjustment experience of the immigrant women is discussed in the context of an acculturation framework. The findings will enhance health professionals' awareness of adjustment patterns and associated challenges to Korean immigrant women's quality of life. PMID:25096026

  9. Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

    2008-09-01

    American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

  10. Orthotopic genital sparing radical cystectomy in pre-menopausal women with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Moursy, Essam ElDin S.; Eldahshoursy, Mohammed Z.; Gamal, Wael M.; Badawy, Abdelbasset A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive cancer bladder is a life-threatening disease that is best treated with radical cystectomy and a suitable urinary diversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome, voiding and sexual functions after genital sparing radical cystectomy with orthotopic bladder reconstruction in pre-menopausal women with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: 18 pre-menopausal women who underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion with preservation of genital organs were included for this study. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically to assess their oncological outcome in addition to their voiding and sexual function. Results: Mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and the median follow-up after surgery was 70 months. One patient was lost to follow-up at 12 months post-operatively. The surgery was completed as planned in all patients, with a mean operative time of 290 min and an average blood loss of 750 mL. 14 patients were able to void satisfactorily, being continent day and night, while four patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Sexual life remained unchanged in 15 cases, while three patients reported dysparunea. Till the last follow-up, there was no local recurrence while distant metastases were detected in three cases, two of whom died. Conclusions: Genital sparing cystectomy is a valid option for managing carefully selected women with muscle-invasive bladder cancer with good functional and sexual outcomes. PMID:26941498

  11. Expression of Extracellular Matrix-Remodeling Proteins Is Altered in Vaginal Tissue of Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Alarab, May; Kufaishi, Hala; Lye, Stephen; Drutz, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The molecular etiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is complex and not well understood. We compared the expression/activity of extracellular matrix (ECM)-processing (procollagen I N-proteinase/ a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs [ADAMTS]-2,-3,-14) and ECM-degrading (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -12) enzymes and their natural tissue inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP]-1,-2,-3,-4) in vaginal tissues from premenopausal women with advanced POP (POP-Q stage ≥ 3) and asymptomatic controls (POP-Q = 0). Study Design: We sampled the anterior vaginal wall of 36 premenopausal women (17 patients with POP and 19 controls) undergoing total hysterectomy. Exclusion criteria include steroid therapy, malignancy, previous pelvic surgery, and connective tissue diseases. Total RNAs and proteins were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and Luminex assay; MMPs activity was analyzed by zymography and tissue localization by immunohistochemistry. Results: The MMP-2 gelatinase activity as well as expression of 58-kDa isoform of ADAMTS-2 was upregulated in patients with POP, irrespective of menstrual phase status, secretory or proliferative, when compared to controls (P < .05). The TIMP-1-4 gene and TIMP-1 protein expression were significantly (P < .05) reduced, whereas protein expression of MMP-12 (pro and active forms) was significantly increased in vaginal biopsies of patients with POP in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle compared to corresponding controls. Analyses of MMP-12, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-2 tissue immunostaining indicate similar localization in the vaginal specimens from control and patients with POP. Conclusion: Expression of ECM-remodeling proteins is altered in the vagina of premenopausal patients with severe POP. We speculate that dysregulation of MMP/TIMP complexes and ADAMTS-2 proteins may cause connective tissue defects, which result in weakened vaginal

  12. Insulin is an important risk factor of endometrial cancer among premenopausal women: a case-control study in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yanli; Cheng, Shijie; Hou, Jianqing; Zuo, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Xia, Min; Mu, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the article was to evaluate the important role played by insulin in the development of endometrial cancer (EC) among Chinese premenopausal women. In this study, 128 endometrial cancer patients and 294 controls who were all premenopausal were included. Baseline characteristics data were collected and serum insulin, C-peptide, sex hormone-binding globulin, C-reaction protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured. Paired t test, χ(2) test, Spearman correlation coefficients, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used in data analysis. Furthermore, insulin levels were categorized into quartiles, and likelihood ratio was calculated for the four categories. Blood insulin levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.001). Factor analysis identified insulin (OR = 2.46; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-3.91; P < 0.001) as the independent risk factor of EC. When insulin levels were categorized into quartiles, we found that insulin was positively associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR comparing extreme quartiles (HR q4-q1) = 4.44; 95 % CI = 2.59-7.62; P trend = 0.025]. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), this association was attenuated, but still significant. In conclusion, insulin plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of EC among premenopausal women. Treatment targeting down-regulation of blood insulin levels seems effective in the prevention of this malignancy. PMID:26511973

  13. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area. PMID:25503962

  14. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989–1990 (NHS) or 1996–1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Results Among 1124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p-trends=0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference=3.01 percentage points, 95%CI: 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p-trend=0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Impact Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area. PMID:25503962

  15. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life. PMID:25792237

  16. Amenorrhea in premenopausal women on the doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-followed-by-docetaxel arm of NSABP B-30 trial

    PubMed Central

    Land, Stephanie R.; Ritter, Marcie W.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Cecchini, Reena S.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Wolmark, Norman; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    The NSABP B-30 trial addresses whether amenorrhea after adjuvant chemotherapy increases survival. Preliminary to the trial outcome analysis, we examined the incidence of amenorrhea and its relationship to symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in the standard-care arm of this adjuvant breast cancer trial. Premenopausal women treated on the doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-followed-by-docetaxel arm were included. Questionnaires assessing menstrual history, QOL, and symptoms were administered at baseline, day 1 of cycle 4 (or 9 weeks from start of chemotherapy for those who stopped chemotherapy early), and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Seven hundred and eight patients were evaluable for the analysis, with median potential follow-up of 57.5 months. Of these, 321 patients also participated in the QOL substudy. Of the 708 patients, 83% reported ≥1 episode of amenorrhea for ≥6 months. The estimated rate of resumption of menses at 24 months was 45.3% for women<40 years, 10.9% for women 40–50, and 3.2% for women >50 years. Those treated with tamoxifen were more likely to become amenorrheic (p = 0.003). Menstrual status was not significantly associated with QOL or symptoms. Prolonged amenorrhea is associated with a regimen that contains doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel, and is age dependent and impacted by tamoxifen use. Vasomotor symptoms are common in this patient population but are not associated with menstrual status. These results can be used to inform premenopausal women about the risk and time course of amenorrhea associated with this common adjuvant therapy regimen, along with the effects on symptoms and QOL. PMID:18302020

  17. Habitual dietary isoflavone intake is associated with decreased C-reactive protein concentrations among healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Filiberto, Amanda C; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Yeung, Edwina H; Perkins, Neil J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2013-06-01

    Isoflavones have been associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, but existing research focused on very high isoflavone intakes, as seen in Asian populations, as well as on risk factor reductions primarily in postmenopausal women. We investigated whether habitual low isoflavone intake among premenopausal women was associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a commonly used biomarker associated with prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women. Between 2005 and 2007, 259 healthy, regularly menstruating women were enrolled in the BioCycle Study, and followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles. CRP was measured in serum at up to 16 clinic visits, timed to phases of the women's menstrual cycle. Diet was assessed up to 4 times per cycle by using 24-h recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure weights estimated the association between CRP and quartiles of isoflavone intake adjusted for age, race, BMI, cycle phase, total energy intake, total fiber, total whole grains, and phase-specific hormone concentrations including estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Compared with the lowest quartile of total isoflavone intake, women in the highest quartile had, on average, 27% lower serum CRP concentrations (95% CI: -35, -21%). Our results suggest that dietary isoflavone intakes at levels characteristic of the U.S. population are associated with decreased serum CRP concentrations, a factor associated with beneficial effects on inflammation, and subsequently may have the potential to improve health status among young women. PMID:23616515

  18. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  19. Relationship Between Reproductive History, Anthropometrics, Lifestyle Factors, and the Likelihood of Persistent Chemotherapy-Related Amenorrhea in Women with Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abusief, Mary E.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Weeks, Jane C.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between patient characteristics at diagnosis of premenopausal breast cancer including gravidity, parity, age at menarche, age at first birth, alcohol use, smoking history, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) with the development of persistent chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) in follow-up. Design Retrospective Cohort Setting Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) Patients Premenopausal women with breast cancer Methods We identified all premenopausal women who received standard adjuvant chemotherapy from 1997-2005 for whom menstrual data were available. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluating persistent amenorrhea at ≥ 6 month after completing chemotherapy were conducted. Results 431 women met eligibility criteria and had ≥ 6 month follow-up. Women with older (age >13 years) versus younger (12-13 years) age at menarche were more than twice as likely to remain amenorreheic (p-value, test for linear trend = 0.03). Current smokers had 2.4 greater odds of CRA versus never smokers, although this association was not statistically significant (95% CI=0.86-6.75). Discussion Few identifiable factors contribute to the variability in CRA among premenopausal women following adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Further research to improve the prediction of CRA, premature menopause and infertility in young breast cancer survivors is warranted. PMID:22192139

  20. Parity and Risk of Death from Gallbladder Cancer among a Cohort of Premenopausal Parous Women in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Te-Fu; Wu, Chen-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has been done on the etiology of gallbladder cancer (GC). This cohort study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between parity and risk of death from GC. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of death from GC associated with parity. There were 257 GC deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of GC was 0.73 cases per 100,000 person-years. As compared with women who had given birth to only one child, the adjusted HR was 1.20 (95% CI = 0.79–1.83) for women who had two children, 1.47 (95% CI = 0.95–2.29) for women who had three children, and 1.68 (95% CI = 0.99–2.85) for women with four or more births. There was a significant increasing trend in the adjusted HRs for GC with increasing parity. The findings suggested that premenopausal women of higher parity may increase the risk of death from GC. PMID:25664696

  1. Uptake of tamoxifen in consecutive premenopausal women under surveillance in a high-risk breast cancer clinic

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L S; Evans, D G; Wiseman, J; Fox, J; Greenhalgh, R; Affen, J; Juraskova, I; Stavrinos, P; Dawe, S; Cuzick, J; Howell, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Randomised trials of tamoxifen versus placebo indicate that tamoxifen reduces breast cancer risk by approximately 33%, yet uptake is low. Approximately 10% of women in our clinic entered the IBIS-I prevention trial. We assess the uptake of tamoxifen in a consecutive series of premenopausal women not in a trial and explore the reasons for uptake through interviews. Methods: All eligible women between 33 and 46 years at ⩾17% lifetime risk of breast cancer and undergoing annual mammography in our service were invited to take a 5-year course of tamoxifen. Reasons for accepting (n=15) or declining (n=15) were explored using semi-structured interviews. Results: Of 1279 eligible women, 136 (10.6%) decided to take tamoxifen. Women >40 years (74 out of 553 (13.4%)) and those at higher non-BRCA-associated risk were more likely to accept tamoxifen (129 out of 1109 (11.6%)). Interviews highlighted four themes surrounding decision making: perceived impact of side effects, the impact of others' experience on beliefs about tamoxifen, tamoxifen as a ‘cancer drug', and daily reminder of cancer risk. Conclusions: Tamoxifen uptake was similar to previously ascertained uptake in a randomised controlled trial (IBIS-I). Concerns were similar in women who did or did not accept tamoxifen. Decision making appeared to be embedded in the experience of significant others. PMID:24594998

  2. Ovarian Function, Not Age, Predicts the Benefit from Ovarian Suppression or Ablation for Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Shusen; Shi, Yanxia; An, Xin; Xu, Fei; Yuan, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    The role of adjuvant ovarian suppression or ablation (OS/OA) in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to examine which patients might benefit from the addition of OS/OA to tamoxifen. We analyzed the data of 2065 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive invasive ductal carcinomas who were treated at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center from 2000 to 2008. The five-year disease-free survival rate (DFSR) and overall survival rate (OSR) were compared by menstrual status and treatment. Compared with patients older than forty years of age, patients younger than forty years old had significant lower DFSRs and OSRs. The addition of OS/OA to tamoxifen increased the DFSR and OSR of patients with normal menstrual cycles after chemotherapy, regardless of their age at diagnosis. Patients with normal menstrual cycles after chemotherapy are the main beneficiaries of an adjuvant OS/OA. PMID:26866810

  3. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  4. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women.

    PubMed

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R; Beck, Kathryn L; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C; O'Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm²), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16-45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm². Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  5. Associations of Premenopausal Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy With Breast Cancer Among Black and White Women: The Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Nichols, Hazel B; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Black women experience higher rates of hysterectomy than other women in the United States. Although research indicates that premenopausal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy decreases the risk of breast cancer in black women, it remains unclear how hysterectomy without ovary removal affects risk, whether menopausal hormone therapy use attenuates inverse associations, and whether associations vary by cancer subtype. In the population-based, case-control Carolina Breast Cancer Study of invasive breast cancer in 1,391 black (725 cases, 666 controls) and 1,727 white (939 cases, 788 controls) women in North Carolina (1993-2001), we investigated the associations of premenopausal hysterectomy and oophorectomy with breast cancer risk. Compared with no history of premenopausal surgery, bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy without oophorectomy were associated with lower odds of breast cancer (for bilateral oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77; for hysterectomy without oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.84). Estimates did not vary by race and were similar for hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative cancers. Use of estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy did not attenuate the associations. Premenopausal hysterectomy, even without ovary removal, may reduce the long-term risk of hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative breast cancers. Varying rates of hysterectomy are a potentially important contributor to differences in breast cancer incidence among racial/ethnic groups. PMID:27555487

  6. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study. PMID:21514299

  7. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lomagno, Karla A.; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Byrne, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Cranberries vs Antibiotics to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bosmans, Judith E.; Beerepoot, Mariëlle A. J.; Prins, Jan M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and result in an enormous economic burden. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic agents to prevent UTIs. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cranberry prophylaxis compared to antibiotic prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) over a 12 month period in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs. Materials and Methods An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized trial. Primary outcome was the number of UTIs during 12 months. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction and quality of life. Healthcare utilization was measured using questionnaires. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the treatments. Results Cranberry prophylaxis was less effective than TMP-SMX prophylaxis, but the differences in clinical outcomes were not statistically significant. Costs after 12 months in the cranberry group were statistically significantly higher than in the TMP-SMX group (mean difference €249, 95% confidence interval 70 to 516). Cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that cranberry prophylaxis to prevent UTIs is less effective and more expensive than (dominated by) TMP-SMX prophylaxis. Conclusion In premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, cranberry prophylaxis is not cost-effective compared to TMP-SMX prophylaxis. However, it was not possible to take into account costs attributed to increased antibiotic resistance within the framework of this randomized trial; modeling studies are recommended to investigate these costs. Moreover, although we based the dosage of cranberry extract on available evidence, this may not be the optimal dosage. Results may change when this optimal dosage is identified. Trial Registration ISRCTN.org ISRCTN50717094 PMID:24705418

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 in a 2-year soya intervention among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Franke, Adrian A; Kaaks, Rudolph

    2005-09-01

    Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5-22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0.04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0.06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels. PMID:16176606

  10. Increasing iron and zinc in pre-menopausal women and its effects on mood and cognition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lomagno, Karla A; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nowson, Caryl A; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  11. Relationship of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in cortical and cancellous bone within the iliac crest of healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Dempster, D W; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Fratzl, P; Silverberg, S J; Shane, E; Cohen, A; Stein, E; Nickolas, T L; Recker, R R; Lappe, J; Bilezikian, J P; Klaushofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25-48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.Ca(Width)), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.Ca(Mean)). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(High)) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(Low)). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  12. Parity and Risk of Death From Lung Cancer Among a Cohort of Premenopausal Parous Women in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Ho, Shu-Chen; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined the association between parity and risk of lung cancer. Methods The study cohort consisted of all women with a record of a first singleton birth in the Taiwanese Birth Register between 1978 and 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009. Follow-up was terminated when the mother died, when she reached age 50 years, or on 31 December 2009, whichever occurred first. The vital status of mothers was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for death from lung cancer associated with parity. Results There were 1375 lung cancer deaths during 32 243 637.08 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of lung cancer was 4.26 cases per 100 000 person-years. As compared with women who had given birth to only 1 child, the adjusted HR was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.94–1.35) for women who had 2 children, 1.10 (0.91–1.33) for those who had 3 children, and 1.22 (0.96–1.54) for those who had 4 or more children. Conclusions The findings suggest that premenopausal women of higher parity tended to have an increased risk of lung cancer, although the trend was not statistically significant. PMID:22522149

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Korean Immigrant Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Lee, Dal Yob; Koo, Young Ran; Yoo, Sung-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Postimmigration adjustment experiences of 10 Korean immigrant women were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Seven domains emerged: general life conditions; gender role; changes in family dynamics; ethnic/national identity, cultural competency, and belongingness; value changes; racial relationships; and support systems and…

  14. Vitamin D Repletion in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon-Sok; Chung, Dong Jin; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Koh, Jung-Min; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Nino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Up to 71% of South Korean postmenopausal women have vitamin D deficiency {serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] level <50 nmol/L}. Data on vitamin D supplementation was collected during the screening phase of an efficacy/safety study of denosumab in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This report describes the effect of vitamin D supplementation on repletion to 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/L in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods Vitamin D levels of Korean postmenopausal women (60–90 years old) were measured by extracting 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from serum samples via protein precipitation and using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Calibration curves were constructed from the mass chromatograms to obtain total vitamin D levels. Subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were supplemented with 1000 IU of vitamin D tablets during the 2.5-month-long screening period. Dose, frequency, and duration were determined by the investigator. If repletion was achieved (≥50 nmol/L) on retest, subjects were eligible to be rescreened for study entry. Results Of 371 subjects screened, 191 (52%) required vitamin D supplementation, and 88% (168 of 191) were successfully repleted. More than half of the subjects (58%) who were successfully repleted received doses of 2000 IU daily. The mean time to successful repletion was 31 days (standard deviation 8.4 days; range 11–48 days). Conclusion Supplementation with daily median doses of 2000 IU vitamin D successfully repleted 88% of Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis within 48 days to a serum vitamin D level of 50 nmol/L. PMID:27189286

  15. Perceived threat predictor of calcium-rich foods in the women of premenopausal age Isfahan - Iran in 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Hoseini, Marjan; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: During women lives, frequently face the challenge of calcium reduction and absorption. Decreased calcium absorption followed by a decrease in estrogen at perimenopausal ages, low average per capita calcium intake among women, wrong nutritional behavior, household income reductions and make them more susceptible to osteoporosis and related complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the health belief model constructs and consuming calcium-rich foods in menopausal age women. Materials and Methods: This study was descriptive-correlation study. The questionnaires were completed by 210 menopausal women who had referred to health centers. The research data were analyzed using: Frequency distribution, mean score, Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression. Significant level of P < 0/05 were considered. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the scores for perceived susceptibility and severity of the threats of consumption and complications of inadequate intake were respectively: (62.1 and 38.9, and 60.2 and 39.9) and (59.6 and 37.9 and 56.3 and 36.5). The relationship between the number of units of calcium intake with perceived susceptibility and severity calcium intake and complications caused by the inadequate intake of calcium were (P < 0.001, r = 0.581, r = 0.651) and (P < 0.001, r = 0.634, r = 0.567). Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that perceived threat is the prognostic factor for the intake of calcium-rich foods and the increase of perceived threat in the health promotion programs may be associated with the increase in the consumption of calcium-rich foods in the women of premenopausal age. PMID:26793252

  16. Health experiences of Korean immigrant women in retirement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-01-01

    In this focused ethnographic study, we explored the health experiences of 15 Korean immigrant women after retirement in an urban center in Western Canada. Almost all women began their lives in Canada without adequate personal finances, making their employment essential for supporting their families financially. Most women lived with more than two chronic diseases, attributed to long hours and difficult work conditions. They experienced improved psychological health after retiring, irrespective of positive or negative changes in their physical health. Spiritual faith and exercise were important strategies to maintain and enhance their health and to postpone and manage chronic diseases. PMID:25186924

  17. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  18. Reduction of DNA mismatch repair protein expression in airway epithelial cells of premenopausal women chronically exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Dutta, Anindita; Chowdhury, Saswati; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. This study examined whether chronic inhalation of biomass smoke causes change in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in the airway cells. For this, airway cells exfoliated in sputum were collected from 72 premenopausal nonsmoking rural women (median age 34 years) who cooked with biomass (wood, dung, crop residues) and 68 control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for the past 5 years or more. The levels of particulate matters with diameters less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in indoor air were measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in airway cells were measured by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Immunocytochemical assay revealed lower percentage of airway epithelial cells expressing MMR proteins mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in biomass-using women compared to LPG-using controls. Women who cooked with biomass had 6.7 times higher level of urinary t,t-MA, twofold increase in ROS generation, and 31 % depletion of SOD. Indoor air of biomass-using households had three times more particulate matters than that of controls. ROS, urinary t,t-MA, and particulate pollution in biomass-using kitchen had negative correlation, while SOD showed positive correlation with MSH2 and MLH1 expression. It appears that chronic exposure to biomass smoke reduces MMR response in airway epithelial cells, and oxidative stress plays an important role in the process. PMID:24146321

  19. Genetic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Homocysteine Concentrations and the Distribution of Folate Derivatives in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Carolyn M.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Baido, Shirley F.; Blair, Ian A.; Von Feldt, Joan M.; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low folate and high homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations are associated with pregnancy-related pathologies such as spina bifida. Polymorphisms in folate/Hcy metabolic enzymes may contribute to this potentially pathogenic biochemical phenotype. Methods The study comprised 26 Caucasian and 23 African-American premenopausal women. Subjects gave fasting blood samples for biochemical phenotyping and genotyping. Total Hcy (tHcy) and both plasma and red blood cell (RBC) folate derivatives [i.e. tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methylTHF (5-MTHF), and 5,10-methenylTHF (5,10-MTHF)] were measured using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography, multiple reaction monitoring, mass spectrometry. Eleven polymorphisms from nine folate/Hcy pathway genes were genotyped. Tests of association between genetic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were applied. Results In African American women, tHcy concentrations were associated (p<0.05) with total RBC folate, RBC 5-MTHF, B12, and polymorphisms in methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). In Caucasian women, tHcy concentrations were not associated with total folate levels, but were associated (p<0.05) with RBC THF, ratios of RBC 5-MTHF: THF, and polymorphisms in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and MTR . In African Americans, folate derivative levels were associated with smoking, B12, and polymorphisms in MTR, TYMS, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and reduced folate carrier1 (RFC1). In Caucasians, folate derivative levels were associated with vitamin use, B12, and polymorphisms in MTHFR, TYMS, and RFC1. Conclusions Polymorphisms in the folate/Hcy pathway are associated with tHcy and folate derivative levels. In African American and Caucasian women, different factors are associated with folate/Hcy phenotypes and may contribute to race-specific differences in the risks of a range of pregnancy-related pathologies. PMID:20544798

  20. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  1. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  2. Teaching about the Korean Comfort Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunduk

    2012-01-01

    During World War II, human rights violations against women took on gargantuan proportions of indescribable horror. The Japanese military engaged in the systematic abduction of women from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and other nations and confined them to military installations in Japanese-occupied territories to serve…

  3. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  4. The volume of nipple aspirate fluid is not affected by 6 months of treatment with soy foods in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A

    2011-04-01

    Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 μL of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume. PMID:21325473

  5. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  6. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40–79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  7. Effect of yoga on pain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and serotonin in premenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moseon; Moon, Woongjoon; Kim, Jaehee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P < 0.001), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) in the control group. Back flexibility was improved in the yoga group (P < 0.01). Serum BDNF increased in the yoga group (P < 0.01), whereas it tended to decrease in the control group (P = 0.05). Serum serotonin maintained in the yoga group, while it reduced (P < 0.01) in the control group. The depression level maintained in the yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P = 0.07). Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain. PMID:25120574

  8. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  9. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  10. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  11. Comparison of Korean and European women professional golfers' training time and perceptions of ideal training time.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Mi; Kim, Soon-Young; Kim, Sung-Hee

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Korean and European female professional golfer's reported practice hours and their different understandings about golf training. 55 Korean and 21 European female professional golfers were asked questions about average actual practice days per week, average actual practice hours per day, ideal practice days per week, and ideal practice hours per day. All the women participated in the Korean Female Masters Golf Tournament at the Korean Cyprus Golf course from 6-8 November in 2009. Korean female professional golfers reported practicing more hours, but both the Korean and European golfers reported actually practicing more hours than their ideal practice hours. PMID:21058589

  12. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women. PMID:27255073

  13. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  14. The impact of supervised weight loss and intentional weight regain on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon, Mira; Liu, Ying; Petroski, Gregory F; Thomas, Tom R; Polotsky, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    What is the impact of intentional weight loss and regain on serum androgens in women? We conducted an ancillary analysis of prospectively collected samples from a randomized controlled trial. The trial involved supervised 10% weight loss (8.5 kg on average) with diet and exercise over 4-6 months followed by supervised intentional regain of 50% of the lost weight (4.6 kg on average) over 4-6 months. Participants were randomized prior to the partial weight regain component to either continuation or cessation of endurance exercise. Analytic sample included 30 obese premenopausal women (mean age of 40 ± 5.9 years, mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWAdp). Insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured in the original trial were reanalyzed for the current analytic sample. Insulin, HOMA, and QUICKI improved with weight loss and were maintained despite weight regain. Log-transformed SHBG significantly increased from baseline to weight loss, and then significantly decreased with weight regain. LogFAI and logVAT decreased similarly and increased with weight loss followed by weight regain. No changes were found in logT and LogHMWAdp. There was no significant difference in any tested parameters by exercise between the groups. SHBG showed prominent sensitivity to body mass fluctuations, as reduction with controlled intentional weight regain showed an inverse relationship to VAT and occurred despite stable HMWAdp and sustained improvements with insulin resistance. FAI showed opposite changes to SHBG, while T did not change significantly with weight. Continued exercise during weight regain did not appear to impact these findings. PMID:27192090

  15. Low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in plasma, and reduced sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycaemia in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Malis, F; Zlnay, M; Killinger, Z; Kvetnansky, R; Huckova, M; Vigas, M; Macho, L; Koska, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathoadrenal system in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (0.1 IU/kg) was produced in 15 glucocorticoid-naive patients with long term RA with low disease activity and in 14 healthy women matched for age and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, Δ4-androstenedione (ASD), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), interleukin 6 (IL6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were analysed in plasma. Results: Patients had comparable responses of glucose, cortisol, ACTH, ASD, and 17OHP to hypoglycaemia, without any signs of hypothalamic insufficiency. Patients had lower basal DHEAS than controls (3.03 (0.37) µmol/l v 5.1 (0.9) µmol/l, respectively; p<0.05); borderline lower basal DHEA levels (p = 0.067); while the response of DHEA to hypoglycaemia was comparable to that of controls. Patients with RA had lower EPI (p = 0.005) and NE (p<0.001) responses to hypoglycaemia. TNFα and IL6 were higher (p<0.05) in patients with RA (TNFα 8 (2.8) pg/ml in RA v 1.1 (0.5) pg/ml in controls and IL6 15.1 (6.7) pg/ml v 1.4 (0.7) pg/ml). Conclusions: Lower basal DHEAS levels, without concomitant differences or changes in DHEA, ASD, 17OHP, and cortisol responses to hypoglycaemia in patients with RA, indicate an isolated decrease in adrenal androgen production. Significantly lower responses of EPI and NE to hypoglycaemia may suggest sympathoadrenal hyporeactivity in patients with RA. PMID:15647427

  16. The Impact of Dietary Folate Intake on Reproductive Function in Premenopausal Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Zhang, Cuilin; Pollack, Anna Z.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Folic acid is recommended to reproductive-aged women to prevent birth defects, though little is known about the effects of dietary intake on other reproductive outcomes. Improved pregnancy rates have been documented after folic acid supplement use, suggesting a possible link with ovulation, however research is limited. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dietary folate intake, hormone levels, and sporadic anovulation in healthy, regularly menstruating women. Methodology/Principal Findings The BioCycle study (2005–2007) prospectively followed 259 healthy women aged 18–44 years from the western New York region for up to 2 menstrual cycles. Total folate and specific sources of folate were assessed up to 4 times per cycle by 24-hour recall. Estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured in serum up to 8 times per cycle, timed using fertility monitors. Anovulation was defined as a cycle with peak progesterone concentration ≤5 ng/mL and no LH peak in the mid/late luteal phase. Higher intake of dietary folate (in dietary equivalents) across tertiles had a marginally significant association with greater luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.08). Higher intake of synthetic folate was significantly associated with higher luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.05). Specifically, women in the 3rd tertile of synthetic folate intake had, on average, 16.0% (95% CI, 0.5–33.8%) higher luteal progesterone levels compared to women in the 1st tertile. Moreover, consumption of synthetic folate was significantly and inversely associated with anovulation such that women in the 3rd tertile had a 64% (95% CI, 8–86%) decreased odds of anovulation compared to the women in the 1st tertile (P trend 0.03). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that a diet high in synthetic folate may be associated with increased progesterone levels and lower risk of sporadic anovulation. Further study of the effect of

  17. Neutrophilic inflammatory response and oxidative stress in premenopausal women chronically exposed to indoor air pollution from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirban; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Das, Debangshu; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-04-01

    The possibility of inflammation and neutrophil activation in response to indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use has been investigated. For this, 142 premenopausal, never-smoking women (median age, 34 years) who cook exclusively with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 126 age-matched control women who cook with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. The neutrophil count in blood and sputum was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in biomass users than the control group. Flow cytometric analysis revealed marked increase in the surface expression of CD35 (complement receptor-1), CD16 (F(C)γ receptor III), and β(2) Mac-1 integrin (CD11b/CD18) on circulating neutrophils of biomass users. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that they had 72%, 67%, and 54% higher plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12, respectively, and doubled neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8. Immunocytochemical study revealed significantly higher percentage of airway neutrophils expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase, while the serum level of nitric oxide was doubled in women who cooked with biomass. Spectrophotometric analysis documented higher myeloperoxidase activity in circulating neutrophils of biomass users, suggesting neutrophil activation. Flow cytometry showed excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes of biomass-using women, whereas their erythrocytes contained a depleted level of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indoor air of biomass-using households had two to four times more particulate matter with diameters of <10 μm (PM(10)) and <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) as measured by real-time laser photometer. After controlling potential confounders, rise in proinflammatory mediators among biomass users were positively associated with PM(10) and PM(2.5) in indoor air, suggesting a close relationship between IAP and neutrophil activation. Besides

  18. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care. PMID:24108090

  19. Body size across the life course and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in Black women, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993–2001

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI). PURPOSE This study investigated associations between measures of body size across the life course and breast cancer risk among Black and White women living in the U.S. South. METHODS We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina women aged 20–74 years. We assessed nine body size variables, including age 10 relative weight; age 18 BMI; adult weight gain; “reference” BMI 1 year before interview; and post-diagnosis measured BMI and abdominal obesity measures. RESULTS Among premenopausal Whites, heavier childhood relative weight was associated with decreased cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]=0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33–0.70]). Among premenopausal Blacks, greater adult waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk (waist OR=1.40 [1.00–1.97] and high tertile WHR OR=2.03 [1.29–3.19]), with associations for WHR in a similar direction in Whites. Among postmenopausal women, recalled body size was not associated with risk, except for increased risk associated with adult weight gain among White non-hormone therapy users. ER/PR status and hormone therapy use also modified other associations. DISCUSSION In this population, greater adult BMI was not associated with increased breast cancer risk, but some measures of early-life body size and abdominal obesity were associated with risk. PMID:24924530

  20. Validation of Different Instruments for Caffeine Measurement Among Premenopausal Women in the BioCycle Study

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Perkins, Neil J.; Ye, Aijun; Pollack, Anna Z.; Zhang, Cuilin; Porucznik, Christina A.; VanDerslice, James A.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Effects of caffeine on women's health are inconclusive, in part because of inadequate exposure assessment. In this study we determined 1) validity of a food frequency questionnaire compared with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) for measuring monthly caffeine and caffeinated beverage intakes; and 2) validity of the 24HDR compared with the prior day's diary record for measuring daily caffeinated coffee intake. BioCycle Study (2005–2007) participants, women (n = 259) aged 18–44 years from western New York State, were followed for 2 menstrual cycles. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at the end of each cycle, four 24HDRs per cycle, and daily diaries. Caffeine intakes reported for the food frequency questionnaires were greater than those reported for the 24HDRs (mean = 114.1 vs. 92.6mg/day, P = 0.01) but showed high correlation (r = 0.73, P < 0.001) and moderate agreement (К = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.57). Women reported less caffeinated coffee intake in their 24HDRs compared with their corresponding diary days (mean = 0.51 vs. 0.80 cups/day, P < 0.001) (1 cup = 237 mL). Although caffeine and coffee exposures were highly correlated, absolute intakes differed significantly between measurement tools. These results highlight the importance of considering potential misclassification of caffeine exposure. PMID:23462965

  1. Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P < 0.01) compared with patients with other proliferative diseases. Conclusions The presence of ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 in the surface epithelial ovarian cells and its derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical

  2. Enterolignan Producing Phenotypes are Associated with Increased Gut Microbial Diversity and Altered Composition in Premenopausal Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Lancaster, Samuel M.; Li, Fei; Tseng, Elizabeth; Beer, Karlyn; Atkinson, Charlotte; Wähälä, Kristiina; Copeland, Wade K.; Randolph, Timothy W.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignans in plant foods are metabolized by gut bacteria to the enterolignans, enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL). Enterolignans have biologic activities important to the prevention of cancer and chronic diseases. We examined the composition of the gut microbial community (GMC) as a contributor to human enterolignan exposure. Methods We evaluated the association between the GMC in stool, urinary enterolignan excretion, and diet from a 3-day food record in 115 premenopausal (ages 40–45 y) women in the United States. Urinary enterolignans were measured using GC/MS. The GMC was evaluated using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequences were aligned in SILVA (www.arb-silva.de). Operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic classification was performed and alpha and beta diversity in relationship to ENL production were assessed. Multivariate analysis and regression were used to model the association between enterolignan excretion and the GMC. Bacteria associated with ENL production were identified using univariate analysis and ridge regression. Results After adjusting for dietary fiber intake and adiposity, we found a significant positive association between ENL excretion and either the GMC (p=0.0007), or the diversity of the GMC (p=0.01). The GMC associated with high ENL production was distinct (UNIFRAC, p<0.003, MRPP) and enriched in Moryella spp., Acetanaerobacterium spp., Fastidiosipila spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Conclusion Diversity and composition of the GMC are associated with increased human exposure to enterolignans. Impact Differences in gut microbial diversity and composition explain variation in gut metabolic processes that impact environmental exposures and influences human health. PMID:25542830

  3. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  4. Chromium, selenium, and other trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Scythes, C A

    1984-04-01

    Daily Cr, Se, Ag, Cs, Rb, Sb, and Sc intakes of 84 Canadian women aged 30.3±6.1 yr (mean±SD) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were determined by analyses of 1-d food composites collected by the subjects. Aliquots of the homogenized food composites were freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation procedures following irradiation for 72h. In all cases, trace element concentrations in the food composites were non-Gaussian. Median daily intakes were: Cr, 47 μg; Se, 74 μg; Ag, 7.1 μg; Cs, 4.4 μg; Rb, 1.5 mg; Sb 2.0 μg; and Sc, 0.38 μg. Sixty percent and 24% of the subjects received daily Cr and Se intakes, respectively, below the US Food and Nutrition Board safe and adequate range. High Cr density diets were associated with a significantly higher consumption of cheese and dry legumes and nuts (p<0.05). In the high Se density diets, intakes of grain products and breakfast cereals were significantly higher (p<0.05), and intakes of potatoes, table fats, total fat, saturated fat, and oleic acid were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the low Se density diets. The low daily Cr intakes evident in this study may be cause for concern in view of the increasing evidence that women may be at greater risk for deficiency of Cr than men because of Cr depletion during pregnancy. PMID:24263851

  5. Utility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Man; Lv, Meng; Chen, Ling; Qin, Tian-Jie; Wang, Fan; Yang, Jiao; Liu, Pei-Jun; Yang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy are major concerns for premenopausal women with breast cancer. A potential ovarian function preservation strategy is administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists during adjuvant chemotherapy; however, studies of the clinical efficacy of GnRH agonists to protect chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage have shown mixed results. Objective This meta-analysis study was designed to estimate the efficacy of GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library databases searching, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, and the Wanfang Data) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published until September 2015. Only RCTs that examined the effect of GnRH agonists for chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The rate of spontaneous resumption of menses and spontaneous pregnancy were collected. All data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Stata 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Results Eleven RCTs with a total of 1,062 participants (GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy, n=541; chemotherapy alone, n=521) were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly greater number of women treated with GnRH agonist experienced spontaneous resumption of menses after the adjuvant chemotherapy, yielding a pooled odds ratio of 2.57 (versus chemotherapy alone, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.65, 4.01; P<0.0001). A subgroup analysis showed that addition of GnRH agonists significantly improved the resumption of menses rate in patients who were hormone-insensitive. However, the two treatment groups experienced similar spontaneous pregnancy (odds ratio =0.177; 95% CI=0

  6. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  7. Soy foods and urinary isoprostanes: results from a randomized study in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sen, Cherisse; Morimoto, Yukiko; Heak, Sreang; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-05-01

    In addition to their antiestrogenic effects, soy isoflavones may protect against cancer through alternate biological actions, for example, antioxidant properties. This randomized crossover study explored the relationship between dietary isoflavone intake through common soy foods and oxidative stress quantified by urinary isoprostane levels. Eighty-two women aged 39.2 ± 6.1 years were randomly selected to receive a high soy diet of 2 soy food servings per day and a low soy diet of <3 servings per week for 6 months each, separated by a 1-month washout period. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each dietary period. Urinary isoprostane levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and adjusted for creatinine levels. Mixed models using log-transformed values were applied to evaluate the effect of the high soy diet. Unadjusted isoprostane excretion levels were lower during the high rather than the low soy diet, but this effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.81). After adjustment for urinary creatinine, isoprostane excretion was slightly higher during the high soy diet (p = 0.02), an observation that was confirmed in a regression analysis between urinary isoflavones and isoprostanes during the high soy diet. The original association remained significant when restricted to adherent participants, however this effect disappeared after exclusion of three extreme values. In agreement with several previous reports, these findings do not support the hypothesis that soy exerts antioxidant effects, as measured by urinary isoprostane excretions, but additional markers of oxidative stress need to be investigated in future studies. PMID:22331037

  8. Contribution of ABCB1 and CYP2D6 genotypes to the outcome of tamoxifen adjuvant treatment in premenopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Argalácsová, S; Slanař, O; Vítek, P; Tesařová, P; Bakhouche, H; DraŽďáková, M; Bartošová, O; Zima, T; PertuŽelka, L

    2015-01-01

    Recent pre-clinical evidence suggests that the active metabolite of tamoxifen, endoxifen, is a substrate for efflux pump P-glycoprotein. The aim of our study was to evaluate, if the polymoprhisms within ABCB1 gene alter tamoxifen adjuvant treatment efficacy in premenopausal women. Totally 71 premenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer indicated for tamoxifen adjuvant treatment were followed retrospectively for median period of 56 months. The gentic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and ABCB1 were analyzed and potential covariates as tumor grading, staging, age at the diagnosis, comedication, quantitative positivity of ER or PR were also evaluated. Cox proportional-hazards regression model indicated that patients carrying at least one variant allele in ABCB1 rs1045642 had significantly longer time to event survival compared to wild type subjects. Non-significant trend was noted for better treatment outcome of patients carrying at least one variant allele in the SNP rs2032582, while for the CYP2D6 polymorphism poor metabolizer phenotype resulted in worse outcome in comparison to extensive metabolizers subjects with HR of 4.04 (95 % CI 0.31-52.19). Similarly, patients using CYP2D6 inhibitors had non-significantly shorter time-to-event as compared to never users resulting in hazard ratio of 2.06 (95 % CI 0.40-10.63). ABCB1 polymorphisms may affect outcome of tamoxifen adjuvant treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patiens. This factor should be taken into account in addition to the CYP2D6 polymorphism or phenotypic inhibition of CYP2D6 activity. PMID:26681084

  9. Gender-Specific Differences in the Kinetics of Nonfasting TRL, IDL, and LDL Apolipoprotein B-100 in Men and Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Matthan, Nirupa R.; Jalbert, Susan M.; Barrett, P. Hugh R.; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate mechanisms underlying gender differences in serum lipoprotein concentrations, the kinetic behavior of apoB-100 was assessed. Methods and Results Twenty subjects (<50 years; 12 men and 8 premenopausal women) were provided a Western diet for 4 to 6 weeks, after which the kinetics of apoB-100 in triglyceride-rich, intermediate-density, and low-density lipoprotein (TRL, IDL, and LDL) were determined in the fed state. Nonfasting plasma TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were 23%, 34%, and 57% lower, respectively, in the women compared with men. Plasma TRL and LDL apoB 100 pool sizes were lower by 40% and 30%, respectively. These differences were accounted for by higher TRL and LDL apoB 100 fractional catabolic rates (FCR), rather than differences in production rates (PR). Plasma TRL-C and LDL-C were positively correlated with TRL and LDL apoB 100 concentrations and pool size, and negatively correlated with TRL and LDL apoB 100 FCR (women: r=−0.59, P<0.01 and r=−0.54, P<0.04, and men: r=−0.43, P<0.05 and r=−0.44, P<0.05). No significant associations were observed between plasma TRL-C and LDL-C and PR. Conclusions These data suggest the mechanism for lower TRL-C and LDL-C concentrations in women was determined predominantly by higher TRL and LDL FCR rather than lower PR. This could explain, in part, the lower CVD risk in premenopausal women relative to men. PMID:18658047

  10. Relationships existing between the serum cytokine levels and bone mineral density in women in the premenopausal period affected by Graves' disease with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betül; Altun, Armagan; Arikan, Ender; Guldiken, Sibel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2003-11-01

    We examined the relationships existing between serum cytokine levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in women of premenopausal age affected by Graves' disease with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The study population consisted of 21 women with untreated hyperthyroid Graves' disease (group H) (age, 36 +/- 2 years), eight women with untreated subclinical hyperthyroid status (group SH) (age, 33 +/- 5 years) and 10 healthy women (group N) (age, 35 +/- 3 years). The following measurements were made in all patients: free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), TSH receptor antibody (TRab), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2r), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-13 (IL-13). IL-2r and IL-8 levels significantly increased in group H compared with group SH (p < 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively) and group N (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). IL-4 and IL-13 levels tended to be lower in groups H and SH compared with group N, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. Bone mineral density was significantly reduced in only two areas of the femur in group H compared with group N. There was no difference in BMD between groups SH and N. There was no correlation between thyroid hormones, serum cytokine levels and BMD in either group. In conclusion, these results suggest that there were no relationships existing between the serum level of these cytokines and BMD in women of premenopausal age affected by Graves' disease with subclinical hyperthyroidism. PMID:14682468

  11. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  12. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Materials and Methods Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Results Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Conclusion Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. PMID:26727718

  13. Effectiveness of antidepressant treatments in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal women: a pilot study on differential effects of sex hormones on antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Pae, Chi-Un; Mandelli, Laura; Kim, Tae-Suk; Han, Changsu; Masand, Prakash S; Marks, David M; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-03-01

    The incidence or recurrence of major depression is greatly increased in women during the transition to and after menopause and hormonal changes occurring during these periods are thought to play an important role in depressive recurrence. It has been also suggested that a chronic hypoestrogenic state may reduce the response to antidepressant drugs, but whether or not, and the extent to which hormonal changes related to menopause influence the response to antidepressant drugs, is yet to be determined. Thirty-nine female patients (n=17 in pre-menopause; n=22 in post-menopause) with major depressive disorder (MDD) based on DSM-IV criteria, who were not on hormonal replacement therapy, participated in the study in order to prospectively evaluate the effect of menopausal status and its hormonal correlates on the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment for 6weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 item (HAMD), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impression Severity scale (CGI-S) were administered at baseline, week 1, week 3, and week 6. The CGI-I scale was also assessed at weeks 1, 3, and 6. After controlling for age, age at onset, baseline symptom severity, antidepressant dosage and hormonal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2), post-menopausal women showed a poor response to antidepressants over 6weeks of treatment, compared to the response of pre-menopausal women. Old age and high levels of FSH were also associated with the efficacy of antidepressants in post-menopausal women. In conclusion, sex hormones are known to interact with serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Despite methodological limitations, our study suggests that menopausal status and old age are predictors of a poor response to antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, the FSH may interfere with the mechanism of action of the antidepressant agents. Hence, larger, randomized and controlled

  14. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; Bemben, Michael G.; Knehans, Allen W.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either to a Yoga group (YE, n = 16) or a control group (CON, n = 18). Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga-based Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months, and the session intensity was progressively increased by adding the number of sun salutations (SS). Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, Bone ALP) and bone resorption (Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase-5b, TRAP5b) markers were assessed at baseline and after 8 months. aBMD of total body, lumbar spine and dual proximal femur and tibia bone characteristics were measured using DXA and peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), respectively. We found that the serum Bone ALP concentrations were maintained in YE, but significantly (p = 0.005) decreased in CON after the 8 month intervention, and there were significant (p = 0.002) group differences in Bone ALP percent changes (YE 9.1 ± 4.0% vs. CON -7.1 ± 2.3%). No changes in TRAP5b were found in either group. The 8-month Yoga program did not increase aBMD or tibia bone strength variables. Body composition results showed no changes in weight, fat mass, or % fat, but small significant increases in bone free lean body mass occurred in both groups. The findings of this study

  15. Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out. The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. Methods/design Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial. Discussion This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body

  16. The Role of Leisure Engagement for Health Benefits Among Korean Older Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Irwin, Lori; Kim, May; Chin, Seungtae; Kim, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine the benefits of leisure to older Korean women. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, in this study we identified three categories of benefits from leisure activities: (a) developing social connections, (b) enhancing psychological well-being, and (c) improving physical health. The findings of this study demonstrate that involvement in leisure activities offers substantial physical, psychological, and social benefits for older Korean women. The results also suggest that these benefits can provide an opportunity for older Korean adults to improve their health and well-being, which, in turn, may help promote successful aging. PMID:26252796

  17. Adjuvant Surgical Oophorectomy Plus Tamoxifen in Premenopausal Women With Operable Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: A Global Treatment Option.

    PubMed

    Love, Richard R

    2016-08-01

    One third of annual new cases of breast cancer globally are now hormone receptor-positive tumors in premenopausal women from low- and middle-income countries. For this subgroup of women with breast cancer, high-income country guidelines suggest impractical and unaffordable adjuvant treatments. The balance of clinical trial evidence now suggests that surgical oophorectomy plus tamoxifen is a safe and practical treatment for these women in low- and middle-income countries. Additionally, new randomized trial data suggest that women in the second half of an anovulatory cycle benefit minimally from surgical oophorectomy done at this time, which implies that regularly cycling women will benefit more than has been shown from this procedure. Allred scoring of levels of hormone receptors is a practical and inexpensive approach to the assessment of magnitudes of response to oophorectomy plus tamoxifen. These circumstances suggest that more detailed consideration of this option should characterize clinical practice guidelines in high-income countries because of their global impact. PMID:27117241

  18. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population. PMID:18394511

  19. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  20. Differences of bone mineral mass, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical and structural parameters and derived strength of the tibia between premenopausal and postmenopausal women of different age groups: a peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) study.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, K D; Zoubos, A B; Papaioannou, N A; Mastrokalos, D; Galanos, A; Papagelopoulos, P J; Skarantavos, G

    2016-01-01

    Menopause constitutes a significant cause of bone loss, and it is currently debated whether bone mass is preserved or begins to decline substantially before that time in women. We used pQCT of the tibia to estimate differences of bone mineral mass, bone geometry and derived strength between premenopausal and postmenopausal Caucasian women of different age-groups per decade of age (20-79y). For each individual, we assessed total, trabecular and cortical bone mineral content (BMC, mg) and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm3); total and cortical cross-sectional areas (CSA, mm2); periosteal circumference (PERI_C, mm); endosteal circumference (ENDO_C, mm); mean cortical thickness (CRT_THK, mm); and Stress-Strain Index (SSI) . Comparisons were made both between premenopausal (N=84) and postmenopausal (N=231) women as distinct groups, and among women of the different age-groups. Our results indicated that premenopausal women had significantly higher trabecular and cortical BMC and vBMD, with higher cortical CSA, CRT_THK and SSI than postmenopausal women. Moreover, significant differences of trabecular but not cortical BMC, vBMD or SSI were found between women of the younger (<48y) age-groups. PERI_C, ENDO_C displayed lower values in the 20-29y group and higher values in the 70-79y group, denoting significant differences of bone geometry with aging. PMID:27282455

  1. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  2. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women. PMID:22311294

  3. Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon

    2012-01-01

    Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) by approximately sevenfold in response to testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (∼10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.04), testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ∼45% (P < 0.001). We conclude that testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women. PMID:22252942

  4. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  5. Factors Influencing Help-Seeking Behavior among Battered Korean Women in Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…

  6. A survey of Hwa-Byung in middle-age Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, H S; Kang, H C; Kim, J W

    2001-04-01

    Hwa-Byung (HB) has been categorized as a Korean culture-bound syndrome that refers to insidious, long-standing, serious discontent that is projected into the body and is manifested by numerous symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, panic, palpitations, dyspnea, and others. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of HB in Korean women, validate the predominant symptoms of HB, and validate the related sociodemographic factors and lifestyle factors that differentiate women with HB from those without HB. A total of 2,807 women ages 41 to 65 years were recruited from seven metropolitan areas and six provinces in Korea. The prevalence rate of women who designated themselves as having experienced HB was 4.95%. The rates were higher in women of low socioeconomic status, living in rural areas, among the divorced or separated, smokers, and drinkers. A set of 31 HB symptoms differentiated the potential HB women from the non-HB women. PMID:11989228

  7. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24040778

  8. Beliefs, practices, and experiences of Korean women in relation to childbirth.

    PubMed

    Park, K J; Peterson, L M

    1991-01-01

    Korean women's health beliefs and childbirth experiences in the United States were examined. A convenience sampling procedure was used, and face-to-face interviews were conducted in Korean. Interviews were audiotaped, typed, and translated from Korean to English. These women had a holistic concept of health. Some practices were influence by ancient Chinese medicine. Childbirth experiences indicated that language is a barrier requiring specific interventions. Recommendations include (a) development of an assessment tool with which health-care professionals can identify individual health beliefs early in pregnancy; (b) development of a bilingual pamphlet about medical terms and the U.S. health-care system; (c) development of a short bilingual dictionary of common foods for use in menu selection during hospitalization; and (d) provision of English practice periods based on anticipatory guidance principles to prepare women to ask for specific assistance. PMID:2022535

  9. Premenopausal osteoporosis, an overlooked consequence of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Many young women with anorexia nervosa develop premenopausal osteoporosis. In particular, female athletes have a much higher incidence of disordered eating than their peers and therefore are at a much higher risk of stress fractures and other traumatic bone pathology. This review summarizes factors affecting the development of premenopausal osteoporosis in these patients and identifies potential targets for intervention. PMID:21199907

  10. A feminist critique of research on menopausal experience of Korean women.

    PubMed

    Im, E O; Meleis, A I; Park, Y S

    1999-10-01

    Despite the increasing number of studies on the menopausal experience of Asian women, the focus of the studies has been on simple comparisons of their symptoms with Western women's and other disease-oriented research topics. To propose directions for future research on menopause, we analyzed and critiqued 158 studies on the menopausal experience of a group of Asian women-Korean women. The studies were retrieved through a search of computerized databases in the United States and South Korea, and they were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued with a feminist perspective. Many of the studies have problems with (a) conceptualization, including ethnocentric and androcentric views of menopause, biomedical perspectives, and language difficulties; (b) research methods, such as inadequate instruments, passive relationships between researchers and research participants, culturally inappropriate communication styles, inadequate study designs, and homogeneous research participants; and (c) interpretation and communication of study findings. These issues undermine the conclusions drawn about the nature of the menopausal experience of Korean women. PMID:10520193

  11. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium) versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium) was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001). There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance. PMID:24772062

  12. Evaluation of estradiol administration on the discriminative-stimulus and subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kendall, Sherie L.; Babalonis, Shanna; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that estradiol might be responsible for the enhanced response to psychostimulants sometimes observed in females. In this study, 10 healthy pre-menopausal women who were using oral, hormone-based birth control learned to discriminate 15 mg/70 kg oral d-amphetamine from placebo. Once a discrimination criterion was met (i.e., ≥ 80% correct responding at the final time point for five consecutive sessions), a range of doses of oral d-amphetamine (0, 3.125, 7.5 and 15 mg/70 kg) was tested alone and in combination with sublingual estradiol (0 and 0.25 mg). Test sessions were conducted during the oral contraception placebo phase when levels of both estradiol and progesterone were at their lowest. d-Amphetamine functioned as a discriminative stimulus and produced prototypical stimulant effects (e.g., increased positive subject-rated drug effects, elevated cardiovascular measures). Estradiol enhanced the discriminative-stimulus effects of the low dose, but not higher doses of d-amphetamine. Estradiol also enhanced d-amphetamine effects on a subset of subjective-report ratings (i.e., VAS Like Drug and total score on the Stimulant subscale of the Adjective-Rating Scale). These findings provide limited support for the notion that estradiol increases sensitivity to the psychostimulant effects of drugs such as d-amphetamine. PMID:17544491

  13. Factors Associated with Adiposity, Lipid Profile Disorders and the Metabolic Syndrome Occurrence in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Rębak, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the dependencies between a woman’s menopausal status and adiposity, lipid profile and metabolic syndrome occurrence, as well as finding out whether the correlations between the socio-demographic profile and lifestyle elements and adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS are the same before and after menopause. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3636 women, aged between 40–59, which involved a questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples, on the basis of which the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose was estimated. Before menopause, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.08; %BFβ = 0.07; WCβ = 0.06) was characteristic for women living in a stable relationship than for single women. Women who smoked in the past were characterized by a higher BMI (β = 0.09) and WC (β = 0.06) in comparison with women who have never smoked, while after menopause a greater adiposity (%BFβ = 0.12) and a worse lipid profile (TCβ = 0.08; LDLβ = 0.07; HDLβ = -0.05; TGβ = 0.14) were present in women currently smoking, in comparison to women who have never smoked. After menopause, in women who had two or more children, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.07 and 0.09; %BFβ = 0.05 and 0.07) and a higher risk of MetS (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03–1.44) was observed compared to nulliparous women, than before menopause. In women with a higher level of education, the risk of MetS after menopause was significantly lower compared with women with a lower level of education (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.61–0.90). Physical activity after menopause had a higher influence on the decrease in the women’s adiposity (BMIβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; %BFβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; WCβ = -0.14 v. -0.08), than before menopause. In women not undergoing hormone replacement therapy, some of the socio-demographic factors and lifestyle elements affected adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS differently before and after

  14. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    PubMed

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P < 0.01) and Independent Christian women (OR 4.87 P < 0.01) showed stronger associations to heavy alcohol consumption when compared to Conservative Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon. PMID:21286816

  15. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery. PMID:11314500

  16. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. PMID:24848345

  17. CONSUMING A BALANCED HIGH FAT DIET FOR 16 WEEKS IMPROVES BODY COMPOSITION, INFLAMMATION AND VASCULAR FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN OBESE PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Heidi J.; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D.; Muldowney, James A.; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. PMID:24559846

  18. Coping with Breast Cancer: Reflections from Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Nuñez, Alicia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Lim, Jung-Won; Flores, Katrina; Nápoles, Anna María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study identified and compared the coping strategies of Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Chinese- (n = 21), Korean- (n = 11), and Mexican-American (n = 9) BCS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated for thematic content analysis of coping experiences and strategies. Results Women reported the use of eight coping strategies (religious/spiritual, benefit finding, fatalism, optimism, fighting spirit, information seeking, denial, and self-distraction). Among Chinese-American BCS, benefit finding was the most referenced coping strategy, whereas religious/spiritual coping was most frequently reported among Korean- and Mexican-American BCS. Denial and self-distraction were the least cited strategies. Conclusions Survivors draw upon new found inner strength to successfully integrate their cancer experience into their lives. Coping models must consider the diversity of cancer survivors and the variability in coping strategies among cultural ethnic minority BCS. PMID:26389720

  19. The silicon supplement ‘Monomethylsilanetriol’ is safe and increases the body pool of silicon in healthy Pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monomethylsilanetriol (MMST) has been used for decades as an oral silicon supplement for bone and connective tissue health, although there are no formal data on its in vivo utilisation or safety following sustained dosing. Methods To investigate whether MMST contributes to the body pool of silicon and, secondly, to establish its safety following 4 weeks’ supplementation in humans, twenty-two healthy pre-menopausal women (22–38 years) were recruited and supplemented with MMST at the maximum daily recommended dose (10.5 mg Si/day) for 4 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over design (i.e. 8 weeks in total). Fasting serum and urine samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the 4-week supplementation/placebo periods for analysis of total silicon by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, MMST by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and full serum biochemistry. Participants also reported on, by questionnaire, their health, well-being and quality of life at 0, 4 and 8 weeks. Results Overall, 4-weeks supplementation with MMST significantly increased total fasting Si concentrations in serum and urine (P ≤ 0.003; paired t-test). MMST was semi-quantifiable in serum and quantifiable in urine, but only accounted for ca. 50% and 10%, respectively, of the increased total-Si concentration. There were no reported adverse effects (i.e. changes to health and well-being) or serum biochemical changes with MMST versus placebo. Conclusions Our data indicate that oral MMST is safe, is absorbed and undergoes sufficient metabolism in vivo to raise fasting serum silicon levels, consistent with other well absorbed forms of dietary silicon (e.g. orthosilicic acid). It thus appears to be a suitable silicon supplement. PMID:23622499

  20. Modulation of the discriminative stimulus effects of triazolam across the menstrual cycle phase in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Babalonis, Shanna; Emurian, Cleeve S.; Martin, Catherine A.; Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that changes in progesterone levels across menstrual cycle phases modulate the behavioral effects of sedative drugs acting at GABAA receptor sites. In this study, seven healthy women learned to discriminate triazolam (0.25 mg/70 kg) from placebo. After acquiring the discrimination, a range of triazolam doses (0.00, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.25 mg/70 kg) was tested during the early follicular and mid-luteal menstrual cycle phases. During the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone levels were elevated, 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as the active triazolam training dose (0.25 mg/70 kg), whereas 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as placebo during the early follicular phase, when progesterone levels were low. Triazolam engendered prototypical sedative effects on subjective effect, performance and cardiovascular measures that were generally independent of cycle phase. These results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of the positive GABAA modulator, triazolam, are sensitive to menstrual cycle phase in healthy adult women. PMID:18178039

  1. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  2. The use of nomegestrol acetate in rapid preparation of endometrium before operative hysteroscopy in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Florio, Pasquale; Imperatore, Alberto; Litta, Pietro; Franchini, Mario; Calzolari, Stefano; Angioni, Stefano; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bruni, Luca; Petraglia, Felice

    2010-12-01

    The presence of a thin endometrium has an important role in allowing the best conditions for hysteroscopic surgery. Here, we explored the efficacy of a 14-day administration of nomegestrol acetate, a progestogen with high progestogen potency effects, in rapid endometrial preparation to operative hysteroscopy. A total of 86 fertile women selected for operative hysteroscopy received for 14 days either 5mgday(-1) of nomegestrol acetate (n=43; group A) or 4mgday(-1) of folic acid (n=43; group B), starting on day 1 of the subsequent menstrual cycle. Before treatments on days 12-14 of the menstrual cycle, all patients underwent endometrial thickness measurement; ultrasonography of the ovaries to measure the appearance of a dominant follicle; diagnostic hysteroscopy with endometrial biopsy; plasma estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels measurements. On the day of surgery, patients repeated endometrial and ovarian ultrasonography and, E2, P, LH and FSH measurement. At enrolment, endometrial thickness, mean follicular diameter and E2, P, LH and FSH concentrations did not differ between groups. At the time of operative hysteroscopy (i.e., after 14 days' treatment) group A, but not group B, showed significant (all P<0.001) reduction of endometrial thickness, mean diameter of dominant follicle, E2, P and LH concentrations. Endometrial preparation was judged more effective in group A than B, since the endometrial mucosa in all of the women of group A appeared to be very thin, hypotrophic, regular and pale. In conclusion, administration of nomegestrol acetate was effective in reducing endometrial thickness, also acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, thus allowing highly favourable operative hysteroscopic conditions. PMID:20566359

  3. Cultural and Social Network Predictors of Drinking among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Chambers, Christina D.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Reyes, Washington; Kang, Sunny W.; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women’s drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents reported any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking volume (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days), level of acculturation, and described their social network by assessing who encouraged or discouraged drinking (drinking support) or drank (drinking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. About 70% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 67 to 74) of Korean American women reported any lifetime drinking and current drinkers drank 1.18 (95%CI, 1.07 to 1.28) drinks on drinking days. Acculturation was not significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking volume, while models and support for drinking were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking more on drinking days. Each additional encourager, or one fewer discourager, for drinking in women’s social networks was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 1 to 3) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.25 (95%CI, −0.53 to 1.18) more drinks on drinking days. Each additional drinker in women’s networks was associated with a 4% (95%CI, 1 to 8) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.26 (95%CI, −0.05 to 0.60) more drinks on drinking days. Korean American women’s drinking appears to be strongly related to their social networks, though how women take on traits of their new environment was not. PMID:20843638

  4. The conceptual structure of hwa-byung in middle-aged Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna; Kim, Jong-Woo

    2002-06-01

    The term hwa-byung (HB) as a culture-bound syndrome of Koreans has been used to refer to certain types of symptom complexes. However, there is an ambiguity in relation to what sorts of experiences and personal attributes can be identified for describing HB. Our study was designed to reexamine the conceptual structure of HB through a qualitative analysis of interview data with six middle-aged women experiencing HB. The emerging common themes of HB were identified in three dimensions: (a) those related to personal attributes or life situations such as quick-temperedness, strong commitment to traditional values, a hard or unhappy life, and conflicted marital relationship; (b) those related to experiential accounts such as deep sorrow (hahn in Korean), a feeling of victimization, anger, and enduring; and (c) HB symptoms. "Enduring" as one of the core concepts of HB viewed as the only way of life for these women needs further examination. PMID:12148916

  5. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  6. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles. PMID:23627346

  7. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  8. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10-24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  9. Knowledge and Beliefs Related to Cervical Cancer and Screening Among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunice E.; Fogg, Louis; Menon, Usha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine knowledge and health beliefs associated with cervical cancer screening among Korean American women. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 Korean American women in the Chicago area. Age, marital status, income, knowledge of early detection method for cervical cancer, and perceived beliefs about benefits of and barriers to receiving Pap tests were all related to outcomes of ever having a Pap test and having had one in the preceding 3 years. Variables uniquely related to ever having a Pap test were education, employment status, fluency in English, and proportion of life spent in the United States. Variables uniquely related to having had the test during the preceding 3 years were having a usual source of care and regular checkups. Different intervention components are suggested for the groups of Korean American women who have never had a Pap smear and for those who have not had one in the preceding 3 years, in addition to common intervention strategies that aim to increase knowledge and perceived benefit and to decrease perceived barriers to receiving Pap tests. PMID:18539883

  10. Stages of change: Korean women's attitudes and barriers toward mammography screening.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Sun; Thomas, Eileen; Kwon, Bo Eun; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Jun, Eun Mi

    2008-02-01

    The positive and negative aspects of breast cancer screening were measured to gain insight into the barriers that prevent Korean women from participating in mammography screening. Breast cancer screening behaviors, attitudes, and barriers were identified from a convenience sample of 328 Korean women recruited in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Jeju, South Korea. Pros, cons, and decisional balance constructs of the transtheoretical model of behavior change were used to identify stages of change in attitude related to mammography screening. There were significant differences in pros (F = 5.175, p = .001) and cons (F = 3.357, p = .012) across the five stages of change for mammography. Participants indicated that the major barriers to mammography screening were, in order of frequency, the belief that an absence of symptoms meant there was no need for a breast examination, the high cost of breast cancer screening, lack of time, lack of information, embarrassment, fear about x-rays and test results, reliance on breast self-examination (BSE), and discomfort or pain. The benefits of breast cancer screening should be emphasized among Korean women. PMID:18350421

  11. Computational Discrimination of Breast Cancer for Korean Women Based on Epidemiologic Data Only.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiwon; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Boyoung; Bae, Jonghee; Lim, Min Hyuk; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K; Kim, Youdan; Kim, Sungwan

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cancer for Korean women and its incidence rate has been increasing annually. If early diagnosis were implemented with epidemiologic data, the women could easily assess breast cancer risk using internet. National Cancer Institute in the United States has released a Web-based Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool based on Gail model. However, it is inapplicable directly to Korean women since breast cancer risk is dependent on race. Also, it shows low accuracy (58%-59%). In this study, breast cancer discrimination models for Korean women are developed using only epidemiological case-control data (n = 4,574). The models are configured by different classification techniques: support vector machine, artificial neural network, and Bayesian network. A 1,000-time repeated random sub-sampling validation is performed for diverse parameter conditions, respectively. The performance is evaluated and compared as an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). According to age group and classification techniques, AUC, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and calculation time of all models were calculated and compared. Although the support vector machine took the longest calculation time, the highest classification performance has been achieved in the case of women older than 50 yr (AUC = 64%). The proposed model is dependent on demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, and lifestyle habits without using any clinical or genetic test. It is expected that the model could be implemented as a web-based discrimination tool for breast cancer. This tool can encourage potential breast cancer prone women to go the hospital for diagnostic tests. PMID:26240478

  12. Exploring Religious Mechanisms for Healthy Alcohol Use: Religious Messages and Drinking Among Korean Women in California*

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang Sim, D. Eastern; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Method: Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews were completed, with 92% conducted in Korean. Respondents were asked about any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking rate (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days among current drinkers), and messages discouraging “excessive drinking” from religious leaders or congregants. Bivariable and multivariable regressions were used for analysis. Results: Approximately 70.4% of women reported any lifetime drinking, and drinkers drank a mean (SD) of 1.10 (1.22) drinks on drinking days. About 30.8%reported about 30.8% reported any exposure to religious leaders' messages discouraging excessive drinking, and 28.2% reported any exposure to similar messages from congregants. Each congregant's message was statistically significantly associated with a 5.1% lower probability (odds ratio = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.626, 0.959) of any lifetime drinking. Also, each congregant's message was associated with a 13.8% (B = -0.138; 95% CI: -0.306, 0.029) lower drinking rate, which was statistically significant after adjusting for covariates using a one-tailed test. Exposure to leaders' messages was not statistically significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking rate. Conclusions: Social reinforcement in the form of religious messages may be one mechanism by which religious institutions influence drinking behaviors. For Korean women, messages from congregants had a unique impact beyond the traditional religiosity indicators. These social mechanisms provide public health interventionists with religious pathways to improve drinking behaviors. PMID:19895765

  13. Mammographic Breast Density Evaluation in Korean Women Using Fully Automated Volumetric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to present mean breast density of Korean women according to age using fully automated volumetric assessment. This study included 5,967 screening normal or benign mammograms (mean age, 46.2 ± 9.7; range, 30–89 years), from cancer-screening program. We evaluated mean fibroglandular tissue volume, breast tissue volume, volumetric breast density (VBD), and the results were 53.7 ± 30.8 cm3, 383.8 ± 205.2 cm3, and 15.8% ± 7.3%. The frequency of dense breasts and mean VBD by age group were 94.3% and 19.1% ± 6.7% for the 30s (n = 1,484), 91.4% and 17.2% ± 6.8% for the 40s (n = 2,706), 72.2% and 12.4% ± 6.2% for the 50s (n = 1,138), 44.0% and 8.6% ± 4.3% for the 60s (n = 89), 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.8% for the 70s (n = 138), and 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.5% for the 80s (n = 12). The frequency of dense breasts was higher in younger women (n = 4,313, 92.3%) than older women (n = 1,654, 59.8%). Mean VBD decreased with aging or menopause, and was about 16% for 46-year-old-Korean women, much higher than in other countries. The proportion of dense breasts sharply decreases in Korean women between 40 and 69 years of age. PMID:26955249

  14. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001), and mean number of live births was significantly lower in women with SLE (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Significantly more women with SLE made the decision not to have children compared with controls (54.5% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.031), and health-related concerns were the major cause of the decision. Other socio-demographic factors did not influence the decision to limit childbearing in SLE women. The disease-related concerns had significant impact on family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE. PMID:27134494

  15. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Je; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bang, So-Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Young Mo; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Jisoo

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001), and mean number of live births was significantly lower in women with SLE (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Significantly more women with SLE made the decision not to have children compared with controls (54.5% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.031), and health-related concerns were the major cause of the decision. Other socio-demographic factors did not influence the decision to limit childbearing in SLE women. The disease-related concerns had significant impact on family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE. PMID:27134494

  16. Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su

    2013-01-01

    Background The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. Methods All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured from January 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled by interview using the OHBS. We also evaluated the women's general clinical characteristics. Results One hundred seventy-seven women were enrolled in the present study. In the present study, the barriers to calcium intake subscale had the lowest mean score (15.03±3.02), and the Benefit of Exercise subscale had the highest (23.02±3.03). The scores for participants in their 20s were significantly higher than scores for those in their 70s on the Benefits of Exercise subscale and Barriers to Exercise subscale (P=0.014 and P=0.022, respectively). Conclusions Education for health motivation to prevent osteoporosis is important for young women. Additional systematic education programs are needed for the general population. PMID:24524052

  17. Isoflavone supplementation influenced levels of triglyceride and luteunizing hormone in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyung; Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, Okhwa; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Young, Kwon Dae; Jeong, Yang Hye; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of soy-derived isoflavone on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sex hormones related to cardiovascular disease in Korean postmenopausal women. One hundred thirteen postmenopausal women were recruited from the Seoul metropolitan area. To confirm postmenopausal and gynecologic status, the subjects were clinically examined by a gynecologist using ultra sound and X-ray. Finally, 85 postmenopausal women whose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were higher than 40 IU/ml were enrolled. Subjects received either 70 mg isoflavone or placebo capsules daily for 12 weeks. As a result, the values of fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as those of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and FFA, were not different between the groups after supplementation. However, triglyceride (TG) levels in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of the placebo group (p = 0.0215). The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) significantly decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.027); however, the levels of FSH, estrone and estradiol were not changed after intervention. In conclusion, isoflavone supplement of 70 mg/day for 12 weeks decreased blood levels of TG and LH in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23475289

  18. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes. PMID:25912765

  19. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Korean Women with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Jang, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Moon-Young; Ko, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a retrospective survey of 163 pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes (n=13) and type 2 diabetes (n=150) treated from 2003 to 2010 at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center, Korea. We compared maternal characteristics as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes between groups. Results Differences in glycosylated hemoglobin between type 1 and type 2 diabetes were not significant. Birth weight (3,501±689.6 g vs. 3,366±531.4 g) and rate of major congenital malformations (7.7% vs. 5.6%) were not significantly different. However, women with type 1 diabetes had higher rates of preeclampsia (38.5% vs. 8.2%, P=0.006), large for gestational age (LGA; 46.2% vs. 20.4%, P=0.004), macrosomia (38.5% vs. 13.4%, P=0.032), and admission for neonatal care (41.7% vs. 14.8%, P=0.03) than women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Maternal and neonatal outcomes for women with type 1 diabetes were poorer than for women with type 2 diabetes, especially preeclampsia, LGA, macrosomia and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26301193

  20. Association of cortisol and the metabolic syndrome in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Park, Sat Byul; Blumenthal, James A; Lee, Soon Young; Georgiades, Anastasia

    2011-07-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related and have become increasingly prevalent in Korea. The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have previously been associated with increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity, but the associations have not been extensively examined in non-Caucasian populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between cortisol, adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in a Korean population. A total of 1,881 adults participated in the study between January 2001 and February 2008. Sociodemographic data were assessed by questionnaires. Body composition, clinic blood pressures as well as metabolic variables including glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed and analyzed in relation to cortisol levels. Mean age of the participants was 58.7 ± 10.8 yr. Higher levels of cortisol was associated with elevated blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in men, and between cortisol and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in women. There was an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome associated with higher cortisol levels in both men (P < 0.001) and women (P = 0.040) adjusting for age and body mass index. Higher cortisol levels are associated with several CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome, independent of overall of adiposity level, in Korean men and women. PMID:21738345

  1. Korean American Women's Experiences with Smoking and Factors Associated with Their Quit Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S.; Kim, Seongho; Seward, Gregory; Fortuna, Lisa; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Korean American women's experiences with smoking and tested the theory of planned behavior to identify factors associated with their intentions to quit smoking. It employed a mixed-methods research design, using qualitative and quantitative data. Participants were recruited via a combination of random (N = 49) and convenience (N = 45) sampling techniques. Women in this study initiated smoking at age of 23 on average, and nearly half smoked at indoor houses. They initiated smoking out of curiosity about the effect and belief that smoking would relieve their stress. Reasons for continued smoking were (a) to avoid nicotine withdrawal symptoms, (b) to cope with life stressors, including acculturative stress, and (c) to fulfill one's destiny as a lifetime smoker. Many attempted to quit due to health issues and pregnancy. Fear of disclosure and limited English proficiency were found to be major barriers to seeking help for quitting. Past-year quit attempt(s), attitudes toward quitting, and perceived family norm favoring quitting explained 25% of the variance in intentions to quit smoking (F[3,90] = 11.58, P < 0.001). Findings suggest that gender- and culture-specific intervention strategies are needed to assist Korean American women in smoking cessation. PMID:25938119

  2. Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms. PMID:20886700

  3. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  4. Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI-polymorphism in Finnish premenopausal and postmenopausal women: its association with bone mineral density, markers of bone turnover, and intestinal calcium absorption, with adjustment for lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Marika; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Outila, Terhi; Vanninen, Tarja; Ray, Carola; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2002-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Sixty percent to 80% of bone mass is suggested to be under polygenetic control, but the role of individual genes seems to be modest. Several studies have indicated that the vitamin D receptor ( VDR) gene has a role in the regulation of BMD and bone metabolism, but the results are very controversial. We studied the associations between BsmI-polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD and bone metabolism in 24 premenopausal (aged 22-45 years) and 69 postmenopausal (aged 48-65 years) Finnish women. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and bone turnover markers were measured, and the intestinal calcium absorption was investigated, using a method based on the absorption of non-radioactive strontium. The genotype distribution was 16%, BB; 34.5%, Bb; and 49.5%, bb, which differs from the genotype distribution found in other Caucasian populations, but is similar to earlier Finnish reports. The winter value of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OH-D) was highest for the BB genotype in both age groups (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]; premenopausal women P = 0.5, postmenopausal women P = 0.03, and for the groups combined P = 0.02). Lumbar spine BMD and intestinal strontium absorption were highest for the BB genotype in both age groups, but these results were nonsignificant. The markers of bone metabolism did not differ significantly between the VDR genotypes. The BB genotype had the best vitamin D status, which could explain the differences in calcium absorption between the genotypes. However, the conclusions of our study are limited because of the small number of subjects. PMID:12434167

  5. Insulin Resistance Distribution and Cut-Off Value in Koreans from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify the distribution and cut-off value of the ‘homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance’ (HOMA-IR) according to gender and menopausal status for metabolic syndrome in Koreans. Methods Data were from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. The subjects included adults aged 20 years or older. We excluded participants who had diabetes or fasting serum glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L. Finally, 11,121 subjects (4,911 men, 3,597 premenopausal women, 2,613 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results The mean HOMA-IR was 2.11 (2.07–2.15) for men, 2.0 (1.97–2.04) for premenopausal women, and 2.14 (2.2–2.19) for postmenopausal women. The first cut-off values in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were 2.23 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 66.9%), 2.39 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.4%), and 2.48 (sensitivity 51.9%, specificity 80.2%), respectively. Based on the first HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.9% in men, 13.7% in premenopausal women, and 51.6% in postmenopausal women. The second cut-off value was around 3.2 in all three groups. Based on the second HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.8% in men, 42.5% in premenopausal women, and 71.6% in postmenopausal women. Conclusion In conclusion, the first cut-off values for HOMA-IR were 2.2–2.5 and the second cut-off value was 3.2 in Korea. The distribution of HOMA-IR showed differences according to gender and menopausal status. When we apply HOMA-IR, we should consider gender, menopausal status, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27128847

  6. Marital power process of Korean men married to foreign women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyoung; Park, Gyeong Sook; Windsor, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study explored how Korean men married to migrant women construct meaning around married life. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 10 men who had had been married to migrant women for ≥ 2 years. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently using a grounded theory approach. The core category generated was the process of sustaining a family unit. The men came to understand the importance of a distribution of power within the family in sustaining the family unit. Constituting this process were four stages: recognizing an imbalance of power, relinquishing power, empowering, and fine-tuning the balance of power. This study provides important insight into the dynamics of marital power from men's point of view by demonstrating a link between the way people adjust to married life and the process by which married couples adjust through the distribution and redistribution of power. PMID:23171395

  7. Triglyceride Is a Useful Surrogate Marker for Insulin Resistance in Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Yun; Cho, Yeon Jean; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate lipid profiles and liver enzymes as surrogate markers used for recognizing insulin resistance in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods 458 women with PCOS were divided into two groups: non-obese with a body mass index (BMI)<25.0 kg/m2 and obese with a BMI≥25.0 kg/m2. Anthropometric measures and blood sampling for hormone assay, liver enzymes, lipid profiles and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were performed. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)≥2.5. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the power of serum markers. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of each confounding factor for HOMA-IR. Results In non-obese and obese groups, the ROC curve analyses demonstrated that the best marker for insulin resistance was triglyceride (TG), with the areas under the ROC curve of 0.617 and 0.837, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was the significant marker for insulin resistance with areas under the ROC curve of 0.698 in obese group, but not significant in non-obese group. TG and LDL-C were significantly associated with HOMA-IR in both non-obese and obese PCOS women by multiple linear regression analysis. The optimal cut-off points of TG≥68.5 was a marker for predicting insulin resistance in non-obese PCOS patients and TG≥100.5 in obese group. Conclusion TG can be used as a useful marker for insulin resistance in Korean women with PCOS, especially for obese patients. PMID:25837186

  8. Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage containing moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    NAGINO, Takayuki; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; MASUOKA, Norie; KAGA, Chiaki; ANBE, Michitoshi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; KAMACHI, Keiko; ISOZAKI, Mariko; SUZUKI, Chigusa; KASUGA, Chikako; TANAKA, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the serum concentrations of genistein and total isoflavones were significantly higher, by about 1.4-fold, up to 5 hr after FSM intake compared with SM intake (each p<0.05), and that of daidzein tended to be higher after FSM intake. In addition, AUC analysis of total isoflavones for individual subjects revealed that 5 out of 7 subjects had higher AUC values after FSM intake compared with SM intake and that the 2 remaining subjects had similar AUC values. These 2 subjects had higher AUC values after SM intake (mean, 2,502 ± 348) than those of the other subjects (mean, 1,158 ± 269). These results indicate that the bioavailability of isoflavones, especially genistein, is enhanced after the intake of FSM containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones compared with intake of SM containing no isoflavone aglycones and that the enhancement is observed in healthy premenopausal Japanese women whose isoflavone absorption capacity is low after SM intake. PMID:26858926

  9. Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage containing moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Nagino, Takayuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Masuoka, Norie; Kaga, Chiaki; Anbe, Michitoshi; Miyazaki, Kouji; Kamachi, Keiko; Isozaki, Mariko; Suzuki, Chigusa; Kasuga, Chikako; Tanaka, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioavailability of serum isoflavones after the intake of soymilk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones (FSM) or placebo soymilk containing no isoflavone aglycones (SM). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial, 7 healthy premenopausal Japanese women (mean age: 35.3 ± 11.0) consumed FSM or SM on day 1 and crossed over to the other soymilk after a 6-day washout period. Serum isoflavones in blood samples collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr after intake were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) values for the serum concentrations of genistein and total isoflavones were significantly higher, by about 1.4-fold, up to 5 hr after FSM intake compared with SM intake (each p<0.05), and that of daidzein tended to be higher after FSM intake. In addition, AUC analysis of total isoflavones for individual subjects revealed that 5 out of 7 subjects had higher AUC values after FSM intake compared with SM intake and that the 2 remaining subjects had similar AUC values. These 2 subjects had higher AUC values after SM intake (mean, 2,502 ± 348) than those of the other subjects (mean, 1,158 ± 269). These results indicate that the bioavailability of isoflavones, especially genistein, is enhanced after the intake of FSM containing 32.5% isoflavone aglycones compared with intake of SM containing no isoflavone aglycones and that the enhancement is observed in healthy premenopausal Japanese women whose isoflavone absorption capacity is low after SM intake. PMID:26858926

  10. Association between Health Behaviors and a Family History of Cancer among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Youngsun; Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health-related behaviors related to a family history of cancer (FHCA) among Korean women underwent cancer screening. Materials and Methods A total of 8,956 women who underwent cancer screenings during 2001-2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were analyzed. The association between health-related behaviors and a FHCA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.65), to be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65), and less likely to engage in regular exercise (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41). Combined effects of selected health behaviors for FHCA were significant, although no statistically significant interactions were observed between selected health behaviors. Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to simultaneously smoke and be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.31) and to simultaneously smoke and be physically inactive (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). Conclusion The study found that women with a FHCA exhibited unhealthy behaviors compared to women without FHCA. Higher emphasis on lifestyle modifications using a new standardized tool is strongly recommended for those with a FHCA, as well as individuals who are at high risk, together with their family members. PMID:26511810

  11. Efficacy and safety of a 24-day regimen of drospirenone-containing combined oral contraceptive in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayoung; Yoo, Ha-Na; Hyun, Hye Sun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, Doo-Seok

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the efficacy and safety of a 24-day regimen of drospirenone-containing combined oral contraceptive, and demonstrates that it is an effective and safe option for contraception, releasing symptom of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and acne in Korean women. PMID:26430665

  12. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  13. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  14. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and methods: This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2–4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required. PMID:27147781

  15. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS). Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7–24.6] and 7.7% (7.1–8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25–4.19) and 1.78 (0.96–3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years). Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive

  16. Vasomotor symptoms and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin-resistance in Korean postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Hui; Lee, Ju Hak; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Park, Hyun-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and insulin resistance, which can be postulated by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index. This study involved 1,547 Korean postmenopausal women (age, 45 to 65 years) attending a routine health check-up at a single institution in Korea from January 2010 to December 2012. A menopause rating scale questionnaire was used to assess the severity of VMS. The mean age of participants was 55.22±4.8 years and 885 (57.2%) reported VMS in some degree. The mean HOMA index was 1.79±0.96, and the HOMA index increased with an increase in severity of VMS (none, mild, moderate and severe) in logistic regression analysis (β=0.068, t=2.665, P =0.008). Insulin resistance needs to be considered to understand the linkage between VMS and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:26866035

  17. Variables Related to Career Success: Korean-American Women of Distinction Tell Their Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Susan Byungsook

    The goal of this research was to uncover the reasons for the unusual success of a small group of Korean-Americans in the American work arena. All had spent their childhood and formative years in Korea under the sole influence of Korean culture, attending the best high schools and colleges. Korean culture tends not to nurture some of the…

  18. Are Western Knee Designs Dimensionally Correct for Korean Women? A Morphometric Study of Resected Femoral Surfaces during Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Suk-Joo; Kang, Hyung Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the shape of the distal femur of Korean women compared with the prostheses currently available in Korea. Methods Morphometric data (5 parameters) were measured in 356 resected femurs of Korean women undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilizing the LCS knee implant (DePuy). The data were then compared with 5 additional contemporary TKA implant systems. Results Implant designs based on Caucasian population data do not ideally match the distal femoral morphology of Korean women. Overhang at the anterior mediolateral width was observed in 84.8% for the LCS while a gender-specific implant resulted in undercoverage of the bone in 86%. Posterior overhang was observed in up to 51.2%. Most implant designs have a narrower intercondylar notch than the morphologic data of Korean women. Conclusions Since there is some difference between the shape of distal femur of Korean women and that of the implants, surgeons should have this in mind when selecting an implant for a patient. These data may also be used as a guideline for future prosthetic design options for Korean women population. PMID:27583107

  19. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599

  20. Management of osteoporosis in a pre-menopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Ashok K

    2010-06-01

    There is no agreed definition of osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends using Z-score, and women with Z-scores of -2.0 or lower should be defined as having a bone density that is 'below the expected range for age'. The diagnosis is more readily made in the presence of a low-trauma fracture. The relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD) in young pre-menopausal women and its associated fracture risk is not the same as in older women with a low BMD. Between 50% and 90% of pre-menopausal women will have an underlying secondary cause, the most common being eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and use of glucocorticoids. Management should focus on identifying the underlying cause and treating it where possible. The use of pharmacological therapy under other circumstances should be considered carefully. Women with only low BMD and no other risk factors probably require no pharmacological intervention. Those with low BMD and secondary causes or with a severely low BMD, or those who have fragility fractures, may require treatment with anti-resorptive agents, which can include oestrogen, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, calcitriol or anabolic therapy with teriparatide. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) should be avoided as they cause further bone loss in menstruating women. Alendronate and risedronate have been licensed for use in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. These drugs accumulate in the human skeleton and have been shown to cross the placenta and accumulate in newborn rats. The effects on human pregnancy are unclear, although normal pregnancies have been reported. Pre-menopausal women with osteoporosis should be followed up until the BMD is stable, which can usually be ascertained by follow-up scans at 18-36-month intervals. PMID:20534366

  1. Evaluation and Management of the Premenopausal Woman with Low BMD

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) results in premenopausal women is particularly challenging, since the relationship between BMD and fracture risk is not the same as for postmenopausal women. In most cases, Z scores rather than T scores should be used to define “low BMD” in premenopausal women. The finding of low BMD in a premenopausal woman should prompt thorough evaluation for secondary causes of bone loss. If a secondary cause is found, management should focus on treatment of this condition. In a few cases where the secondary cause cannot be eliminated, treatment with a bone active agent to prevent bone loss should be considered. In women with no fractures and no known secondary cause, low BMD is associated with microarchitectural defects similar to young women with fractures; however, no longitudinal data are available to allow use of BMD to predict fracture risk. BMD is likely to be stable in these women with isolated low BMD, and pharmacologic therapy is rarely necessary. Assessment of markers of bone turnover and follow-up bone density measurements can help to identify those with an ongoing process of bone loss that may indicate a higher risk for fracture, and possible need for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:24091896

  2. Dietary calcium intake is associated with adiposity, metabolic profile, inflammatory state and blood pressure, but not with erythrocyte intracellular calcium and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Thaís; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2013-09-28

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 18–50 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP. A FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intake. Endothelial function was evaluated by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method, using Endo-PAT 2000®. Participants were allocated into two groups according to Ca intake: low-Ca group (LCG; n 32; < 600 mg/d) and high-Ca group (HCG; n 44; ≥ 600 mg/d). Women in the LCG compared with those in the HCG exhibited, after adjustments for potential confounders, higher values of BMI, waist circumference, waist:height ratio, percentage of body fat, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, diastolic and mean BP; and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Endothelial function assessed by PAT and [Ca2+]i was similar in both groups. Subjects in the HCG had lower OR for prevalent overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol < 600 mg/l and systolic BP >120 mmHg. The findings of the present study suggest that high Ca intake is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23411109

  3. Prevalence of daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes differs between Caucasian and Korean American women and girls.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Bin; Atkinson, Charlotte; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Jokela, Tuija; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, Wendy K; Lampe, Johanna W

    2006-05-01

    Interindividual differences in metabolism of the soy isoflavone, daidzein, to equol and O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) by human gut bacteria, have been associated with altered risk of cancer and other chronic diseases, according to some studies. Differences have been reported in the prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype among populations, with a higher prevalence in soy-consuming Asian populations than in Western populations. To date, prevalence of the daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in Asians, compared with Caucasians, has not been evaluated in the context of a standardized phenotyping method. We assessed the prevalence of equol- and ODMA-producer phenotypes in 91 Korean American (KA) women and girls living in the Seattle, Washington area and compared this with previous similarly collected prevalence data in Caucasian American (CA) women and girls (n = 222). We also compared the dietary habits of the 2 groups. Isoflavonoid concentrations in first-void morning urines, collected after a 3-d soy challenge, were used to establish equol-, and ODMA-producer phenotypes (>44 microg/L). The prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype was higher (51 vs. 36%; P = 0.015) and the ODMA-producer phenotype was lower (84 vs. 92%, P = 0.03) in KA than in CA women and girls. KAs consumed approximately 3 times more soy foods than the CAs, but no significant associations were found between the consumption of soy foods and equol-producer phenotype. Our findings support the reports that, compared with Western populations, Asian populations have a higher equol-producer prevalence. The additional observation that the prevalence of the ODMA-producer phenotype is lower in KAs suggests that daidzein-metabolizing patterns in general may differ between KAs and CAs. PMID:16614428

  4. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-08-01

    Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women.The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders.Three dietary patterns were identified: "traditional," "western," and "prudent." The "prudent" dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the "prudent" dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36-0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41-0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59-0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52-0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42-0.68). However, the "traditional" and "western" dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS.The "prudent" dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  5. Adjuvant exemestane versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with early breast cancer undergoing ovarian suppression: patient-reported outcomes in the TEXT and SOFT randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jürg; Luo, Weixiu; Ribi, Karin; Colleoni, Marco; Burstein, Harold J.; Tondini, Carlo; Pinotti, Graziella; Spazzapan, Simon; Ruhstaller, Thomas; Puglisi, Fabio; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Parmar, Vani; Regan, Meredith M.; Pagani, Olivia; Fleming, Gini F.; Francis, Prudence A.; Price, Karen N.; Coates, Alan S.; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Walley, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficacy analysis of the combined IBCSG TEXT and SOFT trials showed a significant disease-free survival benefit for exemestane plus ovarian function suppression (OFS) compared with tamoxifen +OFS. We present patient-reported outcomes from these trials. Methods Between 7 November 2003 and 7 April 2011, 4717 premenopausal patients with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer were enrolled in TEXT or SOFT to receive unblinded adjuvant treatment with 5 years of exemestane+OFS or tamoxifen+OFS. Chemotherapy use was optional. Randomization was performed via IBCSG’s internet-based system with the use of permuted blocks and was stratified by chemotherapy use and lymph nodes status. Patients completed a quality of life (QoL) form including several global and symptom-specific indicators at baseline, every 6 months for 24 months, then annually during years 3 to 6. Differences in change of QoL from baseline between the two treatments were tested at short-, mid-, and long-term using mixed-models for repeated measures, for each trial with and without chemotherapy and overall. The analysis was intention-to-treat using treatment as randomly assigned. At the time of analysis, the median follow-up was 5·7 years (IQR, 3·7 to 6·9 years), with treatment and follow-up of patients ongoing. Findings Patients reported considerable worsening from baseline in key endocrine symptoms. Those on tamoxifen+OFS were more affected by hot flushes and sweats over five years than those on exemestane+OFS, although these symptoms improved. Patients on exemestane+OFS reported more vaginal dryness, greater loss of sexual interest, and difficulties becoming aroused. These differences persisted over time. An increase in bone/joint pain was more pronounced, particularly in the short-term, in patients on exemestane+OFS. Changes of global QoL indicators from baseline were small and similar between treatments over the whole treatment period. Interpretation Overall, from a QoL perspective, there

  6. A dairy and fruit dietary pattern is associated with a reduced likelihood of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–10. The present cross-sectional analysis included 3735 postmenopausal women who completed a health interview, nutrition survey and a health examination including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The general characteristics and dietary intakes of the participants were obtained using a standardised questionnaire and a 24 h recall method, respectively. The BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; osteoporosis was defined based on the WHO T-score criteria. Overall, we identified four dietary patterns using factor analysis as follows: 'meat, alcohol and sugar', 'vegetables and soya sauce', 'white rice, kimchi and seaweed' and 'dairy and fruit', which accounted for 30·9% of the total variance in food intake (11·3, 7·7, 6·0 and 5·9%, respectively). The subjects in the highest quintile of the 'dairy and fruit' pattern showed a decreased risk of osteoporosis of the lumbar spine (53 %) compared with those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for covariates (OR 0·47, 95% CI 0·35, 0·65, P for trend<0·0001). In contrast, the 'white rice, kimchi and seaweed' dietary pattern was negatively associated with bone health (OR 1·40, 95% CI 1·03, 1·90, P for trend=0·0479). The present results suggest that an increased intake of dairy foods and fruits in the traditional Korean diet, based on white rice and vegetables, may decrease the risk of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23578480

  7. A qualitative study of quality of life and the experience of complementary and alternative medicine in Korean women with constipation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Warden, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Twelve percent of people worldwide report suffering from self-defined constipation. Women experience constipation three times more than men. Many people have used complementary and alternative medicine for constipation, but there is no qualitative research about this issue. The purpose of this article was to describe Korean women's experience of treating chronic constipation with complementary and alternative medicine. A qualitative descriptive approach used in-depth, semistructured interviews with 10 Korean women in the United States who had constipation. Four themes were identified: (1) subjective definition of constipation; (2) efforts to find the reason for constipation; (3) efforts to find solutions for constipation (subtheme: frequent use of enemas, laxatives, and suppositories; expectation and disappointment for complementary and alternative medicine; finding individually effective solutions for constipation); and (4) negative impact on quality of life (subtheme: mental discomfort, changed appetite, and difficult relationships with people).Ten women reported that they had used exercise, massage, yogurt, vegetables, seeds of tangles (seaweed), mineral oil, milk with plums, mixed rice, walnuts, grapefruits, apples, oranges, aloe, oatmeal, soymilk, sweet potatoes, ground flax seed, and alcohol as a strategy for relieving constipation. Participants had also used herbs, acupuncture, acupressure, moxibustion, cupping therapy, hand acupuncture, senna tea, and soy bean past fomentation. In conclusion, living with constipation is an irritable and uncomfortable experience, and it motivated these women to select a variety of methods to reduce constipation. PMID:21455044

  8. Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Andrea R.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8–16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8–16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain. PMID:21775530

  9. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Lee, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Siyeon; Jang, Young-Joon; Baek, Yoon-Jeong; Kang, Kwon-Yong

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118

  10. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; LEE, Hyo-Hyun; KIM, Siyeon; JANG, Young-Joon; BAEK, Yoon-Jeong; KANG, Kwon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155–341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118

  11. Correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among Korean-American Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40-65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support is associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry is associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449

  12. Suppressed cytokine production in whole blood cultures is related to iron status and is partially corrected following weight reduction in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assess ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production and its association with iron status in obese versus non-obese women. Determine the change in ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production six months after restrictive bariatric surgery in the obese group. Subjects were 17 obese (BMI: 46.6 ±7.9 kg/m2) and 1...

  13. Adolescent dietary patterns and premenopausal breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly R; Willett, Walter C; Vaidya, Rita L; Michels, Karin B

    2016-04-01

    Mammary tissue experiences the highest rate of proliferation during adolescence representing a period of heightened susceptibility. Few prospective studies have examined adolescent diet and breast cancer, and none have examined dietary patterns. Thus, we examined the association between adolescent dietary patterns and a diet quality index, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II among those who completed a 124-item food frequency questionnaire about their high-school diet (HS-FFQ). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Among 45204 women who completed the HS-FFQ, 863 cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 614 cases of postmenopausal cancer were diagnosed. A marginal inverse association was observed between the 'prudent' dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, fish and poultry, and premenopausal breast cancer. Women in fifth quintile had a multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.67-1.04) for premenopausal breast cancer (Ptrend= 0.07) compared with the first quintile. Scoring higher on the AHEI was borderline significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer with a HR of 0.81 (0.64-1.01) for the fifth quintile (Ptrend= 0.08), and this association appeared to be stronger for estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative tumors. No association was observed between the 'Western' pattern or the 'fast-food' pattern. Results were similar for each of these patterns when both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer were considered together. An overall healthy diet during adolescence, similar to the prudent dietary pattern or adherence to the AHEI, may contribute to reducing the risk of breast cancer. PMID:26905584

  14. Rape myth acceptance among Korean college students: the roles of gender, attitudes toward women, and sexual double standard.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current societies, within each society, the specific components of rape myths reflect the cultural values and norms of that particular society. A sample of 327 college students in South Korea completed the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Sexual Double Standard Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypothesized models. Results revealed that in three of the four models, rape survivor myths, rape perpetrator myths, and myths about the impact of rape, attitudes toward women were a more important predictor of rape myths than gender or sexual double standard. In the rape spontaneity myths model, on the other hand, sexual double standard was a more important predictor than gender or attitudes toward women. This study provides valuable information that can be useful in developing culturally specific rape prevention and victim intervention programs. PMID:19776294

  15. Caffeine Intake Is Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Sung Jong; Park, Eun Kyung; Jeung, In Cheul; Kim, Chan Joo; Lee, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) and quality of life (QOL) in Korean postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We included 4,028 postmenopausal women who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). From the KNHANES questionnaire data, we ascertained the UI status of participants, defined as self-reported or medically diagnosed UI, and calculated their total daily caffeine intake through questions regarding the frequency of food consumption. The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QOL among the study population. Results The mean age of the study population was 63.19±0.25 years. Among the 4,028 women, the prevalence of medically diagnosed UI was 2.6% (n = 151), the prevalence of self-reported UI was 11.9% (n = 483), and the lifetime prevalence of UI was 15.8% (n = 639). In the study population, the presence of UI was not significantly different by age group, but daily caffeine consumption and the percentage of caffeine consumer decreased with age (P<0.001). Higher caffeine intake led to significantly higher prevalence of both medically diagnosed UI (p = 0.012) and self-reported UI (p = 0.040) in the study population. Even after adjusting for factors including age, parity, smoking status, hypertension and diabetes in logistic regression analysis, the positive association between caffeine intake and UI prevalence was observed in both medically diagnosed UI and self-reported UI (P = 0.017) among participants. In a subgroup analysis for EQ-5D (using continuous variables) in which we categorized participants into four groups according to UI presence and caffeine consumption, the EQ-5D scores were lower in the caffeine non-user group with UI than in the caffeine consumer group with or without UI. Conclusion In a sample of Korean postmenopausal women, the prevalence of UI increased with higher

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Korean Women: The First Trimester and the Winter Season as Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted. PMID:25970148

  17. Development and validation of a health belief model based instrument for measuring factors influencing exercise behaviors to prevent osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women (HOPE)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health belief model (HBM) is the most commonly used conceptual framework for evaluating osteoporosis health belief and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a health belief model based questionnaire for exercise behavior for preventing osteoporosis among women aged 30 years and over. Methods This was a cross sectional study of a convenience sample of women aged 30 years and over in Tehran, Iran using a theory-based instrument (HOPE). The instrument contained 39 items covering issues relate to osteoporosis prevention behavior. In this methodological study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used for psychometric evaluation. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reliability of the scale. Results In all 240 women participated in the study. The mean age of participant was 39.2 ± 7.8 years. The initial analysis extracted nine factors for the questionnaire that jointly accounted for 66.5% of variance observed. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the data obtained was fit with Health Belief Model (HBM) and self-regulation construct (X2 = 1132.80, df = 629, P < 0.0001, CFI = 0.94, GFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.72 to 0.90 and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; well above acceptable thresholds. Conclusions The HOPE was found to be appropriate instrument for measuring health belief and self-regulation for prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:24581300

  18. Knowledge, perceptions, and decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination among Korean American women: A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Eunsuk; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2014-01-01

    Objective As one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the United States, Korean American (KA) women experience a heightened cervical cancer burden. The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an unprecedented opportunity to eliminate cervical cancer disparities in KA women. Yet, the uptake of HPV vaccine among KA adolescents remains suboptimal. Hence, we set out to explore knowledge, perceptions, and decision-making about HPV vaccination among KA women. Methods We conducted four focus groups of 26 KA women who participated in a community-based randomized controlled trial to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Focus group data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) limited awareness and knowledge of HPV vaccine, (2) perceptions and beliefs about HPV vaccination (acceptance, negative perceptions, ambivalence), (3) patterns of decision-making about HPV vaccination (hierarchical, peer-influenced, autonomous, and collaborative), and (4) promoting HPV education and information-sharing in the Korean community. Conclusion KA women are generally favorable toward HPV vaccination but lack awareness and knowledge about HPV. Culturally tailored HPV education programs based on KA women’s decision-making patterns and effective information-sharing by trustworthy sources in comfortable environments are suggested strategies to promote HPV vaccination in the KA community. The findings point to the need for a multi-level approach to addressing linguistic, cultural, and system barriers that the recent immigrant community faces in promoting HPV vaccinations. In the development of targeted interventions for KA women, educational strategies and patterns of decision-making need to be considered. PMID:25747518

  19. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  20. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  1. Evidence for No Significant Impact of Müllerian Anomalies on Reproductive Outcomes of Twin Pregnancy in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sohyun; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Da Hee; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi-La; Shin, Joong Sik

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to evaluate the impact of congenital Müllerian anomalies (MA) on twin pregnancy after 24 gestational weeks in Korean women. All records of twin pregnancies in a large maternity hospital in Korea between January 2005 and July 2013 were analyzed. Patients with monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twins, non-Korean patients, patients with twins delivered prior to 24 gestational weeks, and patients with miscarriage of one fetus or intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) before 24 gestational weeks were excluded from data analysis. In total, 1,422 women with twin pregnancy were eligible for data analysis, including 17 (1.2%) who had a known congenital MA (septate uterus, bicornuate uterus, arcuate uterus, and unicornuate uterus). Except for the mode of conception, baseline demographics were similar between women with MA and those without MA. No significant differences were found in pregnancy outcomes of gestational age at delivery (p = .86), birth weight of smaller and larger twins (p = .54 and p = .65), and number of twins with birth weight <5th percentile for gestational age (p = .43).The rates of obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), placenta previa, cerclage, IUFD, and postpartum hemorrhage were not significantly different between the two groups either. We concluded that the presence of congenital MA may not increase obstetrical risks in outcomes of pregnancy of twins delivered after 24 gestational weeks. PMID:26880019

  2. A case-control study on the dietary intake of mushrooms and breast cancer risk among Korean women.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang; Nam, Seok-Jin; Kong, Gu; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-02-15

    To evaluate the association between dietary mushroom intake and breast cancer risk, a total of 362 women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who were histologically confirmed to have breast cancer were matched to controls by age (+/-2 years) and menopausal status. Mushroom intake was measured via a food frequency questionnaire that was administered by well-trained interviewers. The associations between the daily intake and the average consumption frequency of mushrooms with breast cancer risk were evaluated using matched data analysis. Both the daily intake (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78, p for trend 0.030) and the average consumption frequency of mushrooms (4th vs. 1st quartile, OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35-0.82, p for trend 0.008) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for education, family history of breast cancer, regular exercise [>or=22.5 MET (metabolic equivalent)-hr/week], BMI (body mass index, Kg/m(2)), number of children and whether they are currently smoking, drinking or using multivitamin supplements. Further adjustments were made for energy-adjusted carbohydrate, soy protein, folate and vitamin E levels, which tended to attenuate these results. After a stratification was performed according to menopausal status, a strong inverse association was found in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.54, p for trend = 0.0058 for daily intake; OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.54, p for trend = 0.0037 for average frequency), but not in premenopausal women. In conclusion, the consumption of dietary mushrooms may decrease breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:17943725

  3. Status of trace elements and antioxidants in premenopausal and postmenopausal phase of life: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ansar, Sabah; Alhefdhi, Tayef; Aleem, Ansari M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the extent of free radical damage in the form of oxidative stress, the antioxidant status and correlate with trace element levels in postmenopausal females as compared to premenopausal females. Participants between the ages of 30-60 years were recruited for the study and status of antioxidant enzymes and trace metals level was determined. The serum Calcium (Ca) levels after menopause was higher than that of the premenopausal group (P<0.001). The changes in copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) between the groups were not significant (p>0.05). In postmenopausal women, antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) significantly decreased (P<0.001) in postmenopausal women showing oxidative stress in the cells. Concentrations of vitamin-C pointed out a significant decrease (P<0.05) in postmenopausal women when compared with premenopausal women. In conclusion. PMID:26770597

  4. A Randomized Pilot Study of Inositol in Association with Betaine and Boswellia in the Management of Mastalgia and Benign Breast Lump in Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Vittorio; Dinicola, Simona; Giuliani, Alessandro; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh H; Tartaglia, Francesco; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Benign mammary lumps and mastalgia are the most common breast disorders; yet, there is no clear-cut consensus about the best strategy for their treatment. We hypothesized that a combination, including boswellic acid, betaine, and myoinositol, would be beneficial in breast disorders by exerting a pleiotropic effect on multiple pathways. Indeed, myoinositol has already been proven to modulate some factors involved in the genesis of breast diseases, such as fibrosis and metabolic and endocrine cues. In our study, 76 women were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the placebo arm. After six months of treatment, statistically significant differences between the two groups were recorded for pain relief (56% vs 17%) and breast density reduction (60% vs 9%). Furthermore, benign breast mass dimension showed a reduction in the experimental group (40% vs 16%). The combination of boswellic acid, betaine, and myoinositol has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of breast pain and radiologically and histologically confirmed benign breast mass and in the reduction of breast density, one of the pivotal risk factors for the development of breast cancer, without any side effects. PMID:27127407

  5. A Randomized Pilot Study of Inositol in Association with Betaine and Boswellia in the Management of Mastalgia and Benign Breast Lump in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; Dinicola, Simona; Giuliani, Alessandro; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh H.; Tartaglia, Francesco; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Benign mammary lumps and mastalgia are the most common breast disorders; yet, there is no clear-cut consensus about the best strategy for their treatment. We hypothesized that a combination, including boswellic acid, betaine, and myoinositol, would be beneficial in breast disorders by exerting a pleiotropic effect on multiple pathways. Indeed, myoinositol has already been proven to modulate some factors involved in the genesis of breast diseases, such as fibrosis and metabolic and endocrine cues. In our study, 76 women were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the placebo arm. After six months of treatment, statistically significant differences between the two groups were recorded for pain relief (56% vs 17%) and breast density reduction (60% vs 9%). Furthermore, benign breast mass dimension showed a reduction in the experimental group (40% vs 16%). The combination of boswellic acid, betaine, and myoinositol has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of breast pain and radiologically and histologically confirmed benign breast mass and in the reduction of breast density, one of the pivotal risk factors for the development of breast cancer, without any side effects. PMID:27127407

  6. Pharmacokinetics of a prototype formulation of sublingual testosterone and a buspirone tablet, versus an advanced combination tablet of testosterone and buspirone in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The first clinical prototype consisted of a sublingual solution containing testosterone (0.5 mg) complexed with cyclodextrin and a tablet containing 10 mg buspirone, in a gelatin capsule to ensure blinding during the clinical studies. The innovative fixed-combination tablet consists of an inner-core component of 10 mg buspirone coated with a polymeric time-delay coating and an outer polymeric coating containing testosterone with hydroxypropyl-beta cyclodextrin. We observed an immediate testosterone pulse absorption from both formulations. We also demonstrated that there was adequate absorption of buspirone (>80 % relative to the conventional tablet) and a time delay in release of buspirone of 3.3 hours, close to the 3.0 hours of the reference formulation that showed clinical efficacy in early proof-of-principle studies. The newly developed combination tablet fulfils its design criteria and is a convenient tablet for further clinical studies in FSIAD. PMID:24849043

  7. A Common SNP of IL-10 (-1082A/G) is Associated With Increased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer in South Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Cingeetham; Jyothy, Akka; Vijay kumar, Malladi; Raman, Ramaiyer Raghu; Nallari, Pratibha; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evading the immune destruction and angiogenesis has been the two hallmarks of cancer. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with immune suppressing (pro-tumorigenic) and anti-angiogenic (anti-tumorigenic) properties, thus making the role of IL-10 in tumorigenesis enigmatic. Previous studies have suggested a critical role of IL10 altered expression in complex process of tumor-microenvironment, co-evolution and tumorigenesis. Objectives: Evaluating the role of IL10 (-1082A/G) gene promoter polymorphism in breast cancer patients from South India. Patients and Methods: A case-control study was conducted with a total of 285 individuals, these include 125 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 160 age and sex matched controls. Genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Statistical analysis was done to test the significance of results obtained. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that AA genotype of the Il-10 -1082A/G polymorphism is significantly associated with breast cancer (AA vs. AG: χ2 = 14.46, P = 0.0001432, OR = 2.854, 95% CI = 1.68 - 4.849). Up on stratifying subjects based on cancer stage, age at onset, menopausal status, AA genotype has associated with all the sub groups, except for post-menopausal women. There was no significant association which was observed with respected to hormonal status (ER, PR) and Her2/neu status. Conclusions: The present study suggests that IL-10 AA genotype as a risk factor in the etiology of breast cancer in the South Indian population. PMID:26478792

  8. Prospective study of body size throughout the life-course and the incidence of endometrial cancer among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Marcelle M; Hankinson, Susan E; Vivo, Immaculata De; Tworoger, Shelley S; Glynn, Robert J; Michels, Karin B

    2015-08-01

    Although adult obesity is known to increase endometrial cancer risk, evidence for childhood obesity is limited. We prospectively examined the association between body fatness throughout life and endometrial cancer risk. 47,289 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 105,386 of the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10 and 20 using a pictogram. Childhood and adolescent body fatness were derived as the average at ages 5 and 10 and ages 10 and 20, respectively. We obtained adult weight from concurrent questionnaires. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) of endometrial cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 757 incident cases of endometrial cancer were diagnosed. Body fatness in childhood, at age 10, in adolescence and at age 20 were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk (HR for ≥ Level 5 versus ≤ Level 2 in adolescence: 1.83 (95% CI 1.41-2.37). After adjusting for most recent BMI, none of the associations persisted. Weight change since age 18 was positively associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR for ≥ 25 kg gain versus stable: 2.54 (95% CI 1.80-3.59). Adult BMI was strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) versus BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) : 4.13 (95% CI 3.29-5.16)]. In postmenopausal women, the association with BMI was significantly stronger among non-users of hormone therapy. In conclusion, obesity throughout life is positively associated with endometrial cancer risk, with adult obesity one of the strongest risk factors. Maintaining a healthy weight throughout life remains important. PMID:25641700

  9. Ovarian function and ovarian blood supply following premenopausal abdominal hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrazak, Khaled M.; Elbiaa, Assem A.M.; Farghali, Mohamed M.; Essam, Amr; Zhurabekova, Gulmira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The issue of conserving the ovaries at hysterectomy in premenopausal women with benign gynecologic disease has been the subject of considerable controversy. Some clinicians prefer prophylactic oophorectomy in premenopausal women during hysterectomy to prevent future development of malignant changes in conserved ovaries. Other clinicians prefer to conserve apparently normal ovaries, because bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women results in an abrupt imbalance, sudden onset of menopausal symptoms, decreased libido, increased cardiovascular risk and osteoporosis. Material and methods Two hundred and twenty multipara women (who had completed their families), with benign uterine pathology were included in this prospective study for abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation. Pre-operative vaginal ultrasound, Doppler studies, diagnostic hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy were done followed by laboratory studies including Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol for all studied women. Doppler studies, AMH, FSH and estradiol were repeated 6 and 12 months post-operative for assessment of the ovarian function and ovarian blood supply after hysterectomy. Results Pre-operative AMH, FSH and estradiol of the studied women were statistically insignificant compared to AMH, FSH and estradiol 6 and 12 months post-operative. Twelve months post-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.92 ± 0.18 and 6.85 ± 0.19 cm3, respectively) were significantly larger than pre-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.19 ± 0.22 and 5.86 ± 0.23 cm3, respectively), and, 12 months post-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (2.92 ± 0.15 and 2.96 ± 0.16 cm/s, respectively) were significantly lower than pre-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (3.45 ± 0.19 and 3.36 ± 0.2 cm/s, respectively). Eight (3.6%) cases of the studied women developed an ovarian cyst 6 months after hysterectomy, 3

  10. "I Am a "Kirogi" Mother": Education Exodus and Life Transformation among Korean Transnational Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hakyoon

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the recent social phenomenon of the "kirogi," which means wild goose in Korean. This word also refers to a multinational household in which the mother has moved overseas for the children's education while the father lives alone in Korea to support his family economically. I investigate the narratives of kirogi mothers in…

  11. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m2) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (< 1426.3 kcal/day) compared to high BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P < 1 × 10-4). Surveys to estimate energy intake using 24-h recall method for three days and questionnaires for family history, a medical examination, and physical activities were conducted. RESULTS We found that two NRG3 gene SNPs in the 10q23.1 chromosomal region were highly associated with BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10-7, rs1040675; 2.3 × 10-6) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10-5, rs10786764; 6.57 × 10-5). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P <10 × 10-4. Five new loci associated with BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P < 1 × 10-4). In the questionnaire investigation, significant differences were found in the number of starvation periods per week, family history of stomach cancer, coffee intake, and trial of weight control in each group. CONCLUSION We discovered several common BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate. PMID:26865924

  12. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2009-04-15

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (P(trend) = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  13. Efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Obese Women: Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dong Hyun; Bose, Shambhunath; Song, Mi Young; Lee, Myeong Jong; Lim, Chi Yeon; Kwon, Bum Sun; Kim, Ho Jun

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on obese women and aimed to confirm that the effects of KRG on obesity differ dependently on a gene. Fifty obese women were recruited and randomized to receive KRG (n=24) or placebo (n=26) for 8 wk. Measurements of blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), total fat mass, percentage of body fat, resting metabolic rate, basal body temperature, and daily food intake (FI), blood test (serum lipid, liver and renal function), Korean version of obesity-related quality of life scale (KOQOL), and a gene examination were performed. Comparisons of subjects before and after the administration of KRG revealed significant improvements of obesity in terms of weight, body mass index (BMI), WHR, FI, and KOQOL. However, in the comparison between KRG group and placebo group, only KOQOL was significantly different. KRG displayed significant efficacy on BMI and KOQOL in the CT genotype of the G protein beta 3 gene, but not in the CC genotype, on blood sugar test in the Trp64/Arg genotype of the beta 3 adrenergic receptor gene, but not in Trp64/ Trp genotype, on KOQOL in the DD genotype of the angiotensin I converting enzyme gene, but not in the ID and DD genotypes. The effects of KRG on obesity were confirmed to some extent. However, a distinct effect compared to placebo was not confirmed. KRG is more effective for improving the secondary issues of the quality of life derived from obesity rather than having direct effects on the obesity-related anthropometric assessment and blood test indices. PMID:23717118

  14. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). PMID:24462432

  15. Economic Evaluation of a Community Health Worker-Led Health Literacy Intervention to Promote Cancer Screening Among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Anne L.R.; Frick, Kevin D.; Huh, Bo-Yun; Kim, Kim B.; Kim, Miyong; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study’s objectives were to calculate the costs and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of implementing a health literacy-focused intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screenings among Korean American women overdue for these tests Methods Researchers estimated the costs of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that evaluated this intervention. Effectiveness was measured as the number of breast or cervical cancer screenings received by women in either the intervention and control arms of the study. Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost of each additional screening received by the intervention group. Results Comparing the intervention and control group, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be US$236 per screening, without program development costs. Conclusion These findings suggest this program, when compared with others, offered a more cost-effective approach for promoting cancer screening. Local health officials could use this information to guide decisions about reducing cancer disparities among recent immigrant women. PMID:25913341

  16. Tailored lay health worker intervention improves breast cancer screening outcomes in non-adherent Korean-American women

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the past 2 years. Ninety-three completed follow-up questionnaires. A 120-min, in-class education combined with LHW follow-up counseling and navigation assistance through the health care system was provided. Rates of breast cancer screening behaviors significantly increased at 6 months (P < 0.001); changes between pre- and post-intervention were 31.9% for mammography, 23% for clinical breast examination and 36.2% for breast self-examination. Modesty toward screening significantly decreased over time, but we did not find any significant differences in breast cancer knowledge and beliefs before and after the intervention. Results support the efficacy of this neighborhood-based, culturally sensitive intervention. Further research should seek to replicate these findings and to incorporate more self-care skills such as health literacy when designing an intervention program for linguistically and culturally isolated immigrant women. PMID:18463411

  17. Tailored lay health worker intervention improves breast cancer screening outcomes in non-adherent Korean-American women.

    PubMed

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H; Kim, M T; Kim, K B

    2009-04-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the past 2 years. Ninety-three completed follow-up questionnaires. A 120-min, in-class education combined with LHW follow-up counseling and navigation assistance through the health care system was provided. Rates of breast cancer screening behaviors significantly increased at 6 months (P < 0.001); changes between pre- and post-intervention were 31.9% for mammography, 23% for clinical breast examination and 36.2% for breast self-examination. Modesty toward screening significantly decreased over time, but we did not find any significant differences in breast cancer knowledge and beliefs before and after the intervention. Results support the efficacy of this neighborhood-based, culturally sensitive intervention. Further research should seek to replicate these findings and to incorporate more self-care skills such as health literacy when designing an intervention program for linguistically and culturally isolated immigrant women. PMID:18463411

  18. Diagnostic Usefulness of Transrectal Ultrasound Compared with Transvaginal Ultrasound Assessment in Young Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da Eun; Park, So Yun; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hye Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of transrectal ultrasound in virgin patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, compared with conventional transvaginal ultrasound assessment. Methods Ultrasound examinations were performed in 963 Korean women, with transvaginal transducers in 677 women and transrectal transducers in 286 women at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital. Transvaginal ultrasound examinations were performed in 494 normal control women and 183 PCOS patients according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) PCOS diagnostic criteria. In virgin patients, transrectal ultrasound examinations were performed in 141 normal control women and 145 PCOS patients. ROC curves were calculated for ovarian volume and follicle number. Results By transvaginal ultrasound examination, the ovarian volume showed an area under the ROC curve (AURC) of 0.838. An ovarian volume decision threshold > 7 cm3 had a sensitivity of 73.0% and a specificity of 84.2% for the diagnosis of PCOS. The follicle number showed an AURC of 0.886. A follicle number decision threshold ≥ 9 had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 87.2% for the diagnosis of PCOS. By transrectal ultrasound examination, the ovarian volume and the follicle number showed AURCs of 0.815 as same thresholds with a sensitivity of 67.2% and 66.4%, respectively and a specificity of 86.8% each. Ovarian volume and follicle number by transvaginal and transrectal ultrasound assessment had a high diagnostic power for PCOS screening. Conclusion Transrectal ultrasound assessment is as effective as conventional transvaginal ultrasound for the detection of PCOS in virgin patients. PMID:26793680

  19. Korean Mature Women Students' Various Subjectivities in Relation to Their Motivation for Higher Education: Generational Differences amongst Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghoe

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study attempts to conceptualize certain "patterns" and "processes" of which 28 mature women undergraduates give meanings to their motivation for higher education in their life contexts. Particular attention has been paid to include diverse groups of women according to their age, prior educational…

  20. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  1. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  2. Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk among Korean women: Current status and potential challenges.

    PubMed

    Kang, Habyeong; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Na-Youn; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim

    2016-07-01

    Breast milks can be contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Exposure to PFASs during early stages of life may lead to adverse health effects among breastfed infants. To date, perfluorootanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been most frequently measured PFASs in breast milks worldwide. Information on shorter carbon-chain PFASs in breast milk is scarce. In this study, breast milks were sampled from 264 Korean lactating women, and measured for seventeen PFASs, including ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides. PFOA and PFOS were detected in 98.5% of the breast milk samples, with median concentrations of 0.072 and 0.050ng/mL, respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in higher frequencies, ranging between 67.4% and 81.8%. The concentrations of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk such as PFPeA and PFHxA were the highest ever reported to date, and were comparable to that of PFOS. Concentrations of shorter chain PFCA in breast milk tended to be higher among the women with longer lactation period, while those of PFOA showed the opposite trend, suggesting a possibility that breastfeeding might be an important route of excretion for PFOA among lactating women. Fish consumption and the use of consumer products, e.g., skin care products, cosmetics and non-stick coated cooking utensils, were identified as significant predictors of PFAS concentrations in breast milk. Health risks associated with PFOA and PFOS exposure through breastfeeding were estimated negligible, however, risks of the short carbon-chain PFCAs could not be assessed because of lack of relevant toxicological information. Further efforts for source identification and exposure management measures for shorter chain PFCAs are necessary. PMID:27111244

  3. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  4. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  5. Premenopausal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mammographic density, and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Kimberly A; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A Heather; Hankinson, Susan E; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence for an association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer is inconsistent. Data are especially limited for premenopausal women and for associations with mammographic density. To test the hypothesis that plasma concentration of 25(OH)D is associated with mammographic density, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 835 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Studies. We measured 25(OH)D in blood samples and used multivariable linear regression to quantify the association of average percent density by quartile of plasma 25(OH)D. In a nested case-control analysis including 493 breast cancer cases, we evaluated risk of breast cancer associated with vitamin D status within tertiles of mammographic density. Women in the top quartile of plasma 25(OH)D levels had an average percent breast density 5.2 percentage points higher than women in the bottom quartile (95 % confidence interval: 1.8, 8.7; P trend <0.01), after adjusting for predictors of 25(OH)D and established breast cancer risk factors. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration was significantly inversely associated with breast cancer risk among women with high mammographic density (P trend < 0.01) but not among women in lower tertiles of mammographic density (P-interaction < 0.01). These results do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with percent mammographic density in premenopausal women. There was evidence that the association between premenopausal 25(OH)D and breast cancer risk varies by mammographic density, with an inverse association apparent only among women with high mammographic density. PMID:25543181

  6. Premenopausal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mammographic density, and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Willett, Walter; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic evidence for an association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer is inconsistent. Data are especially limited for premenopausal women and for associations with mammographic density. Methods To test the hypothesis that plasma concentration of 25(OH)D is associated with mammographic density, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 835 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Studies. We measured 25(OH)D in blood samples and used multivariable linear regression to quantify the association of average percent density by quartile of plasma 25(OH)D. In a nested case-control analysis including 493 breast cancer cases, we evaluated risk of breast cancer associated with vitamin D status within tertiles of mammographic density. Results Women in the top quartile of plasma 25(OH)D levels had an average percent breast density 5.2 percentage points higher than women in the bottom quartile (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 8.7; P-trend <0.01), after adjusting for predictors of 25(OH)D and established breast cancer risk factors. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration was significantly inversely associated with breast cancer risk among women with high mammographic density (odds ratio comparing top to bottom tertile of 25(OH)D = 0.50; 95% confidence interval= 0.30, 0.83; P-trend <0.01) but not among women in lower tertiles of mammographic density (P-interaction <0.01). Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with percent mammographic density in premenopausal women. There was evidence that the association between premenopausal 25(OH)D and breast cancer risk varies by mammographic density, with an inverse association apparent only among women with high mammographic density. PMID:25543181

  7. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with insulin receptor substrate 2 methylation in adipose tissues of Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hun; Lee, Yoon Soon; Lee, Duk Hee; Kim, Dong Sun

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly lipid soluble and are an increasing concern for general populations given their various adverse health effects, including obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector for the biological effects of environmental exposures, but whether PAHs influence DNA methylation is unclear. To test for possible adverse effects of PAHs on adipose tissue (AT), we determined the promoter methylation status of 12 genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (CS, GLUT4, IR, IRS1, IRS2, LIPIN1, MCAD, PCK1, PCK2, PPARGC1Β, SDHA, and SREBP1) in visceral AT of Korean women by using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). IRS2 methylation alone was significantly associated with concentrations of individual PAH chemicals. When the PAH summary measure was used, the odds ratios of IRS2 hypermethylation across quartile of the PAH summary measure were 1, 1.7, 2.0, and 11.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-84.0) after adjusting for age and BMI (P trend=0.02). The strength of association between PAH summary measure and IRS2 hypermethylation was as similar as that of BMI. Collectively, these results suggested that lipophilic PAHs might be contributing factors to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance through methylation-mediated suppression of the IRS2 gene. However, further studies with large sample size are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27236571

  9. Assessment of Denosumab in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Nino, Antonio; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy and safety of denosumab was compared with placebo in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in this phase III study. Materials and Methods Women aged 60 to 90 years with a T-score of <-2.5 and ≥-4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip were randomized to a single 60 mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab or placebo for the 6-month double-blind phase. Eligible subjects entered the 6-month open-label extension phase and received a single dose of denosumab 60 mg. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the 62 denosumab- and 64 placebo-treated subjects who completed the double-blind phase. Treatment favored denosumab over placebo for the primary endpoint {mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) at Month 6 [3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.1%, 4.4%; p<0.0001)]}; and secondary endpoints (mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at Month 1, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at Months 1 and 6, and median percent change from baseline in bone turnover markers at Months 1, 3, and 6). Endpoint improvements were sustained over 12 months in the open-label extension (n=119). There were no new or unexpected safety signals. Conclusion Denosumab was well tolerated and effective in increasing BMD and decreasing bone turnover markers over a 12-month period in Korean postmenopausal women. The findings of this study demonstrate that denosumab has beneficial effects on the measures of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:27189284

  10. Isolation of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae from asymptomatic Korean women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Ran; Lee, Hak Mee; Lee, Yeonhee

    2008-02-01

    Seven Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were obtained from the vagina of 80 asymptomatic women. Three of these isolates showed multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes: two isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline; and one isolate was resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. There was no clonal relationship among the MDR isolates. This is the first report of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant S. agalactiae. PMID:18337702

  11. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Menstrual Irregularity in Middle-Aged Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Su; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Kim, Young Eun; Lee, Sung Ho; Han, Kyung Do; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Menstrual irregularity is a common major complaint in women of reproductive age. It is also a known marker for underlying insulin resistance. We investigated the association between menstrual irregularity and metabolic syndrome in the general population of middle-aged women in Korea. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. A total of 2,742 subjects were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into two categories based on their menstrual cycle regularity and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its variables was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Adjusted analyses revealed significantly higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with the presence of menstrual irregularity. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome and its components (high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) were significantly associated with menstrual irregularity in women of reproductive age. PMID:26885320

  12. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  13. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  14. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  15. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI≥6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  16. Consumption of coffee, but not black tea, is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julie A; Beehler, Gregory P; Sawant, Abhishek C; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; McCann, Susan E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2006-01-01

    Caffeine has been suggested as a possible risk factor for breast cancer, potentially through its effect of facilitating the development of benign breast disease. However, coffee and tea also contain polyphenols, which exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and black tea in breast cancer etiology. Study participants included 1932 cases with primary, incident breast cancer and 1895 hospital controls with nonneoplastic conditions. All participants completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Among premenopausal women, consumption of regular coffee was associated with linear declines in breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.03); consumers of >or=4 cups/d experienced a 40% risk reduction (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). No clear associations between intake of black tea or decaffeinated coffee and breast cancer risk were noted among premenopausal women, although black tea was associated with a protective effect unique to a subsample of cases with lobular histology. Among postmenopausal women, breast cancer risk was not associated with consumption of coffee, tea, or decaffeinated coffee. Results among postmenopausal women did not differ by histologic subtype. Our findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on premenopausal, but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:16365077

  17. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JiEun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  18. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  19. Development of a breast self-examination program for the Internet: health information for Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kim, E; Kim, J W

    2001-04-01

    Internet-based health information will enable us to interact with many people despite distance and time constraints. Informational media by computer is expected to become an important factor that affects health behavior. This study was done to develop an accessible multimedia program about breast self-examination on the Internet. This study was designed by using the two steps of need assessment and program development. For the need assessment step, a survey was carried out. The sample consisted of the 82 women of Yonsei University selected by convenient random sampling. At the program development step, screen design took into account perspectives of computer engineering. A storyboard for every screen was made via screen design and then ported to computer using the Netscape Navigator program. A breast self-examination program was developed using Netscape 4.0 on the Windows 98 platform. The multimedia program, including text, graphics, animation, and sound, was constructed with HTML language using Memo Sheet in Netscape Navigator. The contents of health information posted on the Internet included general information about breast cancer, the importance of breast self-examination, self-risk appraisal of breast cancer, the diverse methods about breast self-examination, the monthly check list graph, and social network for consultation. It is possible to interact with clients through the Question and Answer function on screen. This Internet-based health information program provides enough information, which can be accessed using search systems on the Internet. PMID:11318264

  20. Vaginal flora in asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, J H; Coulam, C B; Washington, J A

    1976-09-01

    Four groups of 25 asymptomatic women--pregnant, premenopausal and taking oral contraceptives, premenopausal and not taking oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal--were studied for the presence in vaginal specimens of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, fungi, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, mycobacteria, and Trichomonas. No significant differences in microbial flora were found among the groups. PMID:957791

  1. A Case of Strangulated Urethral Prolapse in a Premenopausal Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Morris L.; Al-Omar, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Urethral prolapse in a premenopausal adult female is exceedingly rare. This paper describes a case of strangulated urethral prolapse presenting as a urethral mass in an unusual demographic and reviews the literature on etiology and management. Only a few cases have occurred in women of reproductive age. The etiology is likely multifactorial. Treatment with surgical excision provides good results in the majority of cases. PMID:27413572

  2. Increased methylation of interleukin 6 gene is associated with obesity in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook; Lee, Won Kee; Kim, Young Hun; Kim, Dong Sun

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is the fifth leading risk for death globally, and a significant challenge to global health. It is a common, complex, non-malignant disease and develops due to interactions between the genes and the environment. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals; analysis of this process therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. To assess the effects of excessive weight and obesity on gene-specific methylation levels of promoter regions, we determined the methylation status of four genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress [interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and glucose transport 4 (GLUT4)] in blood cell-derived DNA from healthy women volunteers with a range of body mass indices (BMIs) by methylation-specific PCR. Interestingly, the samples from obese individuals (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) showed significantly increased hypermethylation for IL6 gene compared to normal weight (BMI < 23 kg/m(2)) and overweight samples (23 kg/m(2) ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) (P = 0.034 and P = 0.026). However, there was no statistically significant difference in promoter methylation of the other 3 genes between each group. These findings suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of IL6 gene promoter may play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity and IL6 methylation could be used as molecular biomarker for obesity risk assessment. Further studies are required to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:25921605

  3. Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone.

    PubMed

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong (one of 12 Meridian systems) on the physical health state, depression, and life satisfaction of Korean older adult women living alone. A quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest control group design was used. Participants included 76 (experimental: n = 38, control: n = 38) women 65 and older living alone in Seoul and Gyeonggido, South Korea. Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong was applied for 15 minutes twice per week, for a total of 8 weeks in the experimental group. Data showed there were significant differences in physical health state (t = −15.062, p < 0.001), depression (t = 3.241, p < 0.001), and life satisfaction (t = −17.141, p < 0.001) between the two groups. Health professionals must consider an array of methods, including Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong, for older adults. PMID:26716461

  4. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in Korean women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is the technique of choice for lesions that are visible only with breast MRI. The purpose of this study was to report our clinical experience with MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy in Korean women. Methods A total of 13 patients with 15 lesions for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were prospectively entered into this study between September 2009 and November 2011. Biopsy samples were obtained in a 3-T magnet using a 9-guage MRI-compatible vacuum-assisted biopsy device. We evaluated clinical indications for biopsy, lesion characteristics on prebiopsy MRI, pathologic results, and postbiopsy complication status. Results The clinical indications for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were as follows: abnormalities in patients with interstitial mammoplasty on screening MRI (n = 10); preoperative evaluation of patients with a recently diagnosed cancer (n = 3); and suspicious recurrence on follow-up MRI after cancer surgery (n = 1) or chemotherapy (n = 1). All lesions have morphologic features suspicious or highly suggestive of malignancy by the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category of MRI (C4a = 12, C4b = 2, C5 = 1). In two of the 15 lesions (13.3%, <6 mm), MRI-guided 9-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy was deferred due to nonvisualization of the MRI findings that led to biopsy and the lesions were stable or disappeared on follow up so were considered benign. Of 13 biopsied lesions, pathology revealed four malignancies (4/13, 30.8%; mean size 15.5 mm) and nine benign lesions (9/13, 69.2%; size 14.2 mm). Immediate postprocedural hematoma (mean size 23.5 mm) was observed in eight out of 13 patients (61.5%) and was controlled conservatively. Conclusions Our initial experience of MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy showed a success rate of 86.7% and a cancer diagnosis rate of 30.8%, which was quite satisfactory. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a

  5. Association of Combined Tobacco Smoking and Oral Contraceptive Use With Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2 or 3 in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung; Seo, Sang-Soo; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive (OC) use have been associated with cervical neoplasia, and the combination of smoking and OC use could influence cervical carcinogenesis. We aimed to assess the joint effect of smoking and OC use on the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods From a cohort of human papillomavirus-positive subjects recruited from 6 hospitals in Korea from March 2006 to November 2012, a total of 678 subjects (411 control, 133 CIN 1, and 134 CIN 2 or 3 cases) were selected for this study (mean age, 43 years). The risk of CIN associated with smoking and OC use on additive and multiplicative scales was estimated via multinomial logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the synergy index (S) were used to evaluate the additive interaction. Results OC users (odds ratio [OR] 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–3.69) and long-term OC use (≥20 months; OR 2.71; 95% CI, 1.11–6.59) had a higher risk of CIN 2/3, but had no association with CIN 1, compared to non-OC users. Smokers and heavy smoking (≥8 cigarettes/day) were not associated with any CIN grade. Combined smoking and OC use (OR 4.91; 95% CI, 1.68–14.4; RERI/S, 3.77/27.4; P for multiplicative interaction = 0.003) and combined heavy smoking and long-term OC use (OR 11.5; 95% CI, 1.88–70.4; RERI/S, 9.93/18.8; P for multiplicative interaction = 0.009) had a higher risk of CIN 2/3 but had no association with CIN 1 compared to combined non-smoking and non-OC use. Conclusions OC use and smoking acted synergistically to increase the risk of CIN 2 or 3 in Korean women. PMID:26441210

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in relation to suicide mortality in Asia: prospective cohort study of over one million Korean men and women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Sun Ha; Kivimaki, Mika; Kang, Hee-Cheol; Park, Il Su; Samet, Jonathan M.; Batty, G. David

    2011-01-01

    Aims A potential role for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the aetiology of suicide has not been comprehensively examined. In addition to being small in scale and poorly characterized, existing studies very rarely sample Asian populations in whom risk factor–suicide relationships may plausibly differ to Caucasian groups. We examined the association between a series of CVD risk factors and future mortality from suicide. Methods and results The Korean Cancer Prevention Study is a prospective cohort study comprising 1 234 927 individuals (445 022 women) aged 30–95 years with extensive measurement of established CVD risk factors at baseline and subsequent mortality surveillance. Fourteen years of follow-up gave rise to 472 deaths (389 in men and 83 in women) from suicide. After adjustment for a range of covariates, in men, smoking hazard ratio; 95% CI: (current vs. never: 1.69; 1.27, 2.24), alcohol intake (1–24 g/day vs. none: 1.29; 1.00, 1.66), blood cholesterol (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dL: 0.54; 0.36, 0.80), body mass index (underweight vs. normal weight: 2.08; 1.26, 3.45), stature [quartile 1(lowest) vs. 4: 1.68; 1.23, 2.30], socioeconomic status [quartile 1(lowest) vs. 4: 1.65; 1.21, 2.24], and martial status (unmarried vs. other: 1.60; 0.83, 3.06) were related to suicide mortality risk. These associations were generally apparent in women, although of lower magnitude. Exercise and blood pressure were not associated with completed suicide. Conclusion In this cohort of Korean men and women, a series of CVD risk factors were associated with an elevated risk of future suicide mortality. PMID:21911340

  7. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant. PMID:26876679

  8. Childbearing Recency and Modifiers of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B.; Huang, Yifan; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Anic, Gabriella; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer for women in relation to childbearing recency, and whether this association differs by breastfeeding history and/or the amount of weight gained during pregnancy. This analysis was based on data from a population-based case-control study comprised of 1,706 incident cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,756 population controls from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In a telephone interview conducted from 1996 to 2001, information was gathered on established breast cancer risk factors, as well as reproductive history, including amount of weight gained during the last full-term pregnancy, and whether or not the child was breast-fed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Wald 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of breast cancer. When compared to nulliparous women, women that had given birth within the past 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis in the cases or a comparable period in controls had a non-significant 35% increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 0.90–2.04) adjusting for age and known breast cancer risk factors (p trend = 0.14). We did not find a significant interaction with breast-feeding (p for interaction = 0.30) or pregnancy weight gain (p for interaction = 0.09). PMID:18990773

  9. Optimal management of the premenopausal patient with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chojecki, Aleksander; Wong, Serena; Toppmeyer, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen is the standard of care in the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Ovarian suppression (OS) is another method of endocrine therapy and has been shown to decrease the risk of recurrence and confer a survival advantage when used as the sole source of hormone therapy. However, there is no evidence that OS is superior to treatment with tamoxifen. Studies comparing OS with or without tamoxifen compared with chemotherapy have demonstrated comparable effects. There does not appear to be any additional benefit when OS is combined with chemotherapy, although there is a suggestion that there may be an effect in the subgroup of young women (aged younger than 40 years) who are least likely to experience chemotherapy-induced cessation of ovarian function. Interpretation of existing data is hampered by the lack of studies incorporating modern chemotherapy regimens and the absence of molecular analyses that would allow us to better define populations most likely to benefit from endocrine therapy. Last, the role of aromatase inhibitors (AI) in the premenopausal setting remains undefined. Two recent studies, SOFT and TEXT, aim to shed light on the effect of OS and AI in premenopausal ER+ breast cancer and are pending analysis. PMID:24857090

  10. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  11. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women: The 2010 to 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database.In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS).Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7-24.6] and 7.7% (7.1-8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25-4.19) and 1.78 (0.96-3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years).Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive interventions. PMID

  12. Association between alcohol consumption and Korean young women's bone health: a cross sectional study from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine Andrea; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between alcohol consumption and healthy Korean young women bone by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and drinking consumption; frequency and amount. Design Cross-sectional study composed of three parts: health interview, health examination, nutrition survey. Setting 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Of the 21 303 participants whose bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed, 1176 healthy women aged 19–30 years were selected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean BMD T-scores of the total femur (TF), femur neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LB) by drinking consumption and AUDIT scores, and the odds of having a low BMD (T-score <−1) at the sites by AUDIT scores. Results After adjustment, lower BMD was found at three sites in those who drank more and had higher AUDIT scores. These associations were significant by AUDIT scores at TF (p=0.002) and FN (p=0.004) and by drinking frequency and amount at FN (p=0.029 and 0.039, respectively). The adjusted OR of having low BMD increased significantly, particularly at FN, in those who had higher AUDIT scores such as 16–17 harmful drinking (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.16 to 16.06) and 20–40 alcohol dependence (OR 5.99; 95% CI 1.69 to 21.21), compared with young women who scored 0–7 low-risk drinking or abstinence. No beneficial effect of moderate drinking was observed at any of the sites and the association between alcohol consumption and bone health was most evident at FN. Conclusions It is crucial to promote the awareness of alcohol harm on Korean young women's bone health. At the same time, since alcohol's effect on the bone is complex with cumulative effects of various factors over the years and there is an absence of studies with young women in their twenties, more studies, in particular for FN, are needed with more precise and appropriate design to confirm our findings. PMID:26463219

  13. Association of the I264T Variant in the Sulfide Quinone Reductase-Like (SQRDL) Gene with Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunkuk; Kim, Bo-Young; Choi, Vit-Na; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To identify novel susceptibility variants for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 1180 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 405 individuals with osteoporosis and 722 normal controls of the Korean Association Resource cohort. A logistic regression analysis revealed 72 nsSNPs that showed a significant association with osteoporosis (p<0.05). The top 10 nsSNPs showing the lowest p-values (p = 5.2×10-4–8.5×10-3) were further studied to investigate their effects at the protein level. Based on the results of an in silico prediction of the protein’s functional effect based on amino acid alterations and a sequence conservation evaluation of the amino acid residues at the positions of the nsSNPs among orthologues, we selected one nsSNP in the SQRDL gene (rs1044032, SQRDL I264T) as a meaningful genetic variant associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. To assess whether the SQRDL I264T variant played a functional role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, we examined the in vitro effect of the nsSNP on bone remodeling. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant in the preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and the mRNA expression of osteoblastogenesis markers, Runx2, Sp7, and Bglap genes, whereas the SQRDL wild type had no effect or a negative effect on osteoblast differentiation. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant did not affect osteoclast differentiation of the primary-cultured monocytes. The known effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on bone remodeling may explain the findings of the current study, which demonstrated the functional role of the H2S-catalyzing enzyme SQRDL I264T variant in osteoblast differentiation. In conclusion, the results of the statistical and experimental analyses indicate that the SQRDL I264T nsSNP may be a significant susceptibility variant for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women that is

  14. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  15. Premenopausal dietary fat in relation to pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between fat intake and breast cancer incidence in the Nurses' Health Study II. We followed 88,804 women aged 26–45 years from 1991 to 2011 and documented incident breast cancers. Dietary fat, assessed by questionnaires in 1991, was examined in relation to total, premenopausal, and postmenopausal breast cancers. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). During 20 years of follow-up, 2,830 incident invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Total fat intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer overall. After adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors, a positive association was observed between animal fat intake and breast cancer overall (RR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.18; 95 % CI 1.04–1.33; Ptrend = 0.01). A positive association with animal fat intake was also seen among premenopausal women, but not among postmenopausal women. Higher intakes of saturated fat and monounsaturated fat were each associated with modestly higher breast cancer risk among all women, and higher cholesterol intake was associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk. However, the associations of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and animal fat, were attenuated and non-significant after adjustment for red meat intake. Intakes of other types of fat including vegetable fat, dairy fat, polyunsaturated fat, and trans fat were not associated with breast cancer risk. Our finding suggests a positive association between early adult intake of animal fat and breast cancer risk. PMID:24715379

  16. Tamoxifen metabolism predicts drug concentrations and outcome in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Saladores, P; Mürdter, T; Eccles, D; Chowbay, B; Zgheib, N K; Winter, S; Ganchev, B; Eccles, B; Gerty, S; Tfayli, A; Lim, J S L; Yap, Y S; Ng, R C H; Wong, N S; Dent, R; Habbal, M Z; Schaeffeler, E; Eichelbaum, M; Schroth, W; Schwab, M; Brauch, H

    2015-02-01

    Tamoxifen is the standard-of-care treatment for estrogen receptor-positive premenopausal breast cancer. We examined tamoxifen metabolism via blood metabolite concentrations and germline variations of CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in 587 premenopausal patients (Asians, Middle Eastern Arabs, Caucasian-UK; median age 39 years) and clinical outcome in 306 patients. N-desmethyltamoxifen (DM-Tam)/(Z)-endoxifen and CYP2D6 phenotype significantly correlated across ethnicities (R(2): 53%, P<10(-77)). CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 correlated with norendoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen concentrations, respectively (P<0.001). DM-Tam was influenced by body mass index (P<0.001). Improved distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) was associated with decreasing DM-Tam/(Z)-endoxifen (P=0.036) and increasing CYP2D6 activity score (hazard ratio (HR)=0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-0.91; P=0.013). Low (<14 nM) compared with high (>35 nM) endoxifen concentrations were associated with shorter DRFS (univariate P=0.03; multivariate HR=1.94; 95% CI, 1.04-4.14; P=0.064). Our data indicate that endoxifen formation in premenopausal women depends on CYP2D6 irrespective of ethnicity. Low endoxifen concentration/formation and decreased CYP2D6 activity predict shorter DRFS. PMID:25091503

  17. Tamoxifen metabolism predicts drug concentrations and outcome in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saladores, P; Mürdter, T; Eccles, D; Chowbay, B; Zgheib, N K; Winter, S; Ganchev, B; Eccles, B; Gerty, S; Tfayli, A; Lim, J S L; Yap, Y S; Ng, R C H; Wong, N S; Dent, R; Habbal, M Z; Schaeffeler, E; Eichelbaum, M; Schroth, W; Schwab, M; Brauch, H

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is the standard-of-care treatment for estrogen receptor-positive premenopausal breast cancer. We examined tamoxifen metabolism via blood metabolite concentrations and germline variations of CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in 587 premenopausal patients (Asians, Middle Eastern Arabs, Caucasian-UK; median age 39 years) and clinical outcome in 306 patients. N-desmethyltamoxifen (DM-Tam)/(Z)-endoxifen and CYP2D6 phenotype significantly correlated across ethnicities (R2: 53%, P<10−77). CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 correlated with norendoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen concentrations, respectively (P<0.001). DM-Tam was influenced by body mass index (P<0.001). Improved distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) was associated with decreasing DM-Tam/(Z)-endoxifen (P=0.036) and increasing CYP2D6 activity score (hazard ratio (HR)=0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43–0.91; P=0.013). Low (<14 nM) compared with high (>35 nM) endoxifen concentrations were associated with shorter DRFS (univariate P=0.03; multivariate HR=1.94; 95% CI, 1.04–4.14; P=0.064). Our data indicate that endoxifen formation in premenopausal women depends on CYP2D6 irrespective of ethnicity. Low endoxifen concentration/formation and decreased CYP2D6 activity predict shorter DRFS. PMID:25091503

  18. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density. PMID:26277917

  19. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  20. Premenopausal Trabecular Bone Loss is Associated with a Family History of Fragility Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Prior, J. C.; Hitchcock, C. L.; Vigna, Y. M.; Seifert-Klauss, V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although a fragility fracture family history (FFFH+) has repeatedly been shown to be associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), its relationship to human BMD change is unclear. Animal research, however, documented that different purebred strains within rodent species have wide ranges in rates of bone acquisition during growth as well as in change post-ovariectomy. Our objective was to compare the rate of premenopausal spinal trabecular BMD change between women with and without a general family history of fragility fracture. Participants and Methods: Healthy premenopausal community women participated in prospective observational studies at two academic medical research centres: Vancouver, Canada (n = 66) and Munich, Germany (n = 20). The primary outcome was annual spinal BMD change, measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The two studies employed similar methodologies for assessing QCT and FFFH. Results: Volunteer community participants had a mean age of 36.0 (SD, 6.9) years, body mass index 22.5 (2.4) and baseline QCT of 150.2 (22.5) mg/cm3 trabecular bone. The rates of BMD change were similar in both cities: − 3.5 (5.1)/year Vancouver, − 2.0 (3.4)/year Munich (95 % CI of difference: − 3.9, 0.9). Over a third of the women (31 of the 86, 36 %) reported FFFH+. Those with and without a FFFH were similar in demographics, nutrition, exercise, menstrual cycle and luteal phase lengths and physiological measures (serum calcium, osteocalcin and estradiol). However, women with FFFH+ lost trabecular BMD more rapidly: FFFH+, − 4.9 (5.0), FFFH−, − 2.2 (4.4) mg/cm3/year (95 % CI diff − 0.7 to − 4.8, F1.83 = 7.88, p = 0.006). FFFH+ explained 7.7 % of the variance in QCT volumetric trabecular spinal bone change/year in these healthy premenopausal women. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that having a history of a fragility fracture in a family member is associated with a greater

  1. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  2. New insights on the role of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists in premenopausal early breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Del Mastro, Lucia; Rossi, Giovanni; Lambertini, Matteo; Poggio, Francesca; Pronzato, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonists (LH-RHa) are effective in the treatment of advanced endocrine-sensitive breast cancer in premenopausal patients, but their role in the adjuvant setting has remained controversial for a long time. Tamoxifen for 5 years has been traditionally considered the standard endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients and this is still valid for many patients. However, the recently reported SOFT trial has suggested that adding ovarian function suppression (OFS) to tamoxifen could improve DFS in women at sufficient risk to warrant adjuvant chemotherapy and who remained premenopausal after this therapy. The administration of an aromatase inhibitor plus OFS represents an additional therapeutic option for hormone-receptor positive premenopausal breast cancer patients, according to the combined analysis of the SOFT and TEXT trials. Temporary ovarian suppression induced by LH-RHa has been recognized as an effective strategy to preserve ovarian function from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and is now recommended in young breast cancer patients with endocrine-insensitive tumors. In this review, we discuss recent data on the role of LH-RHa in combination with tamoxifen or with an aromatase inhibitor, and we comment on its role as a strategy to preserve ovarian function in young patients candidates for adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26613834

  3. Premenopausal Circulating Androgens and Risk of Endometrial Cancer: results of a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Tess V; Hertzmark, Kathryn; Koenig, Karen L; Lundin, Eva; Rinaldi, Sabina; Johnson, Theron; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Göran; Idahl, Annika; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Endometrial cancer risk is increased by estrogens unopposed by progesterone. In premenopausal women, androgen excess is often associated with progesterone insufficiency, suggesting that premenopausal androgen concentrations may be associated with risk. In a case-control study nested within three cohorts, we assessed the relationship between premenopausal androgens and risk of endometrial cancer (161 cases and 303 controls matched on age and date of blood donation). Testosterone, DHEAS, androstenedione, and SHBG were measured in serum or plasma. Free testosterone was calculated from testosterone and SHBG. We observed trends of increasing risk across tertiles of testosterone (ORT3-T1 = 1.59, 95 % CI = 0.96, 2.64, p = 0.08) and free testosterone (ORT3-T1 = 1.76, 95 % CI = 1.01, 3.07, p = 0.047), which were not statistically significant after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). There was no association for DHEAS, androstenedione, or SHBG. There were significant interactions by age at diagnosis (<55 years, n = 51 cases; ≥55 years, n = 110 cases). Among women who were ≥55 years of age (predominantly postmenopausal) at diagnosis, the BMI-adjusted OR was 2.08 (95 % CI = 1.25, 3.44, p = 0.005) for a doubling in testosterone and 1.55 (95 % CI = 1.04, 2.31, p = 0.049) for a doubling in free testosterone. There was no association among women aged <55 years at diagnosis, consistent with the only other prospective study to date. If pre- and post-menopausal concentrations of androgens are correlated, our observation of an association of premenopausal androgens with risk among women aged ≥55 years at diagnosis could be due to the effect on the endometrium of postmenopausal androgen-derived estrogens in the absence of progesterone, which is no longer secreted. PMID:26925952

  4. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  5. Efficacy of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium on implantation and pregnancy rates in fresh and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers in Korean women with previous implantation failure

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sungwook; Seo, Jung Eun; Rim, Yun Jeung; Joo, Jae Hong; Lee, Yong Chan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium on pregnancy and implantation rates in fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfers in Korean women with previous implantation failure. Methods This retrospective study included 283 blastocyst transfers in patients with previous embryo transfer failure at a private fertility clinic. In the study group (n=88), blastocyst transfers were performed using an hyaluronan-rich transfer medium prior to transfer, whereas blastocyst transfers without any treatment served as controls (n=195). According to the type of transfer (fresh elective or frozen-thawed), all the blastocyst transfers were divided into two study and two control groups. Results The patient's mean age, serum anti-Müllerian hormone level, causes of infertility, embryo quality, and the number of transferred embryos were comparable between the study and control groups. There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate (45.5% vs. 43.1%), implantation rate (28.9% vs. 28.8%), and clinical abortion rate (10.0% vs. 8.3%) between the two groups, and these findings were not changed after subgroup analysis according to the type of transfer. Conclusion The use of hyaluronan-rich transfer medium in the blastocyst transfer does not appear to have any significant effect on the implantation and pregnancy rates in patients with previous implantation failure. PMID:27200310

  6. Evaluating Differential Item Functioning of the CES-D Scale According to Caregiver Status and Cultural Context in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heeseung; Fogg, Louis; Lee, Eunice E.; Wu, Michelle Choi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Proper evaluation of the generalizability of an instrument is critical for its use across different social contexts such as caregiver status. OBJECTIVE To examine the differential item functioning of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, patterns of response to each item of the CES-D Scale attributable to caregiver status was assessed. STUDY DESIGN Using a cross-study comparison method, a sample of 58 matched pairs of Korean American caregivers and noncaregivers was used for matched moderated regression analysis on the CES-D Scale. RESULTS The authors identified three items that vary according to caregiver status in the present study: Item 2 (My appetite was poor), Item 4 (I felt that I was as good as other people), and Item 14 (I felt lonely). CONCLUSIONS Beyond assessing the level of depression through total CES-D scores, it is important to examine variations in the items of the CES-D Scale across different social contexts. PMID:21665810

  7. Association between dietary flavanones intake and lipid profiles according to the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Soo; Kim, Hyesook; Vijayakumar, Aswathy; Kwon, Oran; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was aimed at examining the association between dietary flavanones intake and lipid profiles according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 502 female T2DM patients (non-MetS group; n = 129, MetS group; n = 373) who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the data was analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. The intake of flavanones was estimated on the basis of the flavonoid database. RESULTS In the multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors, daily flavanones intake was negatively associated with CVD risk factors such as total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apoB and apoB/apoA1 ratio only in the MetS group but not in the non-MetS group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio for a higher apoB/apoA1 ratio above the median (≥ 0.74) was significantly low in the 4th quartile compared to that in the 1st quartile of dietary flavanones intake [OR: 0.477, 95% CI: 0.255-0.894, P for trend = 0.0377] in the MetS group. CONCLUSIONS Dietary flavanones intake was inversely associated with the apoB/apoA1 ratio, suggesting a potential protective effect of flavanones against CVD in T2DM women with MetS. PMID:26865918

  8. Risk Factors of Bone Mass Loss at the Lumbar Spine: A Longitudinal Study in Healthy Korean Pre- and Perimenopausal Women Older than 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jaehoon; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Rock-Bum; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies on bone mass decline for healthy women are sparse. We performed a retrospective longitudinal study to evaluate the factor associated with bone mass changes at the lumbar spine in healthy Korean pre- and perimenopausal women over the age of 40. We examined the relation of blood tests including thyroid function tests at baseline and follow-up to the annual percentage changes in average BMD of L2-L4 (A%ΔLSBMD). Four hundred and forty-three subjects without diseases or medications pertaining to bone metabolism were analyzed. The mean A%ΔLSBMD in these subjects was -0.45%/year. Though a significant correlation was observed between the A%ΔLSBMD and age, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, total cholesterol (TC) level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and follow-up, there was a weak correlation between A%ΔLSBMD and these variables. From multiple linear regression analyses, the percent body fat, age, serum TSH level, serum uric acid level, and the menopause at follow-up were showed to have a significant association with the A%ΔLSBMD. Unlike age, percent body fat, and menopause at follow-up, which had a negative association with the A%ΔLSBMD, serum TSH level and serum uric acid level, had a positive association with the A%ΔLSBMD. The results from our study showed that the notable risk factors of BMD loss at the lumbar spine in population of our study were advancing age, menopause, higher percent body fat, lower normal TSH, and lower serum uric acid levels. PMID:26317525

  9. Ovarian Damage in Young Premenopausal Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-16

    Leukemia; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Lymphoma; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Sexuality and Reproductive Issues; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  10. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for “permanent hair reduction” (not “permanent hair removal”). The choice of a specific photoepilation ... clinical guidelines suggest also taking medication such as birth control pills to minimize hair regrowth. Electrolysis has been ...

  11. For love or money? The saga of Korean women who provided eggs for embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, Woo-Suk Hwang achieved international stardom with publications in Science reporting on successful research involving the creation of stem cells from cloned human embryos. The wonder and success all began to unravel, however, when serious ethical concerns were raised about the source of the eggs for this research. When the egg scandal had completely unfolded, it turned out that many of the women who provided eggs for stem cell research had not provided valid consents and that nearly 75% of the women egg providers had received cash or in-kind payments. Among those who did not receive direct benefits, some cited patriotism as their reason for participating in embryonic stem cell research, hence the question "for love or money?"--namely, patriotism versus payment. This paper summarizes the Hwang debacle with particular attention to the egg scandal and ends with some preliminary thoughts on patriotism as a motive for research participation. PMID:19787440

  12. Knowledge of HPV and Surgery among Women Who Underwent Cervical Conization: A Korean Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jun, So Yeun; Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Jung-Yun; Lee, San Hui; Song, Yong Jung; Chun, Kyoung-Chul; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a well-known cause of cervical cancer, which, along with its precursors, can be diagnosed and treated with cervical conization (CC). This study aimed to assess HPV- and procedure-related knowledge among women who had undergone CC. Materials and Methods Between February and May 2014, consecutive women who had undergone CC at five different educational hospitals were recruited. All patients had undergone a loop electrosurgical excision procedure as the method of CC. A survey was conducted with a self-developed, 29-item questionnaire, measuring knowledge related to HPV and CC. We analyzed the responses of 160 patients who completed the questionnaire. Results Mean total knowledge scores (±standard deviation) for HPV and CC were 5.2±3.0 of a possible 13.0 and 8.3±4.2 of a possible 16.0, respectively. While 73% of the patients knew that HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, only 44% knew that HPV is sexually transmitted. The purpose of CC was correctly identified by 71% of the patients. However, 35% failed to indicate the anatomical area resected at the time of CC in the schematic diagram. Women who were younger (p<0.001), had higher education level (p<0.001), and higher family income (p=0.008) had higher knowledge scores. In contrast, neither interval from CC to survey nor disease severity were associated with total knowledge score. Conclusion The level of knowledge related to HPV and CC was unexpectedly low in women who had undergone CC. Intuitive educational resources may improve this knowledge, and further cohort studies are warranted. PMID:27401655

  13. Comparison of the prescribing pattern of bisphosphonate and raloxifene in Korean women with osteoporosis: from a national health insurance claims database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmee; Shin, Ju-Young; Lee, Joongyub; Song, Hong-Ji; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the differences of prescribing pattern between bisphosphonate and raloxifene users among Korean women with osteoporosis, focusing on the underlying conditions, concurrent medications, nature of healthcare utilization, and regional disparity. We used the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service National Patients Sample database of the year 2010. Study subjects were defined as female osteoporosis patients aged over 50 years with both the diagnosis of osteoporosis and prescriptions of bisphosphonate or raloxifene. The frequency and the proportion of bisphosphonate and raloxifene were compared using chi-square test and the trend of the proportion using the Cochran-Armitage test. Medications were quantified as defined daily doses per 1,000 patients per day. The prescription pattern was visualized by using the Quantum Geographic Information Systems program. Of the 1,367,367 people who utilized medical services in 2010, the final number of study subjects was 26,881--26,032 (96.8%) bisphosphonate and 849 (3.2%) raloxifene recipients. Raloxifene users were younger than bisphosphonate users and were more frequently patients with a lipid disorder (16.0% vs. 22.1%, p-value < 0.0001), rheumatic disease (4.0% vs. 6.1%, p-value = 0.0024), hot flash (1.8% vs. 6.1%, p <0.0001), and coronary artery disease (1.2% vs. 2.8%, p< 0.0001). The proportion of raloxifene users was higher in tertiary care institutions (21.6% vs. 44.7%, p-value < 0.0001). A regional distribution showed that raloxifene use was higher in the Seoul metropolitan area. These differences in demographic and clinical profiles of each recipient may influence prescription decisions. PMID:26030300

  14. Comparison of the Prescribing Pattern of Bisphosphonate and Raloxifene in Korean Women with Osteoporosis: From a National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmee; Shin, Ju-Young; Lee, Joongyub; Song, Hong-Ji; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the differences of prescribing pattern between bisphosphonate and raloxifene users among Korean women with osteoporosis, focusing on the underlying conditions, concurrent medications, nature of healthcare utilization, and regional disparity. We used the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service National Patients Sample database of the year 2010. Study subjects were defined as female osteoporosis patients aged over 50 years with both the diagnosis of osteoporosis and prescriptions of bisphosphonate or raloxifene. The frequency and the proportion of bisphosphonate and raloxifene were compared using chi-square test and the trend of the proportion using the Cochran–Armitage test. Medications were quantified as defined daily doses per 1,000 patients per day. The prescription pattern was visualized by using the Quantum Geographic Information Systems program. Of the 1,367,367 people who utilized medical services in 2010, the final number of study subjects was 26,881—26,032 (96.8%) bisphosphonate and 849 (3.2%) raloxifene recipients. Raloxifene users were younger than bisphosphonate users and were more frequently patients with a lipid disorder (16.0% vs. 22.1%, p-value < 0.0001), rheumatic disease (4.0% vs. 6.1%, p-value = 0.0024), hot flash (1.8% vs. 6.1%, p <0.0001), and coronary artery disease (1.2% vs. 2.8%, p< 0.0001). The proportion of raloxifene users was higher in tertiary care institutions (21.6% vs. 44.7%, p-value < 0.0001). A regional distribution showed that raloxifene use was higher in the Seoul metropolitan area. These differences in demographic and clinical profiles of each recipient may influence prescription decisions. PMID:26030300

  15. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Megan; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Results Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density compared to those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI (difference = 4.76, 95%CI: 1.72, 7.81). Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50mg/dl) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference=4.62, 95%CI: 1.73, 7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference=-2.91, 95% CI: -7.19, 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies. PMID:23682074

  16. Long-term consequences of ovarian ablation for premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Janice S; Pansegrau, Gary; Nourmoussavi, Melica; Hammond, Geoffrey; Carey, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The TEXT and SOFT trials concluded that an aromatase inhibitor (AI) with ovarian ablation (OA) yields a higher 5-year disease-free survival than tamoxifen alone in premenopausal ER+ high-risk early breast cancer. However, the long-term health consequences and costs of OA, either by GnRH agonist or oophorectomy, have not been evaluated. The objective was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing tamoxifen to OA with AI. Markov Monte Carlo simulation model estimated the costs and benefits of 3 endocrine strategies: (1) tamoxifen; (2) GnRH agonist with AI (GnRHa-AI); (3) bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with AI (BSO-AI). Effectiveness was measured in life expectancy gain (years), and costs were averaged over a lifetime (USD 2015). Adverse events and deaths from each strategy were modeled in the United States population over a time horizon of 40 years. For women without prior chemotherapy (low-risk), tamoxifen alone was more effective (18.03 years) and less costly ($1566) than GnRHa-AI (17.66 years, $93,692) or BSO-AI (17.63 years, $25,892). For those with prior chemotherapy (high-risk), BSO-AI was more costly but more effective (16.78 years, $25,368) than tamoxifen alone (16.55 years, $1523) with an ICER of $102,290, while GnRHa-AI yielded an ICER of $443,376. The simulation estimated 787 and 577 deaths attributable to OA among 9320 high-risk women after BSO-AI and GnRHa-AI, respectively. There may be a role for ovarian ablation in premenopausal women with ER+ high-risk early breast cancer; however, this analysis raises concerns about the long-term health consequences of ovarian ablation and the potential effects on overall survival. PMID:27236562

  17. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer. PMID:25339056

  18. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  19. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors. PMID:21404760

  20. Excess weight gain accelerates 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in a rat model of premenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Shawna B.; Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; McGinley, John N.; Neil, Elizabeth S.; Thompson, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the null effects generally reported, high-risk premenopausal women (Gail score ≥1.66) enrolled in the Breast Cancer Prevention P-1 Trial were recently reported to be at increased risk for breast cancer when overweight (HR, 1.59) or obese (HR, 1.70). To investigate this clinical observation in a preclinical setting, ovary-intact female rats were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea at 21 days of age to simulate premenopausal women with increased risk. Two commercially available strains of Sprague Dawley rat (Taconic Farms) were used which are dietary resistant (DR) or dietary susceptible (DS) to excess weight gain when fed a purified diet containing 32% kcal from fat, similar to levels consumed by the typical American woman. DS rats were approximately 15.5% heavier than DR rats at study termination and plasma leptin indicated a marked difference in adiposity. DS rats had higher incidence (26% increase), multiplicity (2.5-fold increase), and burden (5.4-fold increase) of mammary carcinomas with a concomitant reduction in cancer latency (16% earlier detection) compared to DR rats (P <.001 for all analyses), and displayed a higher proportion of hormone receptor negative tumors compared to DR rats (OR=1.78, 95% CI 0.83–3.81). Circulating levels of several breast cancer risk factors including leptin, adiponectin:leptin ratio, insulin, IGF-1, IGF-1:IGFBP3 ratio, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were negatively impacted in DS rats (P <.05 for all analyses). These findings support further investigation of the effects of excess weight in high-risk premenopausal women and demonstrate a useful preclinical model for rapid evaluation of mechanistic hypotheses. PMID:24441676

  1. Tamoxifen with ovarian function suppression versus tamoxifen alone as an adjuvant treatment for premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shunchao; Li, Kai; Jiao, Xin; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian function suppression (OFS) significantly downregulates the concentration of plasma estrogens. However, it is unclear whether it offers any survival benefits if combined with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in premenopausal women. This meta-analysis was designed to assess data from previous studies involving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment plus OFS in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials published prior to February 1, 2015. Only randomized controlled trials that compared tamoxifen alone with tamoxifen plus OFS for premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The evaluated endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. Results Four randomized controlled trials comprising 6,279 patients (OFS combination, n=3,133; tamoxifen alone, n=3,146) were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant improvement in disease-free survival or overall survival with addition of OFS in either the whole population or the hormone receptor-positive subgroup. The risk of distant recurrence was not reduced with the addition of OFS in the whole population. A subgroup analysis showed that addition of OFS significantly improved overall survival in patients who were administered chemotherapy. Conclusion Based on the available studies, concurrent administration of OFS and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for premenopausal women with breast cancer has no effect on prolonging disease-free survival and overall survival, excluding patients who were administered chemotherapy. It should not be widely recommended, except perhaps for women who were hormone-receptor positive and who were also administered adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26109867

  2. Stressors, coping resources, functioning, and role limitations among older korean immigrants: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea Flynn

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the differential impacts of stressors and coping resources on the functioning and roles of 246 older Korean immigrant men and women. Older Korean immigrant women were significantly more likely than men to have acculturation and socioeconomic stressors, physical/social functioning problems, and role limitations. English-language barriers and lack of transportation were significantly related to lower functioning and higher role limitations of older Korean women compared to those of older men. Providing social and health care services with bilingual and transportation services to older Korean immigrant women is recommended to increase their physical/social functioning and role performance. PMID:24483283

  3. Premenopausal plasma carotenoids, fluorescent oxidation products, and subsequent breast cancer risk in the nurses' health studies.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Julia S; Lindström, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard A; Wu, Tianying; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather

    2015-06-01

    High levels of circulating carotenoids are hypothesized to reduce breast cancer risk, potentially due to their antioxidant properties. However, little is known about the relationship between carotenoid exposure earlier in life and risk. We examined associations of premenopausal plasma carotenoids and markers of oxidative stress and risk of breast cancer among 1179 case-control pairs in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Levels of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) were measured in a subset of participants by spectrofluoroscopy. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for breast cancer by quartile, as well as P values for tests of linear trend. We additionally examined whether 45 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes involved in oxidative and antioxidative processes or carotenoid availability were associated with risk. Carotenoid measures were not inversely associated with breast cancer risk. No differences by estrogen receptor status were observed, though some inverse associations were observed among women postmenopausal at diagnosis. Plasma FlOP levels were not positively associated with risk, and suggestive inverse associations with FlOP_320 and FlOP_360 were observed. Several SNPs were associated with carotenoid levels, and a small number were suggestively associated with breast cancer risk. We observed evidence of interactions between some SNPs and carotenoid levels on risk. We did not observe consistent associations between circulating levels of premenopausal carotenoids or FlOP levels and breast cancer risk. PMID:25917867

  4. Prospective case-control study of premenopausal serum estradiol and testosterone levels and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is frequently a hormonally dependent cancer, and associations of circulating estrogens and androgens with subsequent breast cancer risk are well established in postmenopausal women. Associations of serum estrogens and androgens with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women are less well studied. The objective of this study was to determine whether estradiol and testosterone levels in serum collected before menopause are associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study of 266 participants who were registered in the Columbia, Missouri, Serum Bank and not using exogenous hormones at the time of blood collection. Each of 98 in situ or invasive breast cancer cases with prediagnostic serum collected before menopause was matched to two controls by age, date, menstrual cycle day, and time of day of blood collection. Estradiol and testosterone concentrations were quantified by using specific radioimmunoassays, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was quantified with a chemiluminescent immunoassay to allow calculation of the non-SHBG bound hormone fractions. Data were analyzed by using conditional logistic regression. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results Serum testosterone was strongly and significantly associated with breast cancer risk. The relative odds (OR) for increasing quartiles of total testosterone were 1.0, 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9 to 4.8), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.6 to 3.4), and 3.3 (95% CI, 1.5 to 7.5, Ptrend = 0.006). Comparable ORs for the non-SHBG bound fraction of testosterone that is bioavailable were 1.0, 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7 to 4.2), 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7 to 4.0), and 4.2 (95% CI, 1.6 to 10.9, Ptrend = 0.002). Total and non-SHBG-bound estradiol were not associated with breast cancer, but extreme variation in levels across the menstrual cycle coupled with relatively small numbers, particularly for analyses stratified by cycle phase, limited the power to

  5. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. PMID:25064423

  6. Premenopausal Obesity and Breast Cancer Growth Rates in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Shawna B.; McGinley, John N.; Neil, Elizabeth S.; Thompson, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    Obese premenopausal women with breast cancer have poorer prognosis for long term survival, in part because their tumors are larger at the time of diagnosis than are found in normal weight women. Whether larger tumor mass is due to obesity-related barriers to detection or to effects on tumor biology is not known. This study used polygenic models for obesity and breast cancer to deconstruct this question with the objective of determining whether cell autonomous mechanisms contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer burden. Assessment of the growth rates of 259 chemically induced mammary carcinomas from rats sensitive to dietary induced obesity (DS) and of 143 carcinomas from rats resistant (DR) to dietary induced obesity revealed that tumors in DS rats grew 1.8 times faster than in DR rats. This difference may be attributed to alterations in cell cycle machinery that permit more rapid tumor cell accumulation. DS tumors displayed protein expression patterns consistent with reduced G1/S checkpoint inhibition and a higher threshold of factors required for execution of the apoptotic cell death pathway. These mechanistic insights identify regulatory targets for life style modifications or pharmacological interventions designed to disrupt the linkage between obesity and tumor burden. PMID:27077880

  7. Premenopausal Obesity and Breast Cancer Growth Rates in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Shawna B; McGinley, John N; Neil, Elizabeth S; Thompson, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    Obese premenopausal women with breast cancer have poorer prognosis for long term survival, in part because their tumors are larger at the time of diagnosis than are found in normal weight women. Whether larger tumor mass is due to obesity-related barriers to detection or to effects on tumor biology is not known. This study used polygenic models for obesity and breast cancer to deconstruct this question with the objective of determining whether cell autonomous mechanisms contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer burden. Assessment of the growth rates of 259 chemically induced mammary carcinomas from rats sensitive to dietary induced obesity (DS) and of 143 carcinomas from rats resistant (DR) to dietary induced obesity revealed that tumors in DS rats grew 1.8 times faster than in DR rats. This difference may be attributed to alterations in cell cycle machinery that permit more rapid tumor cell accumulation. DS tumors displayed protein expression patterns consistent with reduced G1/S checkpoint inhibition and a higher threshold of factors required for execution of the apoptotic cell death pathway. These mechanistic insights identify regulatory targets for life style modifications or pharmacological interventions designed to disrupt the linkage between obesity and tumor burden. PMID:27077880

  8. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2012: Results from a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ko, Beom Seok; Kang, Eunyoung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Seokwon

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through utilization of an online registration program. We have reported the basic facts about breast cancer in Korea in 2012, and analyzed the changing patterns in the clinical characteristics and management of breast cancer in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were collected for the year 2012 from 97 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey, and from the online registry database. A total of 17,792 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2012. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 70.7 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women was higher than that of premenopausal women among those diagnosed with breast cancer. The proportion of cases of early breast cancer increased continuously, and breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in that same year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 3-fold over last 10 years. The 5-year overall survival rate for all stages of breast cancer patients was extremely high. The clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed in ways that resulted in high overall survival over the past 10 years in Korea, and the surgical management of the disease has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:26155285

  9. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  10. Plasma lipid levels in active and sedentary premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Shaw, M H; Hsia, L; Nash, M S; Kaplan, T; Signorile, J F; Appleyate, B

    1992-04-01

    Cross-sectional data on 19 long-distance runners (LD), 17 aerobic dancers (AD), 19 recreational joggers (RJ), and 15 inactive controls (IC) were examined for cardiovascular endurance and determination of plasma lipoproteins. Subjects included premenopausal eumenorrheic females who were non-smokers and presently not using oral contraceptives. Results indicated that all groups were similar in age, height and weight. Only the AD group had a significantly lower percent body fat (p less than .001) than the other groups. The LD, AD and RJ groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the IC group (p less than .05), and the LD and AD groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the RJ group (p less than .05). Analysis of a one-day food log indicated that the only difference in diet among the groups was a significantly lower intake of total and monounsaturated fat in the AD group (p less than .05) and a significantly lower intake of carbohydrates in the IC group than the AD group (p less than .05). Analysis of plasma lipids revealed no significant differences in any lipid variables among the groups. These findings indicate that healthy premenopausal eumenorrheic females with similar physical characteristics also have similar plasma lipid profiles regardless of their physical activity level. PMID:1601555

  11. Polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (-863C>A, -857C>T and +488G>A) are associated with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyo Geun; Choi, Youngsok; Kim, Jung Oh; Jeon, Young Joo; Rah, HyungChul; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ji Hyang; Lee, Woo Sik; Kim, Nam Keun

    2016-06-01

    Polymorphisms in TNF-a have been reported as genetic risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion and TNF-α may be immunologically important. We therefore examined the contribution of several TNF-a mutations to this phenomenon. The study participants consisted of 388 patients with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), which was diagnosed on the basis of at least two consecutive spontaneous abortions; control subjects were 224 healthy women with a history of successful pregnancies. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to determine the TNF-α -863C>A, -857C>T, and +488G>A genotypes. The TNF-α -863C>A variants correlated with increased risk of RPL (CA+AA; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.142; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.493-3.074). These data did not differ in a stratified analysis according to number of consecutive spontaneous abortions. In haplotype analysis, there were similar trends of data for combination analysis, but in patients with 3+ pregnancy losses, a stratified analysis revealed that this correlation did not increase directly with the number of pregnancy losses. The TNF-α -863C>A variant is a possible genetic risk factor for idiopathic RPL in Korean women. PMID:27083536

  12. Disruptions in ovarian function are related to depression and cardio-metabolic risk during pre-menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Latham, Melissa D.; Adler, Nancy E.; Pasch, Lauri A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extent to which mild disruptions in ovarian function indexed by changes in menstrual cycle length may relate to cardio-metabolic and psychological health in pre-menopausal women. Methods Among 804 healthy, regularly-cycling women (ages 25–45, M=35.5 [5.5]), patterns of any change (shortening, lengthening, or increased variability) versus no change in menstrual cycle length were examined in relation to a composite of cardio-metabolic risk and individual risk factors (high-density lipoprotein [HDL], triglycerides, waist circumference, glucose, hypertensive status) as well as in relation to depression indicators (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CESD] score ≥16 [yes/no], lifetime depression diagnosis [yes/no], lifetime anti-depressant medication use [yes/no]). Models were also explored to test whether changes in menstrual cycle length mediated relations between depression history and cardio-metabolic risk. Results In covariate-adjusted models, compared to no change, any change in menstrual cycle length was associated with higher cardio-metabolic risk composite scores and lower HDL (p’s<.05). In addition, compared to no change, any change in menstrual cycle length was associated with a CESD score ≥16, having received a depression diagnosis, and having used an anti-depressant medication (p’s<.05). In exploratory analyses, any change in menstrual cycle length partially mediated the relation between depression history and cardio-metabolic risk (b=0.152, p=.040) which attenuated (b=0.129, p=.083) when any change in menstrual cycle length was covaried. Conclusions Findings suggest disruptions in ovarian function marked by subtle changes in menstrual cycle length may relate to aspects of cardio-metabolic, and psychological health among healthy, pre-menopausal women. PMID:23715377

  13. Rice-eating pattern and the risk of metabolic syndrome especially waist circumference in Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome poses a serious health threat in Asian countries. Rice is a staple food in Korea, and carbohydrate intake is associated with the risk of MetS. We hypothesized that various rice-eating patterns in a carbohydrate-based diet would have different effects on the risk of MetS. Methods Participants were 26,006 subjects enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2004 and 2006. They were classified into four dietary patterns - white rice, rice with beans, rice with multi-grains, and mixed based on their food frequency questionnaire responses. We compared metabolic risk traits according to the rice-eating patterns. Results Nutrients consumption and the presence of MetS risk factors differed according to rice-eating patterns. In men odds ratio(OR) for central obesity was slightly elevated in mixed group(1.18). In women, the risk for central obesity and abnormal fasting glucose were lower in the rice with beans group (adjusted OR =0.79, 0.83 respectively) and central obesity in rice with multi-grains(adjusted OR=0.91) than the white rice group. In postmenopausal women, ORs for central obesity (0.78) and abnormal fasting glucose (0.75) in the rice with beans group and ORs for central obesity (0.83), abnormal HDL-cholesterol (0.87) and MetS(0.85) in the rice with multi-grains group was lower than those in white rice group. In premenopausal women, the risk for central obesity (OR=0.77) was reduced in the rice with beans group. Conclusion The risk for MetS was lower in the rice with beans and rice with multi-grains groups compared with the white rice group, particularly in postmenopausal women. PMID:23339671

  14. Premenopausal Antimullerian Hormone Concentration is Associated with Subsequent Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Appt, Susan E.; Chen, Haiying; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Kaplan, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if premenopausal ovarian reserve is associated with susceptibility for atherosclerosis. Methods Female cynomologus macaques (n = 66, women’s equivalent age = 45 yrs) consumed an atherogenic diet for ~5 months prior to the measurement of a marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone, AMH), plasma lipids, follicular phase estradiol (E2) and body weight (BW). Monkeys were then ovariectomized (OVX, n =17) remained premenopausal (PRE, n=20) or induced to have reduce ovarian reserve (ROR, n=29). After 26 additional months on the diet, atherosclerosis measurements and risk variables were reassessed. Results No differences in baseline AMH, plasma lipids, BW, E2 or post-diet lipids and BW, were observed among the groups subsequently assigned to OVX, PRE or ROR conditions. Post-diet measurements of atherosclerosis extent did not differ among the groups. However, analysis of plaque size by tertile of baseline AMH revealed that plaques were largest in monkeys that began the experiment with the lowest baseline AMH, followed by those in the middle and high tertiles (plaque extent mm2: Low AMH = 0.76 ± 0.12, Mid AMH = 0.46 ± 0.1, High AMH = 0.34 ± 0.08, p=0.02). Baseline AMH and plaque size were also correlated negatively (r = −0.31, p = 0.01). Plasma lipids were also correlated significantly with plaque extent (all p’s <0.01), but not with AMH. Conclusions We report for the first time an inverse relationship between a marker of ovarian reserve (AMH) and subsequent atherosclerosis risk. PMID:22929037

  15. Ovarian cyst formation in two pre-menopausal patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shulman, A; Cohen, I; Altaras, M M; Maymon, R; Ben-Nun, I; Tepper, R; Beyth, Y

    1994-08-01

    Pre-menopausal tamoxifen treatment causes hyperoestrogen production and ovarian cyst formation. Two pre-menopausal breast cancer patients who were treated with tamoxifen developed both permanent supraphysiological oestrogen concentration and ovarian cysts. Serum oestrogen decreased to post-menopausal concentrations and ovarian cysts completely resolved during and following simultaneous treatment with tamoxifen and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). In pre-menopausal breast cancer patients, GnRHa may prevent possible side-effects of tamoxifen, such as ovarian cysts and supraphysiological oestrogen production. PMID:7989499

  16. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Korean Woman Based on the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyoung-Joon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background The criteria for defining sarcopenia vary among studies and confusion has arisen when defining the cutoff value. As a result, the prevalence of sarcopenia differs markedly depending on the definition. This study used the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V. We used the AWGS recommended cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean women. Results The prevalence rates of sarcopenia using a cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 were 385 (19.5%) in women in their 50s, 286 (16.6%) in women in their 60s, 293 (23.7%) in women in their 70s, and 91 (30.8%) in women ≥80 years. The prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 307 (19.0%) in women 65 to 74 years, 194 (27.4%) in women 75 to 84 years, and 32 (40.5%) in women ≥85 years. The overall prevalence among women >50 years was 20.2%. The prevalence of sarcopenia in women >65 years was 22.1%. Conclusions The prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women was within the range of values of previous research about sarcopenia. Furthermore, using 5.4 kg/m2 as the cutoff value was useful to compare various studies about sarcopenia in Koreans. PMID:26981517

  17. Role of xenoestrogens and endogenous sources of estrogens on the occurrence of premenopausal breast cancer in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Eftekhari, Tara; Sadeghipour, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer affects Iranian women one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the underlying risk factors have remained controversial. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates endocrine disruptive activities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins, which may compromise ovarian functions of women in polluted environments. This study focused on tissue expression levels of AhR and associations with exposure to chemicals with estrogen-like activities (xenoestrogens) and other reproductive factors in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Fifty cases who underwent surgery from June 2009 to June 2010 were matched with 100 controls by age and hospital records. AhR overexpression was detected in 87% of epithelial cells of young breast cancer patients. Living near factories generating PAHs and dioxins was considered as a major risk factor in premenopausal breast cancer (p=0.001, OR=4.8). History of idiopathic infertility was identified as a second significant risk factor (p=0.002, OR=3.50), which could be affected by endogenous estrogen levels. Long term (>5 yrs) consumption of oral contraceptive pills was identified as the third most important risk factor (p=0.006, OR=2.27). Adiposity and abnormal weight gain after 18 years were considered as two major background factors, which may contribute to the levels of endogenous estrogens. Direct and indirect exposure to cigarette smoke (p=0.005, OR=1.43) was considered as a weak risk factor without association with AhR levels. It seems that AhR overexpression is affected by exposure to xenoestrogens and by adiposity. Early occurrence of breast cancer in Iran may be a result of interactions between hormonal and environmental factors. PMID:22296395

  18. Prognostic impact of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea on premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiong; Yin, Wenjin; Du, Yueyao; Shen, Zhenzhou; Lu, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We conducted this meta-analysis of published data to assess the exact prognostic value of adjuvant chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) as a prognostic factor for premenopausal breast cancer. Methods: We searched for all relevant studies published before May 2014 in the PubMed, OVID, and EMBASE databases. Relative risks (RRs) were used to estimate the association between CIA and various survival outcomes, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: This meta-analysis identified 13 eligible studies including 5,513 cases and 2,008 controls for DFS and 5 eligible studies including 2,331 cases and 776 controls for OS. Results demonstrated that CIA is associated with improved DFS (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.74; P < 0.001) and OS (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.72; P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, CIA was found to affect DFS (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = 0.001) in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive patients; however, similar results were not observed in ER-negative patients (for DFS: RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.41; P = 0.858). Participants with CIA achieved a significantly better prognosis than participants without CIA, irrespective of nodal status, chemotherapy regimen, endocrine therapy, or publication year. Conclusions: This meta-analysis clarifies that CIA contributes to improved prognosis in premenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer and is at least partially responsible for the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in these women, which induce chemical castration. PMID:25783467

  19. Vitamin D receptor alleles and bone mineral density in a normal premenopausal Brazilian female population.

    PubMed

    Lazaretti-Castro, M; Duarte-de-Oliveira, M A; Russo, E M; Vieira, J G

    1997-08-01

    Studies on the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD) in different populations have produced conflicting results probably due to ethnic differences in the populations studied. The Brazilian population is characterized by a very broad genetic background and a high degree of miscegenation. Of an initial group of 164, we studied 127 women from the city of São Paulo, aged 20 to 47 years (median, 31 years), with normal menses, a normal diet and no history of diseases or use of any medication that could alter BMD. VDR genotype was assessed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX) at the lumbar site (L2-L4) and femoral neck. Most of the women (77.6%) were considered to be of predominantly European ancestry (20.6% of them reported also native American ancestry), 12.8% were of African-Brazilian ancestry and 9.6% of Asian ancestry, 41.0% (52) were classified as bb, 48.8% (62) as Bb and 10.2% (13) as BB. The BB, Bb and bb groups did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index or age at menarche. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in the bb group (1.22 +/- 0.16 g/cm2) than in the BB group (1.08 +/- 0.14; P < 0.05), and the Bb group presented an intermediate value (1.17 +/- 0.15). Femoral neck BMD was higher in the bb group (0.99 +/- 0.11 g/cm2) compared to Bb (0.93 +/- 0.12) and BB (0.90 +/- 0.09) (P < 0.05). These data indicate that there is a significant correlation between the VDR BsmI genotype and BMD in healthy Brazilian premenopausal females. PMID:9361720

  20. Reclaiming the Self: How Korean Housewives Make Meaning of Their Experience of Re-Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Suh Young; Kim, Namhee

    2010-01-01

    Well-educated Korean women are returning to higher education in unprecedented numbers with the motivation of recovering their personal identity. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the ways in which this experience is meaningful to these re-entry women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Korean full-time housewives aged…

  1. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  2. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  3. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  4. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease in premenopausal female ragpickers of Eastern India: involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and platelet hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sayali; Siddique, Shabana; Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Slaughter, Mark S; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2016-08-01

    Millions of poor people in the developing world still thrive on ragpicking. In the present study, we have examined whether ragpicking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. For this, we have enrolled 112 premenopausal female ragpickers (median age 30 years) and 98 age-matched housemaids as control from Kolkata, Eastern India. Venous blood was drawn for routine hematology; flow cytometry was used to measure generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes, surface expression of CD62P (P-selectin) in platelets and CD11b in leukocytes. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was evaluated by aggregometer, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) and CD40L (sCD40L), neutrophil-activating protein-2 (NAP-2), platelet and plasma serotonin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in plasma were measured by ELISA. Compared with control, the ragpickers had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension, and hypertension was positively associated with ragpicking. The ragpickers also had higher levels of inflammation (elevated NAP-2), oxidative stress (elevated ROS generation with depleted SOD) with oxLDL, platelet activation and aggregability, soluble CD40 ligand, with altered serotonin level (rose in plasma but depleted in platelet). A greater percentage of ragpickers had elevated serum level of aCL of the IgG and IgM isotypes than the controls. The results suggest that the occupation of ragpicking increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal women of Eastern India via inflammation, oxidative stress, platelet hyperactivity, and hypertension. PMID:27421852

  5. Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Wook; Koh, Eun Sil; Kim, Si Eun; Kim, Seok Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs) according to their duration of stay in South Korea. Methods NKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire. Results A total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years), NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years) in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea. Conclusion The NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed. PMID:26485471

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, xenoestrogen, phytoestrogen, and premenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.; Zhao, M.; Wang, Q.; Liu, L.; Qi, Y.N.; Li, J.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest a combined effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1) and igf binding protein 3 (igfbp-3) gene polymorphisms, xenoestrogen, and phytoestrogen on the igf-1 signalling pathway and serum concentrations in the igf system, which are associated with premenopausal breast cancer (bca) risk. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, our study recruited 140 premenopausal bca patients and 160 community-based premenopausal control subjects. Participants were surveyed about oral contraceptive (oc) use, dietary habits, and other bca risk factors. TaqMan assays were used to determine igf-1 rs1520220 and igfbp-3 rs2854744 genotypes. Daily intakes of energy-adjusted soy isoflavones (easis) were calculated by the residual method. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ors) and 95% confidence intervals (cis) of the igf-1 rs1520220 and igfbp-3 rs2854744 genotypes, oc use, and intake of easis. Stratified analyses were performed to detect the gene–environment combined effect, and multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate interaction coefficients (iors) by the multiplicative model, with 95% cis. The delta method was used to calculate interaction coefficients by the additive model [relative excess risk of interaction (reri), attributable proportions of interaction (apis)] and 95% cis. Results The igf-1 and igfbp-3 genotypes, oc use, and easis were not found to be associated with bca risk (p > 0.05). Stratified analysis showed that the risk of bca was markedly increased in women carrying the igfbp-3C allele and using ocs compared with women either carrying the igfbp-3C allele or using ocs (or: 3.02; 95% ci: 1.04 to 8.79). The interaction coefficients ior, reri, and api were 4.89 (95% ci: 1.09 to 21.90), 2.42 (95% ci: −0.76 to 5.61), and 0.80 (95% ci: 0.46 to 1.67) respectively. Conclusions The igfbp-3 rs2854744 polymorphism and oc use might synergistically increase premenopausal bca risk. PMID:26966408

  7. Proportion of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancers attributable to known risk factors: Estimates from the E3N-EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Delaloge, Suzette; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2016-05-15

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Breast cancer risk factors have been widely explored individually; however, little is known about their combined impact. We included 67,634 women from the French E3N prospective cohort, aged 42-72 at baseline. During a 15-year follow-up period, 497 premenopausal and 3,138 postmenopausal invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) were used to estimate cases proportions attributable to risk factors under hypothetical scenarios of lowest exposure. We examined overall premenopausal and postmenopausal invasive breast cancers and tumour subtypes (ER status and HER2 expression). Premenopausal breast cancer was not significantly attributable to non-behavioral (61.2%, -15.5 to 91.88%) nor to behavioral (39.9%, -71.0 to 93.9%) factors, contrary to postmenopausal breast cancer (41.9%, 4.5 to 68.7% and 53.5%, 12.8 to 78.7%, respectively). Individually, the highest statistically significant PAFs were obtained in premenopause for birth weight (33.6%, 5.7 to 56.6%) and age at menarche (19.8%, 5.2 to 33.6%) for non-behavioral factors and in postmenopause for history of benign breast diseases (14.9%, 11.6 to 18.0%) and age at menarche (9.7%, 3.9 to 15.5%) for non-behavioral factors and for body shape at menarche (17.1%, 9.7 to 24.3%), use of hormone replacement therapy (14.5%, 9.2 to 19.6%), dietary pattern (10.1%, 2.6 to 17.4%) and alcohol consumption (5.6%, 1.9 to 9.3%) for behavioral factors. These proportions were higher for ER+, HER2- and ER+/HER2- postmenopausal breast cancers. Our data support the hypothesis that in postmenopause, never starting unhealthy behaviors can reduce the number of diagnosed breast cancers. PMID:26756677

  8. Disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations for Chronic Conditions Among Korean Americans, Hawaii, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sentell, Tetine L.; Li, Dongmei; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Miyamura, Jill; Braun, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Korean Americans are a growing but understudied population group in the United States. High rates of potentially preventable hospitalizations suggest that primary care is underutilized. We compared preventable hospitalizations for chronic conditions in aggregate and for congestive heart failure (CHF) for Korean Americans and whites in Hawaii. Methods Discharge data from 2010 to 2012 for all hospitalizations of adults in Hawaii for preventable hospitalizations in aggregate and for CHF included 4,345 among Korean Americans and 81,570 among whites. Preventable hospitalization rates for chronic conditions and CHF were calculated for Korean Americans and whites by sex and age group (18–64 y vs ≥65 y). Unadjusted rate ratios for Korean Americans were calculated relative to whites. Multivariate models, controlling for insurance type and comorbidity, provided adjusted rate ratios (aRRs). Results Korean American women and men aged 65 or older were at greater risk of preventable hospitalization overall than white women (aRR, 2.48; P = .003) and white men (aRR, 1.82; P = .049). Korean American men aged 65 or older also were at greater risk of hospitalization for CHF relative to white men (aRR, 1.87; P = .04) and for older Korean American women (aRR, 1.75; P = .07). Younger age groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion Older Korean American patients may have significant disparities in preventable hospitalizations, which suggests poor access to or poor quality of primary health care. Improving primary care for Korean Americans may prevent unnecessary hospitalizations, improve quality of life for Korean Americans with chronic illness, and reduce health care costs. PMID:26378898

  9. Serum coenzyme Q10, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and C-reactive protein levels and body mass index in adolescent and premenopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Weiwen; Novotny, Rachel; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Le Marchand, Loic; Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lipid-soluble antioxidants are associated with a lower incidence for many chronic diseases of aging, possibly by preventing damage from chronic inflammation. In the current study, we compared serum levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and C-reactive protein (CRP) between adolescent girls and premenopausal women to assess changes from childhood to midlife. Methods Baseline serum CoQ10, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and CRP levels were measured in 207 girls (13-19 years) and 183 premenopausal women (34-47 years) using standard methods and the two age groups were compared by t-test. The influence of age, body mass index (BMI) and race/ethnicity and interaction effects on serum values were assessed using analysis of covariance. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between pairs of lipid micronutrients. Results Overall, adolescent girls had significantly lower mean serum CoQ10, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and CRP levels relative to premenopausal women (CoQ10: 376 vs. 544 ng/mL, P<0.0001; α-tocopherol: 6.9 vs. 13.5 μg/mL, P<0.0001; γ-tocopherol: 1.3 vs. 1.7 μg/mL, P<0.0001; CRP: 1.29 vs. 2.13 mg/L, P<0.0001). The differences in CoQ10 and tocopherols remained significant after adjustment for BMI and race/ethnicity. CoQ10 was significantly and positively correlated to α- and γ-tocopherol, and BMI was positively associated with CRP and γ-tocopherol in both groups. Conclusions Lower serum CoQ10, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and CRP levels in adolescent girls compared to women suggests that adolescents may have a reduced need for antioxidants possibly due to their lower BMI and inflammatory status as indicated by CRP. PMID:24809382

  10. Evidence-based nursing: effects of a structured nursing program for the health promotion of Korean women with Hwa-Byung.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Lee, Kwang-Ja

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a culturally tailored nursing program for patients with Hwa-Byung (HB) and to test the effects of the nursing intervention. The structured nursing intervention program was based on a transcultural theoretical framework in which patients with HB received therapies consisting of music therapy, drama, and group therapy. Hwa-Byung is a culture-bound syndrome, literally translated as anger syndrome, attributed to the suppression of anger. Individuals experience a decrease in quality of life as a result of insufficient treatment. Current health care programs do not meet the needs of these individuals, who still need nursing interventions. A culturally tailored therapy is effective and appropriate for patients with illnesses related to their cultural background. Evidence-based nursing is a crucial approach in verifying the effects of nursing care and in enhancing the body of knowledge on nursing science. A nonequivalent, nonsynchronized, and controlled study design was applied to experimental and control groups of an even number of women. The nursing program was generally effective in the mental health condition test; the mental health condition of the experimental group was significantly more improved as compared with that of the control group. The program was particularly effective in the categories of somatization, depression, psychoticism, and hostility. The data indicate that the mental health of patients with HB could be improved with the use of nursing intervention programs. Nurses need to understand the cultural background of patients and provide culture-sensitive interventions for effective patient-oriented care. PMID:17258104

  11. Efficacy of corifollitropin alfa followed by recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol for Korean women undergoing assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Min Young; Jeong, Hyo Young; Rho, Yong Sook; Song, Sang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol using corifollitropin alfa in women undergoing assisted reproduction. Methods Six hundred and eighty-six in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were analyzed. In 113 cycles, folliculogenesis was induced with corifollitropin alfa and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH), and premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges were prevented with a GnRH antagonist. In the control group (573 cycles), premature LH surges were prevented with GnRH agonist injection from the midluteal phase of the preceding cycle, and ovarian stimulation was started with rFSH. The treatment duration, quality of oocytes and embryos, number of embryo transfer (ET) cancelled cycles, risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), and the chemical pregnancy rate were evaluated in the two ovarian stimulation protocols. Results There were no significant differences in age and infertility factors between treatment groups. The treatment duration was shorter in the corifollitropin alfa group than in the control group. Although not statistically significant, the mean numbers of matured (86.8% vs. 85.1%) and fertilized oocytes (84.2% vs. 83.1%), good embryos (62.4% vs. 60.3%), and chemical pregnancy rates (47.2% vs. 46.8%) were slightly higher in the corifollitropin alfa group than in the control group. In contrast, rates of ET cancelled cycles and the OHSS risk were slightly lower in the corifollitropin alfa group (6.2% and 2.7%) than in the control group (8.2% and 3.5%), although these differences were also not statistically significant. Conclusion Although no significant differences were observed, the use of corifollitropin alfa seems to offer some advantages to patients because of its short treatment duration, safety, lower ET cancellation rate and reduced risk of OHSS. PMID:26161335

  12. Korean Basic Course. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume I of the Korean Basic Course provides introductory materials for the student who wishes to achieve a working command of the language currently spoken by an estimated 40 to 43 million people on the Korean Peninsula and in Japan, Manchuria, and the Soviet Union. The linguistic content is based on the speech of educated Koreans in Seoul, the…

  13. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women. PMID:11898709

  14. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  15. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Presenting in a Premenopausal Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Chambers, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is very uncommon in women under 40 years of age. Case: A 39-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and severe intellectual disability presented with irregular bleeding unresponsive to oral contraceptive therapy. She was subsequently found to have a deeply invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:…

  16. Investigation of the Roles of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Galectin-3 Expression in the Pathogenesis of Premenopausal Endometrial Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Esin; Karaarslan, Serap; Gur, Esra Bahar; Genc, Mine; Sahin, Nur; Güclü, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis and etiology of endometrial polyps has not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of endometrial polyp development using immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of galectin-3 and cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) during the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women with endometrial polyps or normal endometrium. Methods Thirty-one patients with endometrial polyps and 50 healthy control patients were included in this study. The levels of expression of COX-2 and galectin-3 were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results: The percentage of COX-2–positive cells and the intensity of COX-2 staining in the endometrium did not vary during the menstrual cycle either in the control group or in patients with endometrial polyps. However, expression of galectin-3 was significantly lower in endometrial polyps and during the proliferative phase of the endometrium compared with the secretory phase. Conclusions: Our data suggests that the pathogenesis of endometrial polyps does not involve expression of COX-2 or galectin-3. PMID:27086598

  17. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  18. Development of a scale to assess Hwa-Byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome, using the Korean MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Miguel E; Han, Kyunghee; Weed, Nathan C

    2006-09-01

    This study documents the development of an MMPI-2 scale designed to assess features of the Korean culture-bound syndrome, Hwa-Byung (HB). An American research team and psychiatric practitioners in Korea created an 18-item HB scale via rational item selection and psycho-metric refinement. Principal components analysis of scale items revealed four components, reflecting content domains of general health, gastrointestinal symptoms, hopelessness, and anger. This four-component solution applied well to both Korean men and women, but not to an American sample. Although some findings were encouraging, future studies employing clinical samples are needed to provide further validation of this scale. PMID:17090624

  19. Acculturation and Identity of Korean American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Jenny H.

    Current models of acculturation and cultural identity are primarily devoted to identifying the course or the levels at which it takes place, but they are severely limited in describing how a sense of self is fashioned out of multiple social and cultural contexts. The acculturative process is impacted, for example, by the reasons for immigration,…

  20. Serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Olama, Shereem Mohamed; Senna, Mohammed K; Elarman, Mohammed Mohamed; Elhawary, Galal

    2013-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have impaired mobility and therefore get less sunlight exposure, we postulated that they may be at increased risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). The aim of this study was to assess and compare serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density (BMD) value in patients with primary FMS (PFMS) and healthy controls. A total of 50 patients with PFMS participated in this case-control study, and 50 healthy females who were age-matched to the patients were used as the control group. Venous blood samples collected from all subjects were used to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposterior, femoral neck and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients with PFMS had significantly lower serum 25-OHD than controls (15.1 ± 6.1 and 18.8 ± 5.4 ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.0018). Apart from the BMD in the lumbar spine, which was significantly lower in the PFMS patients compared with controls (p = 0.0012), no significant difference was found in other measures of BMD. Compared to PFMS patients who had serum level of the 25-OHD >20 ng/ml, the patients with 25-OHD ≤20 ng/ml are more likely to have impaired short memory (46.4 vs. 13.6%, respectively, p = 0.0136), confusion (50 vs. 18.2%, respectively, p = 0.0199), mood disturbance (60.7 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0185), sleep disturbance (53.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, p = 0.0271), restless leg syndrome (57.1 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0346) and palpitation (67.9 vs. 36.4%, respectively, p = 0.0265). Serum level of the 25-OHD is inversely correlated with visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain (p = 0.016), Beck score for depression (p = 0.020) and BMD at lumbar spine (p = 0.012). The lumbar BMD inversely correlated with VAS of pain (p = 0.013) and Beck score for depression (p = 0.016). This study confirmed high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among in patients with PFMS. This study confirmed the concept that FMS is a risk factor for OP. Based on this, an early nutrition program rich in calcium and vitamin D, appropriate exercise protocols, and medical treatment should be considered in these patients in terms of preventing OP development. PMID:22311432

  1. Health maintenance in women.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Dobson, Margaret; Jones, Elizabeth; Kirst, Nell

    2013-01-01

    The health maintenance examination is an opportunity to focus on disease prevention and health promotion. The patient history should include screening for tobacco use, alcohol misuse, intimate partner violence, and depression. Premenopausal women should receive preconception counseling and contraception as needed, and all women planning or capable of pregnancy should take 400 to 800 mcg of folic acid per day. High-risk sexually active women should be counseled on reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. All women should be screened for human immunodeficiency virus. Adults should be screened for obesity and elevated blood pressure. Women 20 years and older should be screened for dyslipidemia if they are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. Those with sustained blood pressure greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Women 55 to 79 years of age should take 75 mg of aspirin per day when the benefits of stroke reduction outweigh the increased risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Women should begin cervical cancer screening by Papanicolaou test at 21 years of age, and if results have been normal, screening may be discontinued at 65 years of age or after total hysterectomy. Breast cancer screening with mammography may be considered in women 40 to 49 years of age based on patients' values, and potential benefits and harms. Mammography is recommended biennially in women 50 to 74 years of age. Women should be screened for colorectal cancer from 50 to 75 years of age. Osteoporosis screening is recommended in women 65 years and older, and in younger women with a similar risk of fracture. Adults should be immunized at recommended intervals according to guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:23317023

  2. Korean Risk Assessment Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Methods Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. Results The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878). The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women. PMID:24204664

  3. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  4. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  5. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  6. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  7. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  8. The Korean Americans. The New Americans Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurh, Won Moo

    The history and culture of Korean immigrants to the United States are described in the following chapters: (1) "Korean Ethnic Roots: The Land, History, People, and Culture"; (2) "Korean Immigration to the United States: A Historical Overview"; (3) "Economic Adjustment"; (4) "Cultural and Social Adaptation"; (5) "Family Life"; (6) "Korean Ethnic…

  9. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on the Serum Levels of Bone Turnover Markers in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YangYang; Xu, GuoBin; Yang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the bone turnover markers of preoperational breast cancer patients. Methods Forty-one breast cancer patients (29 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal) and 60 healthy women (30 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal) aged 30-64 years, were evaluated for their bone status. Serum levels of the bone formation markers PINP and BAP, as well as the resorption markers ICTP and β-Crosslaps in addition to E2, FSH, 25(OH)D and PTH were measured at the initial diagnosis and at 24 hours after each four chemotherapy cycles. BMD T-scores were determined in 12 patients 6 months after the neoadjuvant chemotherapies. Results The baseline levels of both bone formation and resorption markers in premenopausal patients were higher than in premenopausal healthy women (p<0.05), while no statistic difference was observed between postmenopausal patients and postmenopausal healthy women. Regardless of the menopausal status, chemotherapy increased the ICTP and β-Crosslaps levels (p<0.05), but decreased the BAP and PINP levels (p<0.05), the later one significantly more with Taxane medication (p<0.01, p<0.05). Chemotherapy caused significant decreases of 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal (p<0.01) and postmenopausal (p<0.05) patients, however, did not affect the PTH concentrations. In premenopausal patients the E2 level decreased, while the FSH level increased after chemotherapy (p<0.05). Patients with pronounced ICTP and β-Crosslaps combined with reduced BAP and PINP serum concentrations after neoadjuvant chemotherapies were prone to develop osteoporosis 6 month later. Conclusions Neoadjuvant chemotherapy appeared to promote bone resorption and inhibit bone formation in both postmenopausal and premenopausal early-stage breast patients. PMID:25923354

  10. Hormones and sexuality in postmenopausal women: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Laan, E; van Lunsen, R H

    1997-06-01

    Sexual function, including vaginal atrophy, and hormonal status, were studied in 42 naturally postmenopausal women. Vaginal pulse amplitude and subjective sexual responses during self-induced erotic fantasy and during erotic films were compared with responses of a small number of premenopausal women. As predicted, vaginal atrophy was related to estrogens but not to complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. No significant relationship was found between hormones and sexual function. Unexpectedly, most of the few correlations that did reach significance involved prolactin. The fact that prolactin was negatively associated with sexual desire, sexual arousal and vaginal lubrication during sexual activity, suggests that psychosocial factors are more important than hormone levels in postmenopausal sexual function. Comparisons with a number of premenopausal women revealed that although postmenopausal women displayed lower vaginal pulse amplitude responses prior to erotic stimulation than the premenopausal women, this difference disappeared during subsequent erotic stimulation. We argued that this finding can be interpreted as being supportive of the notion that complaints of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia should not be attributed to vaginal atrophy associated with menopause. Rather, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia seem to reflect sexual arousal problems. PMID:9219109

  11. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  12. An Evaluation of a Health Education Intervention for Mid-Aged Women: Five Year Follow-up of Effects upon Knowledge, Impact of Menopause and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Myra; O'Dea, Irene

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an evaluation of the long-term impact of a health education intervention for premenopausal women (N=86). Five years after the intervention questionnaire results showed that greater knowledge of menopause and fewer symptoms attributed to menopause. The evaluation was positive in terms of increasing knowledge and helping women to deal with…

  13. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p < 0.001). Conclusion A high prevalence of pain was found in women from the city of São Paulo. However, neither the presence of musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women. PMID:27095066

  14. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: Talking Story About Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multi-ethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawaii describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared to peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause. PMID:24134306

  15. Assessing the role of culture in Korean goose mothers' lives.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chiyoung; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    Korean women who migrate to a foreign country with their children for the latter's education while their husbands stay in Korea as breadwinners are referred to as "goose mothers." The cultural beliefs that have contributed to the formation of this family form and the experiences of these women need to be explored within their cultural context. To understand this population, Confucianism as a cultural background and its influence on goose mothers' value systems, family systems, and view of self were explored. Based on the learning, their potential health issues are described and implications for culturally competent care are suggested. PMID:22802299

  16. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-02-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  17. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  18. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  19. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  20. Reliability and validity of Leicester Cough Questionnaire Korean version.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Jung, In-Chul; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung-Su; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in England and validated for reliability. We developed a Korean translation of this questionnaire by applying a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study is to validate the Korean version of the LCQ (LCQ-K) in Korean patients with chronic cough. A multicenter prospective study was undertaken with 100 chronic cough patients who consented to participate in the study. The LCQ-K includes eight physical items, seven psychological items, and four social items. Visual analog scale (VAS) of cough, Borg Cough Scale (BCS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as external comparators. Participants included 52 women and 48 men with ages ranging from 18 years to 69 years. The concurrent validity comparing LCQ-K to VAS, BCS, and SF-36 yielded statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients. The LCQ-K showed good reliability in three domains, with Cronbach's α coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.87 (total: 0.91). Test-retest reliability was investigated with single measure intraclass correlation coefficients, which were found to be practically and statistically significant (p = 0.005). Responsiveness was validated by effective size ranging from 1.16 to 1.40 in each domain. LCQ-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and quality of life of Korean patients with chronic cough. PMID:24906688

  1. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  2. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  3. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of premenopausal breast cancers from a nuclear fallout area and matched cases from Western New York.

    PubMed

    Varma, G; Varma, R; Huang, H; Pryshchepava, A; Groth, J; Fleming, D; Nowak, N J; McQuaid, D; Conroy, J; Mahoney, M; Moysich, K; Falkner, K L; Geradts, J

    2005-09-19

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) was performed on breast carcinomas in premenopausal women from Western New York (WNY) and from Gomel, Belarus, an area exposed to fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. Genomic DNA was isolated from 47 frozen tumour specimens from 42 patients and hybridised to arrays spotted with more than 3000 BAC clones. In all, 20 samples were from WNY and 27 were from Belarus. In total, 34 samples were primary tumours and 13 were lymph node metastases, including five matched pairs from Gomel. The average number of total CNAs per sample was 76 (range 35-134). We identified 152 CNAs (92 gains and 60 losses) occurring in more than 10% of the samples. The most common amplifications included gains at 8q13.2 (49%), at 1p21.1 (36%), and at 8q24.21 (36%). The most common deletions were at 1p36.22 (26%), at 17p13.2 (26%), and at 8p23.3 (23%). Belarussian tumours had more amplifications and fewer deletions than WNY breast cancers. HER2/neu negativity and younger age were also associated with a higher number of gains and fewer losses. In the five paired samples, we observed more discordant than concordant DNA changes. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumours: one comprised predominantly of Belarussian carcinomas and the other largely consisting of WNY cases. In total, 50 CNAs occurred significantly more commonly in one cohort vs the other, and these included some candidate signature amplifications in the breast cancers in women exposed to significant radiation. In conclusion, our high-density aCGH study has revealed a large number of genetic aberrations in individual premenopausal breast cancer specimens, some of which had not been reported before. We identified a distinct CNA profile for carcinomas from a nuclear fallout area, suggesting a possible molecular fingerprint of radiation-associated breast cancer. PMID:16222315

  4. A study on multi-cultural family wives adapting to Korean cuisine and dietary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngil; Jeong, Hee Sun

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in multi-cultural families, Korea is seeing a rapid increase in immigrated housewives, who are closely related to food culture. However, studies for the diet of multi-cultural families, which is most closely related to our lives have not been sufficiently researched. With this background, this study conducted research for immigrated women nationwide about food cultures to provide the possibility which Korean food culture would be developed harmoniously with various foreign food cultures. In this study, the immigrated women seemed to have adapted to Korean food culture quickly, but they showed differences according to some conditions like countries they are from and the time they have been in Korea. To achieve this, we need to conduct consistent and in depth studies for food cultures in multi-cultural families so that we can make healthy development in food culture, harmonious with traditional Korean culture. PMID:21103087

  5. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Min; Seo, Hye-Jin; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hur, Min Hee; Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity. Methods Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Results Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity. PMID:24966674

  6. Cultural and gender differences in coping strategies between Caucasian American and Korean American older people.

    PubMed

    Lee, HeeSoon; Mason, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Coping strategies have significant effects on older people's health. This study examined whether gender and ethnic differences influence the coping strategies chosen by older adults when they encounter daily life stressors. Data were collected from 444 community-dwelling people over the age of 65, including 238 Caucasian Americans and 206 Korean Americans. Results showed significant differences between the two groups. Korean Americans had higher scores on problem and emotion-focused coping strategies as well as avoidant coping strategies than Caucasian Americans. Caucasian older women employed more active coping, planning, and positive reframing skills; relied more on religion; and sought emotional support more than Caucasian men. For Korean Americans, older women utilized religion and denial; whereas older men employed instrumental support and substance abuse. The results suggest that practitioners should develop ethnic, gender-specific programs to help older adults cope more effectively with their daily life stressors. PMID:25260229

  7. Koreans in America. In America Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Wayne; Kim, Hyung-chan

    The immigration of Koreans to the United States is traced from 1903, and the contributions Korean Americans have made to the United States are identified in this book which is part of a series for children. The number of Korean immigrants, small for many years, increased dramatically with the easing of government restrictions in the 1960s, until,…

  8. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  9. Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

  10. Korean Experience and Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean education reform and to weigh Korean experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. The paper first of all illustrates a historical perspective on higher education in light of educational reform. Secondly, this study reviews the achievements of Korean higher education…

  11. Select Bibliography of the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

  12. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  13. A Case Study: How Twenty-One Koreans Perceive America. World Education Monograph Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Byungchai Cora

    Twenty-one Koreans were interviewed concerning their perceptions of America. In the spring of 1977, 9 men and 12 women between the ages of 20 and 50 from the greater Hartford and Storrs area in Connecticut participated in this case study. The males interviewed included five graduate students, three undergraduates, and one government scientist.…

  14. Marginal Children of War: An Exploratory Study of American-Korean Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurh, Won Moo

    The nature and extent of the problems involved in the socialization of mixed-race children of American servicemen and Korean women is discussed. Observations and interviews find these factors significant in constituting the social marginality of such children: (a) the stigma of illegitimacy, (b) the mothers' undesirable occupational status…

  15. Adherence to Asian Cultural Values and Cultural Fit in Korean American Undergraduates' Help-Seeking Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Park, Yong Sue; Kim, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Differences in and relationships of Asian cultural values, cultural congruity, perception of the university environment, and help-seeking attitudes for 1st- and 2nd-generation Korean American undergraduates (N = 228) were examined. Women reported significantly higher cultural congruity and more positive help-seeking attitudes than did men. Asian…

  16. Effects of beer, wine and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older adult men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. We examined alcohol intake (total and individual types) and BMD in 1251 men, 1317 post-menopausal and 264 pre-menopausal women in the populat...

  17. Anthropometric measures and lipid CHD risk factors in Korean Immigrants with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sarah; Tan, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to 1) describe anthropometric measures among Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM); and, 2) examine the relationships between measures of obesity with several forms of dyslipidemia in this group. Background Obesity and dyslipidemia are commonly associated with T2DM and they are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death for people with diabetes. Asians are predisposed to abdominal obesity and experience significant CHD risk at lower BMI levels. Despite high prevalence of diabetes among Korean immigrants, relationships among anthropometric measures and lipid-related CHD risk factors have not been examined. Methods A convenience sample of 143 adult Korean immigrants with T2DM between the ages of 30–80 participated in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were obtained using standardized procedures. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were assessed using a finger stick blood test. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to identify which of the anthropometric measures was significantly related to individuals’ cholesterol levels. Results Central obesity measures, not BMI, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia in Korean immigrants with T2DM independent of potential confounds such as hemoglobin A1C, cigarette smoking, age, and cholesterol medication. Different central obesity measures were associated with different cholesterol types for Korean diabetic men and women. In men, WHR was positively associated with LDL and TC levels. In women, WC was negatively associated with HDL. Conclusions Central obesity measures (WC and WHR) are better indicators for assessing lipid-related CHD risk factor among Korean immigrants with T2DM than BMI. Gender difference in the association between central obesity measures and lipid types should

  18. Employed women with depression in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, K A; Kim, S; Lee, H; Kim, H L

    2011-03-01

    Korean women have been reported to be more susceptible to depressive symptoms than men. In this study we explored the important predictors of depression among employed Korean women using modified Hauenstein's Nursing Practice Paradigm for Depressed Rural Women, focusing on the relationship of stressful life events and three resources (physiological, social, and psychological). In particular, we examined the moderating effects of resources on the stress-depression relationship among a community-based sample of employed Korean women. In this cross-sectional study, survey data were collected with 767 employed women in Korea over a 2-month period in 2006. Of these respondents, 286 depressed participants' data were analysed to test moderating effects of the three resources on depression. Our hierarchical multiple regression results revealed that stressful life events directly affected depression. However, after including the product terms of the three resources (i.e. regular exercise, self-efficacy, and closeness) and stressful life events, the main effect of stressful life events disappeared, confirming significant moderating effects of the resources. The findings would contribute to development of a body of culturally sensitive knowledge for clinical practice with depressed employed Korean women. PMID:21299726

  19. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  20. Migraine in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Allais, G; Chiarle, G; Bergandi, F; Benedetto, C

    2015-05-01

    Hormonal changes during the reproductive cycle are thought to account for the variation in migraine occurrence and intensity. Although the majority of women and the specialists treating them do not consider migraine as a component of the climacteric syndrome, many women, in fact, do experience migraine during perimenopause. If a woman already suffers from migraine, the attacks often worsen during menopausal transition. Initial onset of the condition during this period is relatively rare. Women with the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) prior to entering menopause are more likely to experience, during late menopausal transition, an increased prevalence of migraine attacks. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can be initiated during the late premenopausal phase and the first years of postmenopause to relieve climacteric symptoms. The effect of HRT on migraine, either as a secondary effect of the therapy or as a preventive measure against perimenopausal migraine, has been variously investigated. HRT preparations should be administered continuously, without intervals, to prevent sudden estrogen deprivation and the migraine attacks that will ensue. Wide varieties of formulations, both systemic and topical, are available. Treatment with transdermal patches and estradiol-based gels is preferable to oral formulations as they maintain constant blood hormone levels. Natural menopause is associated with a lower incidence of migraine as compared with surgical menopause; data on the role of hysterectomy alone or associated with ovariectomy in changing the occurrence of migraine are till now unclear. PMID:26017518

  1. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  2. Korean Basic Course. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume Two of the Korean Basic Course contains Units 29 through 47. Most units consist of (1) a basic dialog, (2) notes on the basic dialog, (3) additional vocabulary and phrases, (4) grammar notes, (5) drills, (6) a supplementary dialog for comprehension, (7) a narrative for comprehension and reading, and (8) exercises. Two of the last units…

  3. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  4. Postpartum nursing for Korean mothers.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, J U

    1996-01-01

    Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400

  5. Two Causative Constructions in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong-Ik

    1993-01-01

    Two types of causative constructions in Korean behave differently both syntactically and semantically. This paper presents the syntactic differences between syntactic causative constructions and morphological causative constructions in terms of merger process of argument structures, and in the Case assignment in the two constructions in terms of…

  6. Beginning Korean. Yale Linguistic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Samuel E.; Lee, Young-Sook C.

    A "model of structural linguistic analysis as well as a teaching tool," this text is designed to give the student a comprehensive grasp of the essentials of modern Korean in 25 lessons, with 5 review lessons, leading to advanced levels of proficiency. It is intended to be used by adult students working either in classes or by themselves, with the…

  7. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  8. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

  9. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  10. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  11. Korean Basic Course: Area Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

  12. A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

    ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE "UNIFIED SYSTEM" AND…

  13. Breast cancer messaging for younger women: gender, femininity, and risk.

    PubMed

    Haines, Rebecca J; Bottorff, Joan L; Barclay McKeown, Stephanie; Ptolemy, Erin; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Kelli

    2010-06-01

    Evidence linking both active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure to premenopausal breast cancer makes the development of health messages specific to younger women a pressing priority. To determine how to communicate information about this modifiable breast cancer risk to young women, we analyzed a selection of 32 recent English-language breast cancer messages and campaigns that targeted young women. In addition, we obtained young women's responses to three breast cancer campaign images during focus group discussions. A visual analysis of messages points to an explicitly gendered discourse within contemporary campaigns, one that entails conflicting messages regarding breast cancer, health, feminine beauty, and risk. Although the intent might be to educate and empower young women to "fight" against breast cancer, paradoxically, the messages employ imagery that sexually objectifies young women's breasts and bodies. Recommendations are made for messaging about tobacco and breast cancer risk to avoid reproducing one-dimensional or stereotypical presentations of gender and femininity. PMID:20354237

  14. [Jeong Jongmyung, a Korean feminist and midwife of Japanese colonial period].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ggodme

    2012-12-01

    Jeong Jongmyung (1896-?) was born in Seoul and could have 4 years of formal education in a missionary girls' school. She learned Chinese writing, English, Korean, Japanese, History, Geography, and Science there, which was very rare and high education for Korean girls. But she had to quit it for poverty, and married when she was 17. Her marriage was unhappy and her husband died after 3 years. Jeong entered Severance Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1917 to have economic independence. During her training for 3 years, she studied western science and medicine and learned how to cooperate with other working girls. In 1919, Korean launched Samil Independence Movement. Jeong helped other independence activists as a nursing student and her mother had to be in prison for 3 years. After graduation, she entered the Midwifery School of General Hospital of Government General of Korea to have better position than nurse. As soon as she got midwifery license, she opened her own clinic which gave her social respect income, because there were only 25 Korean midwives in Korea. In 1922 Jeong established and became the leader of the Support Group for Working Girl Students. She continuously established and leaded social movement organizations, in 1924, the Korean Association of Nurses and the Women Comrades Society, in 1926 Jeongwoohoe, in 1927 Geunwoohoe and Shinganghoi. From 1923 Jeong got more fame by public speeches. The main contents of them were the women's problem in Korea. As the first Korean woman communist, she analyzed the Korean society and women's problem as a communist and insisted that the women's liberation movement should be gained in class struggle in cooperation with the proletariat. She was very active and aggressive in public lecture, and in everyday lives, Jeong was so warm hearted and eager to help other activists with her energy and income, so others called her their "sister, housemaid, lover, and mother". The Japanese rulers oppressed her by stopping or

  15. A Review of the Korean Cultural Syndrome Hwa-Byung: Suggestions for Theory and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Wachholtz, Amy; Choi, Keum-Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review Hwa-Byung, a cultural syndrome specific to Koreans and Korean immigrants. Hwa-Byung is a unique diagnosis and differs from other DSM disorders. However, Hwa-Byung has frequent comorbidity with other DSM disorders such as anger disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder. There are several risk factors for Hwa-Byung including psychosocial stress caused by marital conflicts and conflicts with their in-laws. Previous interventions of the Hwa-Byung syndrome were based primarily on the medical model. Therefore, based on previous research, we present a new ecological model of Hwa-Byung. We also recommend some areas of future research as well as present some limitations of our ecological model. Finally, we discuss some treatment issues, particularly for Korean women in the United States. PMID:25408922

  16. Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

    PubMed

    Arnold, James J; Hehn, Laura E; Klein, David A

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous infections is typically responsible for recurrences. In premenopausal women, sexual intercourse three or more times per week, spermicide use, new or multiple sex partners, and having a UTI before 15 years of age are established risk factors. In postmenopausal women, risk is primarily increased by sequelae of lower estrogen levels. Episodes of recurrent UTI are typically characterized by dysuria and urinary frequency or hesitancy. Findings from the history or physical examination that suggest complicated infection or another disease process warrant additional evaluation. At least one symptomatic episode should be verified by urine culture to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment. Imaging is rarely warranted. Short courses of antibiotics are as effective as longer courses. Patient-initiated treatment lowers the cost of diagnosis, number of physician visits, and number of symptomatic days compared with physician-initiated treatment. It also reduces antibiotic exposure compared with antibiotic prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis effectively limits UTI recurrence but increases the risk of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects. Cranberry products may reduce recurrent UTIs in premenopausal women, but are less effective than antibiotic prophylaxis, and data are conflicting. Optimal dosing is unknown. Postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis may benefit from topical estrogen therapy. PMID:27035041

  17. Fibromyalgia syndrome: is it related to vitamin D deficiency in premenopausal female patients?

    PubMed

    Okumus, Muyesser; Koybası, Mine; Tuncay, Figen; Ceceli, Esma; Ayhan, Figen; Yorgancioglu, Rezan; Borman, Pinar

    2013-12-01

    There are a number of studies that have evaluated the relationship between fibromyalgia (FM) and vitamin D deficiency with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin D deficiency in patients with FM and to evaluate the relationship with the common symptoms of FM and levels of serum vitamin D. Forty premenopausal female fibromyalgia patients and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of all subjects, including age, sex, and body mass index, were recorded. The number of tender points was recorded, and the intensity of the widespread pain of the subjects was measured by the visual analog scale. The activities of daily living component of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-ADL), was used to assess physical functional capacity. Serum vitamin D was measured in both groups, and vitamin D levels <37.5 nmol/L were accepted as vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D levels and clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patient and control groups were comparatively analyzed. The relationship between vitamin D levels and clinical findings of the FM patients were also determined. The mean age was 41.23 ± 4.8 and 39.48 ± 4.08 years for the patient and control groups, respectively. The pain intensity, number of tender points, and FIQ-ADL scores were higher in FM patients than in control subjects. The mean levels of vitamin D in the patient and control groups were determined to be 31.97 ± 15.50 and 28.97 ± 13.31 nmol/L, respectively (p > .05). The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was similar between the patient and control groups (67.5% vs. 70%). Vitamin D levels significantly correlated with pain intensity (r = -0.653; p = .001) and FIQ-ADL scores in the FM group (r = -0.344; p = .030). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that deficiency of vitamin D is not more common in premenopausal female patients with FM than in control subjects without FM. However, the association

  18. Perception and Attitudes of Korean Obstetricians about Maternal Influenza Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu Bin; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Won Suk; Lee, Jacob; Jung, Eunju; Kang, Seonghui; Choi, Min Joo; Jun, Jiho; Yoon, Jin Gu; Lee, Saem Na; Hyun, Hakjun; Lee, Jin-Soo; Cheong, Hojin; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-07-01

    Pregnant women are prioritized to receive influenza vaccination. However, the maternal influenza vaccination rate has been low in Korea. To identify potential barriers for the vaccination of pregnant women against influenza, a survey using a questionnaire on the perceptions and attitudes about maternal influenza vaccination was applied to Korean obstetricians between May and August of 2014. A total of 473 respondents participated in the survey. Most respondents (94.8%, 442/466) recognized that influenza vaccination was required for pregnant women. In addition, 92.8% (410/442) respondents knew that the incidence of adverse events following influenza vaccination is not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women. However, 26.5% (124/468) obstetricians strongly recommended influenza vaccination to pregnant women. The concern about adverse events following influenza vaccination was considered as a major barrier for the promotion of maternal influenza vaccination by healthcare providers. Providing professional information and education about maternal influenza vaccination will enhance the perception of obstetricians about influenza vaccination to pregnant women and will be helpful to improve maternal influenza vaccination coverage in Korea. PMID:27366003

  19. Factors associated with bone mineral density in healthy African women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cliff; Gati, Brenda; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Bragg, Vivian; Livant, Edward; Piper, Jeanna M.; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Magure, Tsitsi; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of normative bone mineral density (BMD) data in healthy African women. Baseline total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured in premenopausal women. BMD distribution was comparable to that of a reference population and was impacted by several factors including contraception and duration of lactation. Introduction Normative data on bone mineral density (BMD) and the cumulative impact of lactation, contraceptive use, and other factors on BMD in healthy African women have not been well studied. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with BMD in healthy premenopausal women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Methods Baseline total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 518 healthy, premenopausal black women enrolling in VOICE, an HIV-1 chemoprevention trial, at sites in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Contraceptive and lactation histories, physical activity assessment, calcium intake, and serum vitamin D levels were assessed. Independent factors associated with BMD were identified using an analysis of covariance model. Results The study enrolled 331 women from Zimbabwe and 187 women from Uganda. Median age was 29 years (IQR 25, 32) and median body mass index (BMI) was 24.8 kg/m2 (IQR 22.2, 28.6). In univariate analyses, lower TH BMD values were associated with residence in Uganda (p<0.001), lower BMI (p<0.001), and any use of and duration of depot-medroxyprogresterone acetate. Use of oral contraceptives, progestin-only implants, and higher physical activity levels were protective against reduced BMD. Similarly, lower LS BMD values were associated with these same factors but also higher parity and history of breastfeeding. In a multivariable analysis, lower TH and LS BMD values were associated with enrollment in Uganda, lower BMI, and lower physical activity level; contraceptive use was associated with lower spine BMD, and breastfeeding contributed to lower total hip BMD. Conclusions

  20. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health. PMID:26420187

  1. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  2. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  3. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  4. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  5. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  6. Positive Actions for Promoting Women Physicists in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    We review the recent activities of Women in Physics (WIP) Committee of the Korean Physical Society (KPS) in networking and communication from the view point of international collaborations and domestic efforts. We also present the history of affirmative action in Korea and the Act on Fostering and Supporting Women Scientists and Engineers.

  7. Vitamin-Mineral Supplement Use Patterns in Elderly Koreans: Data from the 2007–2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Hwang, Hye Rim; Jeong, Dong Wook; Cho, Young Hye; Choi, Eun Jung; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Tak, Young Jin; Jo, A Ra; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jeon, Jeong Suk; Lee, Bo Wha

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin-mineral supplements are the most popular dietary supplements in Korea. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between vitamin-mineral supplementation and associated factors among the Korean elderly. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of vitamin-mineral supplements among elderly in Korea as well as its association with sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, medical conditions, and nutrient intake. Methods This study was based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare from 2008 to 2009. Data from 3,294 elderly men and women (65 years of age and older) were analyzed. Multivariable-weighted logistic regression model analysis was used to evaluate the association between vitamin-mineral supplement use and sociodemographic factors, health-related habits, and medical conditions. Results Vitamin-mineral supplementation was reported by 16.3% of the participants. The most common reason for using dietary supplements was recommendations from friends and acquaintances. Highly educated person, female participants had a greater likelihood of taking vitamin-mineral supplements. In addition, analysis of nutrient intake from food sources alone revealed a lower proportion of vitamin-mineral supplement users with nutrient intakes below the estimated average requirements for vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron, and phosphorus, compared to nonusers. However, vitamin-mineral supplementation was not associated with health-related behaviors or medical conditions. Conclusion Highly educated person, elderly Korean women had a greater likelihood of using vitamin-mineral supplements. In addition, nutrient intakes from food sources alone were significantly higher among vitamin-mineral supplement users. Finally, vitamin-mineral supplementation may be an indicator of healthier diet in elderly Koreans. PMID:27073612

  8. Body Dissatisfaction and Mental Health Outcomes Among Korean College Students.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Shin, Kyulee

    2016-06-01

    For many years, body dissatisfaction and mental health were thought of as Western phenomena and were studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and mental health outcomes, with personality traits and neuroticism playing possible predictive roles, using a Korean sample. A total of 545 college students, from five private universities in South Korea, completed assessment measures for depression, self-esteem, neuroticism, and body esteem scales. After controlling for covariates including body mass index and exercise time, body dissatisfaction was seen to play a mediating role between neuroticism and mental health outcomes. Differences between the sexes were also found in this relationship. For men, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and depression. For women, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and both depression and self-esteem. PMID:27173851

  9. Osteoporotic Fracture Risk Assessment Using Bone Mineral Density in Korean: A Community-based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Young-Kyun; Choi, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fracture-risk assessment tool (FRAX) using just clinical risk factors of osteoporosis has been developed to estimate individual risk of osteoporotic fractures. We developed prediction model of fracture risk using bone mineral density (BMD) as well as clinical risk factors in Korean, and assessed the validity of the final model. Methods To develop and validate an osteoporotic FRAX, a total of 768 Korean men and women aged 50 to 90 years were followed for 7 years in a community-based cohort study. BMD as well as clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture including age, sex, body mass index, history of fragility fracture, family history of fracture, smoking status, alcohol intake, use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis were assessed biannually. Results During the follow-up period, 86 osteoporotic fractures identified (36 in men and 50 in women). The developed prediction models showed high discriminatory power and had goodness of fit. Conclusions The developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures can be easily used as a screening tool to identify individual with high risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further studies for validation are required to confirm the clinical feasibility in general Korean population. PMID:26981519

  10. [Lee Jungsook, a Korean independence activist and a nurse during the Japanese colonial period].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook Young

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the life of Lee Jungsook, a Korean nurse, as a independence activist during the Japanese colonial period. Lee Jungsook(1896-1950) was born in Bukchung in Hamnam province. She studied at Chungshin girl's high school and worked at Severance hospital. The characteristics and culture of her educational background and work place were very important factors which influenced greatly the life of Lee Jungsook. She learned independent spirit and nationalism from Chungshin girls' high school and worked as nurse at the Severance hospital which were full of intense aspiration for Korea's independence. Many of doctors, professors and medical students were participated in the 3.1 Independence Movement. Lee Jungsook was a founding member of Hyulsungdan who tried to help the independence activists in prison and their families and worked as a main member of Korean Women's Association for Korean Independece and Kyungsung branch of the Korean Red Cross. She was sent to jail by the Japanese government for her independence activism. After being released after serving two years confinement, she worked for the Union for Women's Liberation as a founding member. Lee Joungsook was a great independence activist who had a nursing care spirit as a nurse. PMID:25985776

  11. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  12. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    PubMed Central

    Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Prior, Jerilynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2) and formation (P4). We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2) and onset of ovulation (P4) both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD) related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs). Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD. PMID:21052538

  13. An exploratory comparison of vaginal glycogen and Lactobacillus levels in pre- and post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Modur, Sharada; Burgad, Derick; Gilbert, Douglas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; French, Audrey L.; McCotter, Kerrie; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Greg T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested that glycogen expression in vaginal epithelium decreases at menopause, resulting in reduced levels of lactobacilli. However, free glycogen in genital fluids and its relationship to Lactobacillus levels has not been compared in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods 82 cervico-vaginal lavage samples were collected at different phases of the menstrual cycle from 11 pre-menopausal (4 HIV-uninfected and 7 HIV-infected) and 12 post-menopausal (7 HIV-uninfected and 5 HIV-infected) women over a 1–3 month period. Free glycogen was quantified in genital fluid. Lactobacillus levels were quantified by real time PCR. Estrogen and progesterone levels in blood were determined by ELISA. Results Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Across all samples, those from post-menopausal women had significantly lower levels of free glycogen than those from pre-menopausal women (median 0.002 vs. 0.065 µg/µl, respectively; p = 0.03). Lactobacillus levels correlated positively with free glycogen in both pre- (Spearman r=0.68, p <0.0001) and post-menopausal women (r=0.60, p <0.002). Samples from pre-menopausal women had higher Lactobacillus levels and a lower vaginal pH (median log=8.1; median pH= 4) than those from post-menopausal women (median log=7.1; median pH=4.6) although these differences were not significant. HIV status had no significant effect on these relationships. Conclusion Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women and correlated with Lactobacillus in both groups. These results point to the complexity of the relationship between menopause and vaginal microbiota and indicate that more careful studies of the role played by glycogen are warranted. PMID:25535963

  14. Analysis of falsely elevated risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm in women with ovarian endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Jun; Lee, Ye Ji; Kim, Ranah; Lee, Da Yong; Won, Kyu-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of falsely elevated risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) in a group of women with pathologically confirmed endometrioma and to investigate the associated factors. Methods One hundred premenopausal women surgically diagnosed with ovarian endometrioma were selected. Preoperative clinical, laboratory, and surgical characteristics were compared between the elevated-risk group (ROMA-premenopausal value, ≥7.4%) and normal-risk group (ROMA-premenopausal value, <7.4%). Results Elevated ROMA was observed in 15 women (false positive rate, 15%). Excluding one woman with known chronic renal failure, we compared the characteristics of 99 women between the elevated-risk group (n=14) and the normalrisk group (n=85). None of the clinical and surgical variables distinguished the two groups. Serum level of CA 125 >82.3 U/mL and serum level of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) >46 pmol/L could predict an elevated ROMA test with a statistical significance. When serum level of HE4 ≤46 pmol/L, none of the women showed an elevated ROMA test, regardless of serum level of CA 125; however, 55.6% of the women showed an elevated ROMA test when serum level of HE4 >46 pmol/L and CA 125 ≤82.3 U/mL and all women showed an elevated ROMA test when serum level of HE4 >46 pmol/L and CA 125 >82.3 U/mL. Conclusion The incidence of falsely elevated ROMA was 15% in the group of women with pathologically confirmed endometrioma. Interpretation of the ROMA results should be cautious when serum level of HE4 >46 pmol/L and CA 125 >82.3 U/mL in women with suspicious ovarian endometrioma. PMID:27462596

  15. Smoking cessation, weight gain, and changes in cardiovascular risk factors during menopause: the Healthy Women Study.

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, M M; Meilahn, E; Wing, R R; Kuller, L H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relationship between smoking cessation, subsequent weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors from premenopause to postmenopause was studied. METHODS: Healthy Women Study participants were assessed for changes in coronary heart disease risk factors from a premenopausal baseline assessment to first- and second-year postmenopausal assessments. RESULTS: Although ex-smokers gained substantially more weight than nonsmokers and smokers, they did not experience a greater increase in cardiovascular risk factors. In fact, the results indicated a trend toward ex-smokers' high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increasing slightly more than those of nonsmokers and smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation in perimenopausal to postmenopausal women is associated with greater weight gain but appears to be modestly associated with certain positive changes in cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:9584041

  16. Development of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2003-01-01

    Five analyses using Korean college students (n=283, 700, 844, 306, 315) were conducted to develop the Korean Career Indecision Inventory. Five factors emerged consistently and were confirmed by factor analysis: lack of career information, lack of necessity recognition, lack of self-identity, indecisiveness, and external barriers. Reliability and…

  17. Korean Education and Foreign Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Central Education Research Inst., Seoul.

    Since the problems facing Korean education arise from very complicated factors, it was felt that the objective views of foreign observers would undoubtedly be of great help in efforts to solve them. In this connection, the Central Education Research Institute held a Seminar on Korean Education with the participation of foreign agencies in Korea…

  18. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Korea's cultural changes and trends are reflected in the country's kindergarten curriculum. Provides an overview of traditional Korean early childhood education and the historical evolution of kindergarten curriculum. Discusses the modern national kindergarten curriculum and its relationship to Korean culture and concludes that…

  19. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    This paper examines the relationship between Korean culture and the historical development of its kindergarten (preschool) curriculum. After reviewing the values that were emphasized in traditional Korean society, focusing on ethics, loyalty and filial piety, propriety, and gender roles, the paper provides examples of how these values influences…

  20. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  1. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  2. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  3. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  4. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

  5. Natural Size Development of Myomata - Ultrasound Observational Study of 55 Premenopausal Patients.

    PubMed

    David, M; Adams, L; Stupin, J H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The natural growth progression of uterine leiomyomata will be studied and used to identify potential predictive criteria of myoma size development. This should answer the question of whether myoma growth is dependent on patient age, or on the localisation or original size of the myoma, as well as how much of a size increase can be expected per unit of time, and the proportion of myomata which shrink. Patients and Methods: Patient files of a myoma surgery from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The following inclusion criteria applied: diagnosis of at least one, but not more than three myomata, a minimum of two consultations within three years, the performance of a transvaginal ultrasound to determine size, no pregnancy, and no medical or surgical myoma reduction measures. Only premenopausal patients were included in the analysis. Myoma volume was approximated using a formula similar to that used to calculate the volume of an ellipsoid. Results: 55 out of 102 patients (median age: 38 years), in which a total of 72 myomata were diagnosed, could be included in the evaluation. The median diameter of the myomata at the start of the study was 3.8 cm, with an average growth rate of 30 % over 6 months (range: - 46 to + 459 %). 15 % of the myomata regressed. The linear regression analysis showed a correlation between myoma growth over 6 months, the original size of the myoma (p = 0.023) and patient age (p = 0.038), but no connection was found to the localisation of the myoma. Smaller myomata decreased significantly more in size than larger myomata (p = 0.011). Older patients presented with larger myomata. Conclusions: Myomata demonstrate a strikingly large variation in size development. Their growth is highly individual and not ultimately predictable. Patients should be advised of the possibility of spontaneous myoma regression. PMID:24741122

  6. Low D4Z4 copy number and gender difference in Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Jun; Hong, Ji-Man; Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Seok; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Min; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Young-Chul

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and genetic features of Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD), and assessed the impact of molecular defects on phenotypic expression. We enrolled 104 FSHD patients from 87 unrelated Korean families with D4Z4 repeat array of less than 11 copies on 4q35. Sixty-one men and forty-three women were enrolled. Median D4Z4 copy number was 4 units and 99 (95%) Korean patients with FSHD carried 1-6 units. The median age at symptom onset was 13 [interquartile range: 8-17] years old. In 100 symptomatic patients, muscle weakness began in facial muscles in 58 patients, shoulder-girdle muscles in 37, and pelvic-girdle muscles in 5. Disease severity was significantly correlated with D4Z4 copy number. In addition, women were more severely affected than men even though there were no differences in age at examination or in D4Z4 copy number between the two genders. This gender difference among Korean patients was the opposite of analysis on individuals of European ancestry. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the new diagnostic threshold for FSHD in Koreans based on the D4Z4 repeat array size distribution from 1 to 6 units and expanded the clinical spectrum. PMID:26319123

  7. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  8. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  9. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  10. Prospective Evaluation of Factors Predicting Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms Among Korean Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S.; Fang, Hua; McKee, Sherry A.; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study examined factors predicting nicotine withdrawal symptoms following quitting among Korean American smokers who were receiving counseling and nicotine replacement therapy. Methods The sample comprised 90 Korean American smokers selected from a two-arm randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention (culturally adapted versus treatment as usual). Nicotine withdrawal symptoms were assessed weekly for the first four weeks from the target quit day, using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Only those who participated in two or more weekly assessments of the symptoms were included. Results Among the nine withdrawal symptoms listed in the MNWS, craving and disturbed sleep decreased over time whereas the remaining symptoms had no significant effect of time. Women or individuals who perceived greater risks of quitting smoking reported more withdrawal symptoms after controlling for abstinence status. Although withdrawal symptoms did not change, on average, with time, the rates of change varied randomly across individuals. Women reported more withdrawal symptoms in the first week after quitting and showed a higher rate of decline of the symptoms over time than men. Conclusions Korean American smokers who are women or who perceive greater risks of quitting smoking may require more intensive treatment to effectively deal with post-quit withdrawal symptoms. PMID:26413165

  11. Asian values scale: comparisons of Korean and Korean-American high school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2006-02-01

    This study was intended to examine mean differences on the Asian Values Scale between Korean and Korean-American high school students. For 199 Korean and 217 second generation Korean-American high school students, means on emotional self-control and collectivism were significantly different. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of Korean high school students (M=4.5, SD=0.6) and second-generation Korean-American high school students (M=3.9, SD=0.5) indicated significant differences (p<.001). This present study contrasts directly with Kim, Atkinson, and Yang's past findings of no differences between first- and second-generation Asian college students. PMID:16673975

  12. Length of Hospital Stay After Stroke: A Korean Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the length of hospital stay (LOS) after stroke using the database of the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Methods We matched the data of patients admitted for ischemic stroke onset within 7 days in the Departments of Neurology of 12 hospitals to the data from the database of the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. We recruited 3,839 patients who were hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2011, had a previous modified Rankin Scale of 0, and no acute hospital readmission after discharge. The patients were divided according to the initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score (mild, ≤5; moderate, >5 and ≤13; severe, >13); we compared the number of hospitals that admitted patients and LOS after stroke according to severity, age, and sex. Results The mean LOS was 115.6±219.0 days (median, 19.4 days) and the mean number of hospitals was 3.3±2.1 (median, 2.0). LOS was longer in patients with severe stroke (mild, 65.1±146.7 days; moderate, 223.1±286.0 days; and severe, 313.2±336.8 days). The number of admitting hospitals was greater for severe stroke (mild, 2.9±1.7; moderate, 4.3±2.6; and severe, 4.5±2.4). LOS was longer in women and shorter in patients less than 65 years of age. Conclusion LOS after stroke differed according to the stroke severity, sex, and age. These results will be useful in determining the appropriate LOS after stroke in the Korean medical system. PMID:27606274

  13. Predictive Mortality Index for Community-Dwelling Elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nan H.; Cho, Hyun J.; Kim, Soriul; Seo, Ji H.; Lee, Hyun J.; Yu, Ji H.; Chung, Hye S.; Yoo, Hye J.; Seo, Ji A.; Kim, Sin Gon; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Shin, Chol; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are very few predictive indexes for long-term mortality among community-dwelling elderly Asian individuals, despite its importance, given the rapid and continuous increase in this population. We aimed to develop 10-year predictive mortality indexes for community-dwelling elderly Korean men and women based on routinely collected clinical data. We used data from 2244 elderly individuals (older than 60 years of age) from the southwest Seoul Study, a prospective cohort study, for the development of a prognostic index. An independent longitudinal cohort of 679 elderly participants was selected from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study in Ansan City for validation. During a 10-year follow-up, 393 participants (17.5%) from the development cohort died. Nine risk factors were identified and weighed in the Cox proportional regression model to create a point scoring system: age, male sex, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol, white blood cell count, and hemoglobin. In the development cohort, the 10-year mortality risk was 6.6%, 14.8%, 18.2%, and 38.4% among subjects with 1 to 4, 5 to 7, 8 to 9, and ≥10 points, respectively. In the validation cohort, the 10-year mortality risk was 5.2%, 12.0%, 16.0%, and 16.0% according to these categories. The C-statistic for the point system was 0.73 and 0.67 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. The present study provides valuable information for prognosis among elderly Koreans and may guide individualized approaches for appropriate care in a rapidly aging society. PMID:26844511