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Sample records for korean rural population

  1. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people. PMID:25976699

  3. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  4. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  5. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  6. Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations. PMID:25276479

  7. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  8. Rural Blacks--A Vanishing Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W.; Lee, Everett S.

    The rural Negro population has been of public concern since the slave status was defined and an ideological defense of that status began to take shape. When slavery ended, a definition of the Negro status in custom and in law was undertaken wherever Negro people were concentrated. Controls were devised to "keep the Negro in his place." That place…

  9. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-06-16

    The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27333266

  10. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  11. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  12. DROUGHT AND POPULATION MOBILITY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the possibility that climate change will displace large populations in the developing world, but few multivariate studies have investigated climate-induced migration. We use event history methods and a unique longitudinal dataset from the rural Ethiopian highlands to investigate the effects of drought on population mobility over a ten-year period. The results indicate that men’s labor migration increases with drought and that land-poor households are most vulnerable. However, marriage-related moves by women also decrease with drought. These findings suggest a hybrid narrative of environmentally-induced migration that recognizes multiple dimensions of adaptation to environmental change. PMID:22523447

  13. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  14. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  15. Fertility of the Korean population in Japan influenced by a folk superstition in 1966.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S

    1979-10-01

    The influence of the Japanese superstition that females born in the year of Hinoe-Uma (Elder Fire Horse) possess undesirable characters and should not marry on the fertility of the Korean immigrant population in Japan was examined and compared with the influence of this superstition on the Japanese in Japan and the Korean population in Korea. The year of Hinoe-Uma occurs once in every 60 years according to the ancient Sino-Japanese almanac. For both the Koreans in Japan and the Japanese a remarkable drop in crude birthrates and a sharp increase in stillbirth rates was found for 1966. In contrast, Koreans in Korea showed only a steady decline in the crude birthrate. Clearly, the Japanese folk superstition played an important part in discouraging Koreans in Japan from having a child in 1966. The fact that no such effect was apparent among Koreans living in Korea suggests that this phenomenon is due to either the adoption or the mimicry of cultural practices on the part of the immigrant population. PMID:511872

  16. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  17. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management. PMID:25086619

  18. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p < 0.05), as compared with that of the controls. There were some differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2–4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p < 0.05) on soluble reactive phosphorus content, as compared with the controls (not at 4 wk). A decrease in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was observed (p < 0.05) in litter amended with both Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1–3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact. PMID:26869836

  19. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  20. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  1. [The rural population problem in China and its solution].

    PubMed

    Zhao, S

    1980-03-01

    The author discusses the question of whether the size of China's rural population, representing approximately 85 percent of the total population, is too large. Suggestions for reducing the size of the rural population are considered, including the development of brigade- and commune-level enterprises, the development of industries in newly emerging urban areas, the development of satellite towns, and the encouragement of internal migration. PMID:12178292

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of Korean and Chinese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korean and Chinese cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations are major soybean gene pools. Information has been reported comparing genetic diversity between soybeans from the two countries using an unequal number of accessions and only 6 to 35 genetic markers. This study compares diffe...

  3. Nonmetropolitan Population Increase, the Attractiveness of Rural Living, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Frederick C.; Sofranko, Andrew J.

    1984-01-01

    Examines racial composition of population growth in 75 Midwestern counties experiencing substantial immigration; concludes that the inmigrant stream is predominantly White. Examines reasons given by 500 urban-to-rural migrants to those counties. Suggests exploration of the hypothesis that racial aversion is implicated in migration to rural areas.…

  4. Estimation of carrier frequencies of six autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung-Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Ji, Yongick; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2012-02-01

    Although many studies have been performed to identify mutations in Korean patients with various autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders (AR-MDs), little is known about the carrier frequencies of AR-MDs in the Korean population. Twenty common mutations from six AR-MDs, including Wilson disease (WD), non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL), glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia), phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism (CH), and congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) were selected to screen for based on previous studies. A total of 3057 Koreans were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by confirmation using the Sanger sequencing. We found 201 and 8 carriers with either one or two mutations in different genes, respectively, yielding a total carrier frequency of 1 in 15 (6.7%). Of the six AR-MDs, NSHL has the highest carrier frequency followed by WD, CH, CLAH, GSD Ia, and PKU. As carrier screening tests are becoming prevalent and the number of mutations known and tested is rising, a priori data on the carrier frequencies in different ethnic groups is mandatory to plan a population screening program and to estimate its efficiency. In light of this, the present results can be used as a basis to establish a screening policy for common AR-MRs in the Korean population. PMID:22170460

  5. Community-based research on the benign prostatic hyperplasia prevalence rate in Korean rural area

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Hyeok Jun; Kim, Shin Ah; Nam, Ji Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the prevalence rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among Korean males in a rural area through a cross-sectional, community-based epidemiologic survey and analyzed the correlation with epidemiologic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 779 males who lived in Yangpyeong County participated in a prostate examination campaign. Targeting these men, we collected the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), medical history, demographic information, serum prostate-specific antigen, and prostate volume as measured by transrectal ultrasonography. The data for 599 participants were analyzed, excluding 180 men who had a possibility of prostate cancer. BPH was defined as an IPSS of 8 points or higher and a prostate volume of 25 mL or more. Results The prevalence rate of BPH was 20.0%. The prevalence rate increased with age. There were 2 subjects (4.4%) in the age group of 40-49 years, 18 subjects (10.9%) in the age group of 50-59 years, 44 subjects (22%) in the age group of 60-69 years, and 56 subjects (26.6%) in the age group of over 70 years; this increase with age was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the BPH group, the average IPSS was 14.67±5.95, the average prostate volume was 37.04±11.71 g, and the average prostate-specific antigen value was 1.56±0.88 ng/mL. In the analysis of correlations between the epidemiologic factors and the risk of BPH, smoking was the only statistically significant factor. Conclusions The total prevalence rate of BPH in this study was 20.0%, which was a little lower than the rate reported in other cities or rural areas. PMID:25598939

  6. New accounts of the rural population and our strategy.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    Some new population issues and problems are emerging in the rural areas of China, of which the 6 major problems are: 1) family as both a production and consumption unit has strengthened its material production function, 1 of the 2 basic functions of the family, of which the other is human reproduction function; 2) new demands for labor force production emerging from production at household level and growth of the rural commodity economy have stimulated the rural population reproduction; 3) low level of the rural productive forces does not require high level of labor force; 4) masses of the rural population floating to 1st and 2nd industry has created a "Dead Corner" for family planning; 5) no coordination of the family planning; and 6) there is evidence that the fertility rate will "spring up". In order to control population growth and cope with these new population issues in the rural areas, some strategies and actions should be made or taken, including: 1) all communities should act together to create an atmosphere of family planning by all people; 2) strictly carry out the present family planning policy and arouse rural people's enthusiasm to participate in family planning programs by related policies; 3) set up effective social welfare systems and develop family planning and health at all levels should provide more services to people who need family planning; and 5) set up "Family Planning Regulations" as soon as possible in order to carry out family planning more effectively. PMID:12284672

  7. Rural and Nonmetropolitan Population Trends of Significance to National Population Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.

    The purpose of this paper is to review recent trends in the rural and/or nonmetropolitan population and to indicate some of the linkages and implications for national population policy. The vast rural to urban migration of the last generation was necessary and rational, since most migrants believed they benefitted by moving. Although much of the…

  8. The Relationship between Religion and Mental Disorders in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Ik; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Subin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The question of whether religion has beneficial or detrimental effects on the mental well-being of the adult individual is debatable. Because most Korean citizens are free to select their own religion, there is a higher proportion of non-believers than believers among the Korean population. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between spiritual values and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mental disorders in Korea across all types of belief systems, including Koreans not affiliated with a particular religion. Methods The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was used to interview 6,275 people across South Korea in 2001. While controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between mental disorders (both current and past) and the types of religion and spiritual values. Results Strong spiritual values were positively associated with increased rates of current depressive disorder and decreased rates of current alcohol use disorder. Using "atheist" as the reference category, Catholics had higher lifetime odds of single episodes of depression whilst Protestants had higher lifetime odds of anxiety disorder and lower lifetime odds of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that depressive episodes often lead to a search for spirituality and that religion may be helpful in overcoming depression or becoming less vulnerable to relapsing. The associations between religion, spiritual values, and mental health have not been fully elucidated and warrant further exploration. PMID:22396682

  9. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  10. More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Dong; Merchant, Anwar T; Lee, Sung-Kook; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang Gyu; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117 females) aged 60 years and over. The outcome variable was the number of missing teeth in the mouth determined by dental examination; general medical examination included blood pressure, body height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Laboratory investigations included aspartate transaminase (AST), hemoglobin (HB), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and total cholesterol (CHOL). Demographic factors and smoking status were obtained from questionnaires by an interviewer. Multiple regression models were used as a statistical analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the number of missing teeth (<8, 8-18, and >18). In unadjusted analyses individuals with more missing teeth, had poorer general health status (higher blood pressure, higher levels of AST, FPG, and CHOL, and higher BMI in females). In multiple regression models with the number of missing teeth as an outcome, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and HB in males were statistically significant after adjusting for age and smoking. In females, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and BMI were positively associated with the number of missing teeth. The number of missing teeth was positively related to poorer general health status such as blood pressure, FPG, CHOL, after adjusting for age and smoking in the rural elderly in Korea. PMID:19230988

  11. Volatility and Growth in Populations of Rural Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollebaek, Dag

    2010-01-01

    This article uses unique community-level data aggregated from censuses of associations to analyze growth and volatility in rural populations of grassroots associations. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) shows that the two main paths to growth were (1) centralization in polycephalous (multicentered) municipalities and (2) population growth…

  12. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  13. Construction and Validation of Brain MRI Templates from a Korean Normal Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunna; Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Jae; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to construct a Korean normal elderly brain template (KNE96) using Korean elderly individuals for use in brain MRI studies and to validate it. Methods We used high-resolution 3.0T T1 structural MR images from 96 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=48/48), aged 60 years or older (M=69.5±6.2 years, F=70.1±7.0 years), for constructing the KNE96 template. The KNE96 template was validated by comparing the registration-induced deformations between the KNE96 and ICBM152 templates using different MR images from 48 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=24/24), aged 60 years or older (M=71.5±5.9 years, F=72.8±5.1 years). We used the magnitude of displacement vectors (mag-displacement) and log of Jacobian determinants (log-Jacobian) to quantify the deformation produced during registration process to templates. Results The mag-displacement and log-Jacobian of the registration were much smaller using the KNE96 template than with the ICBM152 template in most brain regions. There was a prominent difference in the significant averaged differences (SADs) of the mag-displacement and log-Jacobian between the KNE96 and ICBM152 at the superior, medial, and middle frontal gyrus, the lingual, inferior, middle, and superior occipital gyrus, and the caudate and thalamus. Conclusion This study suggests that templates constructed from Asian populations, such as the KNE96, may be more desirable than those from Caucasian populations, like the ICBM152, in computational neuroimaging studies that measure and compare anatomical features of the frontal and occipital lobe, thalamus and caudate. PMID:26766956

  14. Health-related quality of life in Korean lymphoma survivors compared with the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Im-Ryung; Kim, So Hee; Lee, Suyeon; Ok, Onam; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Moon Hee

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of lymphoma survivors, to compare it with that of the general population, and to identify its predictors in lymphoma survivors. We enrolled 837 participants (mean age, 54.6 years; mean time since diagnosis, 6.3 years) with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (n = 58) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n = 779) who had been treated at any of three Korean hospitals from 1989 through 2010. For controls, we selected 1,000 subjects randomly from a representative Korean population. We administered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall, the HRQOL in both groups of survivors and the general population were comparable, but we observed clinically meaningful worse social functioning in NHL survivors (p < 0.001) and more severe fatigue in HL survivors (p < 0.001) than in the general population. Analysis of covariance revealed no clinically meaningful difference in HRQOL associated with age or sex. Survivors who received peripheral blood stem cell transplants showed clinically meaningful worse role (p = 0.001) and social (p < 0.001) functioning than those who were treated with first-line chemotherapy alone. In multivariate analyses, fatigue, depression, and financial difficulties emerged as the strongest predictors for almost all subscales of functioning and global quality of life. Interventions for alleviating fatigue, depression, and financial difficulties are needed to enhance the HRQOL of Korean lymphoma survivors. PMID:24947794

  15. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  16. Census Tracts More Precisely Define Rural Populations and Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.; Swanson, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of census tracts in place of counties to identify metro and nonmetro components of a five-level "rural-urban continuum." Application of the system to Arizona, South Carolina, and Minnesota demonstrates the superiority of census tracts in providing a more precise territorial delineation of areas and classification of population in…

  17. Marital Status and Child Outcomes in a Rural School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; And Others

    Previous studies indicate significant behavior and social/emotional differences between divorced and intact family children in favor of the latter group. Sex and age of the children appear to yield different responses to the stress of divorce. This study expands previous studies by: (1) focusing on a rural population; (2) examining the effect of…

  18. Assessment of the dietary intake of propylene glycol in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, EunA; Lee, Gun Young; Yun, Sang Soon; Kang, TaeSeok

    2016-08-01

    An improved method for the analysis of propylene glycol (PG) in foods using a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID), with confirmation by GC-MS, was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The PG concentrations in 1073 products available in Korean markets were determined. PG was detected in 74.1% of the samples, in a concentration range from the limit of detection (n.d., 0.39 μg ml(-1)) to 12,819.9 mg kg(-1). The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011-2013 reported the mean intake levels of PG from all sources by the general population and consumers were 26.3 mg day(-1) (0.52 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 34.3 mg day(-1) (0.67 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The 95th percentile intake levels of the general population and consumers were 123.6 mg day(-1) (2.39 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 146.3 mg day(-1) (2.86 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. In all groups of the general population, breads were the main contributors to the total PG intake. These reports provide a current perspective on the daily intake of PG in the Korean population. PMID:27389111

  19. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease in a Korean population: Revisited.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seo Young; Park, Suyeon; Oh, Eungseok; Park, Jinse; Youn, Jinyoung; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Jeong-Uk; Jang, Wooyoung

    2016-08-15

    Recently, the effect of genetic variants in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Parkinson's disease (PD) has gained interest. However, the precise relationship between VDR polymorphisms and PD remains unclear. In Korea, one study reported an association between VDR gene polymorphisms and PD. However, this study was conducted with a small sample size, and only the Bsml locus was evaluated. Therefore, further investigations about the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and PD are necessary in a Korean population. A total of 300 subjects were included in this study. One hundred and forty-six PD patients were diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank (UKPDBB) criteria with abnormal dopamine transporter imaging, and 154 healthy control subjects were also enrolled. We used a TaqMan genotyping assay to identify four SNPs of the VDR gene, including BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI (rs731236, rs2228570, rs7976091, and rs731236). A significant association was not noted between the risk of PD and genetic polymorphisms in the four loci in a Korean population. However, when the genetic variants of the VDR gene were analyzed after adjusting for the serum 25-OH vitamin D3 level, the TaqI and BsmI minor allele increased the risk of PD. Our data suggest no correlation between PD and the VDR polymorphisms, including BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI, in a Korean population; however, the results should be interpreted carefully because gene-environment interactions may exist. Further investigations of the VDR and its relationship with PD are required to identify the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:27345382

  20. Associations of Pulmonary Function with Dementia and Depression in an Older Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Suelin; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported an association between pulmonary function and cognitive function. However, not much has been investigated in this regard concerning dementia in a community population, taking depression into account. We aimed to examine the associations of pulmonary function with dementia and depression in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A total of 1,038 participants were evaluated for dementia and depression using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3 (GMS B3-K), the Community Screening Interview for Dementia-Korean version (CSID-K) and a modified 10-item Word List Learning from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Pulmonary function was measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from a forced expiratory maneuver. Results Prevalence rates of dementia and depression were 11.0% and 10.4%, respectively. Individuals who were diagnosed with dementia manifested a lower mean FEV1, as compared to those without dementia after adjusting for potential confounders, including disability and depression [OR=1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Following gender-stratified analysis, the association was only statistically significant in women [OR=1.40 (1.04-1.89)]. The association between depression and mean FEV1 was less significant compared to dementia [OR=1.32 (1.10-1.58)]. However, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age and years of education. No association was significant in the gender-stratified analysis. Conclusion Decreased pulmonary function was associated with dementia status only in an older female Korean population. Pulmonary function and depression were not significantly associated in either gender. PMID:26508954

  1. Association between Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Metabolic Traits in Two Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Myungguen; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies consider genes that are located closest to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are highly significant for those studies. However, the significance of the associations between SNPs and candidate genes has not been fully determined. An alternative approach that used SNPs in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was reported previously for Crohn’s disease; it was shown that eQTL-based preselection for follow-up studies was a useful approach for identifying risk loci from the results of moderately sized GWAS. In this study, we propose an approach that uses eQTL SNPs to support the functional relationships between an SNP and a candidate gene in a genome-wide association study. The genome-wide SNP genotypes and 10 biochemical measures (fasting glucose levels, BUN, serum albumin levels, AST, ALT, gamma GTP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol) were obtained from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) consortium. The eQTL SNPs were isolated from the SNP dataset based on the RegulomeDB eQTL-SNP data from the ENCODE projects and two recent eQTL reports. A total of 25,658 eQTL SNPs were tested for their association with the 10 metabolic traits in 2 Korean populations (Ansung and Ansan). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by eQTL and non-eQTL SNPs showed that eQTL SNPs were more likely to be associated with the metabolic traits genetically compared with non-eQTL SNPs. Finally, via a meta-analysis of the two Korean populations, we identified 14 eQTL SNPs that were significantly associated with metabolic traits. These results suggest that our approach can be expanded to other genome-wide association studies. PMID:25493549

  2. DUOX2 Mutations Are Frequently Associated With Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, June-Hee; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. Methods A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. Results The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. Conclusions The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population. PMID:26709262

  3. Association Study between Norepinephrine Transporter Gene Polymorphism and Schizophrenia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Mira; Hwang, Jung-A; Jeon, Sang Won; Oh, So-Young; Yoon, Ho-kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate possible associations between three norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (T182C, A3081T, and G1287A) and schizophrenia. Also, we investigated the relationships of those polymorphisms with clinical severity and characteristics of schizophrenia. Methods Participants were 220 schizophrenia patients in the acute phase and 167 healthy controls. The genotype, allele frequency, and haplotype of each group were analyzed for T182C, A3081T, and G1287A polymorphisms. Of the 220 schizophrenia patients, 163 patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Korean version of the Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (K-CDSS) at baseline. Results We found no significant differences between the schizophrenia patient group and the control group in genotype distribution or allele frequency of the three tested polymorphisms. Likewise, we could not find any significant differences in genotype or allele frequency by analyzing according to gender. In the haplotype study, no significant association emerged between specific haplotype combinations and schizophrenia. We also found no association between clinical scales (PANSS and K-CDSS) and the studied polymorphisms. Conclusion Our results suggest that the investigated polymorphisms of the NET gene are not associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia or its clinical features in a Korean population. However, this study remains significant because it is the first haplotype study to investigate associations between NET gene (SLC6A2) single nucleotide polymorphisms and schizophrenia in a Korean population. Future research with a larger sample size and more genetic markers is needed to replicate our results. PMID:26508968

  4. Novel genetic variations associated with salt sensitivity in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Yang, Soo Jin; Oh, Sang Woo; Park, Yongsoon; Kim, Cho-il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Cheol-Young

    2011-05-01

    Salt sensitivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To date, only a few genetic variations have been identified as being associated with salt sensitivity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of salt sensitivity in the Korean population and to identify genetic variants affecting its development. A total of 101 Korean participants consumed a low-salt diet for 7 days followed by a high-salt diet for 7 additional days. Salt sensitivity was determined by noting any significant elevation in the 24-h mean arterial blood pressure. To determine genetic variants affecting salt sensitivity, 36 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were previously reported to be associated with hypertension were tested for any associations with salt sensitivity. Of the 101 subjects, 28 (27.7%) were determined to have salt sensitivity. Out of the 36 SNPs tested, four were significantly associated with salt sensitivity after adjusting for confounding factors: rs2681472 in ATPase, Ca(++) transporting, plasma membrane 1 (ATP2B1), rs7961152 in branched chain aminotransferase 1 (BCAT1), rs16998073 in fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) and rs2398162 in LOC100132798. For rs3754777 in serine threonine kinase 39 (STK39) and rs1937506, associations with salt sensitivity were observed before adjusting for confounding factors. Haplotype analysis revealed that the A-C haplotype of rs3754777-rs6749447 in STK39 was more frequent in the salt-sensitive group compared with the salt-resistant group, and was associated with salt sensitivity. This study estimates the prevalence of salt sensitivity in the Korean population and demonstrates a novel association between salt sensitivity and the ATP2B1, BCAT1, FGF5, LOC100132798 and STK39 genetic variations. PMID:21228780

  5. Rural population growth and living conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Zhu, C

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the effect of population growth on subsistence conditions is addressed by developing generalized premises, principles, and methods for quantifying standards or conditions for growth. This method is applied to 1989 data for Nanzheng Country, China. Background information is provided on an experiment made public in 1985 and implemented in 1986 by the Family Planning (FP) Department of Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province in Hongmiao District in which the following conditions were placed on bearing a second child: 1) income must be 20% higher than the average village income level, and breeders must have an average income of not 400 yuan/year, crop planters not 300 yuan/year, textile weavers not 200 yuan/year, and industrial and subsidiary production workers not 400 yuan/year (generally 4 pigs or 100 chickens or ducks) or 2) 100 income-producing trees must be planted around he residential area/family plot or stony fields must be transformed into arable land under the contract responsibility system, or groves, orchards, or tea plantations must be planted. These conditions must be met one year prior to proposing to have a second child. The approval rate in 1986-88 was 88.7%, and the second parity rate was 78.4%. Deteriorated conditions had not yet occurred in this country when this proposal was made. The premises considered important in preparing assistance conditions were determined. 1) Conditions for population growth should be resolved within the area. 2) Subsistence conditions should be taken care of by the family. 3) There should be a centralized standard, not a family standard, such that living conditions/capita should not decrease because of population growth. Quantification is made expressing the relationship between subsistence and growth. The application of these conditions for households in Hongmiao District is that the average subsistence conditions need to be higher than other households by 12.3% for new population growth. The assumption is

  6. Sterile Inflammation after Intravitreal Injection of Aflibercept in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Young; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the frequency and clinical features of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population. Methods A single-center, retrospective study was performed in patients who received intravitreal aflibercept from July 2013 through January 2015. Results A total of four cases of post-injection sterile inflammation were identified from 723 aflibercept injections in 233 patients. Patients presented 1 to 13 days after intravitreal aflibercept injection (mean, 5 days). The mean baseline visual acuity was 20 / 60, which decreased to 20 / 112 at diagnosis but ultimately recovered to 20 / 60. Three cases had inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber (mean, 2.25+; range, 0 to 4+), and all cases had vitritis (mean, 3+; range, 2+ to 4+). No patients had pain. Only one patient underwent anterior chamber sampling (culture negative) and injection of antibiotics. Three of four patients were treated with a topical steroid, and all experienced improvement in their symptoms and signs of inflammation. Conclusions The overall incidence of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population was 4 of 723 injections (0.55%), or 4 of 233 patients (1.79%). Sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection typically presents without pain, and the visual outcomes are generally favorable. PMID:26457038

  7. Association of CACNA1C Variants with Bipolar Disorder in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soojin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Geum, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested an association between CACNA1C and susceptibility of bipolar disorder. In this study, we examined the association of CACNA1C variants with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. Methods We selected 2 CACNA1C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely, rs723672 and rs1051375, based on their functions and minor allele frequencies described in previous studies. Genotypes of these 2 SNPs were analyzed by extracting DNA from blood samples collected from 287 patients with bipolar disorder and 340 healthy controls. Results Genotype frequencies of both rs723672 and rs1051375 SNPs were significantly different in patients and controls (p=0.0462 and 1.732E-14, respectively). Dominant, recessive, and allele models showed significant differences between patients and controls with respect to the rs1051375 SNP (p=1.72E-11, 4.17E-10, 4.95E-16, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggested that CACNA1C SNPs rs723672 and rs1051375 were associated with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. In addition, our results highlighted the importance of CACNA1C in determining susceptibility to bipolar disorder. PMID:27482248

  8. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661. PMID:25900647

  9. Clinical features and outcomes of idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Byun, Min Kwang; Kim, Dong Soon; Kim, Young Whan; Chung, Man Pyo; Shim, Jae Jeong; Cha, Seung Ick; Uh, Soo-Taek; Park, Choon Sik; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Park, Moo Suk

    2010-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates within alveoli. There were few reports on Asian populations with idiopathic PAP. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients with idiopathic PAP in Korea. We assessed clinical features, therapeutic efficacy and outcomes of whole lung lavage in patients with idiopathic PAP. The mean age at diagnosis was 52 yr. Eighty six percent of patients were symptomatic at diagnosis. Dyspnea and cough were the most common symptoms. Crackles were the most common physical examination finding. On pulmonary function test, a mild restrictive ventilatory defect was common, with a predicted mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 77% and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) of 84.6%. Diffusing capacity was disproportionately reduced at 67.7%. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia with a decreased PaO2 of 69.0 mmHg and an increased D(A-a)O2 of 34.2 mmHg. After whole lung lavage, PaO2, D(A-a)O2 and DL(CO) were significantly improved, but FVC and total lung capacity (TLC) were not different. This is the first multicenter study to analyze 38 Korean patients with idiopathic PAP. The clinical features and pulmonary parameters of Korean patients with idiopathic PAP are consistent with reports in other published studies. Whole lung lavage appears to be the most effective form of treatment. PMID:20191038

  10. Insulin resistance is associated with intraocular pressure elevation in a non-obese Korean population.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Shin Hae; Park, Kyung-Min; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Based on reports of an association between elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the major role of insulin resistance (IR) in MetS pathogenesis, a positive association between IOP and IR has been hypothesized. Although Asian populations tend to have lower body mass indices (BMIs) than Western populations, they tend to have a higher risk of developing MetS. This study examined the hypothesis that the association between IOP and IR differs by obesity status in an Asian population, by examining a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. Data collected from 4,621 South Korean adults regarding demographic, lifestyle, and laboratory parameters by the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were subjected to linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between IOP and metabolic profiles. After adjusting for confounding factors, the data were subjected to multiple linear regression analysis to examine the association between IR, as measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and IOP. Obesity was defined as BMI≥27.5 kg/m2, and the subjects were divided into obese vs. non-obese groups for investigation of the association between IR and IOP according to obesity status. IOP was found to correlate with fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, insulin, and HOMA-IR values in non-obese men; and with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values in non-obese women, whereas no association between IOP and IR was found in obese men or women. IOP was significantly associated with IR in non-obese men and women after adjusting for age, and in non-obese men after adjusting for age, BMI, and lifestyle and demographic factors. These findings indicate that a positive and independent relationship exists between IOP and IR in non-obese individuals only, suggesting that other factors likely contribute to IOP

  11. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  12. Usual alcohol consumption and suicide mortality among the Korean elderly in rural communities: Kangwha Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myoungjee; Kimm, Heejin; Sull, Jae-Woong; Lee, Eunsook; Lee, Kwang Ok; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from prospective studies on whether greater usual alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of death by suicide in the general population is inconclusive. Methods 6163 participants (2635 men; 3528 women) in a 1985 survey among rural residents in Korea aged 55 years and above were followed until 2008. A Cox model was used to calculate HRs of suicide death after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic and health-related confounders. Results 37 men and 24 women died by suicide. Elderly persons who consumed alcohol daily, 70 g alcohol (5 drinks) or more per drinking day, or 210 g alcohol (15 drinks) or more per week had higher suicide mortality (p<0.05), compared with non-drinkers. An increase of one drinking day per week (HR=1.17, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.31), 70 g (5 drinks) additional alcohol intake per drinking day (HR=1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.70), and 140 g (10 drinks) additional alcohol intake per week was associated with a 17%, 38% and 12% higher risk of suicide death, respectively. Women had a higher relative risk of suicide death associated with alcohol consumption, compared with men. Conclusions A greater frequency and amount of usual alcohol consumption was linearly associated with higher suicide death. Given the same amount of alcohol consumption, women might have a higher relative risk of suicide than men. Our findings support ‘the lower the better’ for alcohol intake, no protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption, and a sex-specific guideline (lower alcohol threshold for women) as actions to prevent suicide death. PMID:26888918

  13. Vulnerability of Korean water resources to climate change and population growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Franczyk, J; Im, E-S; Kwon, W-T; Bae, D-H; Jung, I-W

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater availability is affected by changes in climate and growth. We assessed the freshwater vulnerability for five major Korean river basins for 2015 and 2030. We used a regional climate model based on the IPCC SRES A2 scenario, US Geological Survey's Precipitation Rainfall Simulation Model, and population and industrial growth scenarios for impact assessment. The model simulation results suggest increasing spatial and temporal variations of water stress for the basins that are already developed. While freshwater is more vulnerable to growth scenarios than the climate change scenario, climate change alone could decrease mean annual runoff by 10% in four major river basins by 2030. As the first national assessment of climate change, we suggest possible adaptive water resource management and policy strategies for reducing climate related risks in Korea. PMID:17851205

  14. Analysis of population structure among Korean and Japanese Legionella pneumophila isolates using hsp60 sequences.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Geun; Kim, Byoung Jun; Kim, Hee-Youn; Yun, Yeo-Jun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kook, Yoon-Hoh

    2012-08-01

    The population structure of Korean (150 strains) and Japanese (92 strains) Legionella pneumophila isolates along with 18 reference strains were investigated using hsp60 sequence (1647 bp) analysis. Twelve clonal subgroups (hsP-I to hsP-X and hsF-I and hsF-II) were designated on the hsp60 tree, inferred from representative sequences using the neighbor-joining method. Some of the isolates showed unique subgroups depending on the source of isolates, including hsP-I, hsF-I, and hsF-II from cooling tower water, and subgroups hsP-VIII and hsP-X from circulating hot water bath. These subgroups may be useful for epidemiological studies to chase or specify sources of infection in Korea and Japan. PMID:22672106

  15. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  16. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  17. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  18. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer. PMID:25339056

  19. Urinary benzophenone concentrations and their association with demographic factors in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hui-Seung; Ko, Ahra; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kyung, Min-Sik; Moon, Gui Im; Park, Jae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Seok; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Lee, Jung-Mi; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Kim, Kisok; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP) and its derivatives are widely used in various cosmetics, personal care products, and food packaging ink. The use of BP has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with its endocrine-disrupting effects. This study evaluated urinary concentrations of BP derivatives in a national sample of the South Koreans population aged 6-89 years. From July to September in each 2010 and 2011, 1576 urine samples were collected. Urinary concentrations of benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4), benzophenone-8 (BP-8), and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detection rate for BP-1 and 4-OH-BP were 56% [limit of detection (LOD) 0.59ng/mL] and 88% (LOD 0.04ng/mL), respectively, whereas those for BP-2, BP-3, BP-4, and BP-8 were all below 25%. The geometric means of urinary BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentrations were 1.24ng/mL and 0.45ng/mL, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that concentrations of BP-1 in and of 4-OH-BP in adults were associated with sex and age. The BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentration of children and adolescents was associated with sex, age, income, and current area of residence. The correlation was observed between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives, which is an important indication of exposure biomarkers and the metabolic pathways from BP-3. This is the first national study to evaluate the presence of BP derivatives in urine samples from the South Korean population, stratified by demographic factors. PMID:27155137

  20. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  1. Population growth and social change: a note on rural society.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, A P

    1974-01-01

    Changing social conditons, particularly in rural areas, often create a feeling of normlessness. For such major changes as family limitation to be accepted in rural India, those involved must understand the total social change which will be necessary. In rural areas today the desire for motherhood is a matter of being accepted. A barren woman suffers social ostracism; folk tales tell of even animals refusing to eat a meal prepared by a barren woman. A women with a large family is particularly respected, especially if they are well provided for. The other reasons given for having large numbers of children are family survival, care in old age, increase in family income, to get more share in the property, to follow the community pattern, and to make the home happier. There is a rationale for most of these. High infant and child mortality account for the family survival, The only security the parents have is the children. More children increase the family share in a joint-family land-holding. Raising the age at marriage for girls has often been suggested as a population control measure, but what is the girl to do until 19? Rural parents do not feel their obligations to their daughter have been discharged until she is married and it is the parents who are blamed if no arrangments have been made. The idea of her becoming educated is not socially acceptable and rural boys are reluctant to marry educated girls. India's values pertaining to divorce, widow remarriage, and abortion are already undergoing change. Migration to the cities is bringing about change. Looking to the cities may bring about modernization, but the fact that the young men are the ones moving away is leading a lack of leadership in the villages. To bring about the social conditions favorable to modernization agriculture should be modernized, reducing the need for labor; factories should be built in rural areas to take up this slack in agricultural employment, and perhaps it would become acceptable for

  2. Inter-Arm Difference in Brachial Blood Pressure in the General Population of Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo Mi; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Dong Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the inter-arm difference in blood pressure of the general Korean population to identify associated factors. Subjects and Methods A total of 806 participants aged 30 to 64 years without history of major cardiovascular disease were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. They participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study that began in 2013. Brachial blood pressure was measured simultaneously for both arms using an automated oscillometric device equipped with two cuffs in seated position. After five minutes of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured three times. The average of the three measurements was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with inter-arm differences in blood pressure. Results The mean inter-arm difference was 3.3 mmHg for SBP and 2.0 mmHg for DBP. Large inter-arm differences (≥10 mmHg) in SBP and in DBP were found in 3.7% and 0.9% of subjects, respectively. A large inter-arm difference in SBP was associated with mean SBP (p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (p=0.014) while a large inter-arm different in DBP was only associated with body mass index (p=0.015). Sex, age, and anti-hypertensive medication use were not associated with differences in inter-arm blood pressure. Conclusion Large inter-arm difference in blood pressure is only present in a small portion of healthy Korean adults. Our findings suggest that high SBP, chronic inflammation, and obesity may be associated with larger difference in inter-arm blood pressure. PMID:27275174

  3. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  4. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was

  5. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  6. [Population education with rural youth: a regional experience].

    PubMed

    Barletti Pasquale, J

    1995-06-01

    A project promoted by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization to provide population education for rural youth in countries of Asia, Africa, and Central America has been conducted in three districts near the city of Iquitos by the Centro de Salud Publica of the Universidad Cayetano Heredia. The project involves adapting 10 study guides developed in Africa for use in the Peruvian jungle, training rural youth leaders, and assisting them in forming groups in their communities. Although thus far only a few communities have been involved, there are plans to extend the program and create a network of rural youth organizations. Challenges for the future include further adapting the teaching guides to local conditions and determining what will become of the youth organizations once the 33 activities in the teaching guides have been completed. Guides should be developed on other themes such as agricultural production, reproductive health, early child stimulation, alternative forms of marketing, and functioning of Amazon ecosystems. The guides must be further adapted for other areas of the jungle. It would be desirable to encourage community participation in selection of the youth leaders to be trained in future programs. Guidelines are also needed on the most appropriate ages for training. Individuals in their 20s, 30s, and older have been included. The youth organizations may constitute an important resource for community progress, but they are potentially vulnerable to manipulation by government, political, or other outside groups. Their original focus on population education may also become obscured by the many other functions they take on. PMID:12158266

  7. Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Hwang, Myung Sil; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher’s exact test and fixation index (FST), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (FST < 0.05, for all SNPs in both populations). However, a significant difference in the allele frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (FST > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest FST value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-β-synthase rs234709 (FST: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals. PMID:27437086

  8. The Disadvantage to the Rural Population in Earthquake Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scenario calculations show that the rural population is more vulnerable to earthquake disasters because of their comparatively weak building stock. For calculating damage due to strong ground shaking, the building stock is modeled separately for different countries and in each country separately in three settlement size classes. It is generally understood that cities contain more buildings that are resistant to strong shaking than villages. A corollary of this observation is that villagers are more likely to be killed by their collapsing homes than city dwellers. The quantitative excess of the vulnerability of villagers compared to city dwellers varies as a function of the following parameters: (1) Country, (2) epicentral distance, and (3) earthquake magnitude, in addition to the quality of the built environment. For estimating quantitatively the difference of mortality in villages compared to cities, we used the building stock as modeled in the earthquake loss estimating tool QLARM. For the scenario calculations, the epicenters and depths of recent large or damaging earthquakes were selected and their magnitudes were set to M7.5, in cases where the magnitude of the historic event had been smaller. The countries for which we estimated the excess rural mortality included: Algeria, China, Greece, Guatemala, India, Iran, Mexico and Turkey. In all of these countries and for all distances the mortality rate was found to be larger in the villages. Depending on the parameters (1), (2) and (3), the percentage of fatalities in villages was higher by 20% to 97% than in cities. In the case of Greece, where the QLARM data are the most detailed, a clear function of the per cent of fatalities as a function of settlement size emerged. Because indigenous peoples live typically in small settlements, these findings mean that the indigenous population is exposed to a greater earthquake risk than the average population. Although it is understandable that earthquake risk mitigation has

  9. Fatigue in the general Korean population: application and normative data of the Brief Fatigue Inventory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Ho; Lee, Myung Kyung; Chun, Han Na; Lee, Young Mi; Park, Sang Min; Mendoza, Tito R; Wang, Xin Shelley; Cleeland, Charles S

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide normative data for the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) in the general Korean population so that the results for the general population could be compared with those for patients. We constructed a questionnaire that included the BFI and items on demographic characteristics and conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in 1,000 individuals. We used multivariate logistic analysis to investigate factors associated with "usual" and "worst" fatigue. The internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha=0.96) and construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis. All patients had a mean+/-SD BFI score of 4.33+/-2.48 for "worst" fatigue and of 4.07+/-2.27 for "usual" fatigue, and the global BFI score was 3.44+/-2.05. The prevalence of each moderate-to-severe fatigue type was similar in severity of fatigue, with 55.2% in "usual" fatigue, and 57.3% in "worst" fatigue. Among the types of fatigue, the prevalence of severe fatigue was lowest for "usual" fatigue (16.5%). In multivariate analyses, the group aged 40-59 years had greater levels of "usual" and "worst" fatigue compared with the group aged 20-29 years. Poor general health and the presence of comorbidities were also associated with increased "usual" and "worst" fatigue. Regular physical activity was associated with reduced levels of "worst" fatigue. The normal values of BFI with proper psychometric properties may help us to better understand the correlates of fatigue in the general population and patients. Our findings indicate that comorbidities should be considered when comparing fatigue data from the general population with data from patients. PMID:18411013

  10. Poverty Catchments: Migration, Residential Mobility, and Population Turnover in Impoverished Rural Illinois Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, Matt; Newbold, K. Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Research has thoroughly documented how out-migration of the educated and skilled from rural areas leaves behind a poorer population and creates pockets of rural poverty. Recently, studies have recognized that the poor are also geographically mobile and that poverty migration patterns can reinforce rural poverty concentrations. In this process,…

  11. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  12. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  13. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population. PMID:25863477

  14. Dementing illnesses in rural populations: the need for research and challenges confronting investigators.

    PubMed

    Keefover, R W; Rankin, E D; Keyl, P M; Wells, J C; Martin, J; Shaw, J

    1996-01-01

    Expansion of the world's elderly populations has increased concerns about aging-related medical disorders like Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In the United States, one fourth of those older than age 65 and at greatest risk for developing dementia live in rural environments that may influence its manifestation. The objectives of this study were to determine the need for and potential benefits of further epidemiological research concerning dementia and similar disorders in rural U.S. populations and to identify pertinent methodological issues related to rural dementia research. This study employed a National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) document search based on the key words "cognitive disorders," "dementia," "Alzheimer's disease," and "rural," followed by recovery of literature resources references in the bibliographies of selected articles. Nineteen studies focusing on dementia or related disorders in rural settings have been reported from around the world. While four of these were conducted in the United States, only one rural dementia prevalence study has been undertaken in this country. Because of methodological variability, comparisons of prevalence estimates between these rural studies, as well as with those from urban investigations, is difficult. Nonetheless, there is reason to believe that certain potentially dementing illnesses are more common in rural populations. There is also evidence to suggest that the screening instruments commonly used in such studies tend to misclassify rural elders as "false positive" dementia cases. Information regarding dementing disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease, in rural populations is scarce. Preliminary observations that dementia may be more common in rural settings and that rural families are more likely to maintain their dementing elders in the community imply that further rural dementia research could yield important insights into the risk factors for these illnesses, the variables influencing their

  15. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jun; Park, Jang Wan; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Sun Hyung; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea. Methods We conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years). Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires. Results In the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities. Conclusions The results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea. PMID:24286044

  16. The Church's Concern for Communities with a Rural Nonfarm Population in the Northeast U. S. A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, George A., Ed.; And Others

    A workshop was held in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to determine how the Lutheran Church might best serve the rural nonfarm population of the Northeast. Some of the topics discussed were: (1) the rural nonfarm family, (2) community development, and (3) serving a heterogeneous population. Attention was focused on psychological problems that can…

  17. Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

  18. Genetic Analysis of Genes Related to Tight Junction Function in the Korean Population with Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Borum; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Bae, Jae Woong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Jinwook; Park, Hong-Joon; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population. PMID:24752540

  19. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  20. Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in an Elderly Korean Population: The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Youm, Yoosik; Lee, Won Joon; Choi, Wungrak; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports an association between age-related loss of muscle mass and insulin resistance. However, the association has not been fully investigated in the general population. Thus, we investigated the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and insulin resistance in an elderly Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 158 men (mean age, 71.8) and 241 women (mean age, 70.6) from the Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project, which started in 2011. In this study, ASM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was analyzed in three forms: ASM (kg), ASM/height2 (kg/m2), and ASM/weight (%). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a measure of insulin resistance. The relationships between the ASM values and the HOMA-IR were investigated by multiple linear regression models. Results The HOMA-IR was positively associated with ASM (β=0.43, P<0.0001) and ASM/height2 (β=0.36, P<0.0001) when adjusted for sex and age. However, after additional adjustment for body weight, HOMA-IR was inversely associated with ASM (β=-0.43, P<0.001) and ASM/height2 (β=-0.30, P=0.001). Adjustment for other potential confounders did not change these associations. Conversely, HOMA-IR was consistently and inversely associated with ASM/weight before and after adjustment for other potential confounders. Conclusion Our results support the idea that lower skeletal muscle mass is independently associated with insulin resistance in older adults. When evaluating sarcopenia or muscle-related conditions in older adults, their whole body sizes also need to be considered. PMID:25729711

  1. Sarcopenia is associated with Framingham risk score in the Korean population: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Bae, Eun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease, but the association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular risk factors according to age and obesity status in the general population remains unknown. We thus investigated these associations in the Korean population. Methods We included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (from 2010 and 2011, respectively). The study was restricted to participants ≥ 20 years old who had completed the health examination survey, including whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,366 subjects (3,188 men, 4,178 women) were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized according to three age groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥ 60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with Framingham risk score (FRS). Results The sarcopenic obese group had a higher FRS than the non-sarcopenic obese group, which had a higher FRS than the non-sarcopenic non-obese group. Age-wise, the 20–39 year-old group showed a non-significant association between sarcopenia and FRS. In the 40–59 year-old group, regardless of obesity status, sarcopenic subjects had a higher FRS than non-sarcopenic subjects. In the ≥ 60 year-old group, sarcopenic subjects had a higher FRS than non-sarcopenic subjects for the non-obese group. Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with cardiovascular disease and may be an early predictor of its susceptibility in both elderly and middle-aged subjects. Thus, management of sarcopenia is necessary to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26346573

  2. Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Comorbidity of the Two and Associated Factors among the Early Sixties in a Rural Korean Community

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Park, Jonghan; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment, depression, and comorbidity of the two conditions and related factors in subjects aged in early 60s. This cross-sectional study included 3,174 inhabitants aged 60–64 years old in a rural area of Korea. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), and depression was measured using the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment (MMSE-K≤24) was 17.4%, that of depression was 26.0% (GDS-15≥8), and the co-morbidity was 7.1%. Female gender, living with one housemate, and high GDS-15 score were significantly associated with increased cognitive impairment. Employment status and more years of schooling were associated with a decreased probability of cognitive impairment. Increased depression was significantly associated with bereavement and receiving benefits from the Medical Aid Program. Employed status, more years of schooling, and higher MMSE-K scores were significantly associated with decreased depression. The risk of comorbidity was associated with bereavement and receipt of Medical Aid benefits (odds ratio[OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.26–2.71; OR, 5.02; 95% CI, 2.37–10.63; respectively). Employment and more years of schooling were associated with a lower risk of comorbidity (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.34–0.62, P-trend <0.01). The correlated factors for cognitive impairment, depression, and comorbidity of the two conditions were similar, and employment status and years of schooling were associated with all three conditions. PMID:24236138

  3. A Large Population Genetic Study of 15 Autosomal Short Tandem Repeat Loci for Establishment of Korean DNA Profile Database

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seong Yeon; Cho, Nam Soo; Park, Myung Jin; Seong, Ki Min; Hwang, Jung Ho; Song, Seok Bean; Han, Myun Soo; Lee, Won Tae; Chung, Ki Wha

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping of highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers is widely used for the genetic identification of individuals in forensic DNA analyses and in paternity disputes. The National DNA Profile Databank recently established by the DNA Identification Act in Korea contains the computerized STR DNA profiles of individuals convicted of crimes. For the establishment of a large autosomal STR loci population database, 1805 samples were obtained at random from Korean individuals and 15 autosomal STR markers were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. For the 15 autosomal STR markers, no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The most informative locus in our data set was the D2S1338 with a discrimination power of 0.9699. The combined matching probability was 1.521 × 10-17. This large STR profile dataset including atypical alleles will be important for the establishment of the Korean DNA database and for forensic applications. PMID:21597912

  4. Perception Towards Serving Rural Population Amongst Interns from Dental Colleges of Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Rao, N.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The problem of reluctance of dentists to work in rural areas is an international phenomenon. With an increase in number of dental colleges in India, there also has been an improvement in the dentist to population ratio. But still there exists a wide disparity in dentist to population ratio in rural and urban areas. The aim of this study was to find the perception of dental interns towards serving rural population and the reasons associated with their choices. Materials and Methods: To know the willingness of dental interns to serve rural population and factors associated with their decision, 504 participants from six dental colleges of Haryana were interviewed. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p < 0.05. Results: Out of total participants, 55.95% were willing to serve in rural area. Less competition in settling (46.45 %) was the prime factor for willingness, priority for postgraduation (45.01%) was main factor for reluctance. No significant difference (p=0.365) was seen in the perception of young dentists towards serving rural or urban population. Conclusion: Even though the current statistics don’t reflect a satisfactory dentist to population ratio in rural areas, the attitudes of the dental students towards practicing in rural areas were found to be good. PMID:25386517

  5. Polymorphism of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Affects the Clinical Phenotypes of Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Su Kang; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Je, Goun; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Seung Joon; Yeo, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2293054 [Ile734Ile], rs1047735 [His902His], rs2293044 [Val1353Val], rs2682826 (3'UTR) of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke. Methods We enrolled 120 ischemic stroke patients and 314 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (NIHSS, <6 and ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI, <60 and ≥60). SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, and HelixTree programs were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to analyze genetic data. Results No SNPs of the NOS1 gene were found to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2293054 was associated with the NIHSS scores of ischemic stroke patients in codominant (p=0.019), dominant (p=0.007), overdominant (p=0.033), and log-additive (p=0.0048) models. Also, rs2682826 revealed a significant association in the recessive model (p=0.034). In allele frequency analysis, we also found that the T alleles of rs2293054 were associated with lower NIHSS scores (p=0.007). Respectively, rs2293054 had a significant association in the MBI scores of ischemic stroke in codominant (p=0.038), dominant (p=0.031), overdominant (p=0.045), and log-additive (p=0.04) models. Conclusion These results suggest that NOS1 may be related to the clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korean population. PMID:26949676

  6. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a Korean population: comparison of two commercial anti-HEV assays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as an important cause of epidemic and sporadic acute viral hepatitis worldwide. This study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-HEV in a Korean population and compared the performance of two commercially available anti-HEV assays. Methods A total 147 health-check examinees were randomly sampled as matched to the age- and sex- adjusted standard population based on the Korean National Census of 2007. Serum immunoglobulin G anti-HEV was determined by using the Genelabs assay (Genelabs, Singapore) and the Wantai assay (Wantai, Beijing, China). Results The overall anti-HEV seroprevalence was 23.1% (95% CI, 16.1-30.1%) using the Wantai assay and 14.3% (95% CI, 8.3-20.3%) using the Genelabs assay. Only 12 samples (8.1%) were positive for anti-HEV as measured by both assays; agreement between the two assays was poor (kappa value of 0.315). The anti-HEV seroprevalence increased with age from 2% and 3% in the people younger than 20-years-of-age to 34.6% and 42.3% in those over 59-years-of-age by the Genelabs and Wantai assay, respectively. Conclusions The HEV seroprevalence in Korean population is about 20% overall, with seroprevalence increasing in this population with increasing age. There was poor concordance in the results of the Genelabs and Wantai assays, which warrants further study concerning a reliable diagnostic test for the diagnosis of hepatitis E. PMID:22726615

  7. Comparison of arch forms between Korean and North American white populations.

    PubMed

    Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nojima, Kunihiko; Moon, Hong-Beom; McLaughlin, Richard P; Sinclair, Peter M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphologic differences in the mandibular arches of Korean and North American white subjects. The subjects were grouped according to arch form (tapered, ovoid, and square) to compare the frequency distribution of the 3 arch forms between the ethnic groups in each Angle classification. The sample included 160 white (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III) and 368 Korean (114 Class I, 119 Class II, and 135 Class III) subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of the mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth according to mandibular tooth thickness data, and then 4 linear and 2 proportional measurements were taken. Arch width was statistically significantly smaller in the white group than in the Korean group, but arch depth did not differ. In the Korean group, the most frequent arch form was square, whereas in the white group the tapered arch form predominated. When the subjects were regrouped by arch form, the Korean arches had a tendency to be larger and deeper than the white arches within each of the 3 arch form types. PMID:15592215

  8. Longitudinal study of heart disease in a Jamaican rural population

    PubMed Central

    Miall, W. E.; Del Campo, E.; Fodor, J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Ruiz, L.; Standard, K. L.; Swan, A. V.

    1972-01-01

    A long-term epidemiological study of heart disease in a representative rural community in Jamaica was started in 1962-63 and the first follow-up survey was carried out in 1967-68. This report describes the prevalence of several cardiovascular characteristics at each survey, and their associations with other measurements. The nature of the electrocardiographic abnormalities and their relationship with symptoms of effort pain and prolonged chest pain suggests that much of the disease seen in this population is ultimately ischaemic in origin despite evidence that classical myocardial infarction and severe coronary atheroma are relatively infrequent. Nevertheless both the symptoms and the electrocardiographic abnormalities had features that were not completely typical of occlusive disease of extramural coronary arteries. These findings are discussed in terms of the four conditions—hypertension, conventional coronary heart disease, small artery disease, and cardiomyopathy—that are believed to account for most cases of heart disease in this community, and it is concluded that the overall pattern of disease cannot be explained by any single disorder of overriding importance. The evidence suggests that all may be important contributors. PMID:4538187

  9. Conflicts and Contestations. Rural Populations' Perspectives on the Second Homes Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    In response to demands to restructure and diversify their economies, many rural communities have welcomed the expanding phenomenon of second homes. However, while the second home owners bring new resources to the host communities, the literature also suggests that large second home populations in rural communities provide fertile ground for a…

  10. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  11. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  12. Replication of the results of genome-wide and candidate gene association studies on telomere length in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Do, Sook Kyung; Yoo, Seung Soo; Choi, Yi Young; Choi, Jin Eun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Lee, Won Kee; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: A number of genome-wide and candidate gene association studies have identified polymorphisms associated with telomere length in Caucasian populations. This study was conducted to determine the impacts of 17 polymorphisms identified in Caucasians on telomere length in a Korean population. Methods: Ninety-four healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Relative telomere length of chromosomes from peripheral blood samples was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Two polymorphisms, rs10936599 of MYNN and rs412658 of ZNF676, were found to be associated w ith telomere length (under dominant model, p = 0.04; under recessive model, p = 0.001). Three polymorphisms, rs2853669, rs7705526, and rs2736108, at the TERT locus were also associated with telomere length (under recessive model, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, and p = 0.01, respectively). The genotypes of the five polymorphisms associated with short telomere length were considered bad genotypes; telomere length was significantly decreased with increasing number of bad genotypes (p= 1.7 × 10–5). Conclusions: We have identified polymorphisms associated with telomere length in a Korean population. PMID:26354067

  13. Cryptosporidium plus Campylobacter: an outbreak in a semi-rural population.

    PubMed Central

    Casemore, D. P.; Jessop, E. G.; Douce, D.; Jackson, F. B.

    1986-01-01

    An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a circumscribed semi-rural population is described; some cases were infected concurrently with campylobacter. The results of a detailed case-control study and environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:3950400

  14. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  15. Population Trends in Rural Downstate Illinois. Rural Research Report. Volume 22, Issue 4, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Norman; Harger, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural areas are undergoing a significant transition with both opportunities and challenges that will require effective management and investment strategies by all levels of government. Since 2007, the recession has magnified long-term shifts in employment and economic activity, especially in rural areas. The employment structure continues to…

  16. Mu-Opioid Receptor Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer in a Korean Female Adult Population: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chung-Sik; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bum; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mu-opioid receptor 1 gene (OPRM1) differs with ethnicity. We assessed the distribution of this SNP in Korean women with breast cancer and compared it with that in women of other ethnicities with breast cancer. Distribution of SNP genotypes was as follows: 49.8% for AG genotype, 40.6% for AA genotype, and 9.6% for GG genotype. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between the presence of the G allele at position 118 of OPRM1 and breast cancer in the studied population (odds ratios [OR], 0.635; p=0.002). However, the AG and GG genotypes were not associated with breast cancer in the studied population (OR, 0.719; p=0.130). The proportions of the AG and GG genotypes of the OPRM1 SNP were higher in Korean women with breast cancer than in those of other ethnicities. PMID:27382398

  17. The Australian Rural Health Research Collaboration: building collaborative population health research in rural and remote NSW.

    PubMed

    Perkins, David A; Barclay, Lesley; Browne, Kim M; Blunden, Lou-Anne; Fragar, Lyn J; Kelly, Brian J; Lower, Tony; Lyle, David M; Saberi, Vahid; Stain, Helen J; Sidford, Jan R

    2011-04-01

    The health problems faced by rural and remote communities are complex and not amenable to simple or short-term solutions. The Australian Rural Health Research Collaboration, which comprises rural research centres, area health services and policy makers in NSW, investigates these problems. Founded in 2002, it has grown to become the leading rural research collaboration in Australia. It aims to: conduct high quality research; build the capacity of researchers and clinicians; and encourage the translation of research evidence into practice for the benefit of rural and remote communities. The success of the Collaboration is illustrated by the increase in research outputs, funds generated, the strength of the relationships between partners and the ability to address complex research problems such as the mental health of rural and remote communities often deemed too difficult or expensive to include in metropolitan-based research. Keys to success have been the inclusive public health ethos, the participation of senior researchers and service managers, the critical mass of researchers achieved through collaboration and effective leadership and governance. This demonstrates the value of supporting cooperative research and capacity building in rural and remote areas where the size of research groups is small and where effective multi-disciplinary and co-operative research can pay dividends. PMID:21527077

  18. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  19. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population. PMID:24830226

  20. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  1. Etiology and Features of Eyes with Rubeosis Iridis among Korean Patients: A Population-Based Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yun Cheol; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the etiology and features of the eyes with rubeosis iridis among Korean patients. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective review of 533 Korean patients with rubeosis iridis who visited an eye hospital in Seoul, Korea. We defined rubeosis iridis as visible blood vessels on the iris surface detected during a slit-lamp examination. All cases were reviewed for age at the time of diagnosis, medical history, the most likely cause of rubeosis iridis, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Results The most commonly observed cause of rubeosis iridis was diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 337, 63.2%), followed by retinal vein occlusion (RVO; n = 101, 18.9%), ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS; n = 24, 4.5%), retinal detachment (n = 17, 3.2%), and uveitis (n = 15, 2.8%). The cause was classified as miscellaneous in 18 cases (3.4%); in 21 eyes (3.9%), the cause was not clear. Age at the time of rubeosis iridis diagnosis was lower in patients with DR (56.5 years) than in those with RVO (61.0 years) and OIS (64.8 years; P < 0.01). Intraocular pressure of the eyes with DR (37.3 mmHg) and RVO (39.5 mmHg) was higher than that of the eyes with OIS (25.8 mmHg; P < 0.01). Conclusion In our population-based single center study, DR was the leading cause of rubeosis iridis followed by RVO and OIS among Korean patients. The clinical characteristics of the eyes with rubeosis iridis differed according to etiology. This finding may be useful when assessing eyes with rubeosis iridis. PMID:27490797

  2. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  3. Does Patient Rurality Predict Quality Colon Cancer Care? A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Christopher J.; Al-Refaie, Waddah B.; Abraham, Anasooya; Markin, Abraham; Zhong, Wei; Rothenberger, David A; Kwaan, Mary R; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2014-01-01

    Background Over fifty million people reside in rural America. However, the impact of patient rurality on colon cancer care has been incompletely characterized, despite its known impact on screening. Objective Our study sought to examine the impact of patient rurality on quality and comprehensive colon cancer care. Design Using the 1996–2008 California Cancer Registry, we constructed a retrospective cohort of 123,129 patients with stage 0–IV colon cancer. Rural residence was established based on the patient’s medical service study area designated by the registry. Patients All patients diagnosed between 1996–2008 with tumors located in the colon were eligible for inclusion in this study. Main Outcome Measures Baseline characteristics were compared by rurality status. Multivariate regression models then were used to examine the impact of rurality on stage in the entire cohort, adequate lymphadenectomy in stage I–III disease and receipt of chemotherapy for stage III disease. Proportional hazards regression was used to examine the impact of rurality on cancer specific survival. Results Of all patients diagnosed with colon cancer, 18,735 (15%) resided in rural areas. Our multivariate models demonstrate that rurality was associated with later stage of diagnosis, inadequate lymphadenectomy in stage I–III disease and lower likelihood of receiving chemotherapy for stage III disease. In addition, rurality was associated with worse cancer specific survival. Limitations We could not account for socioeconomic status directly, though we used insurance status as one surrogate. Furthermore, we did not have access to treatment location or distance traveled. We also could not account for provider or hospital case volume, patient comorbidities nor complications. Conclusions A significant portion of patients treated for colon cancer live in rural areas. Yet, rural residence is associated with modest differences in stage, adherence to quality measures and survival. Future

  4. Economic Impact of Dyspepsia in Rural and Urban Malaysia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Methods Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. Results The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. Conclusions The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference. PMID:22323987

  5. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  6. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where effective…

  7. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  8. Serving At-Risk Populations in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris

    1988-01-01

    This article describes prevention and treatment factors that can assist rural students at risk for learning difficulties to develop self-esteem and lead useful lives. Factors include social change, teacher education, community-business-school partnerships, family involvement, community education, interdisciplinary approaches to assessment, school…

  9. Patterns of Communication in a Rural Population. Research Bulletin 1095.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peggy J.; Napier, Ted L.

    Patterns of communication among residents of a predominantly rural county in Ohio were analyzed in 1975 to examine behavioral and attitudinal patterns regarding mass communication systems, and to test the extent to which variations in attitudes toward mass media were a function of variations in socio-economic and demographic characteristics.…

  10. No Association of Functional Polymorphisms in Methlylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and the Risk and Minor Physical Anomalies of Schizophrenia in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Gyeong; Song, Joo Yun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Kyu Young; Lee, Nam Young; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2011-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate metabolism, plays an important role in DNA methylation. It has been suggested that abnormal DNA methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and congenital anomalies. The previous findings regarding the genetic relationship between MTHFR and schizophrenia are controversial. This study investigated the association of the two functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, C677T and A1298C, with the risk for schizophrenia. Furthermore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on the two polymorphisms. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms and minor physical anomaly (MPA), which may represent neurodevelopmental aberrations in 201 schizophrenia patients and 350 normal control subjects. There was no significant association between either of the two polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia (chi-square = 0.001, df = 1, P = 0.971 for C677T; chi-square = 1.319, df = 1, P = 0.251 for A1298C). However, in meta-analysis, the C677T polymorphism showed a significant association in the combined and Asian populations (OR = 1.13, P = 0.005; OR = 1.21, P = 0.011, respectively) but not in the Korean and Caucasian populations alone. Neither polymorphism was associated with MPAs measured by the Waldrop scale (chi-square = 2.513, df = 2, P = 0.285). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that in the Korean population, the MTHFR polymorphisms are unlikely to be associated with the risk for schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to schizophrenia. PMID:22022190

  11. Nutritional evaluation of children in high-risk rural and indigenous populations in Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Panama continues to have a substantial incidence of malnutrition. Among the most affected populations are children in rural areas and in indigenous populations. We evaluated nutritional status of preschool (PS) and school-aged (SA) children in two high-risk areas in Panama to determine the prevalenc...

  12. Rural California Communities: Trends in Latino Population and Community Life. JSRI Statistical Brief No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Elaine; Rochin, Refugio I.

    The relationships among community characteristics and community well-being were examined for all 366 rural California communities with a population of 1,000-2,000. High proportions of Latinos and new immigrants in a community population were positively related to unemployment, percent children, and employment in agriculture, and negatively related…

  13. Genetic variations in VDR associated with prostate cancer risk and progression in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Jin; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kim, Dokyoon; Kim, Hae Jong; Myung, Soon Chul

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin D are implicated as a potential risk factor for prostate cancer, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may be important in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, sequence variants in the VDR gene were investigated in a Korean study cohort to determine whether they are associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated the association between 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene and prostate cancer risk as well as clinical characteristics (prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score) in Korean men (272 prostate cancer patients and 173 benign prostatic hyperplasia patient who underwent a prostate biopsy, which was negative for malignancy) using unconditional logistic regression. The statistical analysis suggested that two VDR sequence variants (rs2408876 and rs2239182) had a significant association with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]. 1.41; p=0.03; OR, 0.73; p=0.05, respectively). Logistic analyses of the VDR polymorphisms with several prostate cancer related factors showed that several SNPs were significant; nine SNPs to PSA level, three to clinical stage, two to pathological stage, and three SNPs to the Gleason score. The results suggest that some VDR gene polymorphisms in Korean men might not only be associated with prostate cancer risk but also significantly related to prostate cancer-related risk factors such as PSA level, tumor stage, and Gleason score. However, current limitation for small cohort with not-healthy control group might have false positive effects; therefore it should be overcome via further large-scale validating studies. PMID:24120391

  14. Perceived sleep quality is associated with depression in a Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ki Jung; Son, Sang Joon; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Kang Soo; Lee, Soo Jin; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jai Sung; Kim, Hyun Chung; Koh, Sang Hyun; Roh, Hyun Woong; Park, Mi Ae; Kim, Jin Ju; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived sleep quality and depression using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cole's model to materialize the concept of perceived sleep quality in the non-cognitively impaired elderly. Older adults aged 60+ were recruited from the baseline study of Suwon Project (SP) between 2009 and 2011 (n=2040). Perceived sleep quality was measured using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K), and depression was accessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K). We excluded the cognitively impaired elderly using the Korean version-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) score less than or equal to 17. In multivariable adjusted logistic regression related to PSQI-K components, poor perceived sleep quality, including poor subjective sleep quality (Odds ratio (OR)=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.61), longer sleep latency (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.13-1.55) and the frequent use of sleeping medication (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.10-1.53) were significantly associated with depression after adjusting for age, sex, education, living status, current smoking and current alcohol drinking, the number of comorbidity and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). PSQI-K global score also had greater odds of reporting depression (OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.07-1.16). These results suggested that poor perceived sleep quality was associated with a greater level of depression in the elderly. PMID:24852666

  15. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  16. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Rural (Reading and Writing Instruction: Rural Population).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This Mexican series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at rural inhabitants of Mexico.…

  17. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Lee, I. K.; Piao, M. Y.; Gu, M. J.; Yun, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. H.; Baik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March. PMID:26950877

  18. Genetic analysis of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms in gouty arthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Sung; Kim, Yunsuek; Park, Geon; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Gout is a common inf lammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid in the joints. Serum uric acid levels are highly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. Independent studies to confirm the genetic associations with gout in various ethnic populations are warranted. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes with gout in Korean patients and healthy individuals. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 109 patients with gout and 102 healthy controls. The diagnosis of gout was based on the preliminary criteria of the America College of Rheumatology. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changes in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes using a direct sequencing technique. rs2231142 in ABCG2 and rs6449213 and rs16890979 in SLC2A9 and nearby regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Patients with gout had significantly higher A/A genotype (29.3% vs. 4.9%, respectively) and A allele (52.8% vs. 26.5%, respectively) frequencies of rs2231142 in ABCG2 than did controls (χ2 = 29.42, p < 0.001; odds ratio, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 5.20). We found novel polymorphisms (c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A) in the SLC2A9 gene. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A SNPs were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant association between rs2231142 in the ABCG2 gene and gout and identified novel SNPs, c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A, in the SLC2A9 gene that may be associated with gout in a Korean population. PMID:26552468

  19. The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Depression Symptoms in a Rural Chinese Sample Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinghu; Bi, Bo; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Zhao; Yang, Hongmei; Song, Hongjie; Sun, Yingxian

    2014-01-01

    Background It is essential to understand how we can prevent and treat the epidemic of depression. Several studies have reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the urban population in China, but there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of depression in rural populations. Objective To understand the prevalence of depression in a rural Chinese population and to analyze the risk factors for depression. Methods This study used a cross-sectional approach. A total of 11,473 subjects were surveyed and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief scales. Living conditions, per capita income, marital status, and information about dietary health and chronic disease status were assessed. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the population was 5.9%. The prevalence in women (8.1%) was higher compared with men (3.5%) and also increased with age. The per capita income level, amount of sleep obtained per day, education level, weekly consumption of meat and beans or bean products, salt intake, and chronic disease status were associated with depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with a score less than 10 points on the PHQ-9 was significantly better compared with individuals with a score greater than 10. Conclusion The prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population is higher than some southern cities in China. Dietary patterns may be an important risk factor linked to this disorder in the Chinese rural population. PMID:24919087

  20. The changing pattern of parasitic infection among Korean populations by paleoparasitological study of Joseon Dynasty mummies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jeong, Mi Sook; Hong, Sung Woo; Seo, Young-Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    In the coprolites of 4 recently discovered Joseon mummies of Korea, we found Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Metagonimus yokogawai , Paragonimus westermani , and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. The current finding was compared with previous paleoparasitological data, and with recent national survey data from Korea. For A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura , similar patterns of infection prevalence were observed between the national survey of 1961 and our current Joseon data. Some of the trematode species (C. sinenesis and P. westermani) showed much higher infection prevalences among the Joseon Koreans than among their 1960s descendants. The present results indicate that the decrease in trematode infection rates might have begun earlier than was the case for nematode infection. PMID:24011353

  1. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  2. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, the thyroid cancer incidence was much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and megalopolis such as Seoul. Gastric cancer was relatively more common in rural areas, in megalopolis near the sea (Ulsan, Busan, and Incheon), and other southern provinces (Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do). A detailed analysis in Gyeongsangnam-do revealed that rural areas have relatively low incidence of thyroid and colorectal cancer, and relatively high incidence of gastric and lung cancer compared to urban areas. Conclusion This study suggests that there are some differences in cancer incidence by population size. Thyroid and colorectal cancer incidence was increasing, and gastric and lung cancer was slightly decreasing in urban areas, whereas gastric and lung cancer incidence still remains high in rural areas. PMID:26194369

  3. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  4. Association of CFTR gene variants with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in a Korean population with a low prevalence of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Su-Young; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Koh, Won-Jung

    2013-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that in Caucasian populations, mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are associated with susceptibility to lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, there is little data available in Asian populations, in which the prevalence of CF is very low. Therefore, we investigated this potential relationship in a Korean population. Sixty patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for NTM lung disease were screened for genetic alterations in the CFTR gene by whole-exon resequencing. For all identified CFTR gene variants, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) genotyping was performed. Genotype and haplotype data were compared between 360 patients with NTM lung disease and 446 healthy controls. Among 13 CFTR genetic variants that were found by whole-exon resequencing, Q1352H showed a significantly higher frequency in NTM patients than in controls, giving an odds ratio (OR) of 4.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-12.78). A haplotype with Q1352H showed the strongest association with the disease, with an OR of 3.73 (95% CI, 1.50-9.25). Furthermore, all Q1352H alleles were associated with the V allele of the V470M variant. Our results suggest that CFTR gene variants may increase susceptibility to NTM lung disease in the Korean population. Q1352H appears to be strongly related to NTM lung disease susceptibility in the Korean population. PMID:23514810

  5. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  6. The rural bite in population pyramids: what are the implications for responsiveness of health systems in middle income countries?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services can only be responsive if they are designed to service the needs of the population at hand. In many low and middle income countries, the rate of urbanisation can leave the profile of the rural population quite different from the urban population. As a consequence, the kinds of services required for an urban population may be quite different from that required for a rural population. This is examined using data from the South East Asia Community Observatory in rural Malaysia and contrasting it with the national Malaysia population profile. Methods Census data were collected from 10,373 household and the sex and age of household members was recorded. Approximate Malaysian national age and sex profiles were downloaded from the US Census Bureau. The population pyramids, and the dependency and support ratios for the whole population and the SEACO sub-district population are compared. Results Based on the population profiles and the dependency ratios, the rural sub-district shows need for health services in the under 14 age group similar to that required nationally. In the older age group, however, the rural sub-district shows twice the need for services as the national data indicate. Conclusion The health services needs of an older population will tend towards chronic conditions, rather than the typically acute conditions of childhood. The relatively greater number of older people in the rural population suggest a very different health services mix need. Community based population monitoring provides critical information to inform health systems. PMID:25081203

  7. Individualized Health Intervention: Behavioral Change and Quality of Life in an Older Rural Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Biao; Chen, Kun; Yu, Yunxian; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    A randomized cluster trial was conducted to assess the impact of individualized health intervention guided by the transtheoretical model (TTM) theory on behavior change and quality of life (QoL) among the older rural population of China. A total of 2441 persons aged 60 years and over participated in the study. After a nine-month intervention,…

  8. Rapid Population Growth and Rural Community Change: A Focus on Land Use Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garkovich, Lorraine

    Land use controls are often a major point of conflict between recent migrants and long-term residents of rapidly growing communities. Such conflict was noted in a case study of a rural community undergoing rapid population growth. The revision of a comprehensive land use plan for the community provided the opportunity to evaluate citizen…

  9. Social Capital Networking and Immigrant Populations in Rural Minnesota a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeger-Hagemeister, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Combining social capital theory and immigration history and theory a qualitative study was conducted using a variation of Critical Incident Technique to identify the motivations of individuals in rural communities who championed community responses to the influx of large immigrant populations. Twenty-eight individuals identified as key champions…

  10. Rural Renaissance in America? The Revival of Population Growth in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; Wheeler, Judith P.

    Presenting narrative and tabular documentation of the revival of population growth in remote, rural areas and the decline of growth in urban areas, this bulletin describes the characteristics of these shifts, considers their possible causes, and suggests some of the problems and potential benefits. Specifically, this report presents the following:…

  11. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2‒10, 0.1333‒1.0000, and 0.1228‒0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  12. Prevalence Rate and Associated Factors of Sarcopenic Obesity in Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byungkwan; Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Joongyub; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates and to explore associated factors of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in 2,221 Koreans over 60 yr-of age from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009). Participants were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight was used to define sarcopenia and waist circumference was used to define obesity. We estimated the prevalence rates of SO according to age-groups, sex and region. In addition, each group was compared by demographic characteristics, metabolic status, nutrition, and physical activity. The prevalence rates of SO were 6.1% (95% confidential interval [CI] = 6.1-6.2) for men and 7.3% (95% CI = 7.3-7.3) for women, respectively. SO was positively associated with no current working and the number of combined medical conditions. High serum insulin level was positively associated with SO, whereas vitamin D was negatively associated with SO in both men and women. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of SO are 6.1% in men and 7.3% in women. SO is associated with insulin resistance, inappropriate nutrition, and low physical activity. PMID:22787369

  13. Joint Identification of Genetic Variants for Physical Activity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoun; Kim, Jaehee; Min, Haesook; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Yeonjung; Lee, Andy H.; Park, Taesung

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research on genome-wide association with physical activity (PA). This study ascertained genetic associations between PA and 344,893 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 8842 Korean samples. PA data were obtained from a validated questionnaire that included information on PA intensity and duration. Metabolic equivalent of tasks were calculated to estimate the total daily PA level for each individual. In addition to single- and multiple-SNP association tests, a pathway enrichment analysis was performed to identify the biological significance of SNP markers. Although no significant SNP was found at genome-wide significance level via single-SNP association tests, 59 genetic variants mapped to 76 genes were identified via a multiple SNP approach using a bootstrap selection stability measure. Pathway analysis for these 59 variants showed that maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) was enriched. Joint identification of SNPs could enable the identification of multiple SNPs with good predictive power for PA and a pathway enriched for PA. PMID:25026172

  14. Occurrence of Dechlorane compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongchul; Son, Min-Hui; Shin, Eun-Su; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-05-01

    Dechlorane compounds, including Dechlorane Plus (DP), mirex, and Dechlorane (Dec) 602, 603 and 604, were measured in 61 serum samples collected from a Korean urban area (Seoul) in 2013. Dechlorane Plus and Dec 602 were dominant in most samples, whereas Dec 604 was not detected in any samples. The median value of DP was 0.75 ng/g lipid, which was comparable with the levels observed in Europe and Canada, but lower than that observed in China. Statistically significant correlations among Dechlorane compounds were observed. The median anti-isomer fractional abundance (fanti) was 0.74, and a negative correlation between fanti and the DP concentration in serum samples was observed. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were also measured for comparison with Dechlorane compounds, and BDE-153 was found the most abundant congener with a median value of 1.43 ng/g lipid. A time trend of Dechlorane compounds was investigated in 7 pooled serum samples to cover the period from 2006 to 2013. A distinct trend of Dechlorane compounds was not observed, while PBDEs steadily decreased with time. PMID:26854703

  15. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  16. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M.; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G.; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Method Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946–51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Results Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.31). Conclusions The absence of rural–urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography. PMID:26844118

  17. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  18. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

  19. HIV-associated adult mortality in a rural Tanzanian population.

    PubMed

    Todd, J; Balira, R; Grosskurth, H; Mayaud, P; Mosha, F; ka-Gina, G; Klokke, A; Gabone, R; Gavyole, A; Mabey, D; Hayes, R

    1997-05-01

    A cohort of 12,501 adults aged 15-54 years was randomly selected from 12 rural communities in Mwanza region, Tanzania, in 1991-92 and followed for 2 years to assess the contribution of HIV/AIDS to mortality in the region. HIV seroprevalence in the sample was 4% at baseline. 73 of the 196 deaths recorded over the period occurred among HIV-positive individuals. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 6.0 among the HIV-seronegative and 93.5 among the HIV-seropositive. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratio was 15.68 overall. 35% of overall mortality was attributed to HIV infection, 53% among those age 20-29 years. Verbal autopsies administered for each death reported showed that HIV-positive deaths were significantly associated with fever, rash, weight loss, anemia, cough, chest pain, abdominal pain, and headache. The specificity of individual symptoms, however, was low. The World Health Organization clinical case definition of AIDS was satisfied for only 13 deaths, of which seven were HIV-positive at baseline. HIV/AIDS was mentioned during the verbal autopsy interview by only seven respondents as being associated with a given death. PMID:9143613

  20. The Impact of Alzheimer's Disease in an Aging Rural Population.

    PubMed

    Minkemeyer, Vivian; Wellman, Courtney; Goebel, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    West Virginia already has a large elderly population, and it is expected to increase along with the elderly population of the nation as a whole. Since the most important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is older age, it is not surprising that the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease is projected to increase significantly over the next thirty-five years. This paper discusses the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in West Virginia, programs available to assist people and caregivers affected by the disease, and the associated economic burden of the disease. PMID:27301161

  1. Genetic Variants in the Wnt Signaling Pathway Are Not Associated with Survival Outcome of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway have been reported to affect the survival outcome of Caucasian patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We therefore attempted to determine whether these same WNT signaling pathway gene variants had similar impacts on the survival outcome of NSCLC patients in a Korean population. A total of 761 patients with stages I–IIIA NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Eight variants of WNT pathway genes were genotyped and their association with overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed. None of the eight variants were significantly associated with overall survival or disease-free survival. There were no differences in survival outcome after stratifying the subjects according to age, gender, smoking status, and histological type. These results suggest that genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway may not affect the survival outcome of NSCLC in a Korean population. PMID:26955250

  2. Genetic Variants in the Wnt Signaling Pathway Are Not Associated with Survival Outcome of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Hong, Mi Jeong; Choi, Jin Eun; Lee, Jang Hyuck; Baek, Sun Ah; Lee, Won Kee; Lee, So Yeon; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Cho, Sukki; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-03-01

    Recently, genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway have been reported to affect the survival outcome of Caucasian patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We therefore attempted to determine whether these same WNT signaling pathway gene variants had similar impacts on the survival outcome of NSCLC patients in a Korean population. A total of 761 patients with stages I-IIIA NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Eight variants of WNT pathway genes were genotyped and their association with overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed. None of the eight variants were significantly associated with overall survival or disease-free survival. There were no differences in survival outcome after stratifying the subjects according to age, gender, smoking status, and histological type. These results suggest that genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway may not affect the survival outcome of NSCLC in a Korean population. PMID:26955250

  3. Comparison between Wild and Hatchery Populations of Korean Pen Shell (Atrina pectinata) Using Microsatellite DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    An, Hye Suck; Kim, Byeong Hak; Lee, Jang Wook; Dong, Chun Mae; Kim, Shin Kwon; Kim, Yi Cheong

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell (Atrina pectinata) is a popular food source with a high commercial value in a number of Asian Pacific areas. The natural A. pectinata population has been declining continuously over the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of pen shell populations. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic pen shell DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery pen shell populations in Korea. A total of 438 alleles were detected at the 20 MS loci in the two populations. All loci were easily amplified and demonstrated allelic variability, with the number of alleles ranging from 5 to 35 in the wild population and from 5 to 22 in the farmed population. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.69 and 0.82, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.69 and 0.83, respectively, in the wild samples. Statistical analysis of fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed minor, but significant, genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (FST = 0.0106, CI95% = 0.003–0.017). These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies for developing conservation and management plans. Further studies with additional pen shell samples are needed to conclusively determine the genetic diversity between the wild and hatchery populations. PMID:22016642

  4. Excessive daytime somnolence and cardiovascular health: A population-based study in rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Mera, Robertino M.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R.

    2014-01-01

    In a population-based study conducted in rural Ecuador, 635 stroke-free persons aged ≥40 years were interviewed with the Epworth sleepiness scale and screened to assess their cardiovascular health (CVH) status. Excessive daytime somnolence was present in 22% persons and a poor CVH status in 69%. In a generalized linear model after adjusting for age and sex, excessive daytime somnolence was not associated with a poor CVH status or with any of the individual metrics in the poor range. Excessive daytime somnolence may not be linked to cardiovascular risk factors at the rural level. PMID:26483927

  5. Excessive daytime somnolence and cardiovascular health: A population-based study in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R

    2014-12-01

    In a population-based study conducted in rural Ecuador, 635 stroke-free persons aged ≥40 years were interviewed with the Epworth sleepiness scale and screened to assess their cardiovascular health (CVH) status. Excessive daytime somnolence was present in 22% persons and a poor CVH status in 69%. In a generalized linear model after adjusting for age and sex, excessive daytime somnolence was not associated with a poor CVH status or with any of the individual metrics in the poor range. Excessive daytime somnolence may not be linked to cardiovascular risk factors at the rural level. PMID:26483927

  6. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  7. Heritabilities of somatotype components in a population from rural Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Saranga, Sílvio Pedro José; Prista, António; Nhantumbo, Leonardo; Beunen, Gaston; Rocha, Jorge; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Maia, José A

    2008-01-01

    There have been few genetic studies of normal variation in body size and composition conducted in Africa. In particular, the genetic determinants of somatotype remain to be established for an African population. (1) To estimate the heritabilities of aspects of somatotype and (2) to compare the quantitative genetic effects in an African population to those that have been assessed in European and American populations. The sample composed of 329 subjects (173 males and 156 females) aged 7-17 years, belonging to 132 families. The sibships in the sample ranged in size from two to seven individuals. All sampled individuals were residents of the Calanga region, an area located to the north of Maputo in Mozambique. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter technique. Herit abilities were estimated using SAGE software. Moderate heritabilities were determined for each trait. Between 30 and 40% of the variation in each somatotype measure was attributable to genetic factors. The heritability of ectomorphy was 31%. Mesomorphy was similarly moderately heritable, with approximately 30% of the variationattributable to genetic factors. The heritability of endomorph was higher in the Calanga population (h(2) = 0.40). Quantitative genetic analyses of somatotype variation among siblings indicate that genetic factors significantly influence endomorphy, mesomorhpy, and ectomorphy. However, environmental factors also have significant effects on the variation in physique present in the population of Calanga. Lack of proper nutrition, housing, medical assistance, and primary health care, together with very demanding and sex-specific daily chores may contribute to the environmental effects on these traits. PMID:18623135

  8. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL KAZAKH POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    KULKAYEVA, GULNARA; HARUN-OR-RASHID, MD.; YOSHIDA, YOSHITOKU; TULEBAYEV, KAZBEK; SAKAMOTO, JUNICHI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have remained a leading cause of mortality in Kazakhstan. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors (RFs) among the Kazakh population, and their ability to identify those CVD RFs. We interviewed 611 subjects aged 25–65 years using a structured self-administered questionnaire from April to July, 2008. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to determine associations between CVD RFs and its correlations, such as socioeconomic status and level of knowledge of CVD RFs through a logistic regression model. Mean age of the respondents was 43.2 years, and 49.8% were male. Tobacco smoking, overweight (body mass index ≥ 25.0), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg), and alcohol drinking were identified as important CVD RFs. Risk of overweight was greatest among the population aged 45–54 years, with an OR of 5.3 (95% CI=3.1–9.2). The overweight population was significantly associated with higher income (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1–2.4) and knowledge of RF (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2–2.4), with p<0.05. Only 25.0% of respondents had good knowledge about CVD RFs. Alcohol drinking was inversely related to the level of knowledge about CVD RFs (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5–0.9). We concluded that CVD RFs were very high among the Kazakh population, although their level of knowledge to identify those RFs was very low. Increasing knowledge about CVD RFs through awareness campaign activities can reduce CVD-related morbidity and mortality and ensure a better quality of life for the Kazakh population. PMID:22515111

  9. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) between and within cultured stocks and wild populations inferred from microsatellite DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Nam, Myung Mo; Myeong, Jeong In; An, Chul Min

    2014-11-01

    The Korean starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, is economically valuable coastal resident fish species. However, the annual catch of this fish has fluctuated and suffered major declines in Korea. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure for four wild populations and three hatchery stocks of Korean starry flounder to protect its genetic integrity using nine microsatellites. A group of 339 genotypes belonging to seven populations were screened. High degrees of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci were observed within both the wild and hatchery populations. Compared to the wild populations, genetic changes, including reduced genetic diversity and highly significant differentiation, have occurred in cultured stocks. Significant population differentiation was also observed in wild starry flounder populations. Similar degrees of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and the hatchery populations. The genetic connectivity pattern identified four distinct metapopulations of starry flounder in Korea by clustering in the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian analyses, molecular variance analysis, PCA and multidimensional scaling analysis. A pattern of isolation-by-distance was not significant. This genetic differentiation may be the result of the co-effects of various factors, such as historic dispersal, local environment or anthropogenic activities. These results provide useful information for the genetic monitoring of P. stellatus hatchery stocks, for the genetic improvement of this species by selective breeding and for designing suitable management guidelines for the conservation of this species. PMID:25064574

  10. Wild and hatchery populations of Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) compared using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Byun, Soon Gyu; Kim, Yi Cheong; Lee, Jang Wook; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2011-01-01

    Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) is an important sport and food fish found around the margins of the North Pacific. Aquaculture production of this species in Korea has increased because of its commercial value. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of starry flounder populations. In this study, 12 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic starry flounder DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery starry flounder populations in Korea. All loci were readily amplified and demonstrated high allelic diversity, with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 18 in the wild population and from 2 to 12 in the farmed population. A total of 136 alleles were detected at the 12 microsatellite loci in the two populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.62 and 0.68, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.67 and 0.75, respectively, in the wild samples. These results indicate lower genetic variability in the hatchery population as compared to the wild population. Significant shifts in allelic frequencies were detected at eight loci, which resulted in a small but significant genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.043, P < 0.05). Further studies with additional starry flounder sample collections are needed for comprehensive determinations of the genetic varieties between the wild and hatchery populations. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future population genetic studies, monitoring the genetic variation for successful aquaculture management and the preservation of aquatic biodiversity. PMID:22272127

  11. Responding to population pressure in the rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ogutu, Z A

    1993-08-01

    Population pressure in Kenya evolved out of colonial policies and was present in early periods because of soil erosion and degradation, declining crop yields, changes in farming systems, use of marginal lands, shortages of fuelwood and food, and landlessness. Between 1900 and 1910, colonists made room for European settlers by seizing control of "empty lands." These schemes failed to account for pastoral or shifting land use patterns, failed to balance African land use with resources, and failed to recognize individual title to land based on continuous use. The result was loss of pastoral lands and confinement to other unused lands, a change in the spatial economy of Africans, and disruption of equitable access to natural resources. Population concentration in areas with high potential resulted in small plots and the necessity to migrate to marginal lands. The African Land Commission was formed during the 1920s and 1930s. Rehabilitation programs and protected areas were established during the early 1940s. Agricultural development focused on high potential areas and ecological potential rather than on sociocultural factors or population pressure on drier lands. The presence of privileged classes exacerbated inequalities in land distribution. Only 17-18% of Kenyan lands were high potential areas, and, by 1963, it was recognized that there was an imbalance between resources and population numbers. Reliance on land for survival further contributed to land congestion. The land entitlement strategies of the 1940s and 1950s contributed to buy-outs and increasing landlessness. Technological innovation contributed to greater use of marginal or semiarid lands. Policies and strategies were introduced in the colonial period to reduce environmental degradation. These included intensive farming, zero grazing, intercropping, agroforestry, development of roadside reserves, and industrialization. Recommendations were made to address poverty and to invest in longterm agricultural

  12. Urban-rural differences in a population-based breast cancer screening program in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stamenić, Valerija; Strnad, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate urban-rural differences in the distribution of risk factors for breast cancer. Methods We analyzed the data from the first round of the “Mamma” population based-screening program conducted in Croatia between 2007 and 2009 and self-reported questionnaire results for 924 patients with histologically verified breast cancer. Reproductive and anthropometric characteristics, family history of breast cancer, history of breast disease, and prior breast screening history were compared between participants from the city of Zagreb (n = 270) and participants from 13 counties with more than 50% of rural inhabitants (n = 654). Results The screen-detected breast cancer rate was 4.5 per 1000 mammographies in rural counties and 4.6 in the city of Zagreb, while the participation rate was 61% in rural counties and 59% in Zagreb. Women from Zagreb had significantly more characteristics associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (P < 0.001 in all cases): no pregnancies (15% vs 7%), late age of first pregnancy (≥30 years) (10% vs 4%), and the most recent mammogram conducted 2-3 years ago (32% vs 14%). Women from rural counties were more often obese (41% vs 28%) and had early age of first live birth (<20 years) (20% vs 7%, P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Identification of rural-urban differences in mammography use and their causes at the population level can be useful in designing and implementing interventions targeted at the reduction of inequalities and modifiable risk factors. PMID:21328724

  13. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  14. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population. PMID:21516266

  15. Dried Blood Spot Testing for Seven Steroids Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry With Reference Interval Determination in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Borahm; Lee, Mi-Na; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Jong Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) using immunoassays generates a large number of false-positive results. A more specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been introduced to minimize unnecessary follow-ups. However, because of limited data on its use in the Korean population, LC-MS/MS has not yet been incorporated into newborn screening programs in this region. The present study aims to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven steroids in dried blood spots (DBS) for CAH screening, and to define age-specific reference intervals in the Korean population. Methods We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine the reference intervals of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone simultaneously in 453 DBS samples. The samples were from Korean subjects stratified by age group (78 full-term neonates, 76 premature neonates, 89 children, and 100 adults). Results The accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and extraction recovery were satisfactory for all the steroids at three concentrations; values of intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variance, bias, and recovery were 0.7-7.7%, -1.5-9.8%, and 49.3-97.5%, respectively. The linearity range was 1-100 ng/mL for cortisol and 0.5-50 ng/mL for other steroids (R2>0.99). The reference intervals were in agreement with the previous reports. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS method and the reference intervals validated in the Korean population can be successfully applied to analyze seven steroids in DBS for the diagnosis of CAH. PMID:26354345

  16. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    PubMed

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    While the population of Ghana is expected to double in 25 years at the current rate of increase (approximately 2.5% per annum), the population of urban centers is increasing even faster. The 1970 census shows the urban population growing by 4.8% per annum. This is mainly the result of rural to urban migration and, to a smaller extent, the increase in the number of urban centers from 39 in 1948 to 98 in 1960 to 135 in 1970. In the 1970 census only 57.1% of the population were enumerated in their locality of birth and only 20.9% in a locality other than their place of birth but in the same region. 4.1% were born outside Ghana, mostly in another West African country. 1 striking difference between urban and rural areas is the differing sex ratio of the working population. In rural areas there are 91.0 males aged 15-64 years for every 100 females while in urban areas there are 107.1. Most migration in Africa is for employment and those most likely to migrate are working-age males. Because secondary schools are scarce in rural areas, urban dwellers generally have a higher education level. There are no significant differences between overall labor force participation rates for females. The nationwide participation rate was 38.9% for both males and females (males 43.8%, females 34.1%); in urban areas the total was 40.0% (males 46.3%, females 33.7%) and in rural areas 38.5% (males 42.7%, females 34.3%). Ghanaian women have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the labor force. The theory that urban migration is due to urban-rural income disparities is not confirmed by figures. Considering the high amount of unemployment in urban areas, a rural dweller can average as much as a city dweller. In fact, poorly educated migrants are the ones most affected by urban unemployment. A recent study by Kodwo Ewusi considered the impact of many variables on migration; he found depressed social conditions at the place of origin are more compelling motivations than economic factors

  17. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Suárez, Carlos; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, María C

    2009-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego. In 1997, ulrasonography (US) was selected as the method of choice for the development of population surveys for epidemiological surveillance and early diagnosis in rural population. The aim of this work was to present the results of the epidemiological surveillance of CE by means of US in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina between 1997 and 2006. The ultrasonographic diagnostic was realized once a year. The population was stratified in children (4 to 17 years) and adults. From each individual, name, age, sex, actual residence and origin were registered. The images compatible with cysts were graded according to location, number and characteristics. A total of 1400 rural inhabitants were examined for CE. From the total of studied individuals, 27 (1.9%) exhibited images compatible with cysts on the abdominal ultrasound scan. Thirteen of these persons were finally diagnosed as having CE. The overall prevalence of CE was 0.9%. This value is in accordance with the decrease in the prevalence observed in the definitive host and the intermediate hosts (sheep and cattle). The absence of cases in children during the studied period, evidence no transmission of the disease to humans in the recent past. PMID:18996221

  18. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1–3, 4–6 and 7–12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2–20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3–16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  19. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  20. Excessive Sleep and Lack of Sleep Are Associated With Slips and Falls in the Adult Korean Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impacts of excessive sleep duration on falls. This study investigated the associations between sleep duration and falls among Korean adults in a wide range of age groups while adjusting for numerous confounding factors. Data collected from study participants ranging in age from 19 to 109 years old were analyzed from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). Sleep duration was divided into 5 groups: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9  hours per day. The relations between sleep duration and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, days of vigorous or moderate physical activity, income, education, alcohol use, smoking, stress, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and asthma were controlled for as confounding factors. Associations between sleep duration and falls were analyzed in 19 to 40, 41 to 60, and 61+ year age groups. Furthermore, the relations between sleep duration and indoor versus outdoor falls were analyzed. Both ≤6 and ≥8  hours of sleep per day were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time and ≥2 times per year) in the overall adult population (P < 0.001 in both instances). In a subgroup analysis, sleep durations of ≤5 and ≥9  hours were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time a year) in each age group. Six hours of sleep was not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times per year) in the 61+ year age group, and 8 and 9  hours of sleep were not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times a year) in the 19 to 40 year age group. This study demonstrated that long as well as short sleep durations are associated with an increased incidence of falls. However, these relations were not evident in elderly populations with short sleep durations or in young adults with long

  1. Positive and Negative Feedbacks and Free-Scale Pattern Distribution in Rural-Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Alados, Concepción L.; Errea, Paz; Gartzia, Maite; Saiz, Hugo; Escós, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Depopulation of rural areas is a widespread phenomenon that has occurred in most industrialized countries, and has contributed significantly to a reduction in the productivity of agro-ecological resources. In this study, we identified the main trends in the dynamics of rural populations in the Central Pyrenees in the 20th C and early 21st C, and used density independent and density dependent models and identified the main factors that have influenced the dynamics. In addition, we investigated the change in the power law distribution of population size in those periods. Populations exhibited density-dependent positive feedback between 1960 and 2010, and a long-term positive correlation between agricultural activity and population size, which has resulted in a free-scale population distribution that has been disrupted by the collapse of the traditional agricultural society and by emigration to the industrialized cities. We concluded that complex socio-ecological systems that have strong feedback mechanisms can contribute to disruptive population collapses, which can be identified by changes in the pattern of population distribution. PMID:25474704

  2. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  3. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  4. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  5. Annual risk of tuberculosis infection in rural China: a population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Bai, Liqiong; Liu, Jianmin; Lu, Wei; Wang, Xinhua; Li, Xiangwei; Du, Jiang; Chen, Xinchun; Zhang, Haoran; Xin, Henan; Sui, Hongtao; Li, Hengjing; Su, Haoxiang; He, Jian; Pan, Shouguo; Peng, Hong; Xu, Zuhui; Catanzaro, Antonino; Evans, Thomas G; Zhang, Zongde; Ma, Yu; Li, Mufei; Feng, Boxuan; Li, Zhen; Guan, Ling; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhijian; Zhu, Tao; Yang, Shumin; Si, Hongyan; Wang, Yi; Tan, Yunhong; Chen, Tianzhu; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yinyin; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Weiguo; Jin, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Prospective population data on the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely reported in the global literature.A population-based prospective study was conducted in rural China to investigate the annual risk of TB infection, and its persistence using serial tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and an interferon-γ release assay. In total, 13 580 eligible participants from four rural sites, identified as TST negative (<10 mm) or QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) (an interferon-γ release assay) negative from a baseline survey, were included in the first year's follow-up examination.The annual conversion rate of QFT among the study sites ranged between 2.1% and 4.9% (average 3.1%), and the incidence of TST conversion ranged between 6.0% and 31.1% (average 14.5%). During the second year's follow-up, infection persistence was investigated using 390 subjects with QFT conversions. Among them, 49.7% (164 out of 330) were found to be consistently QFT positive. Both the conversion and the persistence of QFT positivity were found to be significantly increased with increasing age.In conclusion, the annual TB infection rate was suggested to be ∼1.5% based on persistent positive results after QFT conversion in rural China. Therefore, infection control among those high-risk populations, including the elderly, should be prioritised for TB control in China. PMID:27230438

  6. Prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus among urban and rural populations in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pujol, F H; Favorov, M O; Marcano, T; Esté, J A; Magris, M; Liprandi, F; Khudyakov, Y E; Khudyakova, N S; Fields, H A

    1994-03-01

    Antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) were detected in sera by a synthetic peptide-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) from different populations in Venezuela. Antibodies against HEV were found in 1.6% (3/184) of urban pregnant woman (Caracas), in 3.9% (8/204) of rural populations (San Camilo, Edo Apure), and in 5.4% (12/223) of rural Amerindians (Padamo, Edo Amazonas). Positivity was confirmed by a neutralization EIA based on the use of competing soluble free peptides. The prevalence of antibodies in the Amerindian group was significantly higher than in urban pregnant women. No relation was found between age and HEV prevalence in rural populations. Three of 21 positive sera were also weakly positive by Western blot for IgM antibodies. This result, together with the low optical density values observed by EIA, suggested that the presence of antibodies in these sera reflects past infections. Based on these results, Venezuela does not seem to be highly endemic for hepatitis E. This is the first report of serological evidence of infection by HEV in South America. PMID:8006635

  7. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  8. Overview of intestinal parasitic prevalence in rural and urban population in Lucknow, north India.

    PubMed

    Nitin, Shukla; Venkatesh, V; Husain, N; Masood, J; Agarwal, G G

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infestations are a common finding in the developing world, however, the patterns of parasitic distribution and rates are different everywhere. Intestinal parasitic prevalece in urban and rural areas in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh were determined in this community-based study. Multistage random sampling was adopted to collect stool samples from urban and rural population in Lucknow district. Door to door survey was done. Stool samples were processed by standard methods for parasitological examination. One thousand and seventy one stool samples were collected from urban Alambagh, (n=648) and rural Mati, (n=343) areas. Overall one hundred and twenty three (11.5%) subjects had intestinal infection. Intestinal infestation rate was 5.4% and 20.8% in the urban and rural areas respectively. Giardia lamblia (22%) was the commonest pathogenic protozoan detected. The soil transmitted helminths detected were Ascaris (11.4%) and Hookworm (2.4%). Infection had no predilection for either sex or age group in both areas. The prevalence of parasitic infection appears to be relatively low in this region, probably due to improving access to health care. However due to the sheer numbers of affected individuals involved, intestinal parasitosis remains an important public health problem. PMID:18697590

  9. Association Study of FOS-Like Antigen-2 Promoter Polymorphisms With Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Woo; Kim, Choon Dong; Chung, Joo Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives FOS-like antigen-2 (FOSL-2), a member of the FOS gene family, encode leucine zipper proteins that can heterodimerize with proteins of Jun family. Thus, activating protein (AP)-1 transcription factor is formed, has a crucial role in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of normal tissue as well as oncogenic transformation and progression. We performed an association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FOSL-2 with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We also estimated the relationships between the SNPs and the clinicopathologic characteristics of PTC. Methods One promoter SNPs (rs925255) of FOSL-2 gene were genotyped with direct sequencing method in 94 PTC and 213 controls. PTC patients were dichotomized and compared with respect to clinical parameters of PTC. Genetic data were analyzed using Helixtree, SNPAnalyzer, SNPStats. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was fulfilled to evaluate the genetic effect with adjustment for age and sex. Results SNP (rs925255) in FOSL-2 showed a significant association (codominant 1 model [G/G vs. A/G]: odds ratio [OR], 0.531, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.293 to 0.96, P=0.036; dominant model: OR, 0.50, 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.89, P=0.015) with PTC. The frequency of allele G in rs925255 was also significantly associated with PTC (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.91; P=0.02). But we fail to prove significant association between this polymorphism (rs925255) and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the rs925255 SNP and its allele G show significant association with the PTC in Korean population. PMID:24587880

  10. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  11. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  12. Dietary factors related to body weight in adult Vietnamese in the rural area of Haiphong, Vietnam: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hye; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chung, Hye Won; Nguyet, Tran Thi Phuc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association between dietary factors and underweight and overweight adult Vietnamese living in the rural areas of Vietnam. A cross-sectional study of 497 Vietnamese aged 19 to 60 years (204 males, 293 females) was conducted in rural areas of Haiphong, Vietnam. The subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, and overweight based on BMI. General characteristics, anthropometric parameters, blood profiles, and eating habits were obtained and dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls for 2 consecutive days. A high prevalence of both underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) individuals was observed (14.2% and 21.6% for males and 18.9% and 20.6% for females, respectively). For both genders, the overweight group were older than the under- and normal weight groups (P = 0.0118 for males and P = 0.0002 for females). In female subjects, the overweight group consumed significantly less cereals (P = 0.0033), energy (P = 0.0046), protein (P = 0.0222), and carbohydrate (P = 0.0017) and more fruits (P = 0.0026) than the underweight group; however, no such differences existed in males. The overweight subjects overate more frequently (P = 0.0295) and consumed fish (P = 0.0096) and fruits (P = 0.0083) more often. The prevalence of both underweight and overweight individuals pose serious public health problems in the rural areas of Vietnamese and the overweight group was related to overeating and high fish and fruit consumption. These findings may provide basic data for policymakers and dieticians in order to develop future nutrition and health programs for rural populations in Vietnam. PMID:20607070

  13. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. Objective This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. Methods This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. Results A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. Conclusions The data from KNHANES 2010–2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing

  14. Geospatial Technology in Disease Mapping, E- Surveillance and Health Care for Rural Population in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveenkumar, B. A.; Suresh, K.; Nikhil, A.; Rohan, M.; Nikhila, B. S.; Rohit, C. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2014-11-01

    Providing Healthcare to rural population has been a challenge to the medical service providers especially in developing countries. For this to be effective, scalable and sustainable, certain strategic decisions have to be taken during the planning phase. Also, there is a big gap between the services available and the availability of doctors and medical resources in rural areas. Use of Information Technology can aid this deficiency to a good extent. In this paper, a mobile application has been developed to gather data from the field. A cloud based interface has been developed to store the data in the cloud for effective usage and management of the data. A decision tree based solution developed in this paper helps in diagnosing a patient based on his health parameters. Interactive geospatial maps have been developed to provide effective data visualization facility. This will help both the user community as well as decision makers to carry out long term strategy planning.

  15. The Relationship between Zinc Status and Inflammatory Marker Levels in Rural Korean Adults Aged 40 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sukyoung; Kim, Mi Kyung; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) are known as one of the major risk factors in atherosclerosis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of zinc have been suggested, but few data are available on the relationship between zinc status and inflammatory markers in epidemiological studies. Objective The present study aims to investigate the cross-sectional relationships of serum cytokines and CRP with dietary zinc intake and serum zinc levels in healthy men and women aged 40 and older in rural areas of South Korea. Materials and Methods A group of 1,055 subjects (404 men, 651 women) was included in dietary zinc analysis while another group of 695 subjects (263 men, 432 women) was included in serum zinc analysis. Serum IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were measured as inflammatory markers. Results There was no significant inverse relationship between dietary zinc intake and inflammatory markers. We found a significant inverse relationship between serum zinc levels and all three inflammatory markers in women (P for trend = 0.0236 for IL-6; P for trend = 0.0017 for TNF-α; P for trend = 0.0301 for CRP) and between serum zinc levels and a single inflammatory marker (IL-6) in men (P for trend = 0.0191), although all R2 values by regression were less than 10%. Conclusion In conclusion, serum zinc levels may be inversely related to inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP), particularly in women. PMID:26080030

  16. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: -0.368, 95% CI: -0.559 to -0.177 and coefficient: -0.235, 95% CI: -0.459 to -0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  17. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: −0.368, 95% CI: −0.559 to −0.177 and coefficient: −0.235, 95% CI: −0.459 to −0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  18. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. Methodology LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and “outness,” and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals’ demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Results Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. Conclusions The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients’ disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas. PMID:26731405

  19. Smokeless Tobacco Use and Periodontal Health in a Rural Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yong H.; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the reported effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the periodontium and high prevalence of ST use in rural populations and in men, studies on this specific topic are limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation is to evaluate the periodontal health status of male ST users from a rural population. Methods Adult male residents of two rural Appalachian Ohio counties and daily ST users, with a unilateral mandibular oral ST keratosis lesion, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and received oral examination. Teeth present, ST keratosis lesion, plaque and gingival index, probing depth (PD), recession depth (RD), and attachment level were recorded. Statistical analysis compared ST-site mandibular teeth (teeth adjacent to the subject’s unilateral ST keratosis lesion) to NST-site teeth (contralateral corresponding teeth). Results This study includes 73 ST users. Recession prevalence is much greater in ST-site quadrants (36%) compared to NST-site quadrants (18%; P <0.001). Twice as many teeth had recession on ST-site (approximately 20%) than NST-site (approximately 10%; P = 0.0001). Average buccal RD on ST-site teeth did not differ from that on the NST-site teeth (P = 0.0875). Although average buccal attachment loss is greater on ST-site teeth (P = 0.016), the mean difference is <0.5 mm. When stratified by years of ST use, subjects using ST for 10 to 18 years exhibit the most differences between ST and NST sites, whereas subjects using ST for <10 years show no differences. Conclusion The results indicate that greater gingival recession prevalence and extent are associated with ST placement site in rural male ST users. PMID:20350155

  20. Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; A, Rashima; Raju, Prema; Arvind, Hemamalini; Baskaran, Mani; Ve, Ramesh S

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes) rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.4% to 14.6%) and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes) urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5%) had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of <20/60 to ≤20/400 - odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of <20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%), rural residence (visual acuity of <20/60 to ≤20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of <20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5%) were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.02) and literates (P < 0.001). In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001) and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination (P < 0.001) were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery-related complications were

  1. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  2. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Moon, Min Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  3. PREVALENCE OF DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS AMONG AN ORANG ASLI POPULATION IN RURAL MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Hasim, Liyana; Moktar, Norhayati; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2015-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D. fragilis in their stool; four of these were aged < 15 years; 3 were male and 2 were female. All participants with positive stool sample for D. fragilis were symptomatic; 3 had diarrhea and 2 had other gastrointestinal symptoms. D. fragilis is present in the study population. Further studies are needed to determine the virulence, pathogenicity and mode of transmission of D. fragilis in the study population. PMID:26863855

  4. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's α=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

  5. Pharmacogenetic association with early response to intravitreal ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Hyoun; Sagong, Min; Kim, In Taek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether genetic factors that influence age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have an early pharmacogenetic effect on treating exudative AMD with ranibizumab in a Korean population. Methods A retrospective study of 102 patients (70 with typical neovascular AMD and 32 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy) with exudative AMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab monotherapy was conducted. Optical coherence tomography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography were taken at the baseline. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) were recorded at the baseline and at each monthly visit. The genotypes of the polymorphisms in the known AMD susceptibility loci (CFH, AMRS2, HTRA1, VEGFA, and KDR) were determined, and association between their frequencies and the changes in the BCVA and the CSMT were evaluated. Results The mean baseline visual acuity was 0.96±0.59 logMAR (approximately 20/200 in the Snellen equivalent), and the mean number of injections was 3.87 before the month 6 visit. No association was observed between the change in BCVA and each genotype. For the changes in the CSMT, a significant difference was observed only with the VEGF-A (rs833069) gene. The decrease in the CSMT at month 3 for the major allele homozygote AA genotype, the heterozygote AG genotype, and the risk allele homozygote GG genotype was 25.66±85.40, 86.93±92.31, and 85.30±105.30 μm, respectively (p=0.012, p=0.044, and p=0.002 for AG, GG, and combined AG or GG genotype, respectively, compared to the AA genotype). This trend was maintained until month 6. Conclusions The VEGF-A (rs833069) polymorphism showed a significant association with the anatomic response to intravitreal ranibizumab. No significant difference was found between the genotype of the potential risk polymorphism for development of AMD and the early visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab. PMID:23559864

  6. Comparison of Glucose Tolerance Categories in the Korean Population According to World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyong Soo; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Sun Wook; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Do Joon; Koh, Jae Joon; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, No Keyong; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To compare the prevalence and metabolic profiles of glucose tolerance categories according to World Health Organization(WHO) and 1997 American Diabetes Association (ADA) fasting criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism in the Korean population. Methods 2251 subjects without previous history of diabetes, who participated in the Yonchon diabetes epidemiology survey in 1993, were classified according to both criteria. The prevalence of glucose tolerance categories and the agreement across all categories of glucose tolerance were calculated. Metabolic characteristics of different glucose tolerance categories were compared. Results The prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) according to ADA fasting criteria was similar to those of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) according to WHO criteria, respectively. However, 35.5 % of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes by WHO criteria were reclassified as either IFG or normal fasting glucose (NFG), and 38.5 % of diabetic patients according to ADA fasting criteria were IGT or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) by WHO criteria. Only 31.3 % of IGT subjects remained as IFG and 62.1 % were reclassified as NFG. Similarly, 69.4 % of IFG subjects were NGT by WHO criteria. The agreement between the two criteria was poor (K =0.31). Discordant diabetes groups had higher WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels than concordant non-diabetes group. Non-diabetes(WHO)/diabetes(ADA) group had higher WHR than diabetes (WHO)/non-diabetes (ADA) group. There were no differences in other metabolic characteristics between the two discordant diabetes groups. IGT/NFG and NGT/IFG group showed higher BMI, WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels than NGT/NFG group. Metabolic characteristics of IGT/NFG group were not different from those of NGT/IFG group except IGT/NFG subjects were older than NGT

  7. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the

  8. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD. PMID:26826428

  9. Rurality and Ethnicity in Adolescent Physical Illness: Are Children of the Growing Rural Latino Population at Excess Health Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Elder, Glen H.; Abraham, W. Todd

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study's objectives are to: investigate potential additive and multiplicative influences of rurality and race/ethnicity on chronic physical illness in a nationally representative sample of youth; and examine intra-Latino processes using a Latino sub-sample. Specifically, we examine how rurality and individual psychosocial…

  10. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  11. Lipids, apoprotein B, and associated coronary risk factors in urban and rural older Mexican populations.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Lerman-Garber, I; Pérez, J; Villa, A R; Martinez, C L; Turrubiatez, L C; Wong, B; Gómez Pérez, F J; Gutierrez Robledo, L M

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this comparative cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemias and examine its association with food intake and metabolic variables in urban and rural elder Mexican populations. Three different communities (urban areas of medium and low income and a rural area) were studied. A total of 344 subjects aged 60 years and older and 273 aged 35 to 59 years were included. The evaluated parameters were personal medical data, 24-hour diet recall, and fasting plasma lipids, insulin, and glucose levels. Older subjects, especially men, living in the rural area had lower cholesterol levels (5.02 +/- 0.97 v 5.6 +/- 1.07 mmol/L; P <.05) and insulin levels (12 +/- 10 v 42 +/- 68 mU/mL) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (1.31 +/- 0.36 v 1.07 +/-0.28 mmol/L) than the elders from the urban medium-income group. Possible explanations for these differences are found in the dietary habits of the groups. Rural elders had higher amounts of fiber (20 +/- 11 v 10 +/- 6 g/d) and carbohydrate (70% +/- 0.08% v 52% +/- 0.11% of calories) and lower fat (18% +/- 0.07% v 33% +/- 0.1% of calories) in their diets. In the urban groups, low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia was present in 17.8% of adult and 39.1% of elderly women (P =.00001). In conclusion, environmental factors still play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of the dyslipidemias in the elderly. PMID:11230784

  12. Seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica Infection in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in Mexico has been scantily studied. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in adults in rural areas in Durango, Mexico. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, E. histolytica IgG antibodies were determined in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, housing conditions, and behavioral characteristics of the subjects studied was investigated. Results One hundred and eighteen (41.8%) of the 282 rural subjects had anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with source of drinking water (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.58; P = 0.005), and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03 - 2.27; P = 0.03). In contrast, E. histolytica exposure was negatively associated with consumption of unpasteurized cow milk (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31 - 0.96; P = 0.03), and crowding at home (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.64; P = 0.0009). Conclusions The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection found in adults in rural Durango is high compared with those reported in other Mexican populations. The correlates of E. histolytica seropositivity found in the present study may be useful for the planning of optimal preventive measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:25883706

  13. Racial Differences in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Cancer Screening Practices among a Triracial Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Paskett, Electra D.; Tatum, Cathy; Rushing, Julia; Michielutte, Robert; Bell, Ronny; Foley, Kristie Long; Bittoni, Marisa; Dickinson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low-income, minority, and rural women face a greater burden with regard to cancer-related morbidity and mortality and are usually underrepresented in cancer control research. The Robeson County Outreach, Screening and Education Project sought to increase mammography use among low-income, minority, and rural women age > 40 years. The current article reports on racial disparities and barriers to screening, especially those related to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. METHODS A baseline survey was administered to 897 women age > 40 years who lived in rural Robeson County in North Carolina. The sample consisted of three principal racial groups: whites, African Americans, and Native Americans. Survey comparisons were made among racial groups with respect to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding breast and cervical carcinoma screening. RESULTS Overall, Native American and African-American women had lower levels of knowledge, more inaccurate beliefs, and more barriers to screening compared with white women. Among the notable findings were that 43% of the patient population did not mention mammograms and 53% did not mention Pap smears as breast and cervical carcinoma screening tests, respectively; furthermore, compared with white women, significantly fewer African-American and Native American women mentioned these tests (P < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent of all women reported that a physician had never encouraged them to receive a mammogram, although 75% reported having received a regular checkup in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS Although all low-income rural women experienced significant barriers to receiving cancer screening tests, these barriers were more common for minority women compared with white women. More research is needed to identify ways to overcome such barriers, especially among Native American women. The results of the current study have important implications with respect to the designing of interventions aimed at improving cancer

  14. Association between arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) and lung function in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ro, M; Kim, S; Pyun, J-A; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Lee, J-Y; Koh, I; Kwack, K

    2012-08-01

    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) plays a role in the 5-lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, which includes the LTC(4), LTD(4), LTE(4) and LTB(4). These leukotrienes are known causative factors of asthma, allergy, atopy and cardiovascular diseases. ALOX5AP lacks enzyme activity and acts by helping 5-LO function. In this study, healthy and general subjects who live in rural and urban areas of Korea were tested for the association of ALOX5AP polymorphisms with lung function. Lung function was also estimated by calculating the predicted values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1) _%PRED) and the proportion of the forced vital capacity exhaled in the first second (FEV(1) /FVC_PRED). The linear regression was adjusted for residence area, gender, age, height and smoking status. The analysis revealed associations between FEV(1) and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9506352 and the haplotype TCAC (permuted P-value < 0.05). The linkage disequilibrium block that included the significant SNPs overlapped with SNPs that were revealed previously to associate with myocardial infarction and asthma and to affect lung function. This study is the first to demonstrate the association between lung function and ALOX5AP polymorphisms in a healthy and general population. PMID:22537113

  15. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  16. The Association Between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents’ Economic Well-Being*

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here empirically models long-term rural residents’ economic well-being, making use of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In general, the results suggest that long-term rural families residing in high-growth amenity and recreation areas tend to have higher annual incomes than do their counterparts in non-growth amenity/recreation areas, regardless of the sex, race, or age of the family head. However, higher costs-of-living in these areas supplant any relative gains in income. As such, these analyses provide empirical evidence of patterns inferred by earlier anecdotal evidence and case studies. PMID:21874070

  17. Urban and rural variations in the characteristics associated with elder mistreatment in a community-dwelling Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the urban and rural differences in characteristics associated with elder mistreatment (EM) in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study of 269 urban and 135 rural participants aged 60 years or greater was performed. Among those with EM, rural participants were more likely to be women, have lower levels of education and income, have lower levels of health status and quality of life, have worse change in recent health, and have lower levels of psychosocial well-being. Both higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support were associated with increased risk of EM. PMID:23473295

  18. Increasing Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Rural Bangladeshi Population: A Population Based Study for 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Afsana, Faria; My Diep, Lien; Binte Munir, Sanjida; Wright, Erica; Mahmood, Sharif; Khan, A. K. Azad; Hussain, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Background To observe changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and its associated risk factors in a rural Bangladeshi population over a 10-year period. Methods Three cross-sectional studies were undertaken in a rural community (aged ≥20 years) in 1999, 2004, and 2009. Structured questionnaires including sociodemographic parameters, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and blood glucose values were recorded. DM and IFG were diagnosed using 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Results Age standardized prevalence of DM increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1999 to 2009 (2.3%, 6.8%, and 7.9% in 1999, 2004, and 2009, respectively). The prevalence of IFG increased significantly (P=0.011) from 4.6% to 5.8% between 1999 and 2004 but then decreased from 5.8% to 5.3% during 2004 to 2009. Significant linear trends were shown in both sexes for general and central obesity as indicated by body mass index, waist circumference, and waist hip ratio (WHR). Increasing age and systolic blood pressure were significant risk factors for DM in all three studies. WHR for males was also significantly associated with the risk of DM in all three studies. WHR for females was only significantly associated with DM in 2009. Conclusion A significant rise in the prevalence of DM was observed in this population over 10 years. This increase was seen in both sexes, and in all age groups. A significant increase in the prevalence of the associated risk factors of general and central obesity was observed in both sexes. PMID:23439676

  19. Population-Based Assessment of Hypertension Epidemiology and Risk Factors among HIV-Positive and General Populations in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Balzer, Laura; Heller, David; Kotwani, Prashant; Chamie, Gabriel; Clark, Tamara; Ayieko, James; Mwangwa, Florence; Jain, Vivek; Byonanebye, Dathan; Petersen, Maya; Havlir, Diane; Kamya, Moses R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa has created a growing, aging HIV-positive population at risk for non-communicable diseases such as hypertension. However, the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in this population remain incompletely understood. Methods We measured blood pressure and collected demographic data on over 65,000 adults attending multi-disease community health campaigns in 20 rural Ugandan communities (SEARCH Study: NCT01864603). Our objectives were to determine (i) whether HIV is an independent risk factor for hypertension, and (ii) awareness and control of hypertension in HIV-positive adults and the overall population. Results Hypertension prevalence was 14% overall, and 11% among HIV-positive individuals. 79% of patients were previously undiagnosed, 85% were not taking medication, and 50% of patients on medication had uncontrolled blood pressure. Multivariate predictors of hypertension included older age, male gender, higher BMI, lack of education, alcohol use, and residence in Eastern Uganda. HIV-negative status was independently associated with higher odds of hypertension (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). Viral suppression of HIV did not significantly predict hypertension among HIV-positives. Significance The burden of hypertension is substantial and inadequately controlled, both in HIV-positive persons and overall. Universal HIV screening programs could provide counseling, testing, and treatment for hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27232186

  20. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  1. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Song, Yin-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Qi; He, Jun-Wen; Qiao, Kun; Sun, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), radius of corneal curvature (K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white (WTW) distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens (IOL)-Master]. RESULTS Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0±8.7y were analyzed at last. The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius (MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77±0.87, 22.76±1.06, 22.89±1.41, 22.92±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10±0.32, 2.98±0.34, 2.86±0.36, 2.77±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58±0.25, 7.54±0.26, 7.55±0.26, 7.49±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79±0.38, 11.75±0.40, 11.72±0.41, 11.67±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD, MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight. CONCLUSION Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care. PMID:26309884

  2. Human gut microbiota community structures in urban and rural populations in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tyakht, Alexander V.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Popenko, Anna S.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Larin, Andrey K.; Karpova, Irina Y.; Selezneva, Oksana V.; Semashko, Tatyana A.; Ospanova, Elena A.; Babenko, Vladislav V.; Maev, Igor V.; Cheremushkin, Sergey V.; Kucheryavyy, Yuriy A.; Shcherbakov, Petr L.; Grinevich, Vladimir B.; Efimov, Oleg I.; Sas, Evgenii I.; Abdulkhakov, Rustam A.; Abdulkhakov, Sayar R.; Lyalyukova, Elena A.; Livzan, Maria A.; Vlassov, Valentin V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Tsukanov, Vladislav V.; Osipenko, Marina F.; Kozlova, Irina V.; Tkachev, Alexander V.; Sergienko, Valery I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community of the human gut has a crucial role in sustaining host homeostasis. High-throughput DNA sequencing has delineated the structural and functional configurations of gut metagenomes in world populations. The microbiota of the Russian population is of particular interest to researchers, because Russia encompasses a uniquely wide range of environmental conditions and ethnogeographical cohorts. Here we conduct a shotgun metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota samples from 96 healthy Russian adult subjects, which reveals novel microbial community structures. The communities from several rural regions display similarities within each region and are dominated by the bacterial taxa associated with the healthy gut. Functional analysis shows that the metabolic pathways exhibiting differential abundance in the novel types are primarily associated with the trade-off between the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. The specific signatures of the Russian gut microbiota are likely linked to the host diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. PMID:24036685

  3. Prevalence of periodontal diseases among rural population of Mustabad, Krishna District

    PubMed Central

    Ramoji Rao, Mulpuri V.; Katari, Pavan Kumar; Vegi, Lokesh; Bypureddy, Tarun Teja; Prabhakara Rao, Koneru Samyuktha; Tejaswi, Kanikanti Siva

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: People in rural areas neglect oral health as they lack awareness on dental diseases and also due to inadequate availability of dental services. The prevalence of illiteracy is also a reason which can be attributed to a poor oral health. This epidemiological study is undertaken to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the rural population of Mustabad – in Krishna, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study based on randomized sampling method was carried out using the WHO assessment form (1997) on a population of 470. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. Results: The subjects were 220 males and 250 females. Maximum numbers of subjects were in the age group of 35-44 years (21.91%). Prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 73.62%. The periodontal status deteriorated with aging. Prevalence of periodontitis was higher in females (56.35%) compared to males (43.65%). Males had a higher prevalence of deep pockets (3.18%), whereas females had a higher prevalence of shallow pockets (3.20%). Females had twice the bleeding tendency (18.80%) compared to males (8.64%). Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of periodontal diseases is an impending problem which needs immediate intervention, if not it would have a serious negative impact on the future oral health. The need of the hour is more epidemiological studies with a bigger sample are required. PMID:27195229

  4. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  5. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over time. Methods We used comprehensive population-based data and a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate trends in children's height-for-age and weight-for-age Z scores by rural and urban place of residence, and changes in urban–rural differentials in height and weight Z scores, for 141 low-income and middle-income countries between 1985 and 2011. We also estimated the contribution of changes in rural and urban height and weight, and that of urbanisation, to the regional trends in these outcomes. Findings Urban children are taller and heavier than their rural counterparts in almost all low-income and middle-income countries. The urban–rural differential is largest in Andean and central Latin America (eg, Peru, Honduras, Bolivia, and Guatemala); in some African countries such as Niger, Burundi, and Burkina Faso; and in Vietnam and China. It is smallest in southern and tropical Latin America (eg, Chile and Brazil). Urban children in China, Chile, and Jamaica are the tallest in low-income and middle-income countries, and children in rural areas of Burundi, Guatemala, and Niger the shortest, with the tallest and shortest more than 10 cm apart at age 5 years. The heaviest children live in cities in Georgia, Chile, and China, and the most underweight in rural areas of Timor-Leste, India, Niger, and Bangladesh. Between 1985 and 2011, the urban advantage in height fell in southern and tropical Latin America and south Asia, but changed little or not at all in most

  6. Changing Patterns of Primary Treatment in Korean Men with Prostate Cancer Over 10 Years: A Nationwide Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinsung; Suh, Beomseok; Shin, Dong Wook; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean men with prostate cancer (PC) and impact of sociodemographic factors on treatment choice from a nationwide cohort over 10 years. Materials and Methods We conducted a cohort study of a 2% nationwide random sample of Korean National Health Insurance. A total of 1,382 patients who had undergone active treatments for newly diagnosed PC between 2003 and 2013 were included. Time trends in primary treatment of PC, including radical surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were analyzed. Results Total number of patients undergoing active treatments increased significantly (162%). Surgery cases showed the most significant increase, from 22.4% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, while the relative proportion of ADT showed a tendency to decrease from 60.3% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, and the relative proportion of RT was variable over 10 years (from 7.2% to 18.4%). While treatment patterns differed significantly according to age (p < 0.001) and income classes (p=0.014), there were differences in primary treatment according to residential area. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, older patients showed significant association with ADT or RT compared to surgery, while patients with higher income showed significant association with surgery. Conclusion Treatment pattern in Korean PC patients has changed remarkably over the last 10 years. Sociodemographic factors do affect the primary treatment choice. Our results will be valuable in overviewing changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean PC patients and planning future health policy for PC. PMID:26511804

  7. Establishment of Reference Ranges for Prostate Volume and Annual Prostate Volume Change Rate in Korean Adult Men: Analyses of a Nationwide Screening Population.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinsung; Lee, Dong-Gi; Suh, Beomseok; Cho, Sung Yong; Chang, In Ho; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lee, Hyung-Lae

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine normal reference ranges for prostate volume (PV) and annual PV change rate in a Korean nationwide screening population. Data from men who underwent a routine health check-up were collected from 13 university hospitals. The cohort comprised men aged ≥40 yr who had undergone 2 or more serial transrectal ultrasonographies. Men with initial PV>100 mL; serum PSA level>10 ng/mL; PV reduction>20% compared with initial PV, or who had history of prostate cancer or prostate surgery, were excluded. Linear regression and mixed effects regression analyses were used to predict mean PV and longitudinal change in PV over time. A total of 2,967 men formed the study cohort. Age, body mass index (BMI), and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were found to be significant predictors of PV. A predicted PV table, with a 95% confidence interval (CIs), was developed after adjusting for these 3 variables. Annual PV change rate was 0.51 mL/year (95% CI, 0.47-0.55). Annual PV change rate according to age was 0.68 mL/year, 0.84 mL/year, 1.09 mL/year, and 0.50 mL/year for subjects in their 40s, 50s, 60s, and ≥70 yr, respectively. Predicted annual PV change rate differed depending on age, BMI, serum PSA level and baseline PV. From a nationwide screening database, we established age-, PSA-, and BMI-specific reference ranges for PV and annual PV change rate in Korean men. Our newly established reference ranges for PV and annual PV change rate will be valuable in interpreting PV data in Korean men. PMID:26240492

  8. The Economic and Social Costs of Drug Abuse among the Rural Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    This paper presents a framework for assessing the economic and social costs of drug abuse in rural areas. The first section considers definitions for three key sets of concepts: (1) what is rural, the great diversity within rural contexts, and how to distinguish rural from urban; (2) the nature of social costs, as they affect communities as well…

  9. Prevalence of obstructive respiratory disorders in the rural population of the Lublin region.

    PubMed

    Paprzycki, Piotr; Panasiuk, Lech; Sodolski, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    The subject of the study was to analyze spirometric data provided by comprehensive research programme of Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin. Field research was conducted in the years 1999--2001 to evaluate the prevalence of selected respiratory system diseases. The basic measurements were forced expiration maneuver performed and interpreted on the strength of ATS recommendations, physical examination and medical history (especially lower respiratory airways obstruction symptoms). The two-stage random sample of population of 4 eastern part of Lublin region communes was the studied material (660 people). The aim was to evaluate the incidence of airways obstruction and then chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Next, we wanted to asses--the main clinical symptoms of disease and what percentage of disease cases are diagnosed/treated by the health care system. Based on our results the incidence of airways obstruction in the population examined is excessive (11%), typical of populations exposed to respiratory risk factors. There were no clinical manifestations in the 50% of cases with spirometric diagnosed obstruction and incidence of severe, symptomatic forms of obstructive diseases was low. 75% of obstructive patients have never been diagnosed by health care system and a very low percent has been properly treated with personal drug inhalers. Our study confirms that chronic obstructive lung disease is an essential problem also in the Polish rural population. Patients belittle early symptoms of COPD and health care system is insufficient in detection and treatment of this disease. PMID:15314962

  10. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria. PMID:26458904

  11. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  12. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  13. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention for rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in the Korean population: a meta-analysis of 41 studies including 4,742 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Geun Joo; Lee, Sangseok; Lee, Jeoung Hyuk; Park, Seul Gi

    2014-01-01

    Background We purposed to systemically review studies investigating the prophylactic effect of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities against rocuronium induced withdrawal movement (RIWM) in the Korean population. Methods Literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Koreamed, KMBASE, KISS and RISS up to March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions with placebo aimed for the Korean population were included. Outcome measures were the incidence and severity of RIWM. We conducted subgroup analyses according to each intervention method. Results Data were analyzed from 41 RCTs totaling 4,742 subjects. The overall incidence of RIWM was about 80% (range 56-100%). Incidence and severity of RIWM were significantly reduced with lidocaine (risk ratio [RR] 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74; standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.74, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.44), opioids (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18-0.44; SMD -1.71, 95% CI -2.09 to -1.34) and hypnotics (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.25-0.52; SMD -2.20, 95% CI -2.62 to -1.79). Regardless of tourniquet use, lidocaine showed a prophylactic effect against incidence and severity of RIWM: tourniquet (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.21-0.62; SMD -1.51, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.86); non-tourniquet (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.71; SMD -0.74, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.44). Dilution and slow injection of rocuronium decreased incidence and severity of RIWM: dilution (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39-0.56; SMD -1.64, 95% CI -2.47 to -0.81); slow injection (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.70; SMD -2.13, 95% CI -2.74 to -1.51). Conclusions The greater part of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions showed prophylactic effect against the incidence and severity of RIWM in the Korean population. PMID:25006365

  14. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  15. Phytoestrogens levels determination in the cord blood from Malaysia rural and urban populations

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.M. . E-mail: mustafa@ummc.edu.my; Malintan, N.T.; Seelan, S.; Zhan, Z.; Mohamed, Z.; Hassan, J.; Pendek, R.; Hussain, R.; Ito, N.

    2007-07-01

    This study is a result of an analysis of free and conjugated phytoestrogens daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin and coumesterol in human cord blood plasma using LCMS. Cord blood was collected from urban and rural populations of Malaysia (n = 300) to establish a simple preliminary database on the levels of the analyzed compounds in the collected samples. The study also aimed to look at the levels of phytoestrogens in babies during birth as this may have a profound effect on the developmental process. The sample clean up was carried out by solid-phase extraction using C18 column and passed through DEAE sephadex gel before analysis by LCMS. The mean concentrations of total phytoestrogens were daidzein (1.4 {+-} 2.9 ng/ml), genistein (3.7 {+-} 2.8 ng/ml), daidzin (3.5 {+-} 3.1 ng/ml), genistin (19.5 {+-} 4.2 ng/ml) and coumesterol (3.3 {+-} 3.3 ng/ml). Distribution of phytoestrogen was found to be higher in samples collected from rural areas compared to that of urban areas.

  16. Combating protein-energy-malnutrition in a rural/peri-urban southern African black population.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, U E; Bac, M; Kuzwayo, P M; Glatthaar, I I; Ingle, R F; Walker, A R

    1991-10-01

    PROTEIN-ENERGY-malnutrition (PEM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Africa. In South Africa, in 1987, to help combating and preventing PEM in the rural black population, the Gold Fields Nutrition Unit was inaugurated at the Medical University of Southern Africa. In 1987-9, 442 patients (rural/peri-urban) plus their mothers or child carers were admitted, and 406 attended as outpatients. Average age was 15.4 +/- 7.6 months, weight 7.0 +/- 1.6kg, stay in hospital, 12 +/- 10.8 days, and daily weight gain during treatment was 31 +/- 48g. Mothers mainly were young and unmarried. Primary causative factors were infections, ignorance, and insufficiency of food. Since results from rehabilitation are usually poor, mothers and carers were taught how best to prepare meals using local foodstuffs. The interventions included teaching and demonstrations of how to grow vegetables, maintain an orchard, a fowl-run, and improve kitchen and laundry facilities. In 1990, in a follow-up of 73 patients, no deaths had occurred within a 12 month period. This far better than usual outcome is being furthered by setting up satellite nutrition clinics. PMID:1795353

  17. Psychosocial effects of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease epidemic in a rural population: qualitative diary based study

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Maggie; Convery, Ian; Baxter, Josephine; Bailey, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To understand the health and social consequences of the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic for a rural population. Design Longitudinal qualitative analysis. Setting North Cumbria, the worst affected area in Britain. Sample Purposive sample of 54 respondents divided in six demographically balanced rural occupational and population groups. Main outcome measures 3071 weekly diaries contributed over 18 months; 72 semistructured interviews (with the 54 diarists and 18 others); 12 group discussions with diarists Results The disease epidemic was a human tragedy, not just an animal one. Respondents' reports showed that life after the foot and mouth disease epidemic was accompanied by distress, feelings of bereavement, fear of a new disaster, loss of trust in authority and systems of control, and the undermining of the value of local knowledge. Distress was experienced across diverse groups well beyond the farming community. Many of these effects continued to feature in the diaries throughout the 18 month period. Conclusions The use of a rural citizens' panel allowed data capture from a wide spectrum of the rural population and showed that a greater number of workers and residents had traumatic experiences than has previously been reported. Recommendations for future disaster management include joint service reviews of what counts as a disaster, regular NHS and voluntary sector sharing of intelligence, debriefing and peer support for front line workers, increased community involvement in disposal site or disaster management, and wider, more flexible access to regeneration funding and rural health outreach work. PMID:16214809

  18. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal's tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual's lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  19. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal’s tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual’s lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  20. No Evidence of an Association between A218C Polymorphism of the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 Gene and Aggression in Schizophrenia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Lee, Joo Young

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between the tryptohan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene and aggression in schizophrenia in a Korean population. Materials and Methods The sample included 61 aggressive patients as well as 104 non-aggressive patients from psychiatric hospitals and 335 healthy volunteers in Korea. Blood samples were collected from all participants for TPH1 A218C genotyping. The patients were administered standard psychiatric interviews as well as a self-report questionnaire for anger-related traits. Results In the case-control phenotypic comparisons, there was no significant association between the aggressive patients and the TPH1 A218C polymorphism. There was no significant effect of the TPH1 genotype on the anger-related traits, or no significant interaction between the genotype and group (aggressive and non-aggressive patients). Conclusion These findings suggest that TPH1 does not play a major role in aggressive behavior via anger in schizophrenic patients. PMID:20046510

  1. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6) has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction. Materials and methods We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal. Results Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women), 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990). This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off of FEV1/FVC <70%). When grouped according to age and FEV1 (%), FEV1/FEV6 <75% diagnosed more airway obstruction in older participants and mild–moderate stages compared with FEV1/FVC <70%. Conclusion A valid fixed cut-off for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population is FEV1/FEV6 of 75%, but should be used with caution in older individuals and those with

  2. Promoter Polymorphism (rs12770170, -184C/T) of Microseminoprotein, Beta as a Risk Factor for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Ju Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common prostate disease in aging men. Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) is abundant in semen. In this study, we investigated association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the promoter of the MSMB gene and the risk for developing BPH in a Korean population. Methods We genotyped two promoter polymorphisms (rs12770171, -184C/T and rs10993994, -2C/T) of the MSMB gene by direct sequencing. Ninety-five BPH patients and 78 control subjects were recruited for this study. SNPStats and Haploview version 4.2 were used for genetic analyses. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant, dominant, recessive, and log-additive models) were applied to determine the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P-value. Results Genotype frequency of the rs12770171 SNP showed significant difference between BPH patients and controls (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.07-4.27; P=0.032 in the codominant 1 model; OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.19-4.47; P=0.011 in the dominant model; and OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.17-3.61; P=0.009 in the log-additive model). Moreover, the SNP also showed association between the two groups (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.19-3.52; P=0.009). The rs10993994 SNP was not associated with BPH. In haplotype analysis, CC and TT haplotypes were associated with BPH (P<0.05). Conclusions This result indicates that a promoter polymorphism (rs12770170, -184C/T) in the MSMB gene may be associated with BPH development in a Korean population. PMID:24987558

  3. Analysis of C-shaped root canal configuration in maxillary molars in a Korean population using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyoung-Hoon; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of root fusion and C-shaped root canals in maxillary molars, and to classify the types of C-shaped canal by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods Digitized CBCT images from 911 subjects were obtained in Chosun University Dental Hospital between February 2010 and July 2012 for orthodontic treatment. Among them, a total of selected 3,553 data of maxillary molars were analyzed retrospectively. Tomography sections in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were displayed by PiViewstar and Rapidia MPR software (Infinitt Co.). The incidence and types of root fusion and C-shaped root canals were evaluated and the incidence between the first and the second molar was compared using Chi-square test. Results Root fusion was present in 3.2% of the first molars and 19.5% of the second molars, and fusion of mesiobuccal and palatal root was dominant. C-shaped root canals were present in 0.8% of the first molars and 2.7% of the second molars. The frequency of root fusion and C-shaped canal was significantly higher in the second molar than the first molar (p < 0.001). Conclusions In a Korean population, maxillary molars showed total 11.3% of root fusion and 1.8% of C-shaped root canals. Furthermore, root fusion and C-shaped root canals were seen more frequently in the maxillary second molars. PMID:26877991

  4. THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY WALKING PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE HEALTH, AND PREVENT OBESITY, IN RURAL, HIGH RISK, MINORITY POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of community walking programs to improve health (e.g., reduce blood pressure, improve lipid profile) and prevent obesity (e.g., maintain or reduce BMI and body fat) in rural, high risk, minority populations. Original data will be presented from ...

  5. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  6. Rural Industralization and Population Growth: The Case of Arkansas. ORNL-HUD-4, Civil Defense Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Alfred W.

    Utilizing available 1966 statistical data and U.S. Census figures, the State of Arkansas was examined for purposes of analyzing: (1) the extent to which recent population gains in states such as Arkansas and Oklahoma is occurring in rural areas rather than as an extension of urbanization; (2) the extent to which U.S. manufacturing is beginning to…

  7. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  8. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1994 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This publication presents data from the current revision of estimates and projections of the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world. The publication also contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations of at least 750,000 inhabitants in 1994. The revisions are part of a series of…

  9. Literacy and Population/Family Planning Education: A Demonstration Project of the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) is working with World Education to introduce population and family planning education concepts into its literacy program in order to broaden the scope of the on-going functional literacy and family planning programs of the PRRM and to make them more applicable to the people. Specific objectives…

  10. Implementation of a 12-month community-based walking program to promote health in a rural, high risk, minority population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of implementing a rural walking program led by local community members, who served as walking group leaders. For the study, 39 participants (98% female; 54% elderly; community population 1,395) were recruited. Measurements included height, w...

  11. [The gender aspects of diet factors effect on development of diseases of circulatory system among rural population].

    PubMed

    Kamalova, F M; Valeeva, E R

    2014-01-01

    The unhealthy diet is one of important controllable risk factors of development of noninfectious diseases. The gender differences in attitude to one's own health confirm significance of their effect on health condition. The study was carried out to establish the effect of diet factors on the rate of diseases of circulatory system in rural population with consideration of gender distribution. The analysis of results of sampling examination of rural population established that 51% of disease rate in males and 22% of disease rate in females are related to diseases of circulatory system. In males and females rate of diseases of circulatory system is determined by diet factors. The direction of relationship is direct and inverse, differs in males and females and depends on diet factors. The gender differences were manifested not only in conditionality of rate of diseases of circulatory system by diet factors but also by their mutual interaction. The health management of rural population is based on examination and analysis of relationship between health of rural population and factors of their diet. PMID:25799749

  12. Improving Access to Primary Care for a Growing Latino Population: The Role of Safety Net Providers in the Rural Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Casey, Michelle; Call, Kathleen Thiede

    2004-01-01

    Many rural Midwestern communities are experiencing rapid growth in Latino populations with low rates of health insurance coverage, limited financial resources, language and cultural differences, and special health care needs. We report on 2-day site visits conducted in 2001 and 2002 in 3 communities (Marshalltown, Iowa; Great Bend, Kansas; and…

  13. Population growth, internal migration, and environmental degradation in rural areas of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bilsborrow, R E

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical issues are explored as related to the extent to which population growth, particularly population redistribution through internal migration, may influence land use patterns and the deterioration of natural resources. Conceptual approaches are presented including a model of the relationships among population growth, migration, and the rural environment. Population growth has direct effects on increased demand for fuelwood and food and land fragmentation. Indirect effects exist through the demand for food which puts pressure on land extensification and intensification which affects soil quality and out migration which affect deforestation and desertification. The prevailing natural resource endowments affect the extent to which extensification of intensification of agriculture takes place in a given time period, the forms in which it occurs, and whether demographic factors play a significant role. Current trends are described for population growth and redistribution, agricultural expansion, and deforestation, desertification, and soil erosion in low-income counties. Data are for 1990 in Asia (23), Latin American (23), and Africa (39) for 85 countries with a population 1 million. Also described are cross-country relationships and the implications. In Africa population growth rates have not changed substantially and the pressure on resources is significant, while dramatic declines have occurred in east and southeast Asia, in Latin America, population growth has changed considerably. Consequences of socioeconomic development are declines in the % of gross domestic product from agriculture and the agricultural labor force. Only Thailand, Nepal, Indonesia, and North Korea out of 23 Asian countries had increases in the % of total land used for agriculture and this resulted in deforestation. Levels were already high in 1965, with 8 countries having 20% of land in agricultural use and 4 countries having 15% in agricultural use. In Bangladesh and

  14. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

  15. Comparative Characteristic of Job Mobility and Job Career of Different Demographic Groups in Rural Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryvkina, Rozalina Vladimirovna; Koriakina, Irina Mikhailovna

    The job mobility and job career of rural women of three generations (16-29, 30-54, and 55 and older) were compared to those of rural men. Data were derived from questionnaires given to the rural people of the Novosibirsk province during surveys conducted in 1967 and 1972. Two data arrays were used--605 questionnaires mechanically selected from the…

  16. Public Beliefs on Antibiotics and Symptoms of Respiratory Tract Infections among Rural and Urban Population in Poland: A Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Cals, Jochen W. L.; Francis, Nick; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C.; Goossens, Herman; Zakowska, Izabela; Panasiuk, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction General public views and expectations around the use of antibiotics can influence general practitioners' antibiotic prescribing decisions. We set out to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the use of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections in adults in Poland, and explore differences according to where people live in an urban-rural continuum. Material and Methods Face to face survey among a stratified random sample of adults from the general population. Results 1,210 adults completed the questionnaire (87% response rate); 44.3% were rural; 57.9% were women. 49.4% of rural respondents and 44.4% of urban respondents had used an antibiotic in the last 2 years. Rural participants were less likely to agree with the statement “usually I know when I need an antibiotic,” (53.5% vs. 61.3% respectively; p = 0.015) and reported that they would consult with a physician for a cough with yellow/green phlegm (69.2% vs. 74.9% respectively; p = 0.004), and were more likely to state that they would leave the decision about antibiotic prescribing to their doctor (87.5% vs. 85.6% respectively; p = 0.026). However, rural participants were more likely to believe that antibiotics accelerate recovery from sore throat (45.7% vs. 37.1% respectively; p = 0.017). Use of antibiotic in the last 2 years, level of education, number of children and awareness of the problem of developing antimicrobial resistance predicted accurate knowledge about antibiotic effectiveness. Conclusions There were no major differences in beliefs about antibiotics between urban and rural responders, although rural responders were slightly less confident in their knowledge about antibiotics and self-reported greater use of antibiotics. Despite differences in the level of education between rural and urban responders, there were no significant differences in their knowledge about antibiotic effectiveness. PMID:25275516

  17. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  18. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females. PMID:25812547

  19. Median age at menopause in a rural population of western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Noreh, J; Sekadde-Kigondu, C; Karanja, J G; Thagana, N G

    1997-10-01

    This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PMID:9529744

  20. Reference Values of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People from an Urban and Rural Argentinean Population

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alejandro; Galli, Cintia; Tringler, Matías; Ramírez, Agustín; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In medical practice the reference values of arterial stiffness came from multicenter registries obtained in Asia, USA, Australia and Europe. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard method for arterial stiffness quantification; however, in South America, there are few population-based studies. In this research PWV was measured in healthy asymptomatic and normotensive subjects without history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. Normal PWV and the 95% confidence intervals values were obtained in 780 subjects (39.8 ± 18.5 years) divided into 7 age groups (10–98 years). The mean PWV found was 6.84 m/s ± 1.65. PWV increases linearly with aging with a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.61; P < 0.05) with low dispersion in younger subjects. PWV progressively increases 6–8% with each decade of life; this tendency is more pronounced after 50 years. A significant increase of PWV over 50 years was demonstrated. This is the first population-based study from urban and rural people of Argentina that provides normal values of the PWV in healthy, normotensive subjects without family history of hypertension. Moreover, the age dependence of PWV values was confirmed. PMID:25215227

  1. A New Approach to Reach Latino Populations in Rural and Urban Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P.; Garcia, A.; Galindo, C.; Obot, V.; Allen, J.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Garcia, J.; Garza, O.

    2004-12-01

    Current statistics indicate that Latino populations have lower high school and college graduation rates than Anglos or African Americans. If Latinos do not pursue baccalaureate and higher degrees, then this group will be left behind as technological advances increasingly drive our society. The drop out rate affects not only the individuals, families, communities, and society from many different aspects, including financial independence, but also loss of potential contributing members of society in science, engineering, etc. Houston, an urban area, with a Latino population of 39% and Brownsville, a rural area represented by 84% Latinos, are two Texas areas where universities, schools, museums, and NASA are reaching out to increase science skills and graduation rates. Many Houston families have the opportunity to be introduced to different options, but Brownsville families do not have the same opportunities as the area lacks a strong industrial and technological base. We have developed programs to improve the space and Earth science knowledge base by providing summer science enrichment programs for K-12 students, family events, exposing high school students to college opportunities, and training high school and college students to serve as mentors to their peers. The peer mentors lead many of the outreach venues, interacting with the public with demonstrations and interactive science activities. In addition, we have developed a series of teacher workshops and modules on integrated science and mathematics. The teacher workshops are designed to provide the teachers with a wealth of integrated examples for classroom use.

  2. Qualitative changes in AIDS preventative attitudes in a rural Senegalese population.

    PubMed

    Wade, A S; Enel, C; Lagarde, E

    2006-07-01

    Recent changes in knowledge and attitudes towards AIDS in a rural population of Senegal were assessed comparing two cross-sectional studies conducted six years apart (1997 and 2003). Random samples of 866 and 709 adults aged 15-59 were included. Sociodemographic characteristics of the two population samples were very similar. The proportion of those who estimated their personal risk of being infected by HIV as high or very high fell from 49.1% in 1997 to 17.2% in 2003. The proportion of those who reported having already changed their behaviour to protect themselves from AIDS fell from 56.3% to 24.9%. Methods cited as protection against HIV changed over the period. Fidelity and/or partner selection was cited by 93% of respondents in 1997 and 58% in 2003 when suspicion of potentially soiled materials appeared. Finally, attitudes towards persons living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA) in 2003 were ambivalent: while 73.9% thought that a PLWHA should not be allowed to mix with other villagers, 65.1% would be ready to provide care to a PLWHA. Drastic changes in attitudes towards the AIDS threat could be identified over the period. AIDS preventive attitudes measured in 1997 were not sustained in 2003, while stigmatization of PLWHA was very widespread. PMID:16777645

  3. Assessment of mental health literacy using a multifaceted measure among a Chinese rural population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Xi-guang; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to assess mental health literacy (MHL) using a standardised multifaceted 20-item instrument called Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) developed by the Chinese Ministry of Health, among a rural Chinese population. Setting Four villages in Liuyang county of Hunan province, China. Participants This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster-sampling method was adopted, leading to a final sampling frame of 2377 residents aged 18–60 years from four villages of Liuyang county. Included in the study were residents aged 18–60 years living in their village for at least half a year; excluded were those not living in the areas during the research period, those with difficulty in communication due to serious physical or mental illness and those who were cognitively impaired or actively psychotic. Finally, 2052 participants completed the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was correct response rate of the MHKQ; secondary outcome measures were association between sociodemographics and MHL, and association between MHL and health outcomes. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 19% to 94%, with a mean rate of 58%. Younger age (r=−0.02, p<0.01), higher education (r: 1.38–2.69, p<0.01) and higher income (r=0.41, p<0.01), were independently associated with higher MHL. MHL was independently associated with self-rated general health (r=2.31, p<0.01), depression (r=−0.09, p<0.01) and anxiety (r=−0.07, p<0.05). Conclusions MHL in the rural areas of Liuyang is lower than that reported in urban areas of China. There is much room for improvement with regard to MHL promotion in rural areas of China. Younger age, higher education and higher income are the three robust factors related to higher MHL, so cohort-specific educational intervention efforts may be indicated. PMID:26438139

  4. Assessing demographic and epidemiologic parameters of rural dog populations in India during mass vaccination campaigns.

    PubMed

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Gompper, Matthew E

    2013-08-01

    Mass vaccination of dogs is a mainstay for efforts to control rabies and other viral pathogens. The success of such programs is a function of the ability to vaccinate sufficient proportions of animals to develop herd immunity. However, fully assessing success in reaching target vaccination-levels and in understanding the outcome of mass vaccination efforts is hindered if insufficient information is available on the demographics of dog populations and the prevalence of the targeted pathogens. While such information can sometimes be gained from questionnaire surveys, greater precision requires direct assessment of the dog populations. Here we show how such information can be gained from surveys of dogs conducted in association with mass-vaccination programs. We conducted surveys of dogs in six villages in rural Maharashtra, India, between February and July 2011 as part of an effort to reduce the risk of human rabies and virus transmission from dogs to wildlife. Mass vaccination efforts were conducted in each village, and paired with blood sample collection and photographic mark-recapture approaches to gain epidemiologic and demographic data. This data in turn facilitated estimates of dog abundance, population density and structure, vaccination coverage, and seroprevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). The median dog population size for the six villages was 134 (range 90-188), the median dog population density was 719 dogs per km(2) (range 526-969), and the median human:dog ratio for these six villages was 34 (range 30-47). The median household:dog ratio for the six villages was 6 (range 5-8). Following vaccination efforts, the median vaccination coverage achieved was 34% (range 24-42%). The dog populations consisted mostly of adult dogs (67-86%) and the median sex ratio for the study area was male biased (1.55 males per female; range 0.9-2.5). The seroprevalence of antibodies against CAV, CPV

  5. The Saskatchewan rural health study: an application of a population health framework to understand respiratory health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory disease can impose a significant burden on the health of rural populations. The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) is a new large prospective cohort study of ages 6 and over currently being conducted in farming and non-farming communities to evaluate potential health determinants associated with respiratory outcomes in rural populations. In this article, we describe the rationale and methodology for the adult component. The study is being conducted over 5 years (2009–15) in two phases, baseline and longitudinal. The baseline survey consists of two components, adults and children. The adult component consists of a questionnaire-based evaluation of individual and contextual factors of importance to respiratory health in two sub populations (a Farm Cohort and a Small Town Cohort) of rural families in Saskatchewan Rural Municipalities (RMs). Clinical studies of lung function and allergy tests are being conducted on selected sub-samples of the two cohorts based on the positive response to the last question on the baseline questionnaire: “Would you be willing to be contacted about having breathing and/or allergy tests at a nearby location?”. We adopted existing population health theory to evaluate individual factors, contextual factors, and principal covariates on the outcomes of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. Findings Of the RMs selected to participate, 32 (89%) out of 36 RMs and 15 (94%) out of 16 small towns within the RMs agreed to participate. Using the mail out survey method developed by Dillman, we obtained completed questionnaires from 4264 households (8261 individuals). We obtained lung function measurements on 1609 adults, allergy skin test information on 1615 adults; both measurements were available on 1549 adults. We observed differences between farm and non-farm rural residents with respect to individual, contextual factors and covariates. Discussion There are

  6. Impact of population and latrines on fecal contamination of ponds in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Knappett, Peter S K; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E; Huq, R; Alam, J; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S; Ahmed, Kazi M; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 10⁶ Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent, to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

  7. Impact of Population and Latrines on Fecal Contamination of Ponds in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D.; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E.; Huq, Md. R.; Alam, Md. J.; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 106 Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

  8. [Tuberculosis in the rural population as a public health problem during the organizational perestroika of medical care].

    PubMed

    Golubeva, T M

    1992-01-01

    The results of 5 years' observation of the epidemiologic situation for tuberculosis in the northwest region of the Russian Federation have shown that tuberculosis prevalence among the rural population is less than in Russia, on the average. There is a tendency towards disappearance of the epidemiologic differences between the rural and urban locality, which enables one to regard tuberculosis as a single epidemiologic problem. At the same time, high level of tuberculosis contingents is maintained in rural settlements, which can be ascribed to the insufficient effectiveness of treatment or dispensary follow-up. A negative influence of social factors also grows. In conditions of the multivariant character of the organization of the public-health service optimization of work can be achieved by the creation of interregional scientific-practical centres. PMID:1289898

  9. Patterns of Tobacco Use Across Rural, Urban, and Urban-Slum Populations in a North Indian Community

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek; Yadav, Kapil; Anand, K

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is the leading cause of mortality globally and in India. The magnitude and the pattern of tobacco consumption are likely to be influenced by the geographical setting and with rapid urbanization in India there is a need to study this differential pattern. Aim: The aim was to study the rural, urban, and urban-slum differences in patterns of tobacco use. Settings: The study was conducted in Ballabgarh block, Faridabad district, Haryana, and was a community-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in years 2003-2004 using the WHO STEPS approach with 7891 participants, approximately equal number of males and females, selected using multistage sampling from urban, urban-slum, and rural strata. Statistical Analysis: The analysis was done using the SPSS 12.0 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Direct standardization to the WHO world standard population was done to and chi-square and ANOVA tests were used for comparison across three study settings. Results: Self-reported tobacco use among males was as follows: urban 35.2%; urban-slums 48.3%; and rural 52.6% (P value <0.05). Self-reported tobacco use among females was as follows: Urban 3.5%; urban-slums 11.9%; and rural 17.7% (P value <0.05). More males reported daily bidi (tobacco wrapped in temburini leaf) smoking (urban 17.8%, urban-slums 36.7%, rural 44.6%) than cigarette use (urban 9.6%, urban-slums 6.3%, rural 2.9%). Females using smoked tobacco were almost exclusively using bidis (urban 1.7%, 7.9%, 11% in rural). Daily chewed tobacco use had urban, urban-slum, and rural gradients of 12%, 10.5%, and 6.8% in males respectively. Its use was low in females. Conclusion: The antitobacco policies of India need to focus on bidis in antitobacco campaigns. The program activities must find ways to reach the rural and urban-slum populations. PMID:20922100

  10. Geospatial and Temporal Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence in a Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, John P.; Jackson, Erin; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Sprague, Brian L.; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has resulted in the rate tripling over the past 30 years. Reasons for this increase have not been established. Geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) tools have emerged as powerful geospatial technologies to identify disease clusters, map patterns and trends, and assess the impact of ecological and socioeconomic factors (SES) on the spatial distribution of diseases. In this study, these tools were used to analyze thyroid cancer incidence in a rural population. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence and socio-demographic factors in Vermont (VT), United States, between 1994 and 2007 were analyzed by logistic regression and geospatial and temporal analyses. Results: The thyroid cancer age-adjusted incidence in Vermont (8.0 per 100,000) was comparable to the national level (8.4 per 100,000), as were the ratio of the incidence of females to males (3.1:1) and the mortality rate (0.5 per 100,000). However, the estimated annual percentage change was higher (8.3 VT; 5.7 U.S.). Incidence among females peaked at 30–59 years of age, reflecting a significant rise from 1994 to 2007, while incidence trends for males did not vary significantly by age. For both females and males, the distribution of tumors by size did not vary over time; ≤1.0 cm, 1.1–2.0 cm, and >2.0 cm represented 38%, 22%, and 40%, respectively. In females, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounted for 89% of cases, follicular (FTC) 8%, medullary (MTC) 2%, and anaplastic (ATC) 0.6%, while in males PTC accounted for 77% of cases, FTC 15%, MTC 1%, and ATC 3%. Geospatial analysis revealed locations and spatial patterns that, when combined with multivariate incidence analyses, indicated that factors other than increased surveillance and access to healthcare (physician density or insurance) contributed to the increased thyroid cancer incidence. Nine thyroid cancer incidence hot spots, areas with very high normalized incidence, were identified