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Sample records for korean school-aged children

  1. The Korean Version of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist: Psychometric Properties in Korean School-aged Children.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Woo, Jungmin; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Sunyung; Chung, Un-Sun

    2015-08-01

    Psychosocial problems increase the risk for mental health problems and increase the need for health care services in children and adolescents. Primary care practice is a valuable avenue for identifying the need for more specialized mental health care. We hypothesized that Korean version of the pediatric symptom checklist (PSC) would be a useful tool for early detection of psychosocial problems in children and adolescents in Korea and we aimed to suggest cut-off scores for detecting meaningful psychosocial problems. A total of 397 children with their parents and 97 child patients with their parents were asked to complete the PSC Korean version and the child behavior checklist (CBCL). The internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the PSC as well as the cut-off score of the PSC was determined via receiver operating characteristic analysis of the CBCL score, clinical group scores and non-clinical group scores. The internal consistency of the PSC-Korean version was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95). The test-retest reliability was r = 0.73 (P < 0.001). Using clinical CBCL scores (total score, externalizing score, internalizing score, respectively ≥ 60) and presence of clinical diagnosis, the recommended cut-off score of the PSC was 14. Using 494 Korean children aged 7-12 yr, the current study assessed the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the PSC and suggested a cut-off for recommending further clinical assessment. The present results suggest that the Korean version of the PSC has good internal consistency and validity using the standard of CBCL scores. PMID:26240496

  2. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  3. Environmental Lead Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Domains in a Community Sample of South Korean School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Im, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Bhang, Soo-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-01-01

    features of ADHD. Citation Hong SB, Im MH, Kim JW, Park EJ, Shin MS, Kim BN, Yoo HJ, Cho IH, Bhang SY, Hong YC, Cho SC. 2015. Environmental lead exposure and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom domains in a community sample of South Korean school-age children. Environ Health Perspect 123:271–276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307420 PMID:25280233

  4. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... the parent is concerned about their well-being. Peer acceptance becomes more important during the school-age ... are highly active. They need physical activity and peer approval, and want to try more daring and ...

  5. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    PubMed

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  6. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  7. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  8. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  9. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  10. Assessing attachment in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Patricia; Kozlowska, Kasia; Landini, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    The School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA) is a newly developed clinical tool to identify pattern of attachment using the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM). Seven picture cards were used to elicit fantasy stories and recalled episodes. The transcribed discourse was analyzed to yield one of 13 DMM attachment classifications, together with possible unresolved traumas and losses, and modifiers (depression and intrusions). In this article, we outline the steps necessary to validate an assessment tool, describe the development of the SAA, and report data from a preliminary clinical study testing the SAA's reliability, validity, and utility. Concurrent construct, familial, and discriminant validity were evaluated in terms of mental health status and exposure to danger on a sample of 5-12-year-old children, drawn from clinical ( n = 51) and normative (n = 40) populations. The SAA (a) differentiated children referred for psychiatric diagnosis from those in the normative population; (b) accounted for 31% of the variance (46% when family variables were added); (c) identified risk children in the normative sample; and (d) suggested risk factors associated with children's psychiatric disorder. PMID:20176770

  11. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  12. Relationship between activity limitations and participation restriction in school-aged children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between activity limitation and participation restriction in school-aged children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected from 109 children with cerebral palsy aged 6–12 years. Activity limitations were assessed by using functional classification systems including the Korean-Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Korean-Manual Ability Classification System, and the Korean-Communication Function Classification System. Participation restriction was measured using the Korean-Frequency of Participation Questionnaire. Physical or occupational therapists and parents collected the data. [Results] All levels of the functional classification systems were significantly negatively correlated with Korean-Frequency of Participation Questionnaire ratings (r= −0.382 to −0.477). The Korean-Frequency of Participation Questionnaire ratings differed significantly with respect to the functional classification systems; in particular, the differences in the ratings of levels I and V were significant. The Korean-Communication Function Classification System and Korean-Gross Motor Function Classification System were significant predictors of participation, explaining 26.5% of the variance. [Conclusion] Intervention programs are required to promote communication skills and gross motor ability in order to improve the participation of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:26357445

  13. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  14. Childhood Depression in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sandra M.

    At any one time, between 2 percent and 17 percent of the school-age population in the United States experiences moderate to severe depression. Too often, depression goes unrecognized, damaging self-esteem, ruining academic achievement, and disrupting families. This paper discusses childhood depression and treatment. Following an introduction…

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  16. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  17. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  18. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  19. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  20. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  1. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  2. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  3. Evaluating and treating school-aged children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Yaruss, J Scott

    2010-11-01

    School-based speech-language pathologists are often called upon to treat children who stutter, though many clinicians have reported that they feel uncomfortable working with this population. Fortunately, there is much that speech-language pathologists can do to help children who stutter speak more easily and minimize the adverse impact of stuttering in both academic and social settings. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with a guide to some of the key issues they should consider when working with school-aged children who stutter. The goal is to encourage clinicians to develop a better understanding of how stuttering can affect school-aged children, how the adverse effects of the disorder can be documented so children can be qualified for treatment, and, ultimately, how the negative consequences of stuttering can be minimized through a comprehensive approach to treatment. PMID:21080298

  4. Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

  5. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  6. Latchkey Children and School-Age Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Michelle; Fink, Dale B.

    This ERIC Digest provides an overview of school-age child care (SACC) programs and suggests reasons for their growth. Discussion points out that escalating interest in SACC has paralleled the raising numbers of children left on their own, and that educators are only the latest in a parade of civic and professional groups which have gone on record…

  7. Auditory Sensitivity in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehub, Sandra E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Obtained thresholds for octave-band noises with center frequencies of 0.4, 1, 2, 4, and 10 kHz and 1/3-octave band noises centered at 10 and 20 kHz from children aged 6 to 16 years. Compared results with findings for infants, preschool children, and adults. Continuing sensitivity improvements were evident from infancy well into the school years.…

  8. Resistance Training for Elementary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, George A.; McCurdy, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for physical education teachers to utilize a foundation of physiological principles to design and monitor appropriate, safe, and effective exercise for their students. Adult training programs are not appropriate for children. Teachers should consider individual levels of maturation, motor skill ability, and affective needs when…

  9. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  10. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    PubMed

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-01

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school-children

  11. Quality Care for School-Age Children: A Self-Instructional Guide To Help Staff Plan and Implement a Quality Program for School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childcare Resources, Birmingham, AL.

    The purpose of this manual is to provide school-age child care center staff in Alabama with information about school-age children that facilitates program planning and provides a basis for implementing and evaluating a high quality school-age child care (SACC) program. Sections of the manual discuss: (1) teacher competencies addressed by the…

  12. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  13. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  14. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  15. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  16. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally. PMID:26510873

  17. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  18. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Salehi, Mansour; Rasoulain, Maryam; Naserbakht, Morteza; Salarifar, Mohammad Hosien

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. Methods In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. Results Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. Conclusion A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances. PMID:22952526

  19. Elementary school age children's comprehension of specific idiomatic expressions.

    PubMed

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M; Mackey, T A

    1985-08-01

    This study explored the ability of elementary school age children to comprehend six idiomatic expressions. Eighty linguistically normal children, 20 from each of four different grade levels (kindergarten, second grade, fourth grade, and sixth grade) participated as subjects. All of the children completed a task designed to probe comprehension of specific idioms. A short story was presented, after which the subjects were required to identify events in the story, which were described using idiomatic phrases. When examined as a group, comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. These results are discussed with regard to clinical implications in the assessment and management of language-disordered children. PMID:4019816

  20. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  1. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    PubMed Central

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0–15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  2. Bicycle safety knowledge and behavior in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, S R; Nagel, R W

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine school age children's knowledge of bicycling rules of the road and their bicycling behaviors. A one-page questionnaire was administered in the classroom to 276 of 300 children in grades 4 through 8 of an upper middle class suburban school district. The children were questioned regarding their knowledge of three basic bicycling rules of the road, prior bicycle safety instruction, use of bicycle helmets, and the occurrence and severity of previous bicycle accidents. Students who reported receiving previous bicycle safety instruction were more knowledgeable than those receiving no instruction regarding rule 2, always stop at a stop sign or red light (90% compared with 74%), and rule 3, always stop and look when approaching a street from a driveway or alley (74% compared with 60%). Students who did not know rule 3 were more likely to have had a recent bicycle accident in which their bicycle was damaged (21% compared with 8%) and to have ever gone to the hospital or a physician because of injuries sustained in a bicycle accident (19% compared with 9%). Children who lacked knowledge of basic bicycling rules were more likely to have had a significant bicycling accident. Bicycle safety instruction increases children's knowledge of these rules and should be promoted by physicians caring for children. PMID:2345336

  3. Behavior Management for School Aged Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Haack, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Behavior management treatments are the most commonly used nonpharmacological approaches for treating ADHD and associated impairments. This review focuses on behavioral parent training interventions for school age children in the home setting and adjunctive treatments developed to extend effects across settings. The underlying theoretical basis and content of these interventions are described. Empirical support includes numerous randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses showing positive effects of these interventions on child compliance, ADHD symptoms and impairments, parent-child interactions, parenting and parenting stress. These studies support categorization of behavior management treatment as a well-established, evidence-based treatment for ADHD. Factors for consideration in clinical decision-making and future directions for research are provided. PMID:25220083

  4. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool. PMID:20433337

  5. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  6. Unmet Needs of Families of School-Aged Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan; Kelley, Elizabeth; Cobigo, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To aid decision making regarding the allocation of limited resources, information is needed on the perceived unmet needs of parents of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 101 Canadian families of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder.…

  7. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:25380232

  8. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:26835531

  9. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  10. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  11. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  12. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  13. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  14. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. PMID:25145389

  15. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  16. Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

  17. Primary School Attendance and Completion among Lower Secondary School Age Children in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, governments pledged to achieve education for all by 2015. However, if current enrollment trends continue, the number of out-of-school children could increase from current levels. Greater focus is needed on lower secondary school age (13-16 years) children. These children are not included estimates of…

  18. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  19. Fact Sheet on School-Age Children's Out-of-School Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth

    This fact sheet details information on the ways children spend their out-of-school time. The fact sheet includes information on the number of school-age children with working parents; enrolled in before- or after-school programs; and spending time without adult supervision. Also highlighted are the risks to children during out-of-school hours for…

  20. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  1. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  2. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  3. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  4. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  5. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. PMID:26458198

  6. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  7. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  8. Can Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Affect Developmental Abilities in Younger School-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðokovic, Sanja; Gligorovic, Milica; Ostojic, Sanja; Dimic, Nadežda; Radic-Šestic, Marina; Slavnic, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The research study was conducted for the purpose of examining the influence of mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (MBSNHL) on developmental abilities of younger school-age children. The sample encompassed 144 children with MBSNHL, aged 7.5-11 (M = 8.85). MBSNHL (20-40 dB HL) was identified by pure tone audiometry. The control group…

  9. Narrative Skill and Syntactic Complexity in School-Age Children with and without Late Language Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domsch, Celeste; Richels, Corrin; Saldana, Michelle; Coleman, Cardin; Wimberly, Clayton; Maxwell, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who do not produce single words by the expected age have been described as "late talkers" or as demonstrating "late language emergence" (LLE). Although their short-term growth in vocabulary is often strong, longer-term consequences of LLE remain in dispute. It has been argued that the majority of school-age children who had…

  10. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  11. Teaching Grammar to School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment Using Shape Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbels, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to teaching grammar which has been designed for school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI). The approach uses shapes, colours and arrows to make the grammatical rules of English explicit. Evidence is presented which supports the use of this approach with older children in the areas of past tense…

  12. Speech Disfluency in School-Age Children's Conversational and Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Logan, Kenneth J.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to (a) compare the speech fluency of school-age children who do and do not stutter (CWS and CWNS, respectively) within 2 standard diagnostic speaking contexts (conversation and narration) while also controlling for speaking topic, and (b) examine the extent to which children's performance on such discourse tasks is…

  13. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  14. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  15. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  16. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  17. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  18. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  19. Shame Solutions: How Shame Impacts School-Aged Children and What Teachers Can Do to Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Though many psychologists and researchers argue over the age at which humans first experience shame, all agree that by age two children have the capacity to be shamed (Lansky and Morrison 1997). School-aged children have invariably been exposed to shame at home and receive an extra dose of it in our current school system. This essay investigates…

  20. Cohesive Adequacy in the Narrative Samples of School-Age Children Who Use African American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the type and adequacy of cohesive devices that are produced by school-age children who use African American English (AAE). Method: The language samples of 33 African American children, ages 7, 9, and 11 years, were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE use and cohesive adequacy (e.g., personal reference,…

  1. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  3. Pragmatic Language Profiles of School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties.…

  4. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  5. Factors Associated with Screen Time among School-Age Children in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics with screen time among school-age children in Korea. This study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design. A total of 370 children attending four elementary schools participated in the study. Self-report…

  6. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  7. Language Outcomes of School-Aged Internationally Adopted Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, as a group, many internationally adopted children catch up to their peers in terms of their language development by the time they reach their school-age years. Although this appears to be particularly true for children adopted during the first few years of life, it is not true for all internationally adopted…

  8. Oral Discourse and Reading Comprehension Abilities of African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    The reading underachievement of African American (AA) school-age children has received considerable attention in educational circles. Unfortunately, there are relatively few studies designed to uncover the source or sources of these reading achievement differences, especially in children beyond early elementary grades. Some studies suggest that…

  9. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  10. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  11. An Analysis of Personal Event Narratives Produced by School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Kristina M.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.

    This study compared and analyzed the language capabilities of 10 school-age children raised in either single parent homes resulting from divorce or in two parent families. More specifically, it compared the context and complexity of oral personal event narratives produced by both groups of children. The study also investigated the usefulness and…

  12. Latchkey Children and School-Age Child Care: A Background Briefing. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale B.

    This background briefing paper synthesizes current thinking and practice on the issue of latchkey children and school-age child care (SACC). The paper defines the problem of latchkey children; reviews related literature and programmatic responses to the problem; reports responses of four southern states; and points out implications for policy…

  13. Speech and Articulatory Rates of School-Age Children in Conversation and Narrative Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Jennifer A.; Seery, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary reference data for speech and articulatory rates of school-age children in conversational and narrative speaking contexts. Method: Participants included 36 typically developing children in 3 groups of 12 participants at ages 7, 9, and 11 years. Conversational and narrative speech rates were measured in…

  14. Visual Development and Neuropsychological Profile in Preterm Children from 6 Months to School Age.

    PubMed

    Sayeur, Mélissa Sue; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Tremblay, Emmanuel; Lepore, Franco; McKerral, Michelle; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this semilongitudinal study was to investigate the development of central visual pathways in children born preterm but without major neurologic impairments and to establish their cognitive and behavioral profile at school age. Ten children born preterm were assessed at 6 months and at school age, using visual evoked potentials at both time points and cognitive and behavioral tests at school age. We also tested 10 age-matched children born full-term. At 6 months' corrected age, we found no significant differences between preterm and full-term groups for either amplitude or latency of N1 and P1 components. At school age, the preterm group manifested significantly higher N1 amplitudes and tended to show higher P1 amplitudes than the full-term group. We found no significant differences in cognitive and behavioral measures at school age. These results suggest that preterm birth affects visual pathways development, yet the children born preterm did not manifest cognitive problems. PMID:25414236

  15. Socioemotional Effects of Fathers' Incarceration on Low-Income, Urban, School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Marani, Jodi E.; Appugliese, Danielle; Woods, Ryan; Siegel, Jane A.; Cabral, Howard J.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal was to evaluate whether children of incarcerated fathers are more likely to report or exhibit behavioral symptoms than their equally disadvantaged peers without an incarcerated father. METHODS During an ongoing longitudinal study of intrauterine cocaine exposure involving 102 children (50% male and 89% black) from urban, low-income homes, questions regarding incarceration of the child's father were asked of the child's primary caregiver at each visit during school age. Children were administered the Children's Depression Inventory between the ages of 6 and 11 years, and their primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In addition, the children's teachers completed the Teacher Report Form. Children's Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist, and Teacher Report Form data obtained at the oldest available age after the first report of paternal incarceration were analyzed. RESULTS In bivariate analyses, children whose fathers were in jail had higher Children's Depression Inventory total scores compared with children without incarcerated fathers, indicating more depressive symptoms. This finding was robust in multivariate analyses after adjustment for children's age, gender, prenatal cocaine and alcohol exposure, and school-age violence exposure. Teachers reported higher Teacher Report Form externalizing scores for children whose fathers were in jail, after adjustment for age, gender, prenatal cocaine and marijuana exposure, and school-age violence exposure. CONCLUSIONS Children of incarcerated fathers reported more depressive symptoms and their teachers noted more externalizing behaviors, after controlling for other biopsychosocial risks. Interventions targeted to ameliorate the distress of children with incarcerated fathers should be considered. PMID:17766508

  16. The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 8--Language Minority School-Age Children. NCES 2009-081

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    "The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about language minority school-age children. Between 1979 and 2007, the number of school-age children (children ages 5-17) who spoke a…

  17. Demographic, Environmental, Access, and Attitude Factors that Influence Walking to School by Elementary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ariel; Vogt, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Walking to school has been identified as an activity that contributes to children's daily exercise requirements. The purpose of this study was to better understand factors that influence walking to school by elementary school-aged children. Methods: A sample of 1,897 elementary school-aged children (84% response rate; 3rd-5th graders)…

  18. Development of the Conversation Participation Rating Scale: Intervention Planning Implications for Two School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timler, Geralyn R.; Boone, William J.; Bergmann, Amelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have pervasive challenges in social interactions with peers. This study examined the feasibility of eliciting children's perceptions of their conversation participation with peers for the purposes of assessment and intervention planning. Methods: Two school-age children with ASD…

  19. Teaching Prelinguistic Communication Skills to School Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica Hetlinger

    2008-01-01

    Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT) is an intervention designed to teach young children to initiate nonverbal communication using vocalizations, gestures, and eye-gaze. Children are taught through social routines in their natural environment. Techniques include contriving an environment in which the children will be motivated to communicate and…

  20. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  1. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  2. Inclusion of School-Age Children with Disabilities in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.; Kolchenko, Kateryna

    2007-01-01

    For many years, children with developmental problems, sensory disorders, brain dysfunction, and complex disorders have remained at the margins of the Ukrainian regular education system or have been excluded from it. In 2004, 1.8 percent of the children in Ukraine were registered as having disabilities. In this article, the authors describe the…

  3. Computers and Children of Primary School Age: Issues and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siann, Gerda; Macleod, Hamish

    1986-01-01

    Results of a study of disadvantaged primary school children which focused on effects of exposure to Logo, microcomputer social interaction, and children's expressed interest in computers, are discussed in context of relevant literature. It is concluded computer literacy should be primary goal at this level and computer equity is crucial. (MBR)

  4. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Zhang, Xuyang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study asked if children's performance on language tests reflects different dimensions of language and if this dimensionality changes with development. Method: Children were given standardized language batteries at kindergarten and at second, fourth, and eighth grades. A revised modified parallel analysis was used to determine the…

  5. The Use of Antidepressants in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kelly; Nguyen, Bich; Liu, Nianci; Watkins, Melissa; Reutzel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the pediatric population suffers from depression. Children suffering from depression should be treated first with some type of psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, and/or education. Pharmacotherapy (medications) should be used only as a last resort for those children suffering from severe, chronic, or recurring depression. The…

  6. Altered Gray Matter Volume and School Age Anxiety in Children Born Late Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541

  7. Sleep problems of school-aged children: a complementary view.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E J; Aronen, E T; Moilanen, I; Piha, J; Räsänen, E; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this population-based multicentre study was to evaluate the prevalence rates of sleep problems among 8-9-y-old children. The sample consisted of 5813 Finnish children, making up 10% of the age cohort. Both parents and children provided information. Disturbed sleep was reported by 21.7% of parents. Most of the problems were mild; only 0.3% were serious. Dyssomnias were frequent: 11.1% had difficulties with sleep onset, 7.1% with night waking and 2.3% with waking too early. Multiple sleep problems were present in 9.1% of the children. 17.8% of children reported disturbed sleep, 12.7% had problems many nights and 5.1% every night. In 32.0% of cases, either the parent or the child reported disturbed sleep; 7.4% of these reports came from both the parent and the child, 14.1% from the parent only and 10.3% from the child only. The correspondence between informants was poor (kappa = 0.224). Sleeping problems were associated with somatic and psychiatric problems. It is concluded that by restricting questioning to parents only, one-third of all potential cases of sleep problems may go unnoticed. In order to increase the sensitivity of screening children's sleep problems, both parents and children should provide information in epidemiological settings as well as in clinical work. PMID:10709895

  8. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  9. Internet and Independent E-Learning of School Age Children in Thailand (One Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Schools generally have been unable to keep up with the rapid technical changes in modern society. As a result, primary school age children worldwide are becoming self-taught independent e-learners and the gap between what they know and are able to do exceeds the learning outcomes for their schools' ICT (information communication technology)…

  10. The Design and Implementation of a Summer Care Program for School Age Children of Working Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpini, Joyce

    An elementary school administrator designed and implemented a 12-week summer program for school-age children that provided educational, recreational, and cultural opportunities. Each week of activities centered on a specific theme. Recreational opportunities included sports activities, outdoor games, organized indoor games, free play, swimming,…

  11. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  12. Factors Affecting the Processing of Intensity in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W., III; Grose, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thresholds of school-aged children are elevated relative to those of adults for intensity discrimination and amplitude modulation (AM) detection. It is unclear how these findings are related or what role stimulus gating and dynamic envelope cues play in these results. Two experiments assessed the development of sensitivity to intensity…

  13. Preliminary Study of Disfluency in School-Aged Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaler Scott, Kathleen; Tetnowski, John A.; Flaitz, James R.; Yaruss, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there has been increased identification of disfluencies in individuals with autism, but limited examination of disfluencies in the school-age range of this population. We currently lack information about whether the disfluencies of children with autism represent concomitant stuttering, normal disfluency, excessive…

  14. Speech Disruptions in the Sentence Formulation of School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finneran, Denise A.; Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many school-age children with specific language impairment produce sentences that appear to conform to the adult grammar. It may be premature to conclude from this, however, that their language formulation ability is age appropriate. Aims: To determine whether a more subtle measure of language use, speech disruptions during sentence…

  15. Maternal Attitudes toward Mother-Child Separation: Working and Nonworking Mothers of School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplik, Elissa K.; Fisher, Celia B.

    Exploring possible similarities and differences between mothers who work outside the home and mothers who do not, this study provides a preliminary investigation of maternal reactions to mother-child separation when children have reached school age. A total of 41 women working outside the home and 48 mothers staying at home responded to a…

  16. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  17. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  18. After-School Programs for School-Age Children and Parents: A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Betty-Jo Armstrong

    Prompted by the lack of federal involvement in extended day programs for elementary school students in Chicago, this literature review presents background information on national after-school programs for school-age children. Discussed are the history of federal involvement in child care, current federal legislation and programs, the participation…

  19. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points…

  20. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  1. Perceptions of School Nurses regarding Obesity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyers, Pamela; Bugle, Linda; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the nation's school-age population with African American and Hispanic children and adolescents specifically at risk. School nurses at elementary and middle public schools in the Missouri 8th Congressional District were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity. School nurses supported preventive interventions…

  2. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  3. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by two contemporaneous events: the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and presc...

  4. Ambiguous Loss and Posttraumatic Stress in School-Age Children of Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocknek, Erika London; Sanderson, Jessica; Britner, Preston A., IV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a sample of school-age children of incarcerated parents enrolled in a federally funded mentoring program. A mixed methods approach was applied to discern key themes related to caregiver incarceration. Results demonstrated a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress as well as high rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.…

  5. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  6. A Longitudinal Analysis of Sex Differences in Math and Spatial Skills in Primary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming…

  7. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  8. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity, and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and pr...

  9. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  10. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  11. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  12. [Bamako school age children and their diet from street vendors].

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Monnier, T; Bendech, M A

    1994-01-01

    Eating outside the home is very common in African cities. Food is bought from street vendors and eaten on the street. A large proportion of these consumers are school children, but little is known about what they buy, and the reasons why they make the choices they do. We therefore surveyed 494 second and sixth year primary school children in 1993. They were all enrolled at schools or Muslim colleges in both affluent and underprivileged areas of Bamako (Mali). The language used for the survey was Bambara. Almost all the children had money, mostly given by either or both of their parents and in most cases supplemented by odd jobs. The richest group of children were those in the sixth year in the more privileged areas. However, within a district or a (school) class, there was no correlation between the family's socio-economic group (SEG) and money available to the child. The proportions of children in each area, SEG and class buying the following classes of food were nearly identical; drinks, ice cream, groundnuts, fruit, cooked meals, uncooked meals, and sweets. The amount of money available correlated with the purchase of cooked or uncooked meals and drinks. The amount spent on food correlated with the money available, and the relationship is particularly clear for cooked and uncooked meals. The independence of the children in buying food represents a large part of the total daily food budget of the family. Their true diet and its nutritional value should therefore be quantified. Strategies targeting these children to help improve their diet would have a favorable effect on nutrition, because of their autonomy. Any such strategy should involve the street vendors so as to improve the quality of their products. PMID:7850193

  13. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    PubMed

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning. PMID:2170913

  14. School mobility and school-age children's social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-02-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions was investigated. These issues were examined in 2 longitudinal samples of U.S. (N = 1,364) and Canadian (N = 1,447) elementary school children. Propensity weighted analyses controlling for premobility individual, family, and friends' characteristics indicated that children who experienced both school and family transitions were at risk of either social withdrawal (in the Canadian sample) or affiliation with socially maladjusted peers (in the U.S. sample). These findings suggest the importance of considering both the social consequences of school mobility and the context in which such mobility occurs. PMID:25485607

  15. Preschool and school age children under welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, S M; Kerker, B D

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the behavioral and school problems of young children whose mothers participated in two different income support programs, Jobs First and AFDC. The analyses also included measures of maternal education, maternal health, maternal psychological factors, and family environment. There were no differences in child school or behavioral problems across the income support programs. Children, however, were more likely to have school problems if they were older or if their mothers received less than a high school education, reported child behavioral problems or made criteria for depression on the CIDI. Behavioral problems were more likely to occur if mothers reported violence in the home, many depressive symptoms on the CES-D, few child positive qualities, or if the child had repeated a grade. Several familial factors, then, must be addressed in order to ensure that children excel both academically and behaviorally. PMID:11758877

  16. Nutrients for cognitive development in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Janet; Osendarp, Saskia; Hughes, Donna; Calvaresi, Eva; Baghurst, Katrine; van Klinken, Jan-Willem

    2004-08-01

    This review considers the research to date on the role of nutrition in cognitive development in children, with a particular emphasis on the relatively neglected post-infancy period. Undernutrition and deficiencies of iodine, iron, and folate are all important for the development of the brain and the emergent cognitive functions, and there is some evidence to suggest that zinc, vitamin B12, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may also be important. Considerations for future research include a focus on the interactions between micronutrients and macronutrients that might be influential in the optimization of cognitive development; investigation of the impact of nutritional factors in children after infancy, with particular emphasis on effects on the developing executive functions; and selection of populations that might benefit from nutritional interventions, for example, children with nutrient deficiencies or those suffering from attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia. PMID:15478684

  17. The Effects of a School-Based Atopy Care Program for School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hosihn; Lee, Youngjin

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based atopy care program (SACP) for children with atopic dermatitis (AD). The program is administered by health teachers who are also school nurses. The study compared groups using a pre- and post-test design. Participants were children with AD and their parents (98 dyads; 32 in the test group and 66 in the control group) sampled from four elementary schools in Seoul. After completing the SACP, parents in the test group had significantly increased knowledge of AD (p = .04) and a greater sense of parental efficacy (p = .02) when compared with the control group. This study derived guidelines that elementary health teachers can use in practice for school-aged children with AD. We concluded that there is sufficient evidence of effectiveness for the SACP to be used as a model for chronic disease management in school-aged children. PMID:24942774

  18. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  19. Neuropsychological Screening with School-Age Children: Rationale and Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recently endorsed definitions of learning disabilities presume that the disability is due to central nervous system dysfunction. To identify those children who should receive a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, an effective approach to neuropsychological screening is needed. Provides a rationale and conceptual framework for development…

  20. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  1. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity. PMID:23945411

  2. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  3. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  4. Calcium absorption and vitamin D status in school age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-Abs). There are few similar pediatric data. We evaluated the relationship between 25-D and Ca-Abs by pooling data from 439 Ca-Abs measurements over a 15-yr period at our center in 251 healthy children 4.9 to 16....

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  6. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2010 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Firgens, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality for low-income families. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about infants and toddlers…

  7. Excess weight gain in elementary school-aged Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current data was collected as part of a 6-year longitudinal study in which elementary schools from a southeast Texas school district were provided with resources to encourage children to make healthier choices. The objective of the current study was to evaluate children’s change in body mass ind...

  8. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  9. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce. PMID:7847571

  10. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  11. Recidivism and drug use among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Cappel, L W

    1982-10-01

    This paper is the result of an investigation of recidivism rates among teenaged children who completed a program designed to improve communication between the children and their parents. A sample of 62 children from 13 to 18 years old was utilized. All had been referred to a mental health program by juvenile courts for therapeutic intervention because of drug offenses. The intervention program stressed family communication and communication techniques and required both the child and parents to attend. Three types of rates of recidivism were then obtained from juvenile court records for each sample member including all referrals, adjusted referrals, (excluding such referrals for truancy, fighting, traffic offenses, etc.), and those referrals for drug offenses only. These were analyzed for both pre- and post- intervention length of time. Analysis of data revealed significant (p v .001) decrease for all three categories of referral. Notable was that the recidivism rate for drug offenses declined significantly. While this data is encouraging some considerations are necessary. First, the degree of experimental control was limited. The use of a control group would perhaps have been beneficial. Secondly, one must consider the effect of the "arrest experience" and its relationship to learning how to avoid getting caught for the same offense twice. This could be examined further if the pre- and post-intervention periods could be lengthened. A final consideration would be the effect of other intervention programs on recidivism. since many of the children were receiving more than one type of therapy. The question of which intervention program most effected the decline of recidivism would have to be answered before one could accept the conclusion that the communication program was indeed responsible for the significant decrease in recidivism. PMID:6923961

  12. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns. PMID:19899646

  13. Middle-school-age outcomes in children with very low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Minich, N M; Hack, M

    2000-01-01

    Most previous studies of children with birthweight <750 g have focused on early childhood sequelae. To evaluate later outcomes, a regional sample of 60 <750-g birthweight children was compared at middle school age (M = 11 years) to 55 children with birthweight 750-1,499 g and 49 term controls. The groups were matched on age, gender, and demographic variables at the time of an early-school-age assessment (mean age 7 years). The <750-g birthweight group fared less well at middle school age than the term group on measures of cognitive function, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. In many instances, outcomes were less favorable for the <750-g children than for the 750 to 1,499-g group. Children in the <750-g group who were free of neurosensory disorders and global cognitive impairment performed more poorly on several tests than their term counterparts. Group differences in this subsample on tests of motor skills, math, and the ability to copy and recall a complex drawing remained significant even after controlling for IQ. Disparities between the <750-g and term groups increased with age for some measures. Despite favorable outcomes for many children in the <750-g group, this population is at risk for long-term developmental problems. PMID:11194251

  14. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. PMID:20022181

  15. Dyslipidemia in Overweight and Obese School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Finn, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Dyslipidemia often affects overweight and obese adolescents and can be present along with hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. This article is the third of six discussing the comorbidities of childhood obesity and will focus on the individual parts of the lipid profile and the impact of dyslipidemia on the heart and other body systems. Since few pharmacologic therapies are approved to treat dyslipidemia in children and adolescents younger than 18, treatment consists of lifestyle changes that can be supported and modeled by the school nurse. The school nurse can also be an advocate for a healthy lifestyle in the school district and community. More success in the treatment of dyslipidemia will be realized with less attention to changing the individual and more attention to changing the wider populations, including schools and the community. PMID:26219905

  16. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related and interpersonal-related impulsivity, as observed by teachers, parents, and the students themselves, are distinct, moderately correlated behavioral tendencies. Each demonstrates differentiated relationships with dimensions of childhood temperament, Big Five personality factors, and outcomes, such as sociometric popularity, report card grades, and classroom conduct. Implications for theoretical conceptions of impulsivity as well as for practical applications (e.g., domain-specific interventions) are discussed. PMID:24118714

  17. Factors Related to Emotional Responses in School-aged Children Who Have Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Veronica García

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions (a) What factors contribute to the emotional responses of school-age children who have asthma? (b) What are the potential gaps in the literature regarding the emotional responses of school-age children (ages 6–12) who have asthma? (c) Are children with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) and those who are minorities represented in the literature proportionate to their prevalence? Two main focus areas regarding emotional responses were identified: (a) factors related to children who have asthma and (b) factors related to caregivers of children who have asthma. Internalizing disorders were reported consistently for children and caregivers of children who have asthma. Negative consequences of asthma for children included panic and asthma attacks, missed school days, and behavioral problems. Issues for caregivers included higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, asthma management deficits, and lower caregiver warmth and involvement. Gaps in the literature included separated studies for children ages 6–12, a lack of a standardized method to define SES, studies that were of a more experimental nature, and studies of minority children and caregivers commensurate with their asthma prevalence. PMID:22757594

  18. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    PubMed

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:1301479

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (β = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency. PMID:25990628

  20. Hypnobehavioral approaches for school-age children with dysphagia and food aversion: a case series.

    PubMed

    Culbert, T P; Kajander, R L; Kohen, D P; Reaney, J B

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe hypnobehavioral treatment of five school-age children with maladaptive eating behaviors, including functional dysphagia, food aversion, globus hystericus, and conditioned fear of eating (phagophobia). The unique treatment approach described emphasizes the successful use of self-management techniques, particularly hypnosis, by all five children. Common etiological factors, treatment strategies, and proposed mechanisms of change are discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case series in the mainstream pediatric literature describing the use of a hypnobehavioral approach for children with these maladaptive eating problems. PMID:8897222

  1. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children. PMID:22696895

  2. Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children.

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, K; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A; Briefel, R R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high-income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children; preschool food-insufficient children had more frequent colds. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency and low family income are health concerns for US preschool and school-aged children. PMID:11344887

  3. The LMS and Z Scale Growth Reference for Saudi School-age Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Alqurashi, Mansour M.; Al Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al Omar, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: To establish L, M, and S parameters and z score reference for the assessment of nutrition and growth of Saudi school-age children and adolescents. Subjects and Methods: Data from the original cross-sectional study were reanalyzed. The L, M, and S parameters and z scores were calculated for weight, height and body mass index for school-age children and adolescents. Results: A total of 19,299 subjects from 5 to 18 years of age were included. All were Saudi nationals and 9,827 (50.9%) were boys. The L M S parameters and z scores for weight for age, height for age, and BMI for age for boys and girls are presented in detailed tables across the age of commonly used z scores (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3). Graphs corresponding to the same parameters (weight, height, and BMI) showing the main z scores across all ages from 5 to 18 years are illustrated. Conclusion: This report provides the first reference for nutritional status and growth of Saudi school-age children and adolescents. This tool is essential for more accurate assessment of growth and nutrition in various clinical conditions and research. PMID:27488329

  4. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances.

    PubMed

    Coverstone, Andrea; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2015-05-01

    Although the majority of children with asthma have a favorable clinical response to treatment with low to moderate doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), a small subset of children have "severe" asthma characterized by ongoing symptoms and airway inflammation despite treatment with high doses of ICS and even oral corticosteroids. Although there is symptom heterogeneity in the affected children, children with severe asthma share the risk for adverse outcomes, including recurrent and potentially life-threatening exacerbations, which contribute to substantial economic burden. This article reviews current knowledge of severe asthma in school-age children (age 6-17 years) with a focus on recent literature published after January 2012. Clinical management approaches for children with severe asthma are discussed as well as current phenotyping efforts and emerging phenotypic-directed therapies that may be of benefit for subpopulations of children with severe asthma in the future. PMID:26134431

  5. Feasibility of Comprehensive, Unattended Ambulatory Polysomnography in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Carole L.; Traylor, Joel; Biggs, Sarah N.; Roberts, Robin S.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Narang, Indra; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Davey, Margot J.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Cheshire, Maureen; Gibbons, K. Jeremy; Dix, Joanne; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Doyle, Lex W.; Opie, Gillian F.; D'ilario, Judy; Costantini, Lorrie; Bradford, Ruth; Schmidt, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although unattended ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) is frequently performed in adults, few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive, ambulatory PSG, including electroencephalography, in school-aged children in the home environment. Methods: A total of 201 children, born premature with birth weights of 500-1,250 grams, currently aged 5-12 years and living in Canada and Australia, underwent unattended ambulatory PSG. Results: PSG was initially technically satisfactory in 183 (91%) cases. Fourteen studies were satisfactory when repeated, resulting in an overall satisfactory rate of 197 (98%). Artifact-free signals were obtained for ≥ 75% of recording time in more than 92% of subjects, with the exception of nasal pressure, which was satisfactory for ≥ 75% of recording time in only 67% of subjects. However, thermistry signals were satisfactory for ≥ 75% of recording time in 92% of subjects, and some measure of airflow was present for ≥ 75% of recording time in 96% of subjects. Children slept very well, with a long total sleep time (534 ± 73 [mean ± SD] minutes), high sleep efficiency (92% ± 5%), and low arousal index (9 ± 3/h). Parents and children reported a high rate of satisfaction with the study. Conclusions: This large, international study has shown that comprehensive, unattended, ambulatory PSG is feasible, technically adequate and well-tolerated in school-aged children when performed under research conditions. Further studies regarding the cost efficacy of this approach, and generalizability of the findings to a clinical population, are warranted. Citation: Marcus CL, Traylor J, Biggs SN, Roberts RS, Nixon GM, Narang I, Bhattacharjee R, Davey MJ, Horne RS, Cheshire M, Gibbons KJ, Dix J, Asztalos E, Doyle LW, Opie GF, D'ilario J, Costantini L, Bradford R, Schmidt B. Feasibility of comprehensive, unattended ambulatory polysomnography in school-aged children

  6. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    PubMed

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  7. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-related QOL worsened (higher scores). Children with more asthma severity had worse asthma-related QOL. Post-hoc analyses showed that racial/ethnic minorities reported worse asthma-related QOL scores than did non-Hispanic Whites. PMID:22920660

  8. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

  9. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  10. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  11. Salivary and hair glucocorticoids and sleep in very preterm children during school age.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Natalie; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Stalder, Tobias; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wellmann, Sven; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm birth involves increased stress for the child, which may lead to programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and poor sleep in later life. Moreover, there is evidence for a relationship between HPA axis activity and sleep. However, research with objective sleep measures in very preterm children during school-age is rare. Eighty-five healthy children born very preterm (<32nd gestational week) and 91 full-term children aged 7-12 years were recruited for the present study. To assess HPA axis activity, salivary cortisol was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. In addition, hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to assess cumulative endocrine activity over the preceding months. One night of in-home polysomnographic sleep assessment was conducted to assess sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture. Children born very preterm showed significantly lower levels of cortisol at awakening and lower overall post-awakening cortisol secretion, lower cortisone in hair, and earlier sleep onset than full-term children. Across the whole sample, overall post-awakening cortisol secretion was positively related to sleep onset time and negatively to sleep duration. The association between prematurity status and post-awakening cortisol secretion was partially mediated by earlier sleep onset time. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a possible down-regulation of the HPA axis activity and slightly earlier sleep phase in very preterm children during school age. PMID:27434634

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  13. Non-Resident Fathers' Relationships with Their Secondary School Age Children: Determinants and Children's Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Data from 520 British secondary school age children were used to explore determinants of and mental health outcomes (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) from their non-resident fathers' relationships (child-reported father's involvement and frequency of contact) with them. Frequency of contact was negatively related to time…

  14. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated. PMID:21404979

  15. Changes in breathing pattern upon 100% oxygen in children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Jost, K; Lenherr, N; Singer, F; Schulzke, S M; Frey, U; Latzin, P; Yammine, S

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) is an increasingly used tidal breathing test in young children to assess ventilation inhomogeneity. However, the test requires 100% oxygen to perform. We aimed to examine the potential influence of pure oxygen on breathing pattern in school-aged children. We performed tidal breathing measurements under room air followed by N2MBW in 16 former preterm children and 24 healthy controls. We compared tidal volume (VT), coefficient of variation of VT (CVVT), respiratory rate (RR), and minute ventilation (VE) between tidal breathing and N2MBW, and between the start and end of tidal breathing. Mean (range) age was 6.8 (5.9, 9.0) years. VT, RR and VE showed no significant change upon oxygen-exposure, while CVVT significantly decreased by 5% (95% CI: 1.2, 9.0; p=0.012). However CVVT was also the only parameter which significantly decreased during tidal breathing. Overall, pure oxygen has no systematic effect on breathing pattern in young school-aged children. N2MBW can reliably be used as tracer gas in this age group. PMID:26970571

  16. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration. PMID:24188543

  17. A twin-study of sleep difficulties in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Alice M; Rijsdijk, Frühling V; Eley, Thalia C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than parent report (e.g., regular sleep onset delay was reported by 45% of children and 17% of parents). Associations between most of the sleep difficulties were small but significant (e.g., r(s)=.16 for parent report of bedtime resistance and sleep onset delay). Twin correlations based on parent reports suggest greater genetic influence (M=50%) than those based on child self-report (M=18%). Possible rater effects should be considered when evaluating children's sleep problems. PMID:17107453

  18. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children*

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers’ voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German–English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  19. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations. PMID:21404978

  20. Promoting normal development and self-efficacy in school-age children managing chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mickley, Kristyn L; Burkhart, Patricia V; Sigler, April N

    2013-06-01

    Chronic conditions can affect school-age children in more ways than just physically. Normal childhood maturation is critical at this age, yet daily management of chronic symptoms can be challenging. This article describes 4 common childhood chronic illnesses (asthma, seizure disorders, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis), and the impact these conditions have on the developing child. Self-efficacy, the belief that one can effectively perform necessary skills, is essential to self-management of chronic conditions and contributes in a positive way to the child's normal development. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23659816

  1. Risk factors for mental health problems in school-age children from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana Vilela; Souza Crippa, José Alexandre de; Souza, Roberto Molina; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiological dimension of mental health problems in childhood and its impact warrant new studies. Knowledge about the predictors of mental health in children is scant in developing countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian school-age children based on a community sample from primary health care services, with the aim of verifying the predictive value of biological, social, and familial risk factors in children's mental health. The study was performed with 120 children of both genders identified through their mothers. The children's mental health was evaluated by sociodemographic factors and a diagnostic interview conducted with parents. Biological, social, and familial risk factors were evaluated by the Supplemental Questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Of the 120 children, 45.8 % were diagnosed with at least one mental health disorder. Children with diagnoses of depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presented evidence of greater exposure to risk factors compared with children without these psychiatric diagnoses. Children with more risk factors throughout their lifetime had greater comorbidities compared with children with a lower number of risk factors. The identification of groups exposed to interconnected risk factors represents a priority when planning mental health practices. The strong role of chronic familial risk factors needs to be emphasized because they are a possible target for the prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders. PMID:23212399

  2. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  3. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  4. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  5. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Findings Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5%) boys and 488 (47.5%) girls 679 (66.05%) cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%), 360 (35%) and 394 (38.3%) respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence. Conclusion Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended. PMID:23724176

  6. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  7. Language ability, executive functioning and behaviour in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Karasinski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Background Many children with language impairment present with deficits in other areas, including executive functioning (EF), attention and behaviour. Similarly, many children receiving services for attention or behaviour problems have deficits in language ability. Aims To evaluate the relations among EF, language ability and behaviour problems in a sample of school-age children with a wide range of language and behaviour profiles. The following research questions were addressed: Does performance on EF tasks predict language ability? Do language ability and EF predict problems with attention, internalizing and/or externalizing? Methods & Procedures EF was defined as referring to the separable, yet related, processes of shifting, updating working memory and inhibition as specified in the latent variable model of EF. Children aged 8–11 years recruited from an urban school district completed standardized language and cognitive assessments and a computerized task assessing EF. Their parents completed standardized questionnaires assessing the children's EF and problem behaviours. Regression analyses were conducted. Outcomes & Results Regression analyses revealed that EF did not contribute to language ability beyond the variance accounted for by nonverbal reasoning. Language ability contributed to attention problems when entered as a single predictor, but was no longer significant when the EF measures were added to the model. Language ability did not significantly contribute to internalizing or externalizing behaviour problems. Parent-reported inhibition was a robust predictor of attention, internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems. Conclusions & Implications In this sample of school-age children, language ability was related to attention problems, but not to internalizing or externalizing. Children with behaviour problems may have particular difficulty with inhibition. PMID:25582151

  8. Whooping cough in school age children with persistent cough: prospective cohort study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Harnden, Anthony; Grant, Cameron; Harrison, Timothy; Perera, Rafael; Brueggemann, Angela B; Mayon-White, Richard; Mant, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate the proportion of school age children with a persistent cough who have evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection. Design Prospective cohort study (October 2001 to March 2005). Setting General practices in Oxfordshire, England. Participants 172 children aged 5-16 years who presented to their general practitioner with a cough lasting 14 days or more who consented to have a blood test. Main outcome measures Serological evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection; symptoms at presentation; duration and severity of cough; sleep disturbance (parents and child). Results 64 (37.2%, 95% confidence interval 30.0% to 44.4%) children had serological evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection; 55 (85.9%) of these children had been fully immunised. At presentation, children with whooping cough were more likely than others to have whooping (odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 5.82), vomiting (4.35, 2.04 to 9.25), and sputum production (2.39, 1.14 to 5.02). Children with whooping cough were also more likely to still be coughing two months after the start of their illness (85% v 48%; P = 0.001), continue to have more than five coughing episodes a day (P = 0.049), and cause sleep disturbance for their parents (P = 0.003). Conclusions For school age children presenting to primary care with a cough lasting two weeks or more, a diagnosis of whooping cough should be considered even if the child has been immunised. Making a secure diagnosis of whooping cough may prevent inappropriate investigations and treatment. PMID:16829538

  9. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children

    PubMed Central

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the USA, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he/she knows who his/her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with non-adopted children. Objectives This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 non-adopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the non-adopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher’s report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Conclusion Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  10. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    PubMed

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children. PMID:9681260

  11. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children. PMID:26048162

  12. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH STATUS OF PRIMARY-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN (ADJARA REGION).

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, Ts; Jorjoliani, L; Adamia, N

    2016-06-01

    Goal of the research was complex evaluation of the health status of the primary-school aged children residing in various regions (urban, rural) of Adjaria. Cross-section, one-stage research was conducted in the City of Batumi and village Tsikhisdziri. In the process of survey health status of children of 4 public schools, from 6 to 9 years old was studied. Observations covered up to 800 school children in total. Screening included consultations of the multidisciplinary group of specialists, additional laboratory and instrumental studies intended for the purpose of accurate diagnostics. Performed studied showed that 28.3% of the studied population was actually healthy, 55% had functional disorders and 16.7% - chronic diseases. In both, urban and rural areas the share of the digestion system, blood and blood-generating organs, nervous system, ophthalmological pathologies and locomotion system diseases prevailed. PMID:27441536

  13. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  14. Fatty acid composition of diets of early school-age children and its health implications

    PubMed Central

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the amount and type of fat consumed by early school-age children per day. Dietary fat intake as a percentage of the total calorie intake was also estimated. Methods: The study was conducted in Lublin, the largest city in south-east Poland, between January 2014 and April 2014, on 702 randomly selected children, i.e. 3% of the total population of early school-age children in the research area. The parents were asked to provide information about the type and amount of food consumed by their children daily. A standard food frequency questionnaire was used. Results: Dietary levels of saturated fat were elevated in the analyzed populations and were the source of 13.33% of daily calorie intake. In the studied population, the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was determined at 3.25: 2.95: 1. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) reached 1.057 ± 0.55 g (0.63% of daily calorie intake) on average, and dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) was determined at 3.86 ± 2.51 g (2.31% of daily calorie intake). Conclusions: The average total calorie intake of children aged 6-11 years was 1445.66 calories per day. Average fat intake was 29.64 % of the total calorie intake. The highest intake of SFAs was found in the youngest age group of 6- to 8-year-olds. The type of food consumed by children affected the amount and type of dietary fat in all age groups. PMID:26870117

  15. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence. PMID:23615339

  16. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  17. Effect of backpack position on foot weight distribution of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung; Kim, Chang Ju; Oh, Duck-Won

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of backpack position on foot weight distribution of standing school-aged children. [Subjects] Thirty school-aged children volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects randomly performed four types of carrying a backpack: no backpack (condition-1), carrying a backpack at C7 (condition-2), carrying a backpack at 10 cm below C7 (condition-3), and carrying a backpack at 20 cm below C7 (condition-4). [Results] Statistically significant differences were noted in the anterior and posterior pressure values, and in the anterior-to-posterior ratio, among the four conditions (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicated that the pressure value of condition-4 was significantly lower in the anterior foot region and higher in the posterior foot region than in condition-2 and condition-3. In addition, the anterior-to-posterior ratio was lower in condition-4 than in condition-2 and condition-3. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that carrying a backpack in a higher position, with fastening of the shoulder strap, may be more favorable for normalizing the foot weight distribution. PMID:25931722

  18. Effect of backpack position on foot weight distribution of school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung; Kim, Chang Ju; Oh, Duck-Won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of backpack position on foot weight distribution of standing school-aged children. [Subjects] Thirty school-aged children volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects randomly performed four types of carrying a backpack: no backpack (condition-1), carrying a backpack at C7 (condition-2), carrying a backpack at 10 cm below C7 (condition-3), and carrying a backpack at 20 cm below C7 (condition-4). [Results] Statistically significant differences were noted in the anterior and posterior pressure values, and in the anterior-to-posterior ratio, among the four conditions (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicated that the pressure value of condition-4 was significantly lower in the anterior foot region and higher in the posterior foot region than in condition-2 and condition-3. In addition, the anterior-to-posterior ratio was lower in condition-4 than in condition-2 and condition-3. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that carrying a backpack in a higher position, with fastening of the shoulder strap, may be more favorable for normalizing the foot weight distribution. PMID:25931722

  19. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  20. Developmental Outcomes of School-Age Children with Duarte Galactosemia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Potter, Nancy L; Coles, Claire D; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    Duarte galactosemia (DG) is a mild allelic variant of classic galactosemia that results from partial impairment of galactose-1P uridylyltransferase (GALT). Although infants with DG are detected by newborn screening in some US states at close to 1/4,000 live births, most are discharged from follow-up very early in life and there is no consensus on whether these children are at increased risk for any of the long-term developmental delays seen in classic galactosemia. There is also no consensus on whether infants with DG benefit from dietary restriction of galactose. Reflecting the current uncertainty, some states choose to identify infants with DG by newborn screening and others do not. As a first step toward characterizing the developmental outcomes of school-age children with DG, we conducted a pilot study, testing 10 children with DG and 5 unaffected siblings from the same group of families. All children tested were between 6 and 11 years old. We used standardized direct assessments and parent-response surveys to collect information regarding cognition, communication, socio-emotional, adaptive behavior, and physical development for each child. Despite the small sample size, our data demonstrated some notable differences between cases and controls in socio-emotional development, in delayed recall, and in auditory processing speed. These results confirm that direct assessment of school-age children with DG can detect subtle but potentially problematic developmental deficits, and underscore the need for a larger study which has sufficient power to evaluate these outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding factors. PMID:25681083

  1. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K

    2015-02-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. PMID:24548430

  2. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, E.; Steinschneider, M.; Lee, W.; Lawson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7–15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. PMID:24548430

  3. Sleep and television and computer habits of Swedish school-age children.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr a day at the TV or the computer, being tired in school, and having difficulties both in waking up and in sleeping. Discussing sleep and media habits with schoolchildren and their parents regarding matters of optimal sleep and of how media habits affect sleep and learning is seen to be an important task of the school health service. PMID:22472633

  4. Lexical and Phrasal Prominence Patterns in School-Aged Children's Speech

    PubMed Central

    Shport, Irina A.; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the integration of word- and phrase-level prominences in speech produced by 25 school-aged children (6;2 to 7;3) and 25 adults. Participants produced disyllabic number words in a straight count condition and in two phrasal conditions, namely, a stress clash and non-clash phrasal context. Duration and amplitude measures of syllable rhymes were used to assess the realization of lexical stress, and fundamental frequency (F0) measures were used to assess the realization of phrasal pitch accents across conditions. Results showed that the duration and F0 correlates varied independently of each other as a function of condition in child speech, but much less so in adult speech. The group differences were taken to indicate that 6-year-old children have yet to develop prosodic structures with integrated prominence. Structural and pragmatic interpretations of the results are discussed. PMID:24020889

  5. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

    PubMed

    Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research. PMID:20673649

  6. Developmental change and consistency in parental interactions with school-age children who have mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Floyd, F J; Costigan, C L; Phillippe, K A

    1997-05-01

    Developmental changes and within-family consistency in parent-child interactions were examined for mothers and fathers of school-age children (6 to 18 years) with mental retardation. At Time 1 and 18 to 24 months later, 98 families (29 single, 69 two-parent) with a child who had mild or moderate mental retardation completed semi-structured interaction sessions in their homes. As expected, both positive and negative exchanges decreased longitudinally, and cross-sectional comparisons revealed fewer parent commands, less child noncompliance, fewer child negatives, and less parent positive reciprocity with older children. Most behaviors were highly consistent between family members and stable over time. Findings were discussed in relation to parental responsiveness to developmental changes for the child and the coherence of family relationships over time. PMID:9152474

  7. Built Environment Features that Promote Cycling in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Previous research shows that children and youth who cycle to/from school are more active and fitter than those who travel by motorized modes. However, rates of cycling are low in many countries, and a better understanding of the correlates of cycling may inform the development of future interventions. This review summarizes the current literature on the built environment correlates of cycling among school-aged children and youth. While both studies of transportation and recreational cycling were eligible, the majority of the 12 included studies focused on the trip to/from school and consistently indicated that shorter distance between home and school is associated with greater odds of cycling. However, little is known about the correlates of cycling for other purposes. Furthermore, other built environment features have not been studied enough to allow strong conclusions to be drawn. Recommendations for future studies are proposed to address the limitations of current evidence. PMID:26364306

  8. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  9. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009–2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents’ health status of 3,542 children aged 4–12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  10. Inhibition of the mirror generalization process in reading in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Ahr, Emmanuel; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2016-05-01

    A striking error in reading is the early and sometimes persistent confusion of mirror letters such as b and d. These mirror errors are likely a result of the mirror generalization process that allows one to identify a visual stimulus regardless of its presentation side. A previous study demonstrated that preventing mirror errors in reading requires the inhibition of the mirror generalization process in expert adult readers (Borst et al., 2015). Using the same experimental paradigm, the current study aimed at replicating this result in school-aged children. Three age groups-1st, 3rd, and 5th graders-performed a negative priming study in which they were asked to determine on the primes whether two letters were identical and on the probes whether two animals facing opposite directions were identical. All three groups of children required more time to discriminate two letters that were lateral mirror images of one another (e.g., b/d) than two letters that were not (e.g., f/t). Crucially, children required more time to determine that two animals facing opposite directions were identical when preceded by two letters that were lateral mirror images of one another (b/d) than when preceded by letters that were not mirror images of one another (f/t). Importantly, the amplitude of the negative priming effect did not vary with age. Our results suggest that overcoming mirror errors in reading, regardless of the reading proficiency of school-aged children, is rooted in the ability to inhibit the mirror generalization process. PMID:26827098

  11. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School-Age Children in Afar Area, Northeastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, Abraham; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Levecke, Bruno; Legesse, Mengistu; Negash, Yohannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Erko, Berhanu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection was determined among school-age children living in the Middle and Lower Awash Valley, Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Between February and May 2014, urine samples were collected from 885 school-age children (5-16 years of age) from the Middle (n = 632; 4 villages) and Lower (n = 253; 3 villages) Awash Valley. All samples were processed using urine filtration to detect and quantify S. haematobium eggs. In addition, a subset of the urine samples was tested for hematuria using a urine dipstick (n = 556). The overall prevalence was 20.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 18.1%, 23.5%), based on urine filtration but the prevalence considerably varied across villages both in the Middle (from 12.5% to 37.0%) and Lower Awash Valley (from 0 to 5.3%). The overall mean urine egg count (UEC) among the infected children was 4.0 eggs/10 ml of urine (95% CI = 2.43, 5.52). The infection intensity varied from 0.4 eggs/10 ml of urine to 7.7 eggs/10 ml of urine in the Middle Awash Valley, and from 0 to 1.1 eggs/10 ml of urine in Lower Awash Valley. Age and sex were not associated with S. haematobium infection based on the multivariable logistic regression model. The prevalence of hematuria was 56.3% (95% CI = 52.2%, 60.4%) among a subset of the study participants (556) examined using the urine dipstick. The prevalence of hematuria also varies with villages from 8.3% to 93.2%. In conclusion, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the Middle Awash Valley was high and it varies across villages. Hence, children living in the present study villages of the Middle Awash Valley need to be treated with praziquantel to reduce morbidity and disrupt transmission. PMID:26252615

  12. Identification of Serologic Markers for School-Aged Children With Congenital Rubella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Sato, Helena Keico; Hao, LiJuan; Flannery, Brendan; Zheng, Qi; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ciccone, Flávia Helena; de Sousa Marques, Heloisa; Weckx, Lily Yin; Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira Moraes, Eliane; Pinhata, Marisa Mussi; Neto, Jaime Olbrich; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Junior, Alfredo Tabith; Monteiro, Tatiana Alves; Figueiredo, Cristina Adelaide; Andrus, Jon K.; Reef, Susan E.; Toscano, Cristiana M.; Castillo-Solorzano, Carlos; Icenogle, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) case identification is challenging in older children since laboratory markers of congenital rubella virus (RUBV) infection do not persist beyond age 12 months. Methods We enrolled children with CRS born between 1998 and 2003 and compared their immune responses to RUBV with those of their mothers and a group of similarly aged children without CRS. Demographic data and sera were collected. Sera were tested for anti–RUBV immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG avidity, and IgG response to the 3 viral structural proteins (E1, E2, and C), reflected by immunoblot fluorescent signals. Results We enrolled 32 children with CRS, 31 mothers, and 62 children without CRS. The immunoblot signal strength to C and the ratio of the C signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration were higher (P < .029 for both) and the ratio of the E1 signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration lower (P = .001) in children with CRS, compared with their mothers. Compared with children without CRS, children with CRS had more RUBV-specific IgG (P < .001), a stronger C signal (P < .001), and a stronger E2 signal (P ≤ .001). Two classification rules for children with versus children without CRS gave 100% specificity with >65% sensitivity. Conclusions This study was the first to establish classification rules for identifying CRS in school-aged children, using laboratory biomarkers. These biomarkers should allow improved burden of disease estimates and monitoring of CRS control programs. PMID:25362195

  13. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  14. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  15. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  16. Perceived Stress, Perceived Social Support, and Wellbeing among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skok, Anita; Harvey, David; Reddihough, Dinah

    2006-01-01

    Background: The study considers how severity of disability, perceived stress, and perceived social support impact on the well-being of a group of mothers caring for school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Method: Forty-three mothers attending clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia were interviewed and completed the…

  17. When It Comes to Explaining: A Preliminary Investigation of the Expository Language Skills of African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…

  18. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children.…

  19. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

  20. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  1. Nonword Repetition and Phoneme Elision Skills in School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and…

  2. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  3. Sodium intake among U.S. school-age children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake which occurs among 90% of U.S. school-aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 2,142 U.S. children aged 6...

  4. Concurrent and Construct Validity of Oral Language Measures with School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Brandel, Jayne; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the psychometric properties of 2 oral language measures that are commonly used for diagnostic purposes with school-age children who have language impairments. Method: Two hundred sixteen children with specific language impairment were assessed with the Test of Language Development--Primary, Third Edition (TOLD-P:3;…

  5. The Second Digital Divide and Its Effect on African-American (K-12) School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the perceptions of educators and parents of African-American (K-12) school-age children on how the children were using technology. The study was conducted in the Memphis City Public School System (MCS) and was limited to three schools in a school district. Common themes emerged from the analysis of…

  6. Articulatory Placement for /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/ Targets in School Age Children with Speech Disorders Associated with Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona; Ellis, Lucy; Crampin, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This study used electropalatography (EPG) to identify place of articulation for lingual plosive targets /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/ in the speech of 15 school age children with repaired cleft palate. Perceptual judgements indicated that all children had correct velar placement for /k/, /g/ targets, but /t/, /d/ targets were produced as errors involving…

  7. Observable Indicators of Flow Experience: A Developmental Perspective on Musical Engagement in Young Children from Infancy to School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custodero, Lori A.

    2005-01-01

    Flow experience is an optimal state determined by an individual's perception of high skill and high challenge for a given task. In this study, young children's flow experience is examined in four naturally occurring music learning environments: infants and two-year-olds in childcare settings, and school-age children in Suzuki violin and Dalcroze…

  8. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  9. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    PubMed

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (p<.05). Girls had more significant changes than boys in the general subscale score and the total self-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends. PMID:16927727

  10. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment. PMID:12806505

  11. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  12. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  13. Effects of Psychosocial Interventions for School-aged Children's Internet Addiction, Self-control and Self-esteem: Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeun, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to perform an effect size analysis of psychosocial interventions for internet addiction and to identify the intervention moderators applied to school-aged children. Methods For the meta-analysis, studies were included that were published in English or Korean until January 2015, without limitation in terms of the year. They were retrieved from 11 electronic databases and by manual searches according to predefined inclusion criteria. Results A total of 37 studies were selected, which included 11 treatment conditions and covered a total of 1,490 participants. The effect size estimates showed that psychosocial interventions had a large effect for reducing internet addiction (standardized mean difference [SMD], –1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], –1.52 to –0.87) and improving self-control (SMD, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.47) and self-esteem (mean difference, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.03 to 5.12). The moderator analyses reveals that group treatments, a selective approach, a long duration, a community setting, or higher school grade had a larger effect. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest that psychosocial intervention may be used to prevent Internet addiction in school-aged children, although further research should be conducted using a randomized controlled trial design or diverse age groups to provide evidence-based recommendations. PMID:27525163

  14. Behavioural correlates of the P3b event-related potential in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, O.; Bastien, C. H.; Muckle, G.; Saint-Amour, D.; Jacobson, S. W.; Jacobson, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The latency and amplitude of the P3b component of event-related potentials (ERPs) have been related to behavioural performance on several attention and memory tasks in adult populations. However, the extent to which these results apply to children is unknown. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of the P3b component in a longitudinal sample of school-age children from Arctic Québec. Children (N = 110; mean age = 11.3 years) were assessed on an ERP auditory oddball paradigm and a neurobehavioral evaluation targeting several aspects of cognition, including the Stewart Extended Continuous Performance Test (E-CPT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, and five subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth edition (WISC-IV). P3b latency was positively related to reaction time measures and negatively associated with performance on the WISC-IV Digit Span Forward subtest. Amplitude of the P3b was associated with shorter completion time on the Stroop test and better delayed recognition memory performance among children who did not use semantic strategies on the CVLT. Profile analyses revealed no difference in scalp distribution of the P3b according to performance on these tests. The results are consistent with previous studies with older participants and suggest that, despite age-related differences in waveform and scalp distribution, the P3b component relates to similar neurocognitive processes in children and adults. PMID:20338199

  15. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Delnatus, Jacques R; Odom, Audrey R; Eaton, Jacob C; Griggs, Jennifer J; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B

    2015-11-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3-13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30-4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  16. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  17. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner. PMID:23780942

  18. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  19. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  20. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  1. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  2. Schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso after a decade of preventive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Hamado; Drabo, François; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Bamba, Issouf; Pima, Tiba; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Toubali, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the impact of a decade of biennial mass administration of praziquantel on schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso. Methods In 2013, in a national assessment based on 22 sentinel sites, 3514 school children aged 7–11 years were checked for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infection by the examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. We analysed the observed prevalence and intensity of infections and compared these with the relevant results of earlier surveys in Burkina Faso. Findings S. haematobium was detected in 287/3514 school children (adjusted prevalence: 8.76%, range across sentinel sites: 0.0–56.3%; median: 2.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium infection was higher in the children from the Centre-Est, Est and Sahel regions than in those from Burkina Faso’s other eight regions with sentinel sites (P < 0.001). The adjusted arithmetic mean intensity of S. haematobium infection, among all children, was 6.0 eggs per 10 ml urine. Less than 1% of the children in six regions had heavy S. haematobium infections – i.e. at least 50 eggs per 10 ml urine – but such infections were detected in 8.75% (28/320) and 11.56% (37/320) of the children from the Centre-Est and Sahel regions, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni was only detected in two regions and 43 children – i.e. 1 (0.31%) of the 320 from Centre-Sud and 42 (8.75%) of the 480 from Hauts Bassins. Conclusion By mass use of preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso may have eliminated schistosomiasis as a public health problem in eight regions and controlled schistosome-related morbidity in another three regions. PMID:26769995

  3. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  4. [Orthodontic treatment need in school-age children in the Leningrad region].

    PubMed

    Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices. PMID:27239997

  5. Self-care and deviance in elementary school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pettine, A; Rosén, L A

    1998-08-01

    Fourth-, fifth- and sixth-grade students were surveyed to investigate whether self-care was related to self-reports of behavioral or attitudinal deviance, liking for school, or both. The Child Self-Care Measure (CSCM), a multiscale self-report instrument, measured self-care as a developmental task with four major dimensions: temporal, physical, structural, and psychological. Self-care in general was not linked to deviance. However, increases in psychological self-care were strongly correlated with reductions in children's liking for school. Additionally, children in self-care who cared for younger siblings for more than a year reported more deviant behaviors than those without responsibility for younger siblings; children in the care of older siblings less than 16 years old for more than 4 years reported more tolerance for deviance than peers in self-care without older sibling caregivers. Findings support earlier speculations that children in self-care may not be developmentally ready to take responsibility for elementary school-aged siblings. Results also indicated that although girls in self-care manifest problems earlier than boys, long term self-care may be more problematic for boys than girls. PMID:9696113

  6. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS). The ILTS includes 1,045 twin pairs from the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia aged 5 to 8 years. We applied the DeFries-Fulker regression method to determine whether problems in PM and vocabulary tend to co-occur because of overlapping genes, overlapping environmental risk factors, or both. Results Among children with isolated PM deficits, we found significant bivariate heritability of PM and vocabulary weaknesses both within and across time. However, when probands were selected for a vocabulary deficit, there was no evidence for bivariate heritability. In this case, the PM-vocabulary relationship appeared to owe to common shared environmental experiences. Conclusions The findings are consistent with previous research on the heritability of specific language impairment and suggest that there are etiologic subgroups of children with poor vocabulary for different reasons, one more influenced by genes and another more influenced by environment. PMID:23275423

  7. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas. PMID:25411980

  8. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kathryn A; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity throughout childhood. Poor micronutrient status is a risk factor for infection-related morbidity in young children, but it is not clear whether these associations persist during school-age years. We examined the relation between blood concentrations of micronutrient status biomarkers and risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in a prospective study of 2774 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Retinol, zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in blood at enrollment into the cohort. Children were followed for 1 academic year for incidence of morbidity, including diarrhea with vomiting, cough with fever, earache or ear discharge with fever, and doctor visits. Compared with adequate vitamin A status (≥30.0 μg/dL), vitamin A deficiency (<10.0 μg/dL) was associated with increased risk of diarrhea with vomiting [unadjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 4.96; P-trend = 0.03] and cough with fever (unadjusted IRR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.31; P-trend = 0.05). After adjustment for several sociodemographic characteristics and hemoglobin concentrations, every 10 μg/dL plasma retinol was associated with 18% fewer days of diarrhea with vomiting (P < 0.001), 10% fewer days of cough with fever (P < 0.001), and 6% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.01). Every 1 g/dL of hemoglobin was related to 17% fewer days with ear infection symptoms (P < 0.001) and 5% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.009) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and retinol concentrations. Zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 status were not associated with morbidity or doctor visits. Vitamin A and hemoglobin concentrations were inversely related to rates of morbidity in school-age children. Whether vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk or severity of infection in children over 5 y of age needs to

  9. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  10. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity among Elementary School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen; Chu, Chia-Hua; Li, Ya-Lin; Huang, Shih-Tse

    2011-01-01

    To examine age-related physical activity (PA) patterns between- and within-day in elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PA was recorded every 5-s by uniaxial accelerometry in 35 children (grades 1-2, n = 13; grades 3-4, n = 13; grades 5-6, n = 9) for up to five weekdays and two weekend days. Younger children were…

  11. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Neglected End of the Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kasari, Connie

    2013-01-01

    It is currently estimated that about 30% of children with autism spectrum disorder remain minimally verbal, even after receiving years of interventions and a range of educational opportunities. Very little is known about the individuals at this end of the autism spectrum; in part because this is a highly variable population with no single set of defining characteristics or patterns of skills or deficits, and in part because it is extremely challenging to provide reliable or valid assessments of their developmental functioning. In this paper we summarize current knowledge based on research including minimally verbal children. We review promising new novel methods for assessing the verbal and nonverbal abilities of minimally verbal school-aged children, including eye-tracking and brain imaging methods that do not require overt responses. We then review what is known about interventions that may be effective in improving language and communication skills, including discussion of both non-augmentative and augmentative methods. In the final section of the paper we discuss the gaps in the literature and needs for future research. PMID:24124067

  12. Severe Anemia and Helicobacter Pylori Infection in school age Children; A case reports

    PubMed Central

    Gheibi, Sh; Noroozi, M; Hejazi, S; Karamyyar, M; Farrokh-Eslamlou, H

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem with major consequences for human health especially, children. However, in a fraction of patients an underlying cause is never found during routine investigation. Recent studies have suggested an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection and iron-deficiency anemia. Case presentation Here is reported four school aged children (two male, two female) with refractory severe iron-deficiency anemia associated H. Pylori gastritis. Mean age of the patients was 13.62 years old and they were admitted with chief complaints of abdominal, chest pain weakness, headache and respiratory distress. Mean hemoglobin level in patients was 6.2 g/dl with persistence to iron therapy. After the diagnosis and therapy of H. pylori infection, clinical complaints, hemoglobin level and iron profiles were being normal and they gained weight. Conclusion This study suggests screening of H. pylori infection and appropriate treatment in any case of refractory moderate to severe iron-deficiency anemia, especially with clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27222704

  13. Factors associated with screen time among school-age children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics with screen time among school-age children in Korea. This study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design. A total of 370 children attending four elementary schools participated in the study. Self-report method was used, and instruments included screen time (time spent on TV/video/computer/video games), sleep duration, eating behavior, pros and cons of exercise, and exercise self-efficacy. According to the results, 45.7% of the children had screen time of 1-2.9 hr/day and 8.9% had 3 or more hr/day. Increased screen time showed an association with gender (boy), higher body mass index, fast food consumption, higher cons of exercise, having a working mother, and attendance at a school in an inner city area (p < .05). Understanding the factors associated with screen time may provide useful information in the development of health promotion programs aimed at decreasing sedentary behaviors. PMID:23598570

  14. Features of severe asthma in school-age children: Atopy and increased exhaled nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Teague, W. Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with severe asthma have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). The differentiating features of severe asthma in children are poorly defined. Objective To identify features of severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma in school-age children using noninvasive assessments of lung function, atopy, and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 75 children (median age, 10 years) with asthma underwent baseline characterization including spirometry and lung volume testing, methacholine bronchoprovocation, allergy evaluation, and offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). Twenty-eight were followed longitudinally over 6 months. Participants were assigned to the severe asthma subgroup if they required high-dose ICS plus 2 or more minor criteria. Results Children with severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma had more symptoms, greater airway obstruction, more gas trapping, and increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Subjects with severe asthma also had higher concentrations of FENO and significantly greater sensitization to aeroallergens. With long-term study, both the reduction in FEV1 and increase in FENO persisted in the severe versus mild-to-moderate group. Furthermore, despite adjustments in ICS doses, the frequency of exacerbations was significantly higher in subjects with severe (83%) versus mild-to-moderate asthma (43%). Conclusion Severe asthma in childhood is characterized by poor symptom control despite high-dose ICS treatment and can be differentiated from mild-to-moderate asthma by measurement of lung function and FENO. Clinical implications Clinicians should suspect severe asthma in children with poor response to ICS, airway obstruction, and high FENO. PMID:17157650

  15. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear. PMID:26629120

  16. Caregivers' Experience during Their Children's Transition Process from Early Childhood Special Education Services to School-Aged Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Linda Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates caregivers' perceptions of the transition process for children transitioning from Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) to School Age Special Education services (SA). Interest in this topic developed during the researcher's 18 years of experience as an Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education Teacher during which she…

  17. Parsing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Visual Scanning of Dynamic Social Scenes in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Katherine; Moriuchi, Jennifer M.; Jones, Warren; Klin, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of variability in social visual engagement and their relationship to standardized measures of social disability in a heterogeneous sample of school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Eye-tracking measures of visual fixation during free-viewing of dynamic social scenes were obtained for 109…

  18. Expressions of Identity: The School-Age Child. 1970 White House Conference on Children, Report of Forum 3. (Working Copy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    The focus of Forum 3 was to recommend action-oriented programs to help the school-age child find and use already-existing community resources to help him develop a positive identity. Specifically, the following components are recommended: (1) The Cultural Voucher system, in which children ages 3 to 16 would be able to purchase enriching goods and…

  19. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  20. Anxiety, Depression, and Peer Relationships during Adolescence: Results from the Portuguese National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Barrett, Paula; Dadds, Mark; Shortt, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Used data from the Portuguese HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children) survey, which was conducted by one of the authors who is the national representative of the European Study HBSC, a World Health Organisation collaborative study (Currie, Hurrelmann, Setterbulte, Smith, & Todd, 2000; Matos, Simoes, Carvalhosa, Reis & Canha 2000), to…

  1. Effectiveness of Intervention for Grammar in School-Aged Children with Primary Language Impairments: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbels, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the evidence as regards the effectiveness of therapy for grammar for school-aged children with language impairments. I first review studies focusing on specific areas of grammar (both expressive and receptive targets) and then studies aiming to improve language more generally, several of which focus more on the…

  2. Identifying Psychosocial Dysfunction in School-Age Children: The Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a Self-Report Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Maria E.; Cassidy, Linden J.; Little, Michelle; Murphy, J. Michael; Jellinek, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a brief, well-validated parent-report questionnaire designed to detect psychosocial dysfunction in school-age. Study assessed the utility of the PSC when completed by children ages nine to fourteen (PSC-Y) when parents were not available. Results show the PSC-Y to potentially be a rapid, easily administered…

  3. Assessment and Treatment of Working Memory Deficits in School-Age Children: The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Donna; Costanza-Smith, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review research addressing the relationship of working memory (WM) to language development and academic functioning and to consider the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in assessment and intervention of WM difficulties in school-age children. Method: Aspects of WM critical to language acquisition and academic success are…

  4. The Design and Development of a Computerized Attention-Training Game System for School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    A computerized attention-training game system has been developed to support attention training for school-aged children. The present system offers various types of computer games that provide training in different aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and divided attention. The N-tier architecture of the Web-based…

  5. Peer Problems Mediate the Relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder and Behavioral Problems in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Bos, Klaus; Jascenoka, Julia; Jekauc, Darko; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insights into the relationship between developmental coordination disorder, peer problems, and behavioral problems in school-aged children where both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were considered. We assumed that the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and…

  6. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  7. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  8. Differentiating School-Aged Children with and without Language Impairment Using Tense and Grammaticality Measures from a Narrative Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Schneider, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the finite verb morphology composite (FVMC), number of errors per C-unit (Errors/CU), and percent grammatical C-units (PGCUs) in differentiating school-aged children with language impairment (LI) and those with typical language development (TL). Method: Participants were 61 six-year-olds (50 TL, 11…

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Syntactic Treatment Procedures with Cantonese-Speaking, School-Age Children with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Lui, Hoi Ming; Li, Xin Xin; Lam, Gary Y. H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sentence-combining (SC) and narrative-based (NAR) intervention approaches to syntax intervention using a randomized-controlled-trial design. Method: Fifty-two Cantonese-speaking, school-age children with language impairment were assigned randomly to either the SC or the NAR treatment…

  10. Enhancing Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter I. Reducing Negative Reactions through Desensitization and Cognitive Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, William P.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes several treatment strategies that clinicians can use to address negative affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions that school-age children who stutter may experience as part of their disorder. Specific strategies include desensitization to stuttering, cognitive restructuring, self-acceptance, purposeful self-disclosure,…

  11. Efficacy of the Lexicon Pirate Strategy Therapy for Improving Lexical Learning in School-Age Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motsch, Hans-Joachim; Marks, Dana-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Lexicon Pirate was originally developed as a strategy intervention programme to treat lexical disorders of pre-school children. To evaluate the therapy's effectiveness for school-age students, a randomized controlled trial (RCT, N = 157) was conducted. Based on a pre--post-test design, the programme's impacts were compared with a control group…

  12. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects on Manding and Speech Development for School-Aged Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon; Alazett, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) on the manding (requesting) and speech development of school-aged children with autism. In study 1, two participants, Damian and Bob, were taught PECS within a delayed multiple baseline design. Both participants demonstrated increased levels of manding…

  13. Understanding the Psychosocial Sequelae of the Murder of a Grandparent/Caregiver: Cases of Jamaican School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Annette; Clarke, Charmaine

    2004-01-01

    While the area of trauma and recovery in adults has received significant scholarly attention, there is a paucity of literature, both conceptual and empirical, addressing the impact of extreme traumatic events on the coping capacity of school-age children. Even less studied is the role of various individual, social, and cultural factors in…

  14. Assessing Defense Structure in School-Age Children Using the Response Evaluation Measure-71-Youth Version (REM-Y-71)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Katy B.; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and…

  15. Comparison of Two Oral Reading Feedback Strategies in Improving Reading Comprehension of School-Age Children with Low Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Linda K.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two oral reading feedback strategies in improving the reading comprehension of eight school-age children with low reading ability. Participants were assigned to one of two intervention groups matched on age, grade, gender, and general reading performance. Intervention 1 (I1) used traditional decoding-based…

  16. Occupational Therapy Practitioners' Perceptions of Important Competencies for Handwriting Evaluation and Intervention in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Peter; Woodall, William; Weber, Mark; Bailey, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the practitioner competencies that occupational therapists perceive as important for handwriting evaluation and intervention in school-aged children. A secondary purpose was to compare the practitioner perceptions of those in school-based practice with those from other primary practice…

  17. Are seat belt restraints as effective in school age children as in adults? A prospective crash study

    PubMed Central

    Halman, Stephen I; Chipman, Mary; Parkin, Patricia C; Wright, James G

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study effectiveness of seat belts for protecting school age children in road vehicle crashes. Design Crash examinations by trained investigators. Setting Ten Canadian university based crash investigation centres. Subjects 470 children aged 4-14 years, with 168 selected for detailed analysis, and 1301 adults. Main outcomes measures Use of seat belts by vehicle occupants; severity of injury adjusted for age and crash severity. Results Overall, 40% (189/470) of children were unbelted. Of the 335 children in cars driven by belted adults, 73 (22%) were unbelted. The odds of sustaining fatal or moderately severe injury (injury severity score ⩾4) for children in the front passenger seat was more than nine times higher for unbelted children than for belted ones (odds ratio 9.8 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 39.4)) and for those in the rear left seat was more than two times higher for unbelted than for belted children (2.6 (1.1 to 5.9)). The protection afforded by seat belts compared favourably with the results for adults in the same seat positions (odds ratios for unbelted v belted adults of 2.4 and 2.7 for front and rear seat passengers respectively). Conclusions Seat belts helped to protect school age children from injury in road vehicle crashes. However, 40% of children were unbelted. Despite standard seat belts being designed for adults, school age children were at least as well protected as adults. What is already known on this topicAlthough child restraints protect young children in road vehicle crashes, it is not known whether standard seat belts used by school age children work as wellSchool age children are often unbelted in carsWhat this study addsData from detailed crash assessments indicate that seat belts protected children at least as well as adultsAdults were more likely than children to be belted, and 22% of children travelling with belted drivers were unbelted PMID:12003883

  18. The Distribution among the States of School-Age Children in Poor Families, 1990 versus 1980: Implications for Chapter 1. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Wayne Clifton

    This review and comparison of census data on the distribution among states of school-age children in poor families for 1990 and 1980 explores implications in the changes for Chapter 1 funding and administration. Numbers of school-age children in poor families represent the primary factor in the allocation of most funds under the federal Elementary…

  19. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy with Family Involvement for Middle-School-Age Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Thienemann, Margo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Middle-school-aged children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are poised in development between the dependency of elementary school-aged children and growing independence of adolescence. OCD patients of this age group may differ from older ones in the quality of symptoms and level of insight. We report the results of a…

  20. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Helen

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, research and public policy attention has increasingly focused on understanding whether modifiable aspects of the local food environment - the types and composition of food outlets families have proximate access to - are drivers of and potential solutions to the problem of childhood obesity in the United States. Given that much of the earlier published research has documented greater concentrations of fast-food outlets alongside limited access to large grocery stores in neighborhoods with higher shares of racial/ethnic minority groups and residents living in poverty, differences in retail food contexts may indeed exacerbate notable child obesity disparities along socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines. This paper examines whether the lack of access to more healthy food retailers and/or the greater availability of "unhealthy" food purveyors in residential neighborhoods explains children's risk of excessive weight gain, and whether differential food availability explains obesity disparities. I do so by analyzing a national survey of U.S. children followed over elementary school (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort) who are linked to detailed, longitudinal food availability measures from a comprehensive business establishment database (the National Establishment Time Series). I find that children who live in residentially poor and minority neighborhoods are indeed more likely to have greater access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. However, these neighborhoods also have greater access to other food establishments that have not been linked to increased obesity risk, including large-scale grocery stores. When examined in a multi-level modeling framework, differential exposure to food outlets does not independently explain weight gain over time in this sample of elementary school-aged children. Variation in residential food outlet availability also does not explain socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences. It may thus be

  1. Deficits in the Sensitivity to Pitch Sweeps by School-Aged Children Wearing Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Deroche, Mickael L. D.; Kulkarni, Aditya M.; Christensen, Julie A.; Limb, Charles J.; Chatterjee, Monita

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to static changes in pitch has been shown to be poorer in school-aged children wearing cochlear implants (CIs) than children with normal hearing (NH), but it is unclear whether this is also the case for dynamic changes in pitch. Yet, dynamically changing pitch has considerable ecological relevance in terms of natural speech, particularly aspects such as intonation, emotion, or lexical tone information. Twenty one children with NH and 23 children wearing a CI participated in this study, along with 18 NH adults and 6 CI adults for comparison. Listeners with CIs used their clinically assigned settings with envelope-based coding strategies. Percent correct was measured in one- or three-interval two-alternative forced choice tasks, for the direction or discrimination of harmonic complexes based on a linearly rising or falling fundamental frequency. Sweep rates were adjusted per subject, in a logarithmic scale, so as to cover the full extent of the psychometric function. Data for up- and down-sweeps were fitted separately, using a maximum-likelihood technique. Fits were similar for up- and down-sweeps in the discrimination task, but diverged in the direction task because psychometric functions for down-sweeps were very shallow. Hits and false alarms were then converted into d′ and beta values, from which a threshold was extracted at a d′ of 0.77. Thresholds were very consistent between the two tasks and considerably higher (worse) for CI listeners than for their NH peers. Thresholds were also higher for children than adults. Factors such as age at implantation, age at profound hearing loss, and duration of CI experience did not play any major role in this sensitivity. Thresholds of dynamic pitch sensitivity (in either task) also correlated with thresholds for static pitch sensitivity and with performance in tasks related to speech prosody. PMID:26973451

  2. Deficits in the Sensitivity to Pitch Sweeps by School-Aged Children Wearing Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Deroche, Mickael L D; Kulkarni, Aditya M; Christensen, Julie A; Limb, Charles J; Chatterjee, Monita

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to static changes in pitch has been shown to be poorer in school-aged children wearing cochlear implants (CIs) than children with normal hearing (NH), but it is unclear whether this is also the case for dynamic changes in pitch. Yet, dynamically changing pitch has considerable ecological relevance in terms of natural speech, particularly aspects such as intonation, emotion, or lexical tone information. Twenty one children with NH and 23 children wearing a CI participated in this study, along with 18 NH adults and 6 CI adults for comparison. Listeners with CIs used their clinically assigned settings with envelope-based coding strategies. Percent correct was measured in one- or three-interval two-alternative forced choice tasks, for the direction or discrimination of harmonic complexes based on a linearly rising or falling fundamental frequency. Sweep rates were adjusted per subject, in a logarithmic scale, so as to cover the full extent of the psychometric function. Data for up- and down-sweeps were fitted separately, using a maximum-likelihood technique. Fits were similar for up- and down-sweeps in the discrimination task, but diverged in the direction task because psychometric functions for down-sweeps were very shallow. Hits and false alarms were then converted into d' and beta values, from which a threshold was extracted at a d' of 0.77. Thresholds were very consistent between the two tasks and considerably higher (worse) for CI listeners than for their NH peers. Thresholds were also higher for children than adults. Factors such as age at implantation, age at profound hearing loss, and duration of CI experience did not play any major role in this sensitivity. Thresholds of dynamic pitch sensitivity (in either task) also correlated with thresholds for static pitch sensitivity and with performance in tasks related to speech prosody. PMID:26973451

  3. Sleep Cyclic Alternating Pattern in Otherwise Healthy Overweight School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Ferri, Raffaele; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) characteristics in otherwise healthy overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) children Design: Polysomnographic cross-sectional study Setting: Sleep laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight (26 NW and 32 OW) 10-year-old children Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Participants were part of a longitudinal study beginning in infancy and free of sleep disorders. Groups were based on body-mass index (BMI) z-score. From polysomnographic overnight recordings, sleep-waking states were scored according to international criteria. CAP analysis was performed visually during NREM sleep. Conventional sleep parameters were similar between groups. BMI was positively related to CAP rate and CAP sequences but inversely related to CAP B phase duration. Differences between groups were confined to slow-wave sleep (SWS), with OW children showing higher CAP rate, CAP cycles, and CAP A1 number and index and shorter CAP cycles and B phase duration. They also showed more CAP class intervals shorter than 30 s, and a suggestive trend for fewer intervals longer than 30 s. Conclusions: Cyclic alternating pattern characteristics in children related to nutritional status and were altered in overweight subjects during slow-wave sleep. We suggest that the more frequent oscillatory pattern of electroencephalographic slow activity in overweight subjects might reflect less stable slow-wave sleep episodes. Citation: Chamorro R; Ferri R; Algarin C; Garrido M; Lozoff B; Peirano P. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in otherwise healthy overweight school-age children. SLEEP 2014;37(3):557-560. PMID:24587578

  4. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5–7, 8–10, and 11–15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Preti, Valentina; Gaspari, Stefania; Colombini, Antonella; Zecca, Marco; Terranova, Leonardo; Cefalo, Maria Giuseppina; Ierardi, Valentina; Pelucchi, Claudio; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Patients with cancer, particularly those with hematologic malignancies, are at an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and they are included in the list of subjects for whom pneumococcal vaccination is recommended. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in school-aged children and adolescents with cancer to determine the potential protective efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 277 patients (age range 6-17 years) with cancer during routine clinical visits and analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in 52 patients (18.8%), including 47/235 (20.0%) with hematologic malignancies and 5/42 (11.9%) with solid tumors. Colonization declined significantly with an increase in age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.71, and OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.82 in children aged 10-14 and ≥15 years, respectively, as compared to those <10 years). Carriage was more common among patients with leukemia or lymphoma than in children with solid tumors. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced pneumococcal carriage (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.89). A total of 15/58 (25.9%) and 26/216 (12.0%) children were colonized by PCV13 serotypes among cancer patients previously vaccinated and not vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), respectively. In conclusion, this study indicates that children and adolescents with cancer are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae. Because most of the carried serotypes are included in PCV13, this vaccine is presently the best solution to reduce the risk of IPD in these patients. PMID:26367101

  6. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5-7, 8-10, and 11-15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  7. Impaired delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in school-age children with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; Stanton, Mark E.; Dodge, Neil C.; Pienaar, Mariska; Fuller, Douglas S.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Robinson, Luther K.; Khaole, Nathaniel; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. Methods Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by expert dysmorphologists in a large sample of Cape Coloured, South African children. Delay EBC was examined in a new sample of 63 children at 11.3 years, and trace conditioning in 32 of the same children at 12.8 years. At each age, two sessions of 50 trials each were administered on the same day; two more sessions the next day, for children not meeting criterion for conditioning. Results 6 of 34 (17.6%) children born to heavy drinkers were diagnosed with FAS, 28 were heavily exposed nonsyndromal (HE), and 29 were non-exposed controls. Only 33.3% with FAS and 42.9% of HE met criterion for delay conditioning, compared with 79.3% of controls. The more difficult trace conditioning task was also highly sensitive to fetal alcohol exposure. Only 16.7% of the FAS and 21.4% of HE met criterion for trace conditioning, compared with 66.7% of controls. The magnitude of the effect of diagnostic group on trace conditioning was not greater than the effect on short delay conditioning, findings consistent with recent rat studies. Longer latency to onset and peak eyeblink CR in exposed children indicated poor timing and failure to blink in anticipation of the puff. Extended training resulted in some but not all of the children reaching criterion. Conclusions These data showing alcohol-related delay and trace conditioning deficits extend our earlier findings of impaired EBC in 5-year-olds to school-age. Alcohol-related impairment in the cerebellar circuitry required for both forms of conditioning may be sufficient to account for the deficit in both tasks. Extended training was beneficial for some exposed children. EBC provides a well

  8. Diversity in gut bacterial community of school-age children in Asia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Jiro; Watanabe, Koichi; Jiang, Jiahui; Matsuda, Kazunori; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Haryono, Pri; La-Ongkham, Orawan; Sarwoko, Martinus-Agus; Sujaya, I Nengah; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Kang-Ting; Chen, Yen-Po; Chiu, Hsueh-Hui; Hidaka, Tomoko; Huang, Ning-Xin; Kiyohara, Chikako; Kurakawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Sonomoto, Kenji; Tashiro, Kousuke; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Chen, Ming-Ju; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Liao, Chii-Cherng; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Rahayu, Endang S; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Asia differs substantially among and within its regions populated by diverse ethnic groups, which maintain their own respective cultures and dietary habits. To address the diversity in their gut microbiota, we characterized the bacterial community in fecal samples obtained from 303 school-age children living in urban or rural regions in five countries spanning temperate and tropical areas of Asia. The microbiota profiled for the 303 subjects were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, each driven by Prevotella (P-type) or Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides (BB-type), respectively. Majority in China, Japan and Taiwan harbored BB-type, whereas those from Indonesia and Khon Kaen in Thailand mainly harbored P-type. The P-type microbiota was characterized by a more conserved bacterial community sharing a greater number of type-specific phylotypes. Predictive metagenomics suggests higher and lower activity of carbohydrate digestion and bile acid biosynthesis, respectively, in P-type subjects, reflecting their high intake of diets rich in resistant starch. Random-forest analysis classified their fecal species community as mirroring location of resident country, suggesting eco-geographical factors shaping gut microbiota. In particular, children living in Japan harbored a less diversified microbiota with high abundance of Bifidobacterium and less number of potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may reflect their living environment and unique diet. PMID:25703686

  9. Distributed neural representations of logical arguments in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Romain; Booth, James R; Prado, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    Children's understanding of linear-order (e.g., Dan is taller than Lisa, Lisa is taller than Jess) and set-inclusion (i.e., All tulips are flowers, All flowers are plants) relationships is critical for the acquisition of deductive reasoning, that is, the ability to reach logically valid conclusions from given premises. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies in adults suggest processing differences between these relations: While arguments that involve linear-orders may be preferentially associated with spatial processing, arguments that involve set-inclusions may be preferentially associated with verbal processing. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether these processing differences appear during the period of elementary school in development. Consistent with previous studies in adults, we found that arguments that involve linear-order and set-inclusion relationships preferentially involve spatial and verbal brain mechanisms (respectively) in school-age children (9-14 year olds). Because this neural sensitivity was not related to age, it likely emerges before the period of elementary education. However, the period of elementary education might play an important role in shaping the neural processing of logical reasoning, as indicated by developmental changes in frontal and parietal regions that were dependent on the type of relation. PMID:25355487

  10. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  11. Diversity in gut bacterial community of school-age children in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jiro; Watanabe, Koichi; Jiang, Jiahui; Matsuda, Kazunori; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Haryono, Pri; La-ongkham, Orawan; Sarwoko, Martinus-Agus; Sujaya, I. Nengah; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Kang-Ting; Chen, Yen-Po; Chiu, Hsueh-Hui; Hidaka, Tomoko; Huang, Ning- Xin; Kiyohara, Chikako; Kurakawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Sonomoto, Kenji; Tashiro, Kousuke; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Chen, Ming-Ju; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Liao, Chii-Cherng; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Rahayu, Endang S.; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Asia differs substantially among and within its regions populated by diverse ethnic groups, which maintain their own respective cultures and dietary habits. To address the diversity in their gut microbiota, we characterized the bacterial community in fecal samples obtained from 303 school-age children living in urban or rural regions in five countries spanning temperate and tropical areas of Asia. The microbiota profiled for the 303 subjects were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, each driven by Prevotella (P-type) or Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides (BB-type), respectively. Majority in China, Japan and Taiwan harbored BB-type, whereas those from Indonesia and Khon Kaen in Thailand mainly harbored P-type. The P-type microbiota was characterized by a more conserved bacterial community sharing a greater number of type-specific phylotypes. Predictive metagenomics suggests higher and lower activity of carbohydrate digestion and bile acid biosynthesis, respectively, in P-type subjects, reflecting their high intake of diets rich in resistant starch. Random-forest analysis classified their fecal species community as mirroring location of resident country, suggesting eco-geographical factors shaping gut microbiota. In particular, children living in Japan harbored a less diversified microbiota with high abundance of Bifidobacterium and less number of potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may reflect their living environment and unique diet. PMID:25703686

  12. Child to child: an approach to the health education of primary school-age children.

    PubMed

    Webb, J K

    1988-01-01

    Child to Child is an approach to health education of the primary school-age child. In developing countries, infants and young children spend much of their lives in the care of an older brother or sister. Morley, a paediatrician, saw the potential of teaching these older children to provide better care for their siblings. Working with colleagues in education, Child to Child was launched in 1978, the International Year of the Child. Teaching material was prepared covering developmental needs, nutrition, common illnesses and aspects of the environment; a book was published describing an activity-oriented teaching method. This material was distributed to developing countries world-wide, with encouragement to use the material and ideas freely, adapting, translating, or innovating as found useful. Child to Child is now in use in 60 or more countries, and in at least 15 languages. It is being used by agencies like the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, and OXFAM as a way of reinforcing community education in the search for 'Health for All by 2000'. A world-wide review of Child to Child is in hand. Information from this will help to provide firm guidelines on implementation in the different contexts where its value has already been established. PMID:3217290

  13. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Secondary School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David E.; And Others

    This paper presents a replication of previous research which estimated a structural equation model relating elementary school age students' achievement to the number of parents and maternal work. The research presented here focuses on secondary school age students, and provides partial support for previous findings in which elementary school age…

  14. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. PMID:24720565

  15. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Ubiali, Thalita; Sanfins, Milaine Dominici; Borges, Leticia Reis; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing. Methods P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation. Results P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values. Conclusion Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition. PMID:26849224

  16. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. PMID:20102853

  17. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  18. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69) compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  19. Aerobic Fitness, Micronutrient Status, and Academic Achievement in Indian School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ishaan K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants’ aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg-1 * min-1) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  20. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  1. Sensitivity of school-aged children to pitch-related cues

    PubMed Central

    Deroche, Mickael L. D.; Zion, Danielle J.; Schurman, Jaclyn R.; Chatterjee, Monita

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability of 17 school-aged children to process purely temporal and spectro-temporal cues that signal changes in pitch. Percentage correct was measured for the discrimination of sinusoidal amplitude modulation rate (AMR) of broadband noise in experiment 1 and for the discrimination of fundamental frequency (F0) of broadband sine-phase harmonic complexes in experiment 2. The reference AMR was 100 Hz as was the reference F0. A child-friendly interface helped listeners to remain attentive to the task. Data were fitted using a maximum-likelihood technique that extracted threshold, slope, and lapse rate. All thresholds were subsequently standardized to a common d′ value equal to 0.77. There were relatively large individual differences across listeners: eight had relatively adult-like thresholds in both tasks and nine had higher thresholds. However, these individual differences did not vary systematically with age, over the span of 6–16 yr. Thresholds were correlated across the two tasks and were about nine times finer for F0 discrimination than for AMR discrimination as has been previously observed in adults. PMID:22501071

  2. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. PMID:24439665

  3. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  4. Distributed neural representations of logical arguments in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Romain; Booth, James R.; Prado, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Children’s understanding of linear-order (e.g., Dan is taller than Lisa, Lisa is taller than Jess) and set-inclusion (i.e., All tulips are flowers, All flowers are plants) relationships is critical for the acquisition of deductive reasoning, i.e., the ability to reach logically valid conclusions from given premises. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies in adults suggest processing differences between these relations: While arguments that involve linear-orders may be preferentially associated with spatial processing, arguments that involve set-inclusions may be preferentially associated with verbal processing. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether these processing differences appear during the period of elementary school in development. Consistent with previous studies in adults, we found that arguments that involve linear-order and set-inclusion relationships preferentially involve spatial and verbal brain mechanisms (respectively) in school-age children (9 to 14 year olds). Because this neural sensitivity was not related to age, it likely emerges before the period of elementary education. However, the period of elementary education might play an important role in shaping the neural processing of logical reasoning, as indicated by developmental changes in frontal and parietal regions that were dependent upon the type of relation. PMID:25355487

  5. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-01-01

    Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  6. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tawny; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Hutman, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD) and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population). The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM), adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental) or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample). Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD. PMID:26881074

  7. The impact of postpartum depression and anxiety disorders on children's processing of facial emotional expressions at pre-school age.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Susanne; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Reck, Corinna; Träuble, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    To enhance understanding of impaired socio-emotional development in children of postpartum depressed or anxious mothers, this longitudinal study addressed the question of whether maternal postpartum depression and anxiety disorders result in deficits in children's processing of facial emotional expressions (FEEs) at pre-school age. Thirty-two mothers who had fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) criteria for postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder and their pre-school aged children were tested for FEE processing abilities and compared to a healthy control group (n = 29). Child assessments included separate tasks for emotion recognition and emotion labelling. Mothers completed an emotion recognition test as well as the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders I (SCID-I). Children of postpartum depressed and/or anxious mothers performed significantly worse than control children at labelling, but not at recognizing facial expressions of basic emotions. Emotion labelling at pre-school age was predicted by child age and maternal postpartum mental health, but neither current maternal mental health nor current maternal emotion recognition was associated with child FEE processing. Results point to a specific importance of early social experiences for the development of FEE labelling skills. However, further studies involving sensitive measures of emotion recognition are needed to determine if there might also exist subtle effects on FEE recognition. PMID:25833807

  8. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tawny; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Hutman, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD) and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population). The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM), adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental) or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample). Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD. PMID:26881074

  9. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Perez-Formigo, Jesus; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Benito, Agustin; Aseffa, Abraham; Custodio, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Background A low dietary diversity score (DDS) and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF) are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia). Objectives This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF. Methods In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors. Results Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%). In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65) and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38) the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62) and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey. Conclusions The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended. PMID:26203904

  10. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  11. Bisphenol A Exposure and Asthma Development in School-Age Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, So-Yeon; Hong, Yun-Chul; Bae, Sanghyuk

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the effect of bisphenol A on various health outcomes has been extensively examined, few studies have investigated its effect on asthma. Objective We hypothesized that exposure to bisphenol A in school-age children was associated with wheezing and asthma. Methods Participants included 127 children aged 7–8 years without a previous asthma diagnosis in an elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Three surveys were conducted, each 2 years apart. Bisphenol A concentration was measured at the baseline survey, and PC20, which is defined as the methacholine concentration that induces a decrease in FEV1 of 20% from baseline, was measured at every survey. Associations between bisphenol A concentration at 7–8 years of age and wheezing, asthma, and PC20 at ages up to 11–12 years were examined using generalized estimating equations, a marginal Cox regression model, and a linear mixed model. Results The log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary bisphenol A concentration at 7–8 years was positively associated with wheezing (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–5.31; P = .02) and asthma (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.51–3.00; P<.001) at ages up to 11–12 years. Bisphenol A was also negatively associated with PC20 (ß = −2.33; P = .02). When stratified by sex, the association between bisphenol A and asthma remained significant only in girls (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.18–2.76; P<.001). Conclusion Increased urinary bisphenol A concentrations at 7–8 years old were positively associated with wheezing and asthma and negatively associated with PC20 at ages up to 11–12 years. PMID:25356742

  12. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. Methods We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Results Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = −0.18; P < .001). Using the caregiver-reported models, both television and computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Conclusions Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens. PMID:27540566

  13. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children. PMID:26832761

  14. Treatment of femur fractures in school-aged children using elastic stable intramedullary nailing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Keith; Hsu, Jason E; Wenger, Dennis R; Hosalkar, Harish S

    2011-09-01

    Femur fractures are common long-bone injuries in school-aged children (6-12 years). Among the various acceptable treatment options, elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has gained popularity over recent years although the level of evidence for ESIN is low. This study was a systematic review of the literature to examine the outcomes and complications of ESIN in school-aged children and to critically evaluate the quality of the available literature. Although most complications were minor, some series report complication rates of more than 50%. Union rates are high. Malunion or mechanical axis malalignment, on the other hand, is common, and leg length discrepancy and overgrowth are also not unusual. Symptomatic implants are common, particularly if the distal ends of the nail are left long and prominent. Refracture was noted to be uncommon in this population. ESIN is a well-accepted and reliable option for treatment of femur fractures in school-aged children. Advantages are decreased length of hospital stay, early return to function, and high union rates. Care must be taken to obtain and maintain reduction, and caution is advised in older and heavier children. PMID:21829144

  15. Who Uses Services for School Age Children: Evidence from the National Evaluation of the Children's Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Tiziana; Plewis, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The UK government has made integration of services for children a priority with the target being a better and more integrated provision of preventative services under the various schemes such as the Children's Fund and Sure Start. This article gathers evidence from the National Evaluation of the Children Fund with the aim of analysing the…

  16. Neonatal brain MRI and motor outcome at school age in children with neonatal encephalopathy: a review of personal experience.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Barnett, Anna L

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review (i) the spectrum of neuromotor function at school age in children who had been born full-term and presented with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and low Apgar scores and (ii) the relation between the presence/absence of such difficulties and neonatal brain MRI. Motor outcome appears to be mainly related to the severity of basal ganglia and internal capsule involvement. Severe basal ganglia lesions were always associated with the most severe outcome, microcephaly, tetraplegia, and severe global delay, whereas more discrete basal ganglia lesions were associated with athetoid cerebral palsy, with normal cognitive development, or minor neuro-motor abnormalities. White matter lesions were associated with abnormal motor outcome only if the internal capsule was involved. Children with moderate white matter changes but normal internal capsule had normal motor outcome at school age. PMID:14640307

  17. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  18. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25542523

  19. Lexical Processing in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haebig, Eileen; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive…

  20. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  1. Common Household Chemicals and the Allergy Risks in Pre-School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Sundell, Jan; Hasselgren, Mikael; Spengler, John; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown. Objective We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden. Methods In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls), air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs. Results A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs) in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 – 15.65 µg/m3) was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.1), 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 – 2.3), 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 – 4.7), and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.3), accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.8) compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs. Conclusion We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively. PMID:20976153

  2. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  3. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions. PMID:27347992

  4. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; LeBlanc, Allana G; Kho, Michelle E; Saunders, Travis J; Larouche, Richard; Colley, Rachel C; Goldfield, Gary; Connor Gorber, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with

  5. Stressors of caregivers of school-age children with epilepsy and use of community resources.

    PubMed

    Saburi, Gladys

    2011-06-01

    Childhood epilepsy causes multiple stressors, difficulty in adjustment, and disruptions in family relations. This study sought to identify stressors of caregivers of school-age children and to assess whether use of community resources alleviates or contributes to caregiver stress. Stressors refer to concern about the child, communication with healthcare providers, changes in family relationships, interaction with school, and support within the community. A caregiver refers to the person who had looked after the child for the past 6-12 months. Support groups, religious or worship groups, counseling services, and traditional and spiritual faith healers were the community resources that were addressed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on a convenience sample of 46 caregivers. A three-part structured interview schedule was used to describe demographic data, stressors of caregivers, and use of community resources. The top 6 stressors were the inability to get antiepileptic drugs, the deep pain or sadness caused by the child's seizures, caregiving (which was predominantly by mothers), limited help from the extended family, inadequate information on side effects of drugs, and inadequate information on seizures. The most commonly used community resource was religious or worship groups, with epilepsy support groups being least used. To alleviate caregiver stress, it is important that healthcare providers routinely assess the effect of seizures on caregivers and refer those requiring counseling, advocate for more male and extended family involvement in caregiving and provide adequate information on side effects of drugs and on seizures as standard practice. Nurses in developed countries should incorporate religious activities among complementary and alternative medicine interventions to reduce caregiver stress. Spiritual faith healers should be encouraged to refer clients with epilepsy for drug therapy and counseling. PMID:21796025

  6. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with

  7. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O. Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A. Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions. PMID:27347992

  8. Acanthosis nigricans predicts the clustering of metabolic syndrome components in Hispanic elementary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Skipper, Betty; Leggott, John; Sebesta, Emilie; Glew, Robert; Burge, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatologic condition associated with hyperinsulinemia, a marker of insulin resistance that is the principal abnormality in metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of AN with the clustering of MetS components. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban school-based health center in New Mexico. Students without diabetes were evaluated for AN, a family history of type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and MetS components. The clustering of MetS components by BMI category and AN status was assessed by comparing the group means of summed average z-scores of fasting insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure among the students. A multivariate model with BMI category and AN status controlling for Tanner stage was performed to identify the variables associated with the clustering of MetS components. Results Complete data were available for 90 children (age, 9.7 ± 1.4 years; 94 % Hispanic; 60 % female). In multivariate modeling of MetS cluster z-score, significant differences were found between the students with BMI < 85th percentile [−0.27; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = − 0.42 to − 0.11] and (a) the students with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile with AN (0.74; 95 % CI = 0.17 – 1.31) and (b) the students with BMI ≥ 95th percentile with AN (0.86; 95 % CI = 0.54 – 1.18). No significant differences in the MetS cluster z-score were seen between the students with BMI < 85th percentile and those with BMI 85th – 94.9th percentile without AN (0.24; 95 % CI = − 0.33 to 0.81) or those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile without AN (0.31; 95 % CI = − 0.13 to 0.75). Conclusions Overweight/obese Hispanic elementary school-aged children with AN exhibit clustering of MetS components and could benefit from early intervention. PMID:23329755

  9. [The dynamic of annual modification of phasic structure of cardiac cycle in children of junior school age].

    PubMed

    Iashchenko, A H; Vdovychenko, O M

    2013-01-01

    By using of the method of tetrapolar impedance rheopletysmography we studied the phasic structure of cardiac cycle in children of junior school age. We have shown that a decrease of cardiac cycle duration in children is due to a decrease of the common diastole duration, the mean fraction of which in children of six years is 48.58% from the cardiac cycle duration. With age the duration of cardiac cycle increases. In 12 y.o. children this parameter is significantly higher (0.702 +/- 0.020s) that that observed in 6 y.o. children (0.636 +/- 0.017s). The shortest duration of cardiac cycle is detected in 10 y.o. children (0.617 +/- 0.018 s). PMID:23957170

  10. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Methods Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10–12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Results Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. Conclusions These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable. PMID:24485389

  11. Development of a Behavioral Sleep Intervention as a Novel Approach for Pediatric Obesity in School-aged Children.

    PubMed

    Hart, Chantelle N; Hawley, Nicola L; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Despite being the focus of widespread public health efforts, childhood obesity remains an epidemic worldwide. Given the now well-documented consequences of obesity for childhood health and psychosocial functioning, as well as associated morbidity in adulthood, identifying novel, modifiable behaviors that can be targeted to improve weight control is imperative. Enhancing children's sleep may show promise in assisting with weight regulation. The present paper describes the development of a brief behavioral sleep intervention for school-aged children, including preliminary findings of this work as well as areas for future study. PMID:27261547

  12. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

  13. Elements of Successful Inclusion for School-Age Children with Disabilities in Childcare Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinnah-Ghelani, Hamida A.; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2009-01-01

    When a school-age child with disabilities is accepted into a childcare setting, it is only the first step. The sustenance of the care option depends on whether the setting makes appropriate adaptations to accommodate the child with disability in the setting. Parents face a host of challenges related to adaptations and accommodations. This study…

  14. A Narrative Review of Problem-Based Learning with School-Aged Children: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerzembek, Gabi; Murphy, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical studies that have evaluated the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on school-aged pupils, in order to summarise how it has been implemented and to assess its effects on academic and personal development. Following electronic searches of PsychINFO, the British Education Index and the Cochrane review database, six…

  15. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: evidence from EEG and MEG data.

    PubMed

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9-10 years) and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times (RTs) in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts toward complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation. PMID:24155730

  16. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  17. Approaches to School-Age Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Michelle; Coltin, Lillian

    This ERIC Digest provides basic information about school-age day care programs. Discussion focuses briefly on options available to families with school-age children, developmental needs of school-age children, characteristics of high quality school-age programs, supportive services for self-care, and ways of improving school-age child care…

  18. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school. PMID:24360761

  19. Korean Year 3 Children's Environmental Literacy: A Prerequisite for a Korean Environmental Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Lee, Eun Ah; Ko, Hee Ryung; Shin, Dong Hee; Lee, Moon Nam; Min, Byeong Mee; Kang, Kyung Hee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean children's environmental literacy levels and the variables that affect their environmental literacy. An instrument, the Environment Literacy Instrument for Korean Children (ELIKC), was developed that measures four different dimensions (knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and skills) using 69 items…

  20. Should urinary iodine concentrations of school-aged children continue to be used as proxy for different populations? Analysis of data from Chinese national surveys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Su, Xiaohui; Li, Mu; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Jun; Kelly, Patrick J; Meng, Fangang; Liu, Lixiang; Fan, Lijun; Li, Ming; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-09-01

    I deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Median urinary I concentration in school-aged children has been used globally as a proxy for all populations. This study aims to determine whether median urinary I concentration of school-aged children is an appropriate indicator of I nutritional status in different adult populations. This is a secondary data analysis of two national I Deficiency Disorder surveys (2011, 2014) and two regional surveys (in coastal areas, 2009, and in high-risk areas, 2009-2014). Population groups included in these surveys were school-aged children (8-10 years), pregnant women, lactating women, women of childbearing age and adults (men and women, 18-45 years). All participants were self-reported healthy without history of thyroid diseases or were not using thyroid medicines. The median urinary I concentration of school-aged children was matched with that of the other population at the county level. The matched populations had similar iodised salt supply, food and water I, food composition and I content in salt. Weak or moderate correlation of median urinary I concentrations was observed between school-aged children and pregnant women and between children and lactating women. However, the agreement was stronger between children and women of childbearing age and between children and adult men and women. The results could be affected by cut-off values, data aggregation level and sample size. Using median urinary I concentration of school-aged children tends to overestimate that of pregnant women and lactating women. Median urinary I concentration of school-aged children can be used for assessing I nutrition in the adult population. PMID:27498626

  1. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

  2. Obesity Prevention and Treatment in School-aged Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults—Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Sharon M.; Gesell, Sabina B.

    2015-01-01

    The rise in the rate of obesity in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults in the last 30 years is a clear healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Despite recent national reports in the United States highlighting positive downward trends in the rate of obesity in younger children, we are still faced with approximately 12.7 million children struggling with obesity. Given the immediate and long-term health consequences of obesity, much time and effort has been expended to address this epidemic. Yet, despite these efforts, we still only see limited, short-term success from most interventions. Without changes to how we address childhood obesity, we will continue to see inadequate improvements in the health of our children. Clinicians and researchers need to be lobbying for evidence-based policy changes, such as those identified by systems science, in order to improve the nation’s health. PMID:26161007

  3. Determining Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection Status and Physical Fitness of School-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    unspecific and subtle, they often go unnoticed, are considered a normal condition by affected individuals, or are treated as symptoms of other diseases that might be more common in a given setting. Hence, it is conceivable that the true burden of STH infections is underestimated by assessment tools relying on self-declared signs and symptoms as is usually the case in population-based surveys. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Stephenson and colleagues highlighted the possibility of STH infections lowering the physical fitness of boys aged 6-12 years11,12. This line of scientific inquiry gained new momentum recently13,14,15. The 20-meter (m) shuttle run test was developed and validated by Léger et al.16 and is used worldwide to measure the aerobic fitness of children17. The test is easy to standardize and can be performed wherever a 20-m long and flat running course and an audio source are available, making its use attractive in resource-constrained settings13. To facilitate and standardize attempts at assessing whether STH infections have an effect on the physical fitness of school-aged children, we present methodologies that diagnose STH infections or measure physical fitness that are simple to execute and yet, provide accurate and reproducible outcomes. This will help to generate new evidence regarding the health impact of STH infections. PMID:22951972

  4. Target-distractor similarity has a larger impact on visual search in school-age children than spacing.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2015-01-01

    In typically developing children, crowding decreases with increasing age. The influence of target-distractor similarity with respect to orientation and element spacing on visual search performance was investigated in 29 school-age children with normal vision (4- to 6-year-olds [N = 16], 7- to 8-year-olds [N = 13]). Children were instructed to search for a target E among distractor Es (feature search: all flanking Es pointing right; conjunction search: flankers in three orientations). Orientation of the target was manipulated in four directions: right (target absent), left (inversed), up, and down (vertical). Spacing was varied in four steps: 0.04°, 0.5°, 1°, and 2°. During feature search, high target-distractor similarity had a stronger impact on performance than spacing: Orientation affected accuracy until spacing was 1°, and spacing only influenced accuracy for identifying inversed targets. Spatial analyses showed that orientation affected oculomotor strategy: Children made more fixations in the "inversed" target area (4.6) than the vertical target areas (1.8 and 1.9). Furthermore, age groups differed in fixation duration: 4- to 6-year-old children showed longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at the two largest element spacings (p = 0.039 and p = 0.027). Conjunction search performance was unaffected by spacing. Four conclusions can be drawn from this study: (a) Target-distractor similarity governs visual search performance in school-age children, (b) children make more fixations in target areas when target-distractor similarity is high, (c) 4- to 6-year-olds show longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at 1° and 2° element spacing, and (d) spacing affects feature but not conjunction search-a finding that might indicate top-down control ameliorates crowding in children. PMID:25613761

  5. Pre- and Postnatal Risk Factors in Relation to Allergic Rhinitis in School-Aged Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Youjin; Jiang, Yanrui; Li, Shenghui; Shen, Xiaoming; Liu, Jinfen; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal risk factors and the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Chinese children of specific ages. Study Design This study was a cross-sectional survey. Students from 8 metropolitan cities in China were studied in November and December, 2005. There were 20,803 elementary-school Chinese children (49.6% boys, mean age, 9.19 years) enrolled. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children were completed to enable us to examine the pattern of current AR. The potential confounders and pre-and postnatal risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. Results The overall prevalence of AR was found in this study to be 9.8%. After adjusting for several likely confounders, there was a higher likelihood of AR in school-aged children who were not exclusively breastfed in the first 4 months of their lives (odds ratio [OR]: 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.41), children who were born post-term (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12–1.60), children delivered by cesarean section (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00–1.19), or children born to mothers who experienced depressive symptoms during the pre- and postnatal periods (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15–1.42). Conclusions AR in school-aged children was found to be associated with pre- and postnatal events. These findings indicate that strategies to reduce exposure to risk factors during pre- and postnatal periods for childhood allergies might be warranted. PMID:25647669

  6. Association between dietary behaviors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young

    2012-08-15

    We aimed to comprehensively investigate the associations between a wide range of measures of dietary behaviors and learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-dwelling Korean children in order to generate hypotheses for future work. The present study included 986 children [507 boys, 479 girls; mean (S.D.) age=9.1 (0.7) years] recruited from five South Korean cities. Children's dietary behaviors were assessed by the mini-dietary assessment (MDA) for Koreans. It consists of ten items to assess the level of intake of dairy products, high-protein foods, vegetables, fried foods, fatty meats, salt, and sweetened desserts and whether the subject is eating three regular meals and has a balanced diet. Learning disability was assessed via the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). ADHD was assessed via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children version-IV and the ADHD rating scale, and ADHD-related behavioral problems were assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. After adjusting for potential confounders, a high intake of sweetened desserts, fried food, and salt is associated with more learning, attention, and behavioral problems, whereas a balanced diet, regular meals, and a high intake of dairy products and vegetables is associated with less learning, attention, and behavioral problems. Our data suggest that existing encouraged dietary habits mostly have beneficial effects on learning, attention, and behavioral problems in Korean children. These findings are in general the same results in other studies on ADHD children in other countries. However, the cross-sectional study design prevents our ability to assess causal relationships. PMID:22999993

  7. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of sight compromises insight into other people’s mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother–child discourse were associated with the child’s socio-communicative competence. Methods & Procedures Mother–child discourse with twelve 6–12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Outcomes & Results Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters’ mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers’ overall verbosity and children’s developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. Conclusions & Implications The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social–communicative competences of children with VI. PMID:24165364

  8. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  9. Phonology Matters: A Comprehensive Investigation of Reading and Spelling Skills of School-Age Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.; Ritter, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The investigators measured 7 literacy skills in a group of 21 school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), and compared the scores to those of 2 age-matched groups: children with dyslexia (DYS group) and, as a control, typically developing hearing children (CA group). The MSNH group performed consistently…

  10. Trajectories of Reading Development: A Follow-up from Birth to School Age of Children with and without Risk for Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytinen, Heikki; Erskine, Jane; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lyytinen, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand why some children are vulnerable to difficulties in their language development and their acquisition of reading skill, the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia followed 200 Finnish children from birth to school age. Half of these children had a family history of reading problems and were considered at risk for dyslexia;…

  11. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. PMID:26099561

  12. Knowledge and Skills of Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Study on School-Aged Children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yichen; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the level of child sexual abuse prevention knowledge and skills in a sample of school-aged children, a total of 559 children from first to fifth grade were recruited from one primary school in Beijing, China. Participants were asked to finish a questionnaire surveying their knowledge and skills of child sexual abuse prevention. Results showed that accurate rate of knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention were between 44.0% and 80.0%. Percentage of participants having applied the self-protection skills of "saying 'no,'" "going away," and "telling adults" properly in hypothetical situations was 57.4%, 28.3%, and 48.3%, respectively. Third-to-fifth graders had a better performance than first-to-second graders, and girls performed better than boys. Findings suggest that Chinese school-aged children are in need of knowledge and skills related to child sexual abuse prevention, and education programs should be developed as soon as possible. PMID:27561123

  13. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity. PMID:24617030

  14. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children. PMID:27495020

  15. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84–8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12–8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78–7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83–9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61–9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children. PMID:27495020

  16. Emotional prosody perception and its association with pragmatic language in school-aged children with high-function autism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-En; Tsao, Feng-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Emotional prosody perception is essential for social communication, but it is still an open issue whether children with high-function autism (HFA) exhibit any prosodic perception deficits or experience selective impairments in recognizing the prosody of positive emotions. Moreover, the associations between prosody perception, pragmatic language, and social adaptation in children with HFA have not been fully explored. This study investigated whether emotional prosody perception for words and sentences in children with HFA (n=25, 6-11 years of age) differed from age-matched, typically developing children (TD, n=25) when presented with an emotional prosody identification task. The Children's Communication Checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were used to assess pragmatic and social adaption abilities. Results show that children with HFA performed poorer than TD children in identifying happy prosody in both emotionally neutral and relevant utterances. In contrast, children with HFA did not exhibit any deficits in identifying sad and angry prosody. Results of correlation analyses revealed a positive association between happy prosody identification and pragmatic function. The findings indicate that school-aged children with HFA experience difficulties in recognizing happy prosody, and that this limitation in prosody perception is associated with their pragmatic and social adaption performances. PMID:25463248

  17. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Petra E M; Siebes, Renate C; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Schuengel, Carlo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Becher, Jules G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP (n=108; 72 males; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GFMCS) level I-V) was followed longitudinally in three yearly assessments. Social functioning and communication were measured with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Data were analyzed with generalized estimated equations. The results showed that social function followed a course of progressive restrictions over time in non-ambulatory children with CP aged 5-9 compared to children who could walk with or without walking aids. Overall lower levels of social functioning were found in children with GMFCS V, epilepsy, speech problems, lower intellectual capacity and older age at baseline. For communication more restrictions over time were found in children with lower intellectual capacity. Children with GMFCS V, speech problems and older age at baseline had overall greater restrictions in communication. It was concluded that motor functioning and intellectual ability can be used to identify children at risk for progressive restrictions in social functioning and communication. For children with CP and social and communicative restrictions, multidisciplinary assessment and treatment may be indicated to counteract an unfavorable development. PMID:24139717

  18. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  19. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of age in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n = 182; PIAMA, n = 244; and INMA, n = 355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at age 8 for PIAMA and at age 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial exposures and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school age was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at age 2–3 months (β -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life exposure to EPS, β(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life exposure to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277

  20. Intermittent preventive treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy reduces malaria morbidity among school-aged children in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Breanna; Maiga, Hamma; Traore, Oumar Bila; Tekete, Mamadou; Tembine, Intimbeye; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Zoumana Isaac; Gantt, Soren; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria in school-aged children. METHODS This was an open randomized controlled trial of seasonal IPT among school children (IPTsc) aged 6–13 years in Kollé, Mali. The study began in September 2007 and completed follow-up in May 2008. Students were randomized to one of three study arms: Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP/AS), amodiaquine plus artesunate (AQ/AS) or vitamin C. All students received two full treatment doses, given 2 months apart during the season of high transmission from September to December. Groups were compared with respect to incidence of clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia and haemoglobin concentration. RESULTS A total of 296 students were randomized, and retention in the study was 99.3%. Clinical malaria incidence in the SP/AS and AQ/AS arms was reduced by 66.6% and 46.5%, respectively, vs. vitamin C (P < 0.001). There were fewer clinic visits for any cause among the children receiving SP/AS or AQ/AS (P = 0.024). The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was fivefold higher in the vitamin C arm than either SP/AS or AQ/AS at each post-treatment evaluation (P < 0.001). At the end of the transmission period, children treated with IPT had lower rates of anaemia (SP/AS, 17.7%; AQ/AS, 16.0%; vitamin C, 29.6%; P = 0.039). CONCLUSION IPT among school children reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause acute clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia and anaemia among school-aged children. PMID:19497079

  1. Serum vitamin A status is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome among school-age children in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoping; Peng, Rong; Cao, Jiaoyang; Kang, Yu; Qu, Ping; Liu, Youxue; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association of vitamin A status with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in school-age children in Chongqing, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1,928 children aged 7~11 years from 5 schools in Chongqing, China. Body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were measured. Blood glucose, lipids and vitamin A were determined. Overall prevalences for overweight, obesity and MS were 10.1%, 6.7% and 3.5%, respectively. There were 274 (14.2%) marginally vitamin A deficient (MVAD) children and 53 (2.8%) vitamin A deficient (VAD) children, respectively. Serum vitamin A in the obese group was significantly lower than in the overweight and normal weight groups (p<0.001). Body mass index (BMI), WC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose were strongly associated with vitamin A status (p<0.05). In a separate model adjusted for age and sex, compared with normal children, participants with obesity had a significantly higher risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (<=1.05 μmol/L) (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 3.55) (p<0.001), and participants with MS had a 1.99-fold (95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) greater risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (p=0.016), while participants with VAD had significantly higher risk of having MS (OR: 3.82; 95% CI: 1.44, 10.2) (p=0.007). Vitamin A insufficiency among Chongqing urban school-age children was found to be a severe health problem, significantly associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and MS. PMID:27440692

  2. Neuro-oscillatory mechanisms of intersensory selective attention and task switching in school-aged children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeremy W; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks compared to young adults. The amplitude of oscillations in the alpha band (~8-14 Hz) tracks the top-down deployment of attention, and there is growing evidence that alpha can act as a suppressive mechanism to bias attention away from distracting sensory input. Moreover, the amplitude of alpha has also been shown to be sensitive to the demands of switching tasks. To understand the neural basis of protracted development of these executive functions, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from school-aged children (8-12 years), adolescents (13-17), and young adults (18-34) as they performed a cued inter-sensory selective attention task. The youngest participants showed increased susceptibility to distracting inputs that was especially evident when switching tasks. Concordantly, they showed weaker and delayed onset of alpha modulation compared to the older groups. Thus the flexible and efficient deployment of alpha to bias competition among attentional sets remains underdeveloped in school-aged children. PMID:26190204

  3. Farm to School and Nutrition Education: Positively Affecting Elementary School-Aged Children's Nutrition Knowledge and Consumption Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Ashley; Null, Dawn; Long Roth, Sara; Tragoudas, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Good nutrition is crucial. School-aged children battle social and health issues such as poor nutrition, childhood obesity, and minimal nutrition knowledge. This study was a quasi-experimental design analyzing the effects of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) nutrition curriculum with a Farm to School program to assess nutrition knowledge of 3rd grade students, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption behavior. Methods Third grade boys and girls (n=65) participated in this study. The intervention consisted of two nutrition education classes and a farm tour. Data were collected at baseline and postintervention. Surveys assessed nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable consumption behavior, and awareness of farms and farmers. Chi-squared tests of independence were performed to examine the relation between the baseline and postintervention responses. Results Significant differences were found concerning knowledge of fiber (p<0.001). Knowledge of vitamins and minerals, reported vegetable consumption behavior at school, and farm exposure were also significant (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that CATCH nutrition education and farm tours can positively affect school-aged children's nutrition knowledge and fruit and vegetable consumption behavior. PMID:23308373

  4. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M.; A’Kadir, Faiza M.; Ali, Jamal N.; Mohammed, Ulfat A.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology In 2011, we conducted 35 children’s discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Principal Findings Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys’ disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students. Conclusions/Significance Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child’s well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar. PMID:27399310

  5. Cerebral processing of pain in school-aged children with neonatal nociceptive input: an exploratory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hohmeister, Johanna; Kroll, Alexander; Wollgarten-Hadamek, Iris; Zohsel, Katrin; Demirakça, Süha; Flor, Herta; Hermann, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Due to maturation-related plasticity of the developing nociceptive system, neonatal nociceptive input, as induced by medical procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), may cause long-term alterations in pain processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study investigated the cerebral pain response in school-aged children and adolescents (11-16 yr) with experience in a NICU after preterm (or=37 weeks gestational age, N=9) as compared to fullterm control children without early hospitalization (N=9). NICU children had been recruited retrospectively among former patients of the Children's University Hospital Mannheim. All children had participated in our previous studies [46,49] entailing psychophysical measurements. In response to tonic (30s) heat stimuli of individually adjusted moderate pain intensity, which were of comparable temperature across groups, the preterm but not the fullterm NICU children exhibited significant activations in a number of brain regions (thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and periaquaeductal gray) that were not significantly activated in controls. The preterms showed significantly higher activations than controls in primary somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula. This exaggerated brain response was pain-specific and was not observed during non-painful warmth stimulation. Preterms' continuous pain ratings revealed a tendency for increased sensitization within and a lack of habituation across trials. In highly vulnerable children such as preterms, neonatal nociceptive input may, aside from other neurodevelopmental consequences, persistently increase the gain within pain pathways. PMID:20471751

  6. Rise in childhood obesity with persistently high rates of undernutrition among urban school-aged Indo-Asian children

    PubMed Central

    Jafar, T H; Qadri, Z; Islam, M; Hatcher, J; Bhutta, Z A; Chaturvedi, N

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is an emerging global public health challenge. Evidence for the transition in nutrition in Indo-Asian developing countries is lacking. We conducted these analyses to determine the trends in nutritional status of school-aged children in urban Pakistan. Methods: Data on the nutritional status of children aged 5 to 14 years from two independent population-based representative surveys, the urban component of the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP; 1990–1994) and the Karachi survey (2004–2005), were analysed. Using normative data from children in the United States as the reference, trends for age- and gender-standardised prevalence (95% CI) of underweight (more than 2 SD below the weight-for-age reference), stunted (more than 2 SD below the height-for-age reference) and overweight and obese (body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater) children were compared for the two surveys. The association between physical activity and being overweight or obese was analysed in the Karachi survey using logistical regression analysis. Results: 2074 children were included in the urban NHSP and 1675 in the Karachi survey. The prevalence of underweight children was 29.7% versus 27.3% (p = 0.12), stunting was 16.7% versus 14.3% (p = 0.05), and prevalence of overweight and obese children was 3.0 versus 5.7 (p<0.001) in the NHSP and Karachi surveys, respectively. Physical activity was inversely correlated with being overweight or obese (odds ratio, 95% CI, 0.51, 0.32–0.80 for those who engaged in more than 30 minutes of physical activity versus those engaged in less than 30 minutes’ activity). Conclusions: Our study highlights the challenge faced by Pakistani school-aged children. There has been a rapid rise in the number of overweight and obsese children despite a persistently high burden of undernutrition. Focus on prevention of obesity in children must include strategies for promoting physical activity. PMID:17942586

  7. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Tammelin, Tuija H; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  8. Social and Physical Environmental Factors and Child Overweight in a Sample of American and Czech School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare environmental factors that influence body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) between a sample of American and Czech school-aged children. Design: Pilot study. A parent questionnaire and school visits were used to collect data from parents and children. Setting: Public schools in 1 American and 2 Czech cities. Participants:…

  9. A State of Double Jeopardy: Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Adverse Environments on the Social Communicative Abilities of School-Age Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Truman E.; Timler, Geralyn R.; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a retrospective examination of environmental risk, language performance, and narrative discourse data from a clinical database of school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Method: A case-defined diagnostic approach for measuring and reporting the full spectrum of disabilities in children with…

  10. Links between Children's Attachment Behavior at Early School-Age, Their Attachment-Related Representations, and Behavior Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Beliveau, Marie-Julie; Zdebik, Magdalena; Lepine, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine associations between children's attachment behavior at early school-age, dimensions of narrative performance, and behavior problems as assessed in middle childhood. Children's attachment patterns with mother were assessed at age 6 (N = 127) using the Main and Cassidy (1988) separation--reunion…

  11. Gap Detection in School-Age Children and Adults: Effects of Inherent Envelope Modulation and the Availability of Cues across Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W., III; Porter, Heather; Grose, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study evaluated the effects of inherent envelope modulation and the availability of cues across frequency on behavioral gap detection with noise-band stimuli in school-age children. Method: Listeners were 34 normal-hearing children (ages 5.2-15.6 years) and 12 normal-hearing adults (ages 18.5-28.8 years). Stimuli were…

  12. School-Aged Functioning of Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before Age Three: Parent-Reported Diagnostic, Adaptive, Medication, and School Placement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towle, Patricia O.; Vacanti-Shova, Karyn; Shah, Shristi; Higgins-D'alessandro, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Eighty children with early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses (under 36 months) were identified using a chart abstraction protocol applied to early intervention charts. Parents filled out questionnaires by mail when the children were school-aged (ages 6-16 years). Similar to previous studies, approximately 20 % no longer had ASD diagnoses;…

  13. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Instrument for Measuring Sleep Length and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Nyberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to develop a new instrument for measuring length of sleep as well as television and computer habits in school-age children. A questionnaire was constructed for use when children visit the school health care unit. Three aspects of the validity of the questionnaire were examined: its face validity, content validity, and construct…

  14. The Influence of Child Attributes and Social-Situational Context on School-Age Children's Risk Taking Behaviors that Can Lead to Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, B.A.; Sedore, L.

    2005-01-01

    Many injuries occur to school-age children when they are allowed independence in decisions about risk taking during play. The present study examined the influence of child attributes (sensation seeking, typical emotional responses in risk situations) and social-situational context (peer presence) on risk taking. Children in the Experimental Group…

  15. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  16. Examining the Relationship between Treatment Outcomes for Academic Achievement and Social Skills in School-Age Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Laura E.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between treatment-induced changes in academic achievement and social skills in elementary school-age children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A sample of 123 children in grades 1 through 4 with symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity, and significant…

  17. Elevated VGKC-Complex Antibodies in a Boy with Fever-Induced Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy in School-Age Children (FIRES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Marjorie A.; Hanrahan, Donncha; Anderson, Claire E.; O'Kane, Kathryn; Anderson, Jennifer; Casey, Maureen; de Sousa, Carlos; Cross, J. Helen; Wright, Sukvhir; Dale, Russell C.; Vincent, Angela; Kurian, Manju A.

    2011-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a clinically recognized epileptic encephalopathy of unknown aetiology. Presentation in previously healthy children is characterized by febrile status epilepticus. A pharmacoresistant epilepsy ensues, occurring in parallel with dramatic cognitive decline and…

  18. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J.; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  19. How will things be the next time? Self in the construction of future events among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2015-11-01

    This study examined among school-aged children the role of the self in perceived valence changes from the past to the future. Nine- to 11-year-old children (N=57) recalled positive and negative personal events of various situations and imagined a future personal event involving the same situation following each recall. Children's self-knowledge was assessed in terms of self-concepts for past, present, and future selves, and self-evaluations for social and cognitive competences. Children who viewed their future selves more positively and those who evaluated their cognitive competence more positively anticipated greater upward (positive) changes and smaller downward (negative) changes in their future academic performance. Children who evaluated their social competence more positively anticipated greater upward changes in their future peer relations. Furthermore, children who anticipated greater upward changes and smaller downward changes in their personal futures exhibited greater well-being. These findings shed new light on the role of self in mental time travel. PMID:26141661

  20. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  1. Productive extension of semantic memory in school-aged children: Relations with reading comprehension and deployment of cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Blue, Shala N; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and integrated the information and used it to further extend their semantic knowledge, as evidenced by high levels of correct responses in open-ended and forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, on half of the trials, the to-be-integrated facts were read by an experimenter (as in Experiment 1) and on half of the trials, children read the facts themselves. Self-generation performance was high in both conditions (experimenter- and self-read); in both conditions, self-generation of new semantic knowledge was related to an independent measure of children's reading comprehension. In Experiment 3, the way children deployed cognitive resources during reading was predictive of their subsequent recall of newly learned information derived through integration. These findings indicate self-generation of new semantic knowledge through integration in school-age children as well as relations between this productive means of extension of semantic memory and cognitive processes engaged during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253263

  2. Effects of modality presentation on working memory in school-age children: evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Danos, Molly A; Nelson, Daniel; Baker, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of stimulus presentation modality on working memory performance in elementary school-age children ages 7-13. The experimental paradigm implemented a multitrial learning task incorporating three presentation modalities: Auditory, Visual, and simultaneous Auditory plus Visual. The first experiment compared the learning and memory performance of older and younger elementary school children. The second experiment compared verbal learning and memory performance in elementary school children with major depressive disorder (MDD) to the performance of nondepressed children. All participants benefited from the pictorial presentation of information during learning and recall of information as compared to the auditory presentation alone. Both age and socioeconomic status affected working memory performance in typically developing children. Children with depression demonstrated a more passive learning style during the auditory list acquisition. The present study supports the pictorial superiority hypothesis in verbal learning tasks and the theory that working memory matures during elementary school years. Furthermore, current results indicate that complex working memory measures are not entirely independent of previous experience. PMID:21271411

  3. [Use of new products with increased biologic value for nourishment of school aged children].

    PubMed

    Fateeva, E M; Balashova, V A; Kodrian, N Iu; Zelichenok, M I; Rabinovich, L A

    1977-01-01

    Rations in which new protein-rich, fat and cultured milk products are included have been worked out. These products made it possible to enrich the rations with a full-value protein, essential fatty acids, mineral substances and vitamins. Under observation were kept 60 schoolchildren, students of specialized and boarding schools aged from 13 to 16 years. The studies covered their health status, the degree of their fatiguability in the course of learning and the state of some factors characterizing metabolic processes proceeding in their organism. The enrichment of the adolescents' ration with products of an elevated biological value had a beneficial influence on the metabolism, physical development and performance capacity. All this justifies recommending wide use of new protein-rich fat and cultivated milk products in the dietary at boarding schools, account being taken of greater academic and teaching requirements. PMID:898823

  4. The association of ACE, ACTN3 and PPARA gene variants with strength phenotypes in middle school-age children.

    PubMed

    Ahmetov, Ildus I; Gavrilov, Dmitry N; Astratenkova, Irina V; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Malinin, Alexandr V; Romanova, Elena E; Rogozkin, Victor A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X and PPARA intron 7 G/C gene polymorphisms and strength-related traits in 457 middle school-age children (219 boys and 238 girls; aged 11 ± 0.4 years). The assessment of different phenotypes was conducted with a number of performance tests. Gene polymorphisms were determined by PCR. The ACE D allele was associated with high results of standing long-jump test in boys [II 148.3 (16.3) cm, ID 152.6 (19.6) cm, DD 158.2 (19.1) cm; P = 0.037]. The ACTN3 R allele was associated with high results of performance tests in males only in combination with other genes (standing long-jump test: P = 0.021; handgrip strength test: P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the male carriers of the PPARA gene C allele demonstrated the best results of handgrip strength testing than GG homozygotes [GG 14.6 (4.0) kg, GC/CC 15.7 (4.3) kg; P = 0.048]. Thus, the ACE, ACTN3 and PPARA gene variants are associated with strength-related traits in physically active middle school-age boys. PMID:22983821

  5. Long-term Effects of Prenatal Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake on Visual Function in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Caroline; Levy, Emile; Muckle, Gina; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) intake during gestation on visual development. Study design We examined the long-term effects in 136 school-age Inuit children exposed to high levels of n-3 PUFAs during gestation using visual evoked potentials (VEPs). VEP protocols using color and motion stimuli were used to assess parvo- and magnocellular responses. Concentrations of the two major n-3 PUFAs (DHA and EPA) were measured in umbilical cord and child plasma phospholipids, reflecting pre- and postnatal exposure, respectively. Results After adjustment for confounders, cord plasma DHA was associated with shorter latencies of the N1 and P1 components of the color VEPs. No effects were found for current n-3 PUFA body burden or motion-onset VEPs. Conclusion This study demonstrates beneficial effects of DHA intake during gestation on visual system function at school age. DHA is particularly important for the early development and long-term function of the visual parvocellular pathway. PMID:20797725

  6. Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children: A General Population Study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Houben-van Herten, Marieke; Bai, Guannan; Hafkamp, Esther; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Raat, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants of health-related quality of life in children aged 4-11 years in the general population in the Netherlands. Understanding such determinants may provide insights into more targeted public health policy. Methods As part of a population based cross sectional study, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) Parental Form 28 was used to measure health-related quality of life in school-aged children in a general population sample. Parents of 10,651 children aged 4-11 years were interviewed from January 2001 to December 2009. Results Multivariate and regression analyses demonstrated a declined CHQ Physical Summary score for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints and who were greater consumers of healthcare; children with a non-western immigrant background; and children whose parents did not work. Lower CHQ Psychosocial Summary score was reported for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints, boys, children of single parents and obese children. Conclusion The best predictors of health-related quality of life are variables that describe use of health care and the number of disorders and health complaints. Nonetheless, a number of demographic, socio-economic and family/environmental determinants contribute to a child’s health-related quality of life as well. PMID:25933361

  7. Subtypes of Attachment Security in School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This study explored children's secure attachment with both parents versus one parent, as well as the unique role of children's patterns of close relationships with father and mother, for a deeper understanding of maladjustment problems among children with learning disabilities (LD). Specifically, this study identified subgroups of children with…

  8. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

    2010-01-01

    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  9. Associations Between Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Externalized Behaviors at School Age Among Inuit Children Exposed to Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean age = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943

  10. The Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Cognitive Functions in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the “WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children” study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  11. [Food and nutrition knowledge of school-age children's mothers from elementary and high school from different socioeconomic levels].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Castro, C G; Ivanovic, R

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition of school-age children's mothers from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to measure the impact of socioeconomic, sociocultural and demographic variables on knowledge. A representative and proportional sample of 4,509 school-age children was chosen from Chile's Metropolitan Region and the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition on mothers of 1,985 of them was determined. The sample was stratified according to grade (I, II, IV, VI, VIII elementary school grades and I and IV high school grades), sex, type of school and geographic area. Socioeconomic status (SES) was determined through Graffar's modified method. The degree of knowledge on food and nutrition was assessed by a test based on the specific objectives pursued by the elementary school curriculum programs of the Ministry of Education and submitted to adequate statistical proofs for its content validity and reliability. Mother's schooling level mean was 9.7 +/- 4.0 y. The field study was carried out on 1986-1987. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance, Student "t" test for comparison of the means, correlation and regression. Results revealed that mothers did not know food and nutrition matters in fundamental aspects related to the observance of a healthy lifestyle, both, for themselves and their family. The degree of knowledge of food and nutrition significantly and positively correlated with SES, mother's schooling and occupation level, housing conditions (quality and sanitation) and age, and significantly and inversely correlated with the number of sons and crowding, besides of being significantly higher in urban than rural mothers. Mother's schooling level and geographic area were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power in the food and nutrition knowledge variance (r2 = 0.1723), but mother's schooling level explains 93.2% of the explained variance. Results suggest the need to

  12. Personality and Body-Mass-Index in School-Age Children: An Exploration of Mediating and Moderating Variables

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mark S.; Vella, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association. PMID:27486752

  13. Personality and Body-Mass-Index in School-Age Children: An Exploration of Mediating and Moderating Variables.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A

    2016-01-01

    This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association. PMID:27486752

  14. Psychological Distress Among School-Aged Children with and Without Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure: Perinatal Versus Contextual Effects.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Mark A; Grant-Knight, Wanda; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Chen, Clara A; Appugliese, Danielle P; Cabral, Howard J; Liebschutz, Jane M; Frank, Deborah A

    2016-04-01

    Whether intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school age children, even after controlling for other biological and social risk factors, has not been fully delineated. As part of a longitudinal birth cohort study of children with and without IUCE, we conducted and analyzed data based on structured clinical interviews with 105 children (57% male) and their caregivers when the child was approximately 8.5 years old; 47% of the children had experienced IUCE. Interviews included past and current major psychological disorders and sub-threshold mental health symptoms. Potential covariates were ascertained by interviews of birth mothers and other caregivers from shortly after the child's birth until the 8.5-year visit. More than one-third of children met DSM-IV criteria for one or more mood, anxiety, attention deficit, or disruptive behavior disorders. IUCE was not significantly associated with children's history of psychological distress, in either bivariate or multiple logistic regressions. In contrast, birth mothers' acknowledgement of greater psychiatric distress at baseline and higher levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and at 8.5 years caregivers' reports of their own psychological distress, and children's lower IQ were predictors of higher rates of psychological morbidity. Findings are consistent with prior reports suggesting that, regardless of IUCE status, children from low-income, urban backgrounds are at heightened risk for psychological distress. Results underscore the need for closer monitoring of the mental health of children living in low-income households, with or without intrauterine substance exposures, to facilitate access to appropriate services. PMID:26194603

  15. What Parents Can Do: School Age Children | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... tips— 1. Find out if your water has fluoride in it (check with your local water utility). ... Help your children brush their teeth (with a fluoride toothpaste) twice a day. Young children cannot get ...

  16. Are Language and Social Communication Intact in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment at School Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism. To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. Methods: We…

  17. Parental Perspectives on Alcohol Use among School-Aged Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Research on alcohol misuse and abuse indicates that it can cause many personal health and family problems. This study investigated whether Ghanaian parents would reward their children with alcohol if they sent the children to buy alcoholic drinks and whether they would favor legislation banning children from using alcohol. Also addressed in this…

  18. Facilitating Attachment between School-Aged Children and a Dying Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldinger, Amy; Cain, Albert C.; Porterfield, Katherine; Lohnes, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative, community study of 58 parentally bereaved children and their 35 surviving parents illustrates how families take advantage of forewarning of death to foster connections between children and dying parents and prepare for youngsters' continued attachment to dying parents after the death. Children and parents displayed strong yearnings…

  19. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high…

  20. School-Aged Children with SLI: The ICF as a Framework for Collaborative Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Reports of associated disabilities among children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with other developmental disabilities are widespread. Clinicians require a broader definition of SLI that recognizes associated disabilities because it is their goal to impact children's everyday functioning. In this paper, we explore SLI from a…

  1. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  2. Coping Strategies in Mothers and Fathers of Preschool and School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.; Kovshoff, Hanna; Brown, Tony; Ward, Nicholas J.; Espinosa, Francesca Degli; Remington, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Despite the theoretical and demonstrated empirical significance of parental coping strategies for the wellbeing of families of children with disabilities, relatively little research has focused explicitly on coping in mothers and fathers of children with autism. In the present study, 89 parents of preschool children and 46 parents of school-age…

  3. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  4. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  5. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  6. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is inversely related to development of adiposity in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Villamor, Eduardo; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Studies in adults indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition may play a role in development of adiposity. Because adipocyte quantity is established between late childhood and early adolescence, understanding the impact of PUFAs on weight gain during the school-age years is crucial to developing effective interventions. Subjects/Methods We quantified N-3 and N-6 PUFAs in serum samples of 668 Colombian schoolchildren aged 5–12 years at the time of recruitment into a cohort study, using gas-liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of N-3 (ALA, EPA, DHA) and N-6 PUFAs (LA, GLA, DGLA, AA) were determined as % total fatty acids. Children’s anthropometry was measured annually for a median of 30 months. We used mixed-effects models with restricted cubic splines to construct population body mass index-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves for age-and sex-specific quartiles of each PUFA. Results N-3 ALA was inversely related to BAZ gain after adjustment for sex, baseline age and weight status, and household socioeconomic level. Estimated BAZ change between 6 and 14 years among children in the highest quartile of ALA compared to those in the lowest quartile was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.83) lower (P-trend=0.006). Conclusions N-3 ALA may be protective against weight gain in school-age children. Whether improvement in PUFA status reduces adiposity in pediatric populations deserves evaluation in randomized trials. PMID:25271016

  7. Morning cortisol secretion in school-age children is related to the sleep pattern of the preceding night.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance in childhood is common and a risk factor for poor mental health. Evidence indicates that disturbed sleep is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity. Knowledge regarding the association between HPAA-activity and objective sleep measures particularly regarding sleep architecture in school-age children is missing. Sleep-electroencephalography was administered to 113 children aged 6-10 years (including 58 children born very preterm and 55 born at term) during one night at the children's homes and sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture were assessed. To assess the cortisol awakening response at the following morning, cortisol secretion was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Regression analyses controlling child age, gender, prematurity status, and the awakening time revealed that morning cortisol secretion was negatively associated with sleep duration and slow wave sleep and positively associated with the relative amount of Stage 2 sleep during the preceding night. In addition, morning cortisol secretion linearly increased with age. In conclusion, associations of sleep disturbance with poor mental health may be confounded with altered HPAA-activity. PMID:25553389

  8. Bryant's Empathy Index: Structure and Measurement Invariance across Gender in a Sample of Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Molina, Beatriz; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia; Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Martín-Seoane, Gema

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensional structure and measurement invariance of Bryant's Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA) (Bryant, 1982) across gender in a representative sample of primary school-aged children in Spain. The sample consisted of 2,050 children (50.80% girls), with a mean age of 9.80 years (SD = 1.24), recruited from 27 primary schools. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. The model that presented the best fit indices was Lasa, Holgado, Carrasco, and del Barrio's (2008) three-factor model: Understanding Feelings, Feelings of Sadness, and Tearful Reaction. The levels of internal consistency for the subscales ranged from .76 to .83. In addition, the results partially support the measurement invariance of the IECA across gender. When the latent means of the empathy dimensions were compared across gender, statistically significant differences were found. These results coincide with those found in the literature showing the multidimensionality of the IECA. Specifically, the findings support its three-factor structure and its invariance across gender, making it a very useful instrument for exploring the expression of empathy in primary school children. PMID:27425402

  9. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and Response Inhibition in School-Aged Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Burden, Matthew J.; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean age = 11.3 years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradigm. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Potential confounders were documented from a maternal interview, and exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. PCSE was not related to behavioral performance on this simple response inhibition task. Nevertheless, this exposure was associated with smaller amplitudes of the N2 and P3 components elicited by No-go stimuli, suggesting an impairment in the neural processes underlying response inhibition. Amplitude of the No-go P3 component was also inversely associated with behavioral measures of externalizing problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity in the classroom. This study is the first to report neurophysiological evidence of impaired response inhibition in school-aged children exposed to tobacco smoke in utero. Effects were found on ERP components associated with conflict processing and inhibition of a prepotent response, indicating neurophysiological deficits that may play a critical role in the attention and behavior problems observed in children with PCSE. PMID:24946039

  10. Gait in Very Preterm School-Aged Children in Dual-Task Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Manicolo, Olivia; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Weber, Peter; Grob, Alexander; Lemola, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Objective The control of gait requires executive and attentional functions. As preterm children show executive and attentional deficits compared to full-term children, performing concurrent tasks that impose additional cognitive load may lead to poorer walking performance in preterm compared to full-term children. Knowledge regarding gait in preterm children after early childhood is scarce. We examined straight walking and if it is more affected in very preterm than in full-term children in dual-task paradigms. Study design Twenty preterm children with very low birth-weight (≤ 1500 g), 24 preterm children with birth-weight > 1500 g, and 44 full-term children, born between 2001 and 2006, were investigated. Gait was assessed using an electronic walkway system (GAITRite) while walking without a concurrent task (single-task) and while performing one concurrent (dual-task) or two concurrent (triple-task) tasks. Spatio-temporal gait parameters (gait velocity, cadence, stride length, single support time, double support time), normalized gait parameters (normalized velocity, normalized cadence, normalized stride length) and gait variability parameters (stride velocity variability, stride length variability) were analyzed. Results In dual- and triple-task conditions children showed decreased gait velocity, cadence, stride length, as well as increased single support time, double support time and gait variability compared to single-task walking. Further, results showed systematic decreases in stride velocity variability from preterm children with very low birth weight (≤ 1500 g) to preterm children with birth weight > 1500 g to full-term children. There were no significant interactions between walking conditions and prematurity status. Conclusions Dual and triple tasking affects gait of preterm and full-term children, confirming previous results that walking requires executive and attentional functions. Birth-weight dependent systematic changes in stride velocity

  11. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Pre-School-Aged and School-Aged Children in an Urban Slum: A Cross-Sectional Study of Prevalence, Distribution, and Associated Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie M.; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Odero, Kennedy O.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Ruth, Laird J.; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm < 0.1%. The STH infection prevalence ranged from 22% to 71% between sub-village sectors. The PSAC have similar STH prevalences to SAC and should receive deworming. Small areas can contain heterogeneous prevalences; determinants of STH infection should be characterized and slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. PMID:25157123

  12. Lexical Processing in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Semantics.

    PubMed

    Haebig, Eileen; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive vocabulary. Children completed a lexical decision task, involving words with high and low semantic network sizes and nonwords. Children also completed nonverbal updating and shifting tasks. Children responded more accurately to words from high than from low semantic networks; however, follow-up analyses identified weaker semantic network effects in the SLI group. Additionally, updating and shifting abilities predicted lexical processing, demonstrating similarity in the mechanisms which underlie semantic processing in children with ASD, SLI, and typical development. PMID:26210517

  13. Psychological Distress Among School-Aged Children with and Without Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure: Perinatal Versus Contextual Effects

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mark A.; Grant-Knight, Wanda; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Chen, Clara A.; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Whether intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school age children, even after controlling for other biological and social risk factors, has not been fully delineated. As part of a longitudinal birth cohort study of children with and without IUCE, we conducted and analyzed data based on structured clinical interviews with 105 children (57 % male) and their caregivers when the child was approximately 8.5 years old; 47 % of the children had experienced IUCE. Interviews included past and current major psychological disorders and sub-threshold mental health symptoms. Potential covariates were ascertained by interviews of birth mothers and other caregivers from shortly after the child’s birth until the 8.5-year visit. More than one-third of children met DSM-IV criteria for one or more mood, anxiety, attention deficit, or disruptive behavior disorders. IUCE was not significantly associated with children’s history of psychological distress, in either bivariate or multiple logistic regressions. In contrast, birth mothers’ acknowledgement of greater psychiatric distress at baseline and higher levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and at 8.5 years caregivers’ reports of their own psychological distress, and children’s lower IQ were predictors of higher rates of psychological morbidity. Findings are consistent with prior reports suggesting that, regardless of IUCE status, children from low-income, urban backgrounds are at heightened risk for psychological distress. Results underscore the need for closer monitoring of the mental health of children living in low-income households, with or without intrauterine substance exposures, to facilitate access to appropriate services. PMID:26194603

  14. The Relationship between the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio and Behavioral Sexual Dimorphism in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Takahiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ito, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Kitta, Takeya; Moriya, Kimihiko; Cho, Kazutoshi; Morioka, Keita; Kishi, Reiko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Takeda, Masayuki; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic brain development and behavior are known to be influenced by sex hormones exposure in prenatal periods. On the other hand, second-to forth digit ratio (2D/4D) has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgen. In the present study, we herein investigated the relationship between gender-role play behavior and the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D/4D), which has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgens, in school-aged children. Among 4981 children who became 8 years old by November 2014 and were contactable for this survey by The Hokkaido Study of Environment and Children's Health, 1631 (32.7%), who had data for 2D/4D and Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI) as well as data for the survey at baseline, were available for analysis. Parents sent reports of PSAI on the sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities of children, and black and white photocopies of the left and right hand palms via mail. PSAI consisted of 12 masculine items and 12 feminine items, and a composite score was created by subtracting the feminine score from the masculine score, with higher scores representing masculine-typical behavior. While composite scores in PSAI were significantly higher in boys than in girls, 2D/4D was significantly lower in boys than in girls. Although the presence or absence of brothers or sisters affected the composite, masculine, and feminine scored of PSAI, a multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with the composite scores of PSAI in boys, whereas no correlation was found in girls. Although 2D/4D negatively correlated with the masculine score in boys and girls, no correlation was observed between 2D/4D and the feminine score. In conclusion, although social factors, such as the existence of brother or sisters, affect dimorphic brain development and behavior in childhood, the present

  15. The Relationship between the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio and Behavioral Sexual Dimorphism in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Takahiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ito, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Kitta, Takeya; Moriya, Kimihiko; Cho, Kazutoshi; Morioka, Keita; Kishi, Reiko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Takeda, Masayuki; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic brain development and behavior are known to be influenced by sex hormones exposure in prenatal periods. On the other hand, second-to forth digit ratio (2D/4D) has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgen. In the present study, we herein investigated the relationship between gender-role play behavior and the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D/4D), which has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgens, in school-aged children. Among 4981 children who became 8 years old by November 2014 and were contactable for this survey by The Hokkaido Study of Environment and Children's Health, 1631 (32.7%), who had data for 2D/4D and Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI) as well as data for the survey at baseline, were available for analysis. Parents sent reports of PSAI on the sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities of children, and black and white photocopies of the left and right hand palms via mail. PSAI consisted of 12 masculine items and 12 feminine items, and a composite score was created by subtracting the feminine score from the masculine score, with higher scores representing masculine-typical behavior. While composite scores in PSAI were significantly higher in boys than in girls, 2D/4D was significantly lower in boys than in girls. Although the presence or absence of brothers or sisters affected the composite, masculine, and feminine scored of PSAI, a multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with the composite scores of PSAI in boys, whereas no correlation was found in girls. Although 2D/4D negatively correlated with the masculine score in boys and girls, no correlation was observed between 2D/4D and the feminine score. In conclusion, although social factors, such as the existence of brother or sisters, affect dimorphic brain development and behavior in childhood, the present

  16. Social Interactions of School-Aged Children With CFA: Mothers' Perspectives and Advice.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tovah P; Pope, Alice; Abbott, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Objective : To learn about (1) mothers' perspectives on their children's social experiences and (2) how mothers interpret social situations and provide guidance to their children in challenging situations. Design : This was a qualitative study analyzing narratives. Mothers participated in a semistructured interview; mothers and their children participated in a social coaching task involving responses to hypothetical situations. Transcripts of audio recordings were used to create thematic coding categories, and transcripts were reviewed and coded. Setting : Children were patients at a reconstructive plastic surgery center in an urban hospital and medical school; families were recruited from a regional support group associated with the hospital. Participants : Mothers of nine children with congenital craniofacial anomalies, aged 9 to 14 years. Main Outcome Measures : Thematic narrative coding categories, focusing on mothers' perspectives on children's actual social experiences (from the interview) and mothers' advice and interpretations regarding challenging hypothetical social tasks (from the coaching task). Results : In the interviews, mothers reported positive and negative social experiences for their children. Multiple approaches were used by mothers to interpret social interactions experienced by children (interview) and hypothetical social situations (coaching task). These included consideration of situational factors, motivations of others, and factors within own child. Mothers' hypothetical advice was often prosocial, including concrete strategies to resolve conflict, to plan ways to avoid problems, to foster self-reliance, and to avoid hurtful situations. Conclusions : Mothers showed active interest and concern in their children's peer relationships and were thoughtful in devising strategies to successfully manage potential social challenges. PMID:24003837

  17. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    PubMed

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined. PMID:26032032

  18. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  19. Educational Needs of School-Aged Children Born Very and Extremely Preterm: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornby, Garry; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed dramatically improved survival rates for infants born prematurely, especially those born very and extremely preterm. Follow-up studies concerned with long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for children born preterm indicate that these children are at high risk for a range of cognitive, learning, neuromotor, and…

  20. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  1. Exploring Pathways from Television Viewing to Academic Achievement in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Nary

    2004-01-01

    The author's purpose in this study was to test 4 hypotheses that proposed different paths for the influences of children's television viewing on their academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1997 Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The population for this study included 1,203 children between the…

  2. Wheezing, Sleeping, and Worrying: The Hidden Risks of Asthma and Obesity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…

  3. School-Aged Children Born Preterm: Review of Functioning across Multiple Domains and Guidelines for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Keller-Margulis, Milena; Mire, Sarah; Abrahamson, Catherine; Dutt, Sonia; Llorens, Ashlie; Payan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for developmental deficits across multiple functional domains. As the rate of survival for preterm infants increases due to medical advancements, a greater understanding is needed for how to meet the needs of this growing population in schools. Because approximately 50-70% of children born preterm require…

  4. Handwriting in 2015: A Main Occupation for Primary School-Aged Children in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Emily; Roberts, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Historically, handwriting is a skill acquired by children in the classroom. The relevance of this skill today is currently debated due to advances in technology. A nonexperimental time-series design investigated how much time Australian primary school children spend on handwriting in the classroom. A second aim investigated how much time was spent…

  5. Motor Development in School-Aged Children with Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobling, Anne

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the motor development in 99 Australian children (ages 10-16) with Down syndrome. Results showed that the children's motor proficiency continued to progress into adolescence and that there were a wide range of inter- and intra-individual differences in their skill levels and rates of progress. (Author/CR)

  6. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  7. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Elementary School Age Children. Working Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Ann M.; And Others

    Using a nationally representative database of students in grades one through six, this study estimates the effects of number of parents and maternal working on children's school-related achievement. Achievement scores are lower for children from one-parent than from two-parent homes. The effect appears to work primarily through the lower income of…

  8. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. PMID:23991687

  9. Dietary Fats and Oils: Knowledge and Preferences of School-Aged Children in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimvraki, Eleni; Athanasiou, Kyriakos; Makris, George

    1997-01-01

    Investigated knowledge and preferences of 176 Greek children, aged 9 to 11, with regard to dietary oils and fats. Results indicate that these children lacked the knowledge they needed to make healthy food choices, and that teaching strategies should be developed to address their needs. (SLD)

  10. Language Ability, Executive Functioning and Behaviour in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasinski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children with language impairment present with deficits in other areas, including executive functioning (EF), attention and behaviour. Similarly, many children receiving services for attention or behaviour problems have deficits in language ability. Aims: To evaluate the relations among EF, language ability and behaviour problems…

  11. Children's Books, 1976: A List of Books for Preschool through Junior High School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.

    Thirteenth in the series of annual guides to current children's books published by the Library of Congress, this guide lists titles chosen from the best of some 2,200 children's books published in 1976. Ranging in subject from Easter eggs and "Yankee Doodle" to vitamins and ecology--by way of Africa, computer-age mixups, suicidal lemmings, ancient…

  12. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  13. Visual Fast Mapping in School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate impaired visual fast mapping skills compared with unimpaired peers and to test components of visual working memory that may contribute to a visual working memory deficit. Methods: Fifty children (25 SLI) played 2 computer-based visual fast mapping games…

  14. Screening for Asperger Syndrome in School-Age Children: Issues and Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Campbell, Audrey; Keran, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many children with Asperger syndrome are not identified prior to school entry, and difficulties associated with the condition may only become evident when a child enters school. Failure to identify children with the syndrome may lead to increased risk for psychopathology, and lack of understanding of the reasons for social and communicative…

  15. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  16. A Parent Training Program for Increasing the Visual Development of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikowski, Timothy J.

    This practicum provided training for 50 parents of children receiving clinic services for visual processing disorders and provided information on visual disorders to the children's teachers. The 8-month program involved 13 parent training sessions. These sessions focused on such topics as: current research findings on vision; identification of…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  18. Sensitivity of Narrative Organization Measures Using Narrative Retells Produced by Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of children's productions of oral narratives provides a rich description of children's oral language skills. However, measures of narrative organization can be directly affected by both developmental and task-based performance constraints which can make a measure insensitive and inappropriate for a particular population and/or sampling…

  19. Attention Training for School-Aged Children with ADHD: Results of an Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Hughes, Carroll; Ames, Laure; Pickering, Joyce; Silver, Cheryl H.; Stavinoha, Peter; Castillo, Christine L.; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Foxwell, Aleksandra; Bolanos, S. Gina; Hines, Tabatha; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Emslie, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The article discusses a feasibility study conducted to examine whether Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, could be utilized in a clinical setting with children diagnosed with ADHD, and whether children who received the intervention made attention and executive functioning…

  20. Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

  1. They're Bright but Can't Write: Developmental Coordination Disorder in School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Rivard, Lisa; Pollock, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Handwriting problems are readily apparent to classroom teachers but may be only the tip of the iceberg for children who have significant coordination difficulties. School is a daily frustration for these children as their finished work does not reflect their abilities, they struggle with the simplest of tasks and are victimized by their peers.…

  2. The Development of Children at Familial Risk for Dyslexia: Birth to Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyytinen, Heikki; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Erskine, Jane; Guttorm, Tomi; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Paula; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Richardson, Ulla; Torppa, Minna

    2004-01-01

    Children at risk for familial dyslexia (n = 107) and their controls (n = 93) have been followed from birth to school entry in the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD) on developmental factors linked to reading and dyslexia. At the point of school entry, the majority of the at-risk children displayed decoding ability that fell at least 1…

  3. A Collaborative Protocol for Encopresis Management in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Carol A.

    1995-01-01

    Encopresis affects a small percentage of children, but most parents are unaware of the condition and react punitively. The lengthy, complex management program usually includes physiological and behavioral approaches. The collaborative management protocol focuses on medical clinicians, families, children, school nurses, and teachers, and can help…

  4. Frequent Visitors: Somatization in School-Age Children and Implications for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Robin Adair; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Matthews, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    There is a gap in the nursing literature regarding children who frequently visit school nurses' offices with recurrent unexplained physical symptoms. A review of the scientific health literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation, associated variables, and implications for school nurses regarding children who are frequent school…

  5. A feasibility study of wearable activity monitors for pre-adolescent school-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess ac...

  6. A feasibility study of wearable activity monitors for pre-adolescent school-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding physical activity is the key to fighting childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certian wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 yearsto assess acceptabi...

  7. Maturation of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Piers; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine development of sensitivity to auditory and visual temporal processes in children and the association with standardized measures of auditory processing and communication. Methods: Normative data on tests of visual and auditory processing were collected on 18 adults and 98 children aged 6-10 years of age. Auditory processes…

  8. Factors Influencing Skilled Use of the Computer Mouse by School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    Effective use of computers in education for children requires consideration of individual and developmental characteristics of users. There is limited empirical evidence, however, to guide educational programming when it comes to children and their acquisition of computing skills. This paper reports on the influence of previous experience and…

  9. The Effect of Cleft Lip on Socio-Emotional Functioning in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Bingley, Caroline; Hentges, Francoise; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dalton, Louise; Goodacre, Tim; Hill, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with cleft lip are known to be at raised risk for socio-emotional difficulties, but the nature of these problems and their causes are incompletely understood; longitudinal studies are required that include comprehensive assessment of child functioning, and consideration of developmental mechanisms. Method: Children with cleft…

  10. The Effects of Mass Merchandising on Elementary School Age Children's Book Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gregory A.

    A survey was given to 866 students in the Westfield Public School (New Jersey) to ascertain whether or not elementary age children were strongly influenced by Corporate America in their reading selections. Respondents were in either second, third, or fourth grade. The children were asked three questions about their favorite character and favorite…

  11. Development of sampling efficiency and internal noise in motion detection and discrimination in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Helle K; Simpson, William A; Dutton, Gordon N

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an equivalent noise paradigm to investigate the development and maturation of motion perception, and how the underlying limitations of sampling efficiency and internal noise effect motion detection and direction discrimination in school-aged children (5-14 years) and adults. Contrast energy thresholds of a 2c/deg sinusoidal grating drifting at 1.0 or 6.0 Hz were measured as a function of added dynamic noise in three tasks: detection of a drifting grating; detection of the sum of two oppositely drifting gratings and direction discrimination of oppositely drifting gratings. Compared to the ideal observer, in both children and adults, the performance for all tasks was limited by reduced sampling efficiency and internal noise. However, the thresholds for discrimination of motion direction and detection of moving gratings show very different developmental profiles. Motion direction discrimination continues to improve after the age of 14 years due to an increase in sampling efficiency that differs with speed. Motion detection and summation were already mature at the age of 5 years, and internal noise was the same for all tasks. These findings were confirmed in a 1-year follow-up study on a group of children from the initial study. The results support suggestions that the detection of a moving pattern and discriminating motion direction are processed by different systems that may develop at different rates. PMID:24732568

  12. Effect of response context and masker type on word recognition in school-age children and adults.

    PubMed

    Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J; Hall, Joseph W

    2016-08-01

    In adults, masked speech recognition improves with the provision of a closed set of response alternatives. The present study evaluated whether school-age children (5-13 years) benefit to the same extent as adults from a forced-choice context, and whether this effect depends on masker type. Experiment 1 compared masked speech reception thresholds for disyllabic words in either an open-set or a four-alternative forced-choice (4AFC) task. Maskers were speech-shaped noise or two-talker speech. Experiment 2 compared masked speech reception thresholds for monosyllabic words in two 4AFC tasks, one in which the target and foils were phonetically similar and one in which they were dissimilar. Maskers were speech-shaped noise, amplitude-modulated noise, or two-talker speech. For both experiments, it was predicted that children would not benefit from the information provided by the 4AFC context to the same degree as adults, particularly when the masker was complex (two-talker) or when audible speech cues were temporally sparse (modulated-noise). Results indicate that young children do benefit from a 4AFC context to the same extent as adults in speech-shaped noise and amplitude-modulated noise, but the benefit of context increases with listener age for the two-talker speech masker. PMID:27586729

  13. A Feasibility Study of Wearable Activity Monitors for Pre-Adolescent School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess acceptability and compliance of wearable activity devices in this age group. During March through August 2012, children participated in a 4-week study of 3 accelerometer models and a heart rate monitor. Children were asked to use a different device each week for 7 consecutive days. Children and their parents completed structured interviews after using each device; they also completed a final exit interview. Results The wrist-worn Polar Active was the device most preferred by children and was associated with the highest level of compliance. Devices that are comfortable to wear, fit properly, have engaging features, and are waterproof increase feasibility and are associated with higher levels of compliance. Conclusion The wrist-worn device was the most feasible for measuring physical activity among children aged 7 to 10 years. These findings will inform researchers in selecting tools for measuring children’s physical activity. PMID:24854236

  14. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes-Filho, Jose A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-15

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives: We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 {mu}g/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 {mu}g/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 {mu}g/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; {beta} coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's ({beta}=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions: These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure.

  15. Does the School Performance Variable Used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study Reflect Students' School Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A.; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and…

  16. Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children after Neonatal Corrective Cardiac Surgery for Transposition of the Great Arteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Johanna; Bonnet, Damien; Courtin, Cyril; Concordet, Susan; Plumet, Marie-Helene; Angeard, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Cardiac malformations resulting in cyanosis, such as transposition of the great arteries (TGA), have been associated with neurodevelopmental dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, theory of mind (ToM), which is a key component of social cognition and executive functions in school-aged children with TGA.…

  17. The Enjoyment of Formal and Informal Recreation and Leisure Activities: A Comparison of School-Aged Children with and without Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Law, Mary; Hurley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fairly extensive literature on the developmental benefits of youth's participation in organised, out-of-school activities, little is known about the participation of school-aged children with physical disabilities in formal recreation and leisure activities, both in comparison with their participation in informal activities and with…

  18. Saints Not Sinners? Young People Bucking the Trend of Binge Drinking. An Analysis of the Drinking Trends of School Age Children in Sunderland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnes, A.; Blackwell, D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The main aim of this article was to determine the self-reported drinking behaviours of school age children in Sunderland in the North East of England. The results presented are derived from data collected by a Health Related Behaviour Survey, which was administered by the Schools Health Education Unit (SHEU) of the University of Exeter.…

  19. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body ...

  20. The Differential Impacts of Early Physical and Sexual Abuse and Internalizing Problems on Daytime Cortisol Rhythm in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of early physical and sexual abuse (EPA/SA) occurring in the first 5 years of life was investigated in relation to depressive and internalizing symptomatology and diurnal cortisol regulation. In a summer camp context, school-aged maltreated (n = 265) and nonmaltreated (n = 288) children provided morning and late afternoon saliva samples…

  1. Cognitive Processing Profiles of School-Age Children Who Meet Low-Achievement, IQ-Discrepancy, or Dual Criteria for Underachievement in Oral Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Santen, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive processing profiles of school-age children (ages 7 to 17) who met criteria for underachievement in oral reading accuracy based on three different methods: 1) use of a regression-based IQ-achievement discrepancy only (REGonly), 2) use of a low-achievement cutoff only (LAonly), and 3) use of a…

  2. It Is Not Just the Poor Kids: The Use of AAE Forms by African-American School-Aged Children from Middle SES Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Miller, Jon F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the production of African-American English (AAE) forms produced by 69 school-aged African-American children from middle socio-economic status (SES) communities to determine if age would influence: (a) the number of different types of AAE tokens and (b) the rate of dialect. Descriptive data revealed that there were more than 20…

  3. Uptake and impact of vaccinating school age children against influenza during a season with circulation of drifted influenza A and B strains, England, 2014/15.

    PubMed

    Pebody, Richard G; Green, Helen K; Andrews, Nick; Boddington, Nicola L; Zhao, Hongxin; Yonova, Ivelina; Ellis, Joanna; Steinberger, Sophia; Donati, Matthew; Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Pathirannehelage, Sameera; Mullett, David; Smith, Gillian E; de Lusignan, Simon; Zambon, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season was the second season of roll-out of a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) programme for healthy children in England. During this season, besides offering LAIV to all two to four year olds, several areas piloted vaccination of primary (4-11 years) and secondary (11-13 years) age children. Influenza A(H3N2) circulated, with strains genetically and antigenically distinct from the 2014/15 A(H3N2) vaccine strain, followed by a drifted B strain. We assessed the overall and indirect impact of vaccinating school age children, comparing cumulative disease incidence in targeted and non-targeted age groups in vaccine pilot to non-pilot areas. Uptake levels were 56.8% and 49.8% in primary and secondary school pilot areas respectively. In primary school age pilot areas, cumulative primary care influenza-like consultation, emergency department respiratory attendance, respiratory swab positivity, hospitalisation and excess respiratory mortality were consistently lower in targeted and non-targeted age groups, though less for adults and more severe end-points, compared with non-pilot areas. There was no significant reduction for excess all-cause mortality. Little impact was seen in secondary school age pilot only areas compared with non-pilot areas. Vaccination of healthy primary school age children resulted in population-level impact despite circulation of drifted A and B influenza strains. PMID:26537222

  4. Serving the Student-Survivor: Exploring the Transitional and Psychosocial Needs of School-Aged Children with Cancer and Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanin, Devon Malia

    2014-01-01

    The advances in medicine today have created an emerging population of student-survivors, school-aged children living with and/or recovering from serious health conditions (Bauman, 2010). Each school day in the United States, 46 young people, or the equivalent of two classrooms of students, learn they have cancer (Cure Search National Childhood…

  5. Associations among Risk Factors, Individual Resources, and Indices of School-Related Asthma Morbidity in Urban, School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Adams, Sue K.; Murdock, Karla Klein

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model including examples of risk and resource factors associated with indices of school-related asthma morbidity (eg, missed sleep, participation in activities, school absences) in a group of urban, school-aged children with asthma from ethnic minority backgrounds. Specifically, the current longitudinal study…

  6. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  7. [Prevalence of severe visual impairement in school-age children in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Czeizel, E; Métneki, J; Vitéz, M

    1991-09-15

    The recorded prevalence of 6 to 14 year-old children with severe visual handicap was 0.43 per 1000 in Hungary, 1983/84. The territorial distribution showed significant difference in prevalences, the highest figures were found in two entities with three special institutions for severely visually handicapped children. Thus, the recorded figures are underascertained and the estimated rates are 0.52-0.60 and 0.21 per 1000 for children with severe visual handicap and, within it, blindness, respectively. PMID:1923476

  8. Primary Hypertension and Neurocognitive & Executive Functioning in School-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Kupferman, Juan C.; Lande, Marc B.; Adams, Heather R.; Pavlakis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Data on neurocognitive function in hypertensive children are very limited. In this review, we summarize recent preliminary, early studies that suggest that children with elevated blood pressure demonstrate evidence of worse performance on direct neurocognitive testing, as well as evidence of executive dysfunction based on parent ratings, compared to matched normotensive comparison groups. Furthermore, hypertensive children may also have increased prevalence of learning disabilities as well as a blunted cerebrovascular reactivity compared to normotensive controls. Larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm and further explore these emerging but preliminary findings. PMID:22692504

  9. The Development of Conceptual and Rote Recall Skills Among School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Garrett

    1973-01-01

    One hundred eighty children from Grades K, 5, and 9 performed a recall task within one of four instructional conditions: serial recall; standard free recall; labeling free recall; labeling cued recall. (Editor)

  10. Reprint of: Equal egocentric bias in school-aged children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Begeer, Sander; Bernstein, Daniel M; Aßfalg, Andre; Azdad, Halima; Glasbergen, Tessa; Wierda, Marlies; Koot, Hans M

    2016-09-01

    Egocentric bias is a core feature of autism. This phenomenon has been studied using the false belief task. However, typically developing children who pass categorical (pass or fail) false belief tasks may still show subtle egocentric bias. We examined 7- to 13-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n=76) or typical development (n=113) using tasks with a continuous response scale: a modified false belief task and a visual hindsight bias task. All children showed robust egocentric bias on both tasks, but no group effects were found. Our large sample size, coupled with our sensitive tasks and resoundingly null group effects, indicate that children with and without ASD possess more similar egocentric tendencies than previously reported. PMID:27262614

  11. Equal egocentric bias in school-aged children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Begeer, Sander; Bernstein, Daniel M; Aßfalg, Andre; Azdad, Halima; Glasbergen, Tessa; Wierda, Marlies; Koot, Hans M

    2016-04-01

    Egocentric bias is a core feature of autism. This phenomenon has been studied using the false belief task. However, typically developing children who pass categorical (pass or fail) false belief tasks may still show subtle egocentric bias. We examined 7- to 13-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n=76) or typical development (n=113) using tasks with a continuous response scale: a modified false belief task and a visual hindsight bias task. All children showed robust egocentric bias on both tasks, but no group effects were found. Our large sample size, coupled with our sensitive tasks and resoundingly null group effects, indicate that children with and without ASD possess more similar egocentric tendencies than previously reported. PMID:26687336

  12. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  13. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  14. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  15. Five-Year Progression of Refractive Errors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ye; Li, Hua; Wu, Yu-Fei; Xu, Ji; Lv, Sha; Li, Ge; Liu, Shi-Chun; Song, Sheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the change in refractive error and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractive error was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractive error and incidence of myopia. Results Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractive error was −2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of −0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractive error was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher myopic or hyperopic refractive error at baseline. The cumulative incidence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refractive error of −0.50 D or more, among initial emmetropes and hyperopes was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.2%–63.5%), with an annual incidence of 10.6% (95% CI, 8.7%–13.1%). Myopia was found more likely to happen in female and older children. Conclusions In Western China, both myopic progression and incidence of myopia were higher than those of children from most other locations in China and from the European Caucasian population. Compared with a previous study in China, there was a relative increase in annual myopia progression and annual myopia incidence, a finding which is consistent with the increasing trend on prevalence of myopia in China. PMID:26875599

  16. Parsing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Visual Scanning of Dynamic Social Scenes in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Katherine; Moriuchi, Jennifer M.; Jones, Warren; Klin, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of variability in social visual engagement and their relationship to standardized measures of social disability in a heterogeneous sample of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method Eye-tracking measures of visual fixation during free-viewing of dynamic social scenes were obtained for 109 children with ASD (mean age=10.2 ± 3.2 years), 37 of whom were matched to 26 typically developing (TD) children (mean age=9.5 ± 2.2 years) on gender, age and IQ. The smaller subset allowed for between-group comparisons whereas the larger group was used for within-group examinations of ASD heterogeneity. Results Between-group comparisons revealed significantly attenuated orientation to socially salient aspects of the scenes, with the largest effect size (Cohen’s d=1.5) obtained for reduced fixation on faces. Within-group analyses revealed a robust association between higher fixation on the inanimate environment and greater social disability. However, the associations between fixation on the eyes and mouth and social adaptation varied greatly, even reversing, when comparing different cognitive profile subgroups. Conclusions While patterns of social visual engagement with naturalistic social stimuli are profoundly altered in children with ASD, the social adaptivity of these behaviors varies for different groups of children. This variation likely represents different patterns of adaptation and maladaptation that should be traced longitudinally to the first years of life, before complex interactions between early predispositions and compensatory learning take place. We propose that variability in these early mechanisms of socialization may serve as proximal behavioral manifestations of genetic vulnerabilities. PMID:22365460

  17. Specific language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents are associated with prematurity after controlling for IQ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

    2011-04-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N=100) included 9-16-year old children born before 36 weeks gestation and weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n=65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n=35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β=-.27, p<.05, R(2)=.07, verbal memory, β=.31, p<.05, R(2)=.09, and reading comprehension, β=.28, p<.05, R(2)=.08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm. PMID:21195100

  18. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  19. Motor coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Ariane; Piek, Jan P; Dyck, Murray J

    2005-07-01

    Children with motor coordination problems are known to have emotional difficulties and poor social skills. The current study investigated whether children with poor motor ability have poor emotion recognition skills, and whether these could be linked to problems in social behaviour. It was hypothesized that difficulties in empathic ability might be related to the poor visuo-spatial processing ability identified in children with developmental coordination disorder (as defined by the American Psychiatric Association). The relationship between motor coordination, emotion recognition, and social behaviour was examined in a sample of 234 children (113 males, 121 females; mean age 9y 7mo, [SD 1y 8mo] age range 6y 8mo to 12y 11mo). From this sample two groups of 39 children each (17 females, 22 males), one group with motor difficulties (mean age 9y 11mo [SD 2y], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo) and the other of control children (mean age 10y [SD ly 11mo], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo), matched for age and sex, were compared using a set of six emotion recognition scales that measured both verbal and perceptual aspects of empathic ability. Children with motor difficulties were found to perform more poorly on scales measuring the ability to recognize static and changing facial expressions of emotion. This difference remained even when visuo-spatial processing was controlled. When controlling for emotion recognition and visuo-spatial organization, a child's motor ability remained a significant predictor of social behaviour. PMID:15991862

  20. Learning Disabilities and Intellectual Functioning in School-Aged Children With Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Connie E.; Culbertson, Jan L.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (Wechsler,1991) shortform, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler,1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95;95%confidence interval [CI] = 0.65,1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95%CI = 1.05,7.67; p = .038; IQ ≥ 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and care-giver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers. PMID:17083299

  1. First trimester fetal growth restriction and cardiovascular risk factors in school age children: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Layla L; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Steegers, Eric A P; Gaillard, Romy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether first trimester fetal growth restriction correlates with cardiovascular outcomes in childhood. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting City of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants 1184 children with first trimester fetal crown to rump length measurements, whose mothers had a reliable first day of their last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle. Main outcomes measures Body mass index, total and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and C peptide at the median age of 6.0 (90% range 5.7-6.8) years. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was defined as having three or more of: high android fat mass; high systolic or diastolic blood pressure; low high density lipoprotein cholesterol or high triglycerides concentrations; and high insulin concentrations. Results One standard deviation score greater first trimester fetal crown to rump length was associated with a lower total fat mass (−0.30%, 95% confidence interval −0.57% to −0.03%), android fat mass (−0.07%, −0.12% to −0.02%), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (−0.53, −0.89 to −0.17), diastolic blood pressure (−0.43, −0.84 to −0.01, mm Hg), total cholesterol (−0.05, −0.10 to 0, mmol/L), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.04, −0.09 to 0, mmol/L), and risk of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 0.81, 0.66 to 1.00) in childhood. Additional adjustment for gestational age and weight at birth changed these effect estimates only slightly. Childhood body mass index fully explained the associations of first trimester fetal crown to rump length with childhood total fat mass. First trimester fetal growth was not associated with other cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that compared with school age children without clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, those with clustering had a smaller first trimester fetal crown

  2. Parental Spending on School-Age Children: Structural Stratification and Parental Expectation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingxin; Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean

    2015-06-01

    As consumption expenditures are increasingly recognized as direct measures of children's material well-being, they provide new insights into the process of intergenerational transfers from parents to children. Little is known, however, about how parents allocate financial resources to individual children. To fill this gap, we develop a conceptual framework based on stratification theory, human capital theory, and the child-development perspective; exploit unique child-level expenditure data from Child Supplements of the PSID; and employ quantile regression to model the distribution of parental spending on children. Overall, we find strong evidence supporting our hypotheses regarding the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and parental expectation. Our nuanced estimates suggest that (1) parental education, occupation, and family income have differential effects on parental spending, with education being the most influential determinant; (2) net of SES, race continues to be a significant predictor of parental spending on children; and (3) parental expectation plays a crucial role in determining whether parents place a premium on child development in spending and how parents prioritize different categories of spending. PMID:25933638

  3. Community-based counselors' interventions for elementary school-age children coping with trauma.

    PubMed

    Nabors, Laura; Baker-Phibbs, Christina; Woodson, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Child trauma is a mental health concern and more information is needed about treatment in community mental health settings. This article presents results of a focus group and member checking sessions held with counselors who provided therapy for children experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder in a community-based setting. Results indicated that play and art techniques were commonly used during individual child therapy sessions. Sessions were child-directed and allowed children to review trauma experiences in a "safe" setting with an "expert" guide. Several themes were commonly addressed in sessions including opportunities to re-experience, release, and reorganize the trauma, building resilience or self-esteem for the child, promoting safety, and helping the child to regulate emotional reactions and behavior problems. Counselors focused on discussing ways to interact with the child to promote healing and there was a belief that children would return to a positive developmental trajectory after coping with traumatic experiences. Future research needs to address what works for whom, in terms of what interventions are useful in child-directed counseling sessions for children who have experienced specific types of trauma, such as sexual and physical abuse or witnessing domestic violence. Integration of knowledge from evidence-based treatments will also further inform clinical practice with children who have experienced traumatic events. PMID:26939838

  4. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed. PMID:26098006

  5. Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:16030409

  6. Aerobic Capacity and Cognitive Control in Elementary School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Scudder, Mark R.; Lambourne, Kate; Drollette, Eric S.; Herrmann, Stephen; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined the relationship between children’s performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) subtest of the FitnessGram® and aspects of cognitive control that are believed to support academic success. Methods Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 2nd and 3rd grade children (n = 397) who completed modified versions of a flanker task and spatial n-back task to assess inhibitory control and working memory, respectively. Results Greater aerobic fitness was significantly related to shorter reaction time and superior accuracy during the flanker task, suggesting better inhibitory control and the facilitation of attention in higher fit children. A similar result was observed for the n-back task such that higher fit children exhibited more accurate target detection and discrimination performance when working memory demands were increased. Conclusion These findings support the positive association between aerobic fitness and multiple aspects of cognitive control in a large sample of children, using a widely implemented and reliable field estimate of aerobic capacity. Importantly, the current results suggest that this relationship is consistent across methods used to assess fitness, which may have important implications for extending this research to more representative samples of children in a variety of experimental contexts. PMID:24743109

  7. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children’s myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ −0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24–2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41–1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  8. Relationships among emotion regulation and symptoms during trauma-focused CBT for school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Thornback, Kristin; Muller, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    This study examined improvement in emotion regulation throughout Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and the degree to which improvement in emotion regulation predicted improvement in symptoms. Traumatized children, 7-12 years (69.9% female), received TF-CBT. Data from 4 time periods were used: pre-assessment (n=107), pre-treatment (n=78), post-treatment (n=58), and 6-month follow-up (n=44). Questionnaires measured emotion regulation in the form of inhibition and dysregulation (Children's Emotion Management Scales) and lability/negativity and emotion regulation skill (Emotion Regulation Checklist), as well as child-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children) and parent-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children) posttraumatic stress, and internalizing and externalizing problems (Child Behaviuor Checklist). To the extent that children's dysregulation and lability/negativity improved, their parents reported fewer symptoms following therapy. Improvements in inhibition best predicted improvements in child-reported posttraumatic stress (PTS) during clinical services, but change in dysregulation and lability/negativity best predicted improvement in child-reported PTS symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Moreover, statistically significant improvements of small effect size were found following therapy, for inhibition, dysregulation, and lability/negativity, but not emotion regulation skill. These findings suggest that emotion regulation is a worthy target of intervention and that improvements in emotion regulation can be made. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26470906

  9. Parent-reported eating and leisure-time activity selection patterns related to energy balance in preschool-and school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children’s eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well-visit. Setting Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants One hundred seventy-four children: 49% preschool-aged, 54% female, 28% Hispanic, and 34% overweight/at risk for overweight. Variables Measured Parent-reported eating/leisure-time behaviors. Height/weight from medical records. Analysis Analyses of covariance/Chi-square tests; significance at P ≤ 0.05. Results By parents’ report, preschool-aged children consumed more servings/day of low-fat dairy (2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 1.7 ± 1.5; P <.01), fewer servings/day of sweetened drinks (1.4 ± 1.9 vs. 2.2 ± 2.6; P <.01), and watched fewer hours/day of weekend TV (2.3 ± 1. 3 vs. 2.7 ± 1.3; P <.05) than school-aged children. Fewer preschool-aged children consumed salty (14.0% vs. 26.1%; P <.05) and sweet (16.3% vs. 29.5%; P <.05) snack foods daily, and a greater percentage regularly consumed dinner with a parent (93.0% vs. 80.7%; P <.05), as assessed by parent report. Conclusions and Implications Parent-reported children’s eating/leisure-time patterns that may influence energy balance were less healthy in the school-aged children. However, most children did not meet recommendations, irrespective of age/weight. Interventions for meeting recommendations should start with families with preschool-aged children. Future research should focus on identifying factors that might be contributing to increased reporting of problematic food and leisure-time activity patterns in school-aged children. PMID:19161916

  10. The effects of maternal employment on the health of school-age children.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2011-03-01

    The effects of maternal employment on children's health are theoretically ambiguous and challenging to identify. There are trade-offs between income and time, and a mother's decision to work reflects, in part, her children's health and her underlying preferences. I utilize exogenous variation in each child's youngest sibling's eligibility for kindergarten as an instrument. Using the restricted-access National Health Interview Survey (1985-2004), I identify the effects on overnight hospitalizations, asthma episodes, and injuries/poisonings for children ages 7-17. Maternal employment increases the probability of each adverse health event by nearly 200 percent. These effects are robust and do not reflect a non-representative local effect. PMID:21316779

  11. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among healthy school-age Cree children

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Dewailly, Eric; Côté, Suzanne; Johnson-Down, Louise; Morin, Suzanne; Dodin, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First Nations children are at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency and rickets. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the correlations between fat mass, parathyroid hormone and dietary habits with serum vitamin D level in a random sample of Cree children eight to 14 years of age. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and additional information regarding anthropometrics and dietary habits were obtained from participants in two Cree communities. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <30 nmol/L and <50 nmol/L, respectively. Proportions to estimate the vitamin D status were weighted to account for the complex sampling design, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to estimate the associations of milk and fish intake, parathyroid hormone and fat mass with serum 25(OH)D levels. RESULTS: Data from 52 healthy Cree children (mean [± SD] age 11.1±2.0 years; 27 boys) were included in the analyses. The median serum 25(OH)D level was 52.4 nmol/L (range 22.1 nmol/L to 102.7 nmol/L). Forty-three percent (95% CI 29% to 58%) and 81% (95% CI 70% to 92%) of Cree children had vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L and <75 nmol/L, respectively. Vitamin D intake was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D levels. Obese children had lower vitamin D levels; however, the difference was nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: There may be a substantial proportion of Cree children who are vitamin D deficient. Increasing age, lower dietary vitamin D intake and, possibly, higher body mass index were associated with decreased vitamin D levels; however, causality cannot be inferred. PMID:24665228

  12. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    bedtime compared to full-term children. Importantly, in the preterm group, greater neonatal procedural pain-related stress (adjusted for morphine) was associated with lower cortisol levels on the study day (p=0.044) and lower diurnal cortisol at home (p=0.023), with effects found primarily in boys. In addition, child attention problems were negatively, and thought problems were positively, associated with the cortisol response during cognitive assessment on the study day in preterm children. Our findings suggest that neonatal pain/stress contributes to altered HPA axis function up to school-age in children born very preterm, and that sex may be an important factor. PMID:25313535

  13. Cryptic residual GALT activity is a potential modifier of scholastic outcome in school age children with classic galactosemia

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Emily L.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Taddeo, Elles; Gleason, Tyler J.; Epstein, Michael P.; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal disorder that results from profound deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Although early diagnosis and rigorous dietary restriction of galactose prevent or resolve the potentially lethal acute symptoms, patients are at markedly increased risk of long term complications including significant cognitive, speech, and behavioral difficulties, among other problems. The mechanisms that underlie these long-term complications remain unclear, as do the factors that modify their severity. Here we explored the scholastic and behavioral outcomes experienced by a cohort of 54 school age children with classic galactosemia. Data collected included survey responses from parents and teachers, school records including standardized test scores, and GALT genotype data used to estimate predicted residual GALT activity based on a yeast expression system. As expected, many but not all of the children in our study demonstrated speech, scholastic, and behavioral difficulties. Perhaps most striking, we found that predicted cryptic residual GALT activity, often below the threshold of detection of clinical assays, appeared to modify scholastic outcome. These data raise the intriguing possibility that cryptic GALT activity might also influence the severity of other long-term complications in classic galactosemia. PMID:23319291

  14. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  15. Cryptic residual GALT activity is a potential modifier of scholastic outcome in school age children with classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Emily L; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Taddeo, Elles; Gleason, Tyler J; Epstein, Michael P; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2013-11-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal disorder that results from profound deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Although early diagnosis and rigorous dietary restriction of galactose prevent or resolve the potentially lethal acute symptoms, patients are at markedly increased risk of long-term complications including significant cognitive, speech, and behavioral difficulties, among other problems. The mechanisms that underlie these long-term complications remain unclear, as do the factors that modify their severity. Here we explored the scholastic and behavioral outcomes experienced by a cohort of 54 school age children with classic galactosemia. Data collected included survey responses from parents and teachers, school records including standardized test scores, and GALT genotype data used to estimate predicted residual GALT activity based on a yeast expression system. As expected, many but not all of the children in our study demonstrated speech, scholastic, and behavioral difficulties. Perhaps most striking, we found that predicted cryptic residual GALT activity, often below the threshold of detection of clinical assays, appeared to modify scholastic outcome. These data raise the intriguing possibility that cryptic GALT activity might also influence the severity of other long-term complications in classic galactosemia. PMID:23319291

  16. Association between floating toe and toe grip strength in school age children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tasaka, Seishiro; Matsubara, Keisuke; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Matsushita, Tomofumi; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the association between floating toe and toe grip strength. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 635 Japanese children aged 9–11 years participated in this study. Floating toe was evaluated using footprint images, while toe grip strength was measured using a toe grip dynamometer. All 1,270 feet were classified into a floating toe group and a normal toe group according to visual evaluation of the footprint images. Intergroup differences in toe grip strength were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and Rohrer Index. [Results] There were 512 feet (40.3%) in the floating toe group. Mean toe grip strength of the feet with floating toe was significantly lower than that of normal feet (floating toe group, 12.9 ± 3.7 kg; normal toe group, 13.6 ± 4.1 kg). In addition, lower toe grip strength was associated with floating toe on logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, gender, and Rohrer Index (odds ratio, 0.954; 95% confidence interval, 0.925–0.984). [Conclusion] This study revealed that lower toe grip strength was significantly associated with floating toe. Therefore, increasing toe grip strength may play a role in preventing floating toe in school age children.

  17. Hookworm infection among school age children in Kintampo north municipality, Ghana: nutritional risk factors and response to albendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Children (n = 812) 6-11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  18. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced. PMID:26719102

  19. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study results indicate that: (1) cigarette smoke allowed to accumulate in a poorly ventilated enclosure significantly increases heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; (2) the smoking environment's effect upon the children is similar to the cigarette smoke's effect upon the smoker but on a reduced scale; and (3) the male and female…

  20. "Oh, ppbbt!": Differences between the Oral and Written Persuasive Strategies of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erftmier, Thelma; Dyson, Ann Hass

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study indicating children's dependency in oral persuasion on the cooperative nature of dialog and nonverbal vocalizations and their dependence in written persuasion on persuasive strategies found in speech that can be transferred to writing and, concomitantly, their relatively infrequent use of persuasive strategies specific to…