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Sample records for korean young adult

  1. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  2. The Experiences of Korean Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Photovoice Study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; An, Sangmin

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice was used to understand the impact of childhood cancer on Korean young adult survivors. Seven survivors of childhood cancer (currently aged 20-27 years), diagnosed before the age of 19 and with cancer treatment completed, participated in five sessions. The participants took photographs that captured their group's weekly topics and participated in discussions about their feelings and experiences. Fifty-six photo images with narratives on the survivors' experiences were produced on these four participant-selected themes: Relationships With Others, Stigma, Overcoming Difficulties, and The Future This study on Korean childhood cancer survivors sheds light on their perspectives about the impact of cancer. Using an innovative methodology that takes the participants' point of view, this study contributes to the literature on young adult cancer survivors' quality of life and their psychosocial adjustment. The results can inform educational programs and increase public awareness by providing survivors' schoolteachers and peers with knowledge about childhood cancer. PMID:26265716

  3. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted. PMID:26240489

  4. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  5. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  6. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  7. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  8. "You Don't Need to Be Mean. We're Friends, Right?": Young Korean-American Children's Conflicts and References to Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2014-01-01

    In the eyes of adults, conflicts between children are often treated as problematic social interactions that should be prevented. This study describes how young Korean-American children's conflict negotiation was a central part of their peer culture at a Korean heritage language school in the United States. Eleven young Korean-American…

  9. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  10. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  11. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  12. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  13. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  14. The Ability of Young Korean Children to Use Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…

  15. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  16. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  17. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  18. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  19. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  20. Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung

    2008-01-01

    Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in Adults Aged 20–39 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hie; Kim, Seong Jae; Lee, Se Yong; Jang, Kwang Ho; Kim, In Soo; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Morningness-Eveningness (ME) can be defined by the difference in individual diurnal preference observed from general behavioral patterns including sleep habits. The Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) has been used for classifying ME types. We examined the reliability of a Korean version of the MEQ (Korean MEQ) and verified its validity by comparing responses on the Korean MEQ to objectively-recorded sleep-wake rhythms. After translating and back translating the MEQ from English into Korean, we examined the internal consistency of 19 items of the Korean MEQ in 91 subjects, and the test–retest reliability in 21 subjects who took the Korean MEQ twice, four weeks apart. The Korean MEQ was then administered to 1,022 young adult subjects. A subset of 46 morning, neither, and evening type subjects took part in a validation study in which their rest-activity timing was collected by actigraphy for 7 days. Cosinor analyses on these data were done to obtain the acrophase and amplitude of the sleep-wake rhythm. Cronbach's alpha of the total scores from the Korean MEQ was 0.77, and the test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.90 (p<0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between Korean MEQ score and reported sleep-wake timing among the entire cohort (p<0.0001). There was a significant difference in bedtime and wake time (on both work and free days), and in the mean sleep-wake rhythm acrophase, between ME types (p<0.01). In this study, the validity of the Korean MEQ was verified by illustrating the difference in acrophases of the sleep-wake rhythm between the ME types in young adults PMID:24467306

  2. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  3. TRICARE Young Adult. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-29

    This final rule implements Section 702 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended TRICARE Program coverage opportunity to most unmarried children under the age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TYA program is a premium-based program. PMID:23724426

  4. Myocardial infarction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G

    2005-01-01

    Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of young adults with MI. PMID:16344295

  5. Local Sociality in Young People's Mobile Communications: A Korean Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Kyongwon

    2006-01-01

    Drawing upon ethnographic data, this article explores how young Koreans appropriate mobile phones. By examining the role of local norms of sociality among young people, the study shows that this "individualizing" technology is articulated through "traditionalizing" forces. Despite dominant representations of young people's individualization via…

  6. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  7. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-IV Mental Disorders in South Korean Adults: The Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Chung, In-Won; Lee, Young Moon; Bae, Ahn; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Park, Jong-Ik; Son, Jungwoo; Chang, Sung Man; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in Korean adults. Methods Door to door household surveys were conducted with community residents aged 18-74 years from July 19, 2011, to November 16, 2011 (n=6,022, response rate 78.7%). The sample was drawn from 12 catchment areas using a multistage cluster method. Each subject was assessed using the Korean version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates were as follows: alcohol use disorders, 13.4% and 4.4%, respectively; nicotine use disorders, 7.2% and 4.0%, respectively; anxiety disorders, 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively; and mood disorders, 7.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The prevalence rates of all types of DSM-IV mental disorders were 27.6% and 16.0%, respectively. Being female; young; divorced, separated, or widowed; and in a low-income group were associated with mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for various demographic variables, whereas being male and young were associated with alcohol use disorders. Higher income was not correlated with alcohol use disorder as it had been in the 2001 survey. Conclusion The rate of depressive disorders has increased since 2001 (the first national survey), whereas that of anxiety disorders has been relatively stable. The prevalence of nicotine and alcohol use disorders has decreased, and the male-to-female ratio of those with this diagnosis has also decreased. PMID:25866515

  9. An Autophotography of the Young Adult Children of Bereaved Families in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study, using autophotography, shows how Korean young adult children experienced the death of a parent and how they created a new life following parental death. The results suggest that the loss of a parent is a continuing process. The parental loss started in the period of struggle in which one parent was dying and the other family…

  10. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  11. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  12. Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

    This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

  13. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  14. Phonological Development of Word-Initial Korean Obstruents in Young Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially.…

  15. Best Books for Young Adults. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    This book presents an annotated listing of the Young Adult Library Services Association's "Best Books for Young Adults" (BBYA) from 1966-99. Selected books are listed in topical bibliographies under the following subjects: Too Good To Miss; Adventure; Animals; Family; Fantasy; Friendship; Historical Fiction; The Holocaust; Humor; Mystery; Not…

  16. The Relevance of Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallworth, B. Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Although young adult literature is often recommended as a reading bridge to the classics, Stallworth insists that the genre deserves a prominent place in the middle school canon in its own right. She describes several examples from middle school classrooms of how young adult novels can enhance tweens' "life literacy" by both helping them develop…

  17. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Reflecting the rapid changes that have occurred in young adult literature, this second edition provides teachers with the history and background needed to stay current with what adolescents are reading and how such literature can be taught. The book is organized much as a literature course is taught: first, an introduction to young adults and…

  18. Developing Public Library Services for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jim

    From November 1992 through May 1993, a series of staff development and training workshops were presented as part of the project, "Developing Library Services for Young Adults." The workshops included: "Redirecting Young Adult Behavior" (Glenna O. Auxier & Bob Perchalski); "The Youth Services Librarian and the Law" (Gary Becker & Julie Law); and…

  19. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

  20. Working with Young Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carol

    This document explains how adult educators and others in the United Kingdom can increase levels of participation and achievement in learning for young adults by providing informal learning opportunities for those young people who are least inclined to participate in formal education and training programs. The guide outlines a step-by-step approach…

  1. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  2. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  3. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Smajlović, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

  4. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%-15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Young Hee; Rim, Hyo Deog; Won, Seung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) is a self-report measure of early maladaptive schemas and is currently in its third revision; it is available in both long (YSQ-L3) and short (YSQ-S3) forms. The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and establish its psychometric properties in a Korean sample. Methods A total of 542 graduate medical students completed the Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and several other psychological scales. A subsample of 308 subjects completed the Korean YSQ-S3 both before and after a 2-year test-retest interval. Correlation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the data. Results The internal consistency of the 90-item Korean YSQ-S3 was 0.97 and that of each schema was acceptable, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.46 to 0.65. Every schema showed robust positive correlations with most psychological measures. The confirmatory factor analysis for the 18-factor structure originally proposed by Young, Klosko, and Weishaar (2003) showed that most goodness-of-fit statistics were indicative of a satisfactory fit. Conclusion These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the YSQ-S3. PMID:26207121

  6. [Cerebral ischemia in young adults].

    PubMed

    Berlit, P; Endemann, B; Vetter, P

    1991-08-01

    An overview is given over etiology and prognosis of cerebral ischemias until the age of 40. In a time period of 19 years, 168 patients were diagnosed with cerebral ischemia until the age of 40 (91 females, 77 males). The most frequent etiology is premature atherosclerosis in patients with vascular risk factors (up to 50%). Cardiogenic embolism is responsible for 1 to 34% of the cases: cardiac valve diseases and endocarditis being the most frequent sources. In 2 to 19% a vasculitis is diagnosed. While infectious arteritis is especially frequent in countries of the third world, immunovasculitides are common in Europe and the USA. Noninflammatory vasculopathies include spontaneous or traumatic dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia and vascular malformations. A migrainous stroke is especially frequent in female smokers with intake of oral contraceptives. During pregnancy both sinus thrombosis and arterial ischemia occur. Hematologic causes for ischemia are polycythemia, thrombocytosis and genetic diseases (sickle cell anemia, AT3-deficiency). Cerebral ischemia may occur in connection with the ingestion of ergot-derivates. The prognosis of cerebral ischemia in young adults is better than in older stroke-patients. PMID:1937340

  7. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871

  8. Meeting the needs of young adults.

    PubMed

    McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J

    1995-10-01

    As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting young adults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy. PMID:8654883

  9. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  10. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  11. Context Utilization in Young and Old Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Thomas M.; Higgins, James N.

    1983-01-01

    Examined adult age differences in use of context to study and retrieve information. Young and old adults were presented with a series of homographs (targets). Recognition memory for targets was tested. Recognition decreased in both groups as the retrieval context became more dissimilar to the study context. (Author/JAC)

  12. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

  13. Helping Peers Seek Professional Treatment for Depression among Young South Koreans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun Hae; Choi, Jung Ah; Park, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to understand factors that influence whether young South Koreans help peers with depression to seek professional counseling services. The structural equation modeling on the survey data collected from 191 South Korean students suggests that subjective norms and behavioral…

  14. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  15. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  16. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  17. Situated Learning and Identity Development in a Korean Older Adults' Computer Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Sek; Merriam, Sharan B.

    2010-01-01

    Situated learning theory understands learning to be a sociocultural activity, and individuals experience identity development as they participate in communities of practice. The purpose of this study was to understand how Korean older adults' computer learning in a classroom is a situated activity and how this learning influences older adults'…

  18. Management of Hip Pain in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ward, Derek; Parvizi, Javad

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of hip pain in the young adult remains a challenge. Recently, understanding of a few specific hip conditions has improved; most notably femoroacetabular impingement. The differential diagnosis of hip pain has also expanded significantly, offering new challenges and opportunities. Along with the diagnostic dilemma, optimal treatment strategies for many conditions have yet to be proven and are current areas of important inquiry. This article reviews the current research on hip pain in the young adult and presents an overview of diagnostic and management strategies. PMID:27241373

  19. Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

  20. Specific absorbed fraction for Korean adult voxel phantom from internal photon source.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Park, S; Lee, J K

    2007-01-01

    Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) are crucial values for the calculation of radionuclide S-values and consequently for internal dose estimates. The formalism of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) has been utilised as a standard in the calculation of individual organ doses for biologically distributed radionuclides and for different types of radiation. Although those quantities are highly sensitive to individual anatomical difference, the SAF dataset calculated by Caucasian-based stylised phantoms have been applied to Korean population until now. This study was intended to calculate the SAFs by using realistic Korean voxel phantom and Monte Carlo transport technique for the first time and compare the results with those of the existing Caucasian-based data and the Korean stylised phantom published recently. The up-to-date realistic Korean voxel phantom, KTMAN-2, which was developed from computed tomography (CT) images of an average Korean adult male, was employed for Monte Carlo calculation using EGSnrc user-code, developed for the purpose of this study. The SAFs for 32 target organs and tissues from the photon source, uniformly deposited in a total of 37 source organs and tissues, were calculated from KTMAN-2. The results were compared with those for an adult phantom of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Korean adult stylised phantom. Two major reasons of discrepancy were analysed: (1) racial difference between the Korean and the Caucasian and (2) anatomical difference between stylised and voxel phantoms. When the source organ was identical to the target organ, difference in SAF caused by the difference in target-organ mass between the Korean and the Caucasian phantoms was mainly observed. When the source and target organs were not identical, significant difference in SAF was observed which was mainly attributed to the difference in inter-organ distance and organ shape between

  1. Different risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN) according to age in Koreans. METHODS: A total of 70428 Koreans from an occupational cohort who underwent a colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were retrospectively selected. We evaluated and compared odds ratios (OR) for ACRN between the young-adults (YA < 50 years) and in the older-adults (OA ≥ 50 years). ACRN was defined as an adenoma ≥ 10 mm in diameter, adenoma with any component of villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer. RESULTS: In the YA group, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02-1.55), current smoking (OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.10), diabetes mellitus related factors (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.54), obesity (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.03-1.47), CEA (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02) were related with an increased risk of ACRN. However, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.68-2.68), current smoking (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.12-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.65) and CEA (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) also increased the risk of ACRN in the OA group. CONCLUSION: The risks of ACRN differed based on age group. Different colonoscopic screening strategies are appropriate for particular subjects with risk factors for ACRN, even in subjects younger than 50 years. PMID:27053853

  2. Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue…

  3. Lesson Plans for Teaching Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Intended for teachers, this book is a collection of lesson plans created by 28 teachers in North Carolina to provide opportunities that support integrated learning. Using recommended young adult literature, the book presents activities which promote the integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. The book provides two or…

  4. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  5. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  6. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, Aditya; Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Ghosh, Shibajyoti

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a primary adrenal cortical malignancy presenting with spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth such case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:24658522

  7. Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

  8. Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

  9. Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cart, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

  10. Reference Services for Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reference Librarian, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This 25-article issue presents overview of reference services for childern and young adults, including public and school libraries, information needs, reference interviews, children's librarians, library instruction, library cooperation, production of information resources, material selection, and vertical files. References are included. (Haworth…

  11. Young Adult Literature 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Young Adult (YA) lit authors can choose…

  12. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  13. Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

  14. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  15. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  16. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

  17. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  18. Private religious practice, spiritual coping, social support, and health status among older Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems. PMID:25068608

  19. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS.... If the Sel Res sponsor dies while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to...

  20. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS.... If the Sel Res sponsor dies while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to...

  1. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  2. 2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

  3. Defining Success in Young Adults with Emotional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrescia, Susanne G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a definition of success by constructing a portrait of successful young adults with emotional disabilities. Nine young adults with emotional disabilities were interviewed individually after graduating from high school. The research questions that guided the study centered on the young adults'…

  4. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  5. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  6. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  7. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  8. Bare Bones Young Adult Services: Tips for Public Library Generalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Renee J.

    This book is a hands-on guide to the philosophy and practice of young adult services in the public libraries. The following chapters are included: (1) "Young Adult Services Philosophy," including reasons to serve teens, why teens are the way they are, who serves young adults, and how to interact with teens; (2) "Youth Participation," including…

  9. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  10. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health. PMID:26420187

  11. Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  12. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-10-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE. PMID:23811062

  13. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  14. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  15. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  16. Technical and Physical Activities of Small-Sided Games in Young Korean Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Joo, Chang H; Hwang-Bo, Kwan; Jee, Haemi

    2016-08-01

    Joo, CH, Hwang-Bo, K, and Jee, H. Technical and physical activities of small-sided games in young Korean soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2164-2173, 2016-The aim of this study was to examine the technical aspects and physical demands during small-sided games (SSGs) with different sized pitches in young Korean soccer players. Participants were randomly selected during a nationally held youth competition. Three different game formats were used: SSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a small-sized field [68 × 47 m]), RSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a regular-sized field [75 × 47 m]), and RSG11 (11 vs. 11 played on a regular-sized field). Eleven technical (ball touches, passes, and shots) and 6 physical demand variables (exercise frequency by intensity) were observed and analyzed. Same variables were also analyzed for the goalkeepers. As a result, SSG8 and RSG8 showed significantly greater numbers of technical plays in 5 and 4 variables in comparison to RSG11, respectively. In addition, although the exercise intensities increased slightly in both SSG formats, the amount was within the similar range as previous reports. In conclusion, the SSGs with reduced number of players may be referred in young players to effectively train them in technical aspects of the game by allowing greater ball exposure time without excessive physical demands. Various confounding factors such as pitch dimension should be carefully considered for training specific technical and physical variables in young Korean players. PMID:26808851

  17. Anomalous dominance in Down syndrome young adults.

    PubMed

    Giencke, S; Lewandowski, L

    1989-03-01

    The ear advantages of groups of Down Syndrome and developmentally retarded (NonDown) young adults, and normal youngsters matched for mental age were compared on dichotic listening performance. The paradigm employed strings of single, double, and triple digits presented to each ear under both free and cued recall conditions. The developmentally retarded and normal groups demonstrated the typical right ear advantage (REA), whereas the Down Syndrome group produced a significant left ear advantage (LEA) in four of the six experimental conditions. In addition, for the cued as compared to free recall conditions, all three groups demonstrated relatively better right ear performance. These results indicate anomalous dominance in Down Syndrome young adults which is consistent across varying memory load and attentional demands. Furthermore, these results are not likely due to a maturational lag phenomenon, but more likely related to genetic, biologic, and neurologic, factors as suggested by Geschwind and Galaburda (1985). PMID:2523281

  18. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P<.01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P<.01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression. PMID:19631109

  19. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  20. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  1. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  2. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  3. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  4. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  5. Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

  6. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  7. Secondary Level Re-Entry of Young Canadian Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cassandra; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the young adult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these young adults is fundamentally important to begin to…

  8. Reading Newspapers: The Practices of America's Young Adults. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    Using the data base provided by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) through its literacy assessment of young adults, researchers probed the newspaper reading practices of 21-25 year olds. The 1985 survey used home interviews of 3,600 young adults in the 48 contiguous states, representative of the 21 million adults in this age…

  9. Change and Prospects in Education for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Worldwide expansion of enrollment in postcompulsory education has contributed to an ambiguous "post-adolescence" life stage as young adults transition into adult citizenship. Possible pathways at the end of compulsory schooling have diversified, particularly in developed countries under the influence of vocationalism. Young adults need more…

  10. Does Vocational Training Matter for Young Adults in the Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Asa; Skarlind, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on employment and income is investigated for young adults. Young adults without further education and training are compared to young adults with two-years and young adults with three-years of vocational training. The sample consists of 41 000 Swedish young adults born in 1974. The employment of these young adults…

  11. Sub-Syllabic Processing in Young Korean-English Bilinguals: Semivowel Placement Differences between Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Seunghyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the…

  12. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  13. Migration and unemployment duration among young adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A J

    1994-07-01

    "The relationship between migration and unemployment duration is examined. Standard job search predictors of spell length (replacement income, labor force experience, personal characteristics and economic conditions) are included as control variables alongside measures of migration in a Weibull hazard model. The model is estimated using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Young adults who migrated while unemployed had longer durations of unemployment than those who did not migrate. The rate at which they found jobs was also linked to how long they had been unemployed, to being laid off, being African American, to going to college, having a mortgage and to national unemployment conditions." PMID:12292534

  14. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tapscott, Brian E.; Schepis, Ty S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription medications (NUPM) is an area of increasing public health concern, particularly in young adults. Young adults aged 18 to 25 have the highest annual and monthly rates of NUPM of any age group in the US, with notable consequences from using opioid, stimulant, tranquilizer and sedative medication. This article will review the literature on young adult NUPM, focusing first on the characteristics of those young adults engaged in NUPM. Then, we will examine the most common motives for NUPM, the sources young adults use to engage in nonmedical use and the related process of medication diversion. Finally, we will outline treatment and make specific recommendations of ways clinicians can help prevent the spread of NUPM in young adults, completing the work by covering future directions for research. PMID:24654550

  15. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  16. Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for

  17. Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661

  18. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Terni, Eva; Giannini, Nicola; Brondi, Marco; Montano, Vincenzo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke may be a clinical expression of several inherited disorders in humans. Recognition of the underlined genetic disorders causing stroke is important for a correct diagnosis, for genetic counselling and, even if rarely, for a correct therapeutic management. Moreover, the genetics of complex diseases such the stroke, in which multiple genes interact with environmental risk factors to increase risk, has been revolutionized by the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach. Scope of review Here we review the single-gene causes of ischemic stroke, bringing the reader from the candidate gene method toward the exciting new horizons of genetic technology. Major conclusions The aetiological diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young adults is more complex than in the elderly. The identification of a genetic cause is important to provide appropriate counseling and to start a correct therapy, when available. The advent of GWAS technology, such as for other complex pathological conditions, has contributed enormously to the understanding of many of these genetic bases. For success large, well phenotyped case cohorts are required, and international collaborations are essential. General significance This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26672892

  19. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  20. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  1. Identification of asthma clusters in two independent Korean adult asthma cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Bum; Jang, An-Soo; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Jong-Sook; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Young-Joo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook; Park, Choon-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease with various clinical phenotypes. It is crucial to clearly identify clinical phenotypes to achieve better asthma management. We used cluster analysis to classify the clinical groups of 724 asthmatic patients from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea (COREA), and in 1843 subjects from another independent Korean asthma cohort of Soonchunhyang University Asthma Genome Research Centre (SCH) (Bucheon, Republic of Korea). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed by Ward's method, followed by κ-means cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the COREA cohort indicated four asthma subtypes: 1) smoking asthma; 2) severe obstructive asthma; 3) early-onset atopic asthma; and 4) late-onset mild asthma. An independent cluster analysis of the SCH cohort also indicated four clusters that were similar to the COREA clusters. Our results indicate that adult Korean asthma patients can be classified into four distinct clusters. PMID:23060627

  2. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test. PMID:23397236

  3. Young American Immigrant Children's Interpretations of Popular Culture: A Case Study of Korean Girls' Perspectives on Royalty in Disney Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how young Korean immigrant girls (age five to eight) living in the United States interpreted American popular culture by discussing their interpretations of Disney animated films. In particular, it scrutinizes these girls' understanding of the idea of monarchy--in this case, the process of and the qualification for a…

  4. The growing problem of stroke among young adults.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sally; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2013-12-01

    Although overall stroke incidence has been declining in developed countries, there is evidence that stroke in the young is increasing. Increasing incidence may be particularly pronounced among minorities in whom historically a higher burden of stroke has been reported. Compared with older adults, time spent with disability is longer for those affected at younger ages, and new data suggests that among 30-day young adult stroke survivors, increased mortality persists for as long as 20 years. Stroke in young adults is often missed by less experienced clinicians due to its unexpectedness, leading to lost opportunities for intervention. The causes and risk factors for stroke in the young are often rare or undetermined, but young adults with stroke also have a high burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and substance abuse. Disseminating awareness and promoting research on young adult stroke are steps towards reducing the burden of stroke. PMID:24105640

  5. Anaphylaxis in the young adult population.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-01-01

    It is critical that clinicians treating young adults understand the presentation and management of anaphylaxis. The most common trigger for anaphylaxis in this population is food. The prevalence of food allergy is growing, with 8% of US children and adolescents affected. All patients at risk for anaphylaxis should be prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors, as epinephrine is the only life-saving medication for a severe anaphylactic reaction. The presentation of anaphylaxis can involve multiple organ systems (eg, mucocutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal) and, as such, patient education is needed to assist in prompt recognition. Appropriate training of patients and caregivers about how to identify anaphylaxis and what to do in an emergency is critical. Training of school and college staff also is essential, as 1 in 4 first-time reactions occurs outside the home. Additional counseling for adolescents at risk for anaphylactic reactions should address increased risk-taking behavior, decreased adult supervision, dating, and the transition of disease management from an adult to the patient. PMID:24384134

  6. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  7. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  8. Lymphoma in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brugières, Laurence; Brice, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas are one of the commonest malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA) accounting respectively for 22% of all cancers in patients aged 15-24 years (16% for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 6% for non-HL (NHL)). The distribution of NHL subtypes in this age group differs strikingly from the distribution in children and in older adults with 4 main subtypes accounting for the majority of the cases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Age-related differences in tumor biology have been demonstrated mainly in DLBCL but there is still a need for biological studies to better understand age-related differences in this age group. AYA patients currently diagnosed with HL and NHL have 5-year survival expectations exceeding 90 and 75%, respectively. Different therapeutic strategies are often used in children and adult lymphoma and the dispersion of lymphoma care between adult and pediatric hematologist-oncologists results in heterogeneous strategies for each subgroup according to age. The impact of these different strategies on outcomes is not easy to evaluate given the paucity of population-based data focused on this age group, taking into account tumor biology and the lack of a uniform staging system. Given the excellent results obtained with current therapies, the challenge now is to develop strategies aimed at reducing acute and long-term toxicity in most patients while maintaining high cure rates and to identify patients at high risk of failure requiring new strategies including more selective targeted therapies. PMID:27595360

  9. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  10. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  11. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  12. Family therapy with single, young adults.

    PubMed

    Haber, J

    1981-01-01

    Family therapy with the single, young adult can be successfully carried out using the Bowen family systems theory when the process is staged over time. The therapist who has gone back into his or her own family of origin can be of greatest help as a "coach" to the client in this ongoing process. The therapist assists the client in a process of orderly differentiation that enables the client to develop a more solid sense of self. Reactive distance and emotional cut-offs are modified as solutions to anxiety. More personal, flexible family, peer, and work relationships are promoted. The client's initial presenting problems diminish as he/she comes to terms with his/her ultimate aloneness and self-responsibility, and begins to accept family members as they are and relationships with them for what they can be. PMID:6917974

  13. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  14. Trust and trustworthiness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted

    2015-12-01

    In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security. PMID:26389525

  15. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  16. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  17. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  18. Teens' Favorite Books: Young Adults' Choices 1987-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    Designed to make the job of encouraging adolescents to read less of a challenge, this book provides descriptions of all of the approximately 150 examples of young adult literature that were selected "Young Adults' Choices" in the yearly voting by teenagers conducted from 1987 to 1992. Each entry in the book includes bibliographic information, an…

  19. Risky Sex Behavior and Substance Use among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults.…

  20. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  1. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reserve (Sel Res) Sponsor. Sel Res sponsors must be currently enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS coverage is terminated by the sponsor... while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA coverage for six...

  2. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reserve (Sel Res) Sponsor. Sel Res sponsors must be currently enrolled in TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) before a young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA. If TRS coverage is terminated by the sponsor... while enrolled in TRS, the young adult dependent is eligible to purchase TYA coverage for six...

  3. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  4. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  5. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  6. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  7. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  8. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  9. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  10. Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

  11. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  12. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  13. Reading Interests of Young Adults in Medina County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fronius, Sandra K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…

  14. Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

  15. Prescription Drug Misuse Among Club Drug-Using Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18–29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483

  16. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  17. Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

  18. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: A Q methodology approach

    PubMed Central

    Kae Hwa, JO; Gyeong-Ju, AN; DOORENBOS, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. Methods The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents’ ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. Results The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented–self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented–self-recognition type, reflection-oriented–self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented–self-maintenance type. Conclusions The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. PMID:22583944

  19. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  20. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  1. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues. PMID:24066632

  2. Oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2008-10-01

    Oral health affects older adults and their quality of life. Oral care is reported to have a low priority in nursing care of older adults, and repeated assessments to detect oral health problems are seldom performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among level of oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) and to identify predictors of OHRQL in Korean older adults. The design was a descriptive, correlational study. The level of oral pain contributed most significantly to OHRQL, followed by nutrition and number of teeth. These three predictor variables explained 46.4% of the variance in OHRQL. Older adults could benefit from oral health care, such as routine screening for oral health and nutritional status. Nurses are at the forefront in providing such services, and it is recommended they integrate oral health care into their routine nursing care plans. PMID:18942537

  3. Using Young Adult Realistic Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers: Something New, Tried and True, and Recommended Nonfiction (Young Adult Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…

  4. Neighborhood Environment and Marijuana Use in Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Lee, Myong Hwa; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A.; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g. broken windows) and social environment (e.g. adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p<0.05) controlling for gender, race, and free and reduced meals status. The direct effect from neighborhood social environment to marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand it's relationship to drug use. PMID:25005818

  5. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans. PMID:26489826

  6. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adults using data from the 2002-2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  7. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  8. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  9. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-02-15

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and

  10. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  11. The Band-Importance Function for the Korean Standard Sentence Lists for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jin, In-Ki; Lee, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Dongwook; Sohn, Junil; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The band-importance function (BIF) refers to a value characterizing the relative importance of different frequencies to speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to derive the BIF for the Korean standard sentence lists for adults (KS-SL-A). Subjects and Methods In this study, sentences from the KS-SL-A were used as the speech material. Twenty-six normal-hearing Korean listeners participated and intelligibility scores in 8 filters with 3 signal-to-noise ratio conditions were obtained. Based on the intelligibility score percentages, the BIF for the KS-SL-A was derived by using an established protocol. Results Band-importance weights varied across frequency bands. The most important frequency region was around 316 Hz (20.0%), and the importance of the frequency bands below the center frequency (CF) of 1,778 Hz was 59.6%. Therefore, low frequencies below the CF of 1,778 Hz were more important than high frequencies above the CF of 1,778 Hz. Conclusions The BIF for KS-SL-A could be applied towards developing a hearing aid fitting formulae for Korean listeners. PMID:27626080

  12. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults. PMID:26626599

  13. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  14. Awareness and Completion of Advance Directives Among Korean American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Debra; Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Meng, Hongdao

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing concerns about racial and ethnic disparities in completion rates of advance directives (ADs) among community-dwelling older populations. While differences in AD completion rates in non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans have been reported, not much is known about the awareness and completion of ADs in other groups of ethnic minorities. Using a sample of community-dwelling Korean American older adults (n = 675) as a target, factors associated with their awareness and completion of ADs were explored. Guided by Andersen's behavioral health model, predisposing (age, sex, marital status, and education), need (chronic conditions and functional disability), and enabling variables (health insurance and acculturation) were included in the separate logistic regression models of AD awareness and AD completion. In both models, acculturation was found to be a significant predictor; those who had a higher level of acculturation were more likely to be aware of ADs and to have completed ADs. This study contributes to the knowledge about the role of acculturation in explaining AD awareness and completion among Korean American older adults and provides practice implications for possible AD educational interventions for this older adult minority population. PMID:25803787

  15. Gender differences in factors influencing sexual satisfaction in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Jeon, Hae Ok

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the sex lives of Korean older adults (i.e., those over 60 years) and attempts to identify gender-related factors influencing sexual satisfaction. It used data from the 2008 Korean National Survey on Older Adults conducted by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Families. Of the 15,146 individuals who had taken part in the 2008 study, secondary analysis was conducted with data from 3360 persons who had spouses and were willing to respond to sex-related questions in a face-to-face interview. The mean age of male and female subjects was 67.34 and 66.86 years respectively. In the male subjects, sexual frequency, followed by marital satisfaction and cognitive function, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These three variables together accounted for 21% of the male subjects' sexual satisfaction. In the female subjects, marital satisfaction, followed by frequency of sexual activity, absence of depressive symptoms, age, and length of cohabitation with spouse, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These five variables together explained 11% of their sexual satisfaction. This study indicates that sexual frequency and physical factors have the most important effects on the sex lives of older men, while older women value psychosocial and relational factors more highly. Therefore, interventions aiming to improve sexual satisfaction in older adults should take gender differences into account. PMID:23153985

  16. Left ventricular diastolic function in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Gidding, S S; Gardin, J M; Bild, D E; Wong, N D; Liu, K

    1995-01-01

    Doppler transmitral flow velocities have been used to assess left ventricular diastolic function. Associations of transmitral velocities with specific physiologic variables and cardiovascular risk factors have not been reported previously in a large population-based study of young adults. We performed Doppler analysis of left ventricular inflow in 3492 black and white men and women (aged 23 to 35 years) in the year-5 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. First third filling fraction, peak flow velocity in early diastole (PFVE), peak flow velocity in late diastole (PFVA), and the PFVA/PFVE ratio were measured. Women had higher PFVE and PFVA than had men (PFVE: 0.81 +/- 0.13 m/sec versus 0.76 +/- 0.13 m/sec; PFVA: 0.47 +/- 0.11 m/sec versus 0.43 +/- 0.10 m/sec; both p < 0.001). Gender-specific multiple regression analyses showed that age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular percent fractional shortening, and body weight were independently and positively related to PFVA (all p < 0.001) in men and women. Age, heart rate, and forced expiratory lung capacity in 1 second were inversely related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (both p < 0.01). Left ventricular percent fractional shortening was positively related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (p < 0.001). Age, heart rate, and body weight were positively correlated with the PFVA/PFVE ratio (all p < 0.001). Height had weak negative associations with PFVA and PFVE in women only. These results suggest that, in young adults, Doppler measures of left ventricular diastolic filling are related to age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic function, and lung function. PMID:8611277

  17. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    PubMed

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:25365695

  18. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  19. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  20. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery. PMID:11314500

  1. Ideal or Young-Looking Brow Height and Arch Shape Preferred by Koreans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Hun; Hwang, Kun; Kim, Seong Kee; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow height and arch shape is preferred as ideal or young-looking by Koreans. A survey was conducted between June and Dec 2014 on 186 women who visited the brow bar ("Benefit" of Incheon city). They were asked to choose which they believed ideal and youngest amongst the 3 brow archetypes according to their height and 4 types of modification of Anastasia (rotation of medial and lateral arms), which was illustrated. Approximately half (52.5%) of the respondents answered that their brow matches them very well or well. Most (81.2%) believed there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype and almost all (97.3%) would change the brow shape if the expert advised. The most preferred ideal brow height was of a middle height (63.2%, the distance from the lateral canthus to the lateral end of eyebrow, which was 2/3 of the eye width). The most preferred ideal brow arch shape was the arched type (57.6% arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil). The most preferred young-looking brow height was of an upper height (46.2%, the distance from the lateral canthus to the lateral end of eyebrow was 3/4 of the eye width) followed by a middle height (39.7%). The most preferred young-looking brow arch shape was the head-up position (53.3%, medial arm of the brow was rotated upward to the horizontal plane). The result of this study might be useful in facial rejuvenation surgeries as well as in brow esthetics or tattooing of the eyebrows. PMID:26167996

  2. The Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hearing Impairment in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae W.; Jeon, Ju H.; Ku, Cheol R.; Noh, Jung H.; Yoo, Hyung J.; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n = 33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6–21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6–9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19–39 years’ old) was 4.4% (3.5–5.5), in middle-age adults (40–64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8–22.5), and in older adults (≥65 years’ old), it was 69.7% (67.8–71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2 as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2, and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of

  3. Joan Lowery Nixon: The Grande Dame of Young Adult Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the writing of Joan Lowery Nixon, award-winning author of young adult mystery novels. Discusses telling a good story, narrative form, characterization, stereotypes, social commentary, classroom implications, and caring for an audience. (SR)

  4. Hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Alice

    2001-05-01

    Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and young adult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and young adults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and young adult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.

  5. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  6. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  7. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  8. Attitudes toward Life and Death and Suicidality in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brenda J.; Range, Lillian M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward life and death, alone and in combination with life events, to determine suicide risk for young adults. Used the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale for Adolescents, Life and Death Attitudes Scale, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire, Death Anxiety Scale, and Life Experiences Survey to measure responses of 140 young adults…

  9. Five Invaluable Resources for Young Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winings, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess young adult education. In the…

  10. Growing up with Dyslexia: Interviews with Teenagers and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingesson, S. Gunnel

    2007-01-01

    Interviews with 75 teenagers and young adults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school were…

  11. Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    2002-01-01

    Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

  12. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  13. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  14. Weight-Related Dietary Behaviors in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Partridge, Stephanie R; Roy, Rajshri

    2016-03-01

    The origins of the obesogenic environment date back to the early 1980s. This means that young adults i.e., those aged 18 to 35 years, have only ever experienced a food milieu that promotes obesity. Indeed, younger generations are becoming heavier sooner than their parents in developed countries, such as the USA. Young adults demonstrate food consumption patterns and dietary behaviors implicated in an excessive gain of body fat. They are the highest consumers of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages among adult age groups and the lowest consumers of fruit and vegetables. Younger adults are meal skippers but may consume more energy from snacks than older adults. So that the gains made in stemming obesity in childhood are not undone during young adulthood, prevention programs are needed. This review highlights areas for consideration in planning such programs. PMID:26811006

  15. Food insecurity and increased BMI in young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from Wave 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n=7116) and men (n=6604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9kg/m2 units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092

  16. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  17. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  18. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  19. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  20. No Limits--READ! Young Adult Reading Club and Programming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngblood, Lisa

    This manual provides strategies for developing young adult collections, outlines a reading club designed specifically for young adults, suggests promotional ideas for the young adult reading club and young adult programming in general, and provides age-appropriate ideas for both formal and passive programming. Specific topics covered in the…

  1. Using methodological triangulation for cultural verification of commitment to a plan for exercise scale among Korean adults with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shin, YunHee; Pender, Nola J; Yun, SangKyun

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to use methodological triangulation to increase the cultural appropriateness of the Planning for Exercise Scale (Pender, 1996), which measures commitment to a plan of action, and to psychometrically evaluate the revised scale in a selected population of 230 Korean adults experiencing chronic diseases. First, through a qualitative approach, the cultural properties of the concept were identified in order to revise Pender's Planning for Exercise Scale. The revised scale consisted of 20 items: 13 items emerged from the qualitative procedure and seven items were retained from the original scale. Through a quantitative approach, the revised scale was analyzed psychometrically. Results showed the scale had sufficient reliability and validity to warrant its use by researchers or practitioners evaluating the level of commitment to a plan for exercise among Korean adults. The revised instrument is appropriate for use in future intervention studies designed to improve the performance of exercise among Koreans who are chronically ill. PMID:12884419

  2. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= -9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= -2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= -6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

  3. Haptic Exploration in Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Joel M.; Brodzinsky, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Matching accuracy and strategy utilization in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults was examined in a series of intramodal, haptic match-to-standard problems. Results indicated that elderly adults were less successful in solving the haptic problems. They also displayed less systematic and logical haptic search strategies. (Author)

  4. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  5. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  6. Distraction by competing speech in young and older adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; O'Kane, Gail; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-09-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults heard target speech presented in quiet or with a competing speaker in the background. The distractor consisted either of meaningful speech or nonmeaningful speech composed of randomly ordered word strings (Experiment 1) or speech in an unfamiliar language (Experiment 2). Tests of recall for the target speech showed that older adults, but not younger adults, were impaired more by meaningful distractors than by nonmeaningful distracters. However, on a surprise recognition test, young adults were more likely than older adults to recognize meaningful distractor items. These results suggest that reduced efficiency in attentional control is an important factor in older adults' difficulty in recalling target speech in the presence of a background of competing speech. PMID:12243387

  7. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  8. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention because of its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults use. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult's drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use, and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, nondisclosure/avoidance, passive problem solving, and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  9. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  10. Repetition blindness and homophone blindness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Caitlin J; James, Lori E; Noble, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    We tested age effects on repetition blindness (RB), defined as the reduced probability of reporting a target word following presentation of the same word in a rapidly presented list. We also tested age effects on homophone blindness (HB), in which the first word is a homophone of the target word rather than a repeated word. Thirty young and 28 older adults viewed rapidly presented lists of words containing repeated, homophone, or unrepeated word pairs and reported all of the words immediately after each list. Older adults exhibited a greater degree of RB and HB than young adults using a conditional scoring method that provides certainty that blindness has occurred. The existence of RB and HB for both age groups, and increased blindness for older compared to young adults, supports predictions of a binding theory that has successfully accounted for a wide range of phenomena in cognitive aging. PMID:26982878

  11. Adolescent and young adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Jessica; El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Abla, Oussama

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies accounting for a significant portion of cancers occurring in children, adolescents and young adults with an increasing incidence with age. The adolescent and young adult (AYA) population presents a specific set of characteristics and challenges. The most common diseases occurring in adolescents and young adults include Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. There is also a higher incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AYA patients. Cure rates largely depend on risk-stratification, and are generally superior to outcomes in comparison to older adult data but less than in younger children. Here, we review the unique clinical and biological characteristics of NHL occurring in the AYA population with a focus on how to achieve similar curative outcomes in AYA that have been established in younger cohorts. PMID:27071675

  12. Marry the Prince or Stay with Family--That Is the Question: A Perspective of Young Korean Immigrant Girls on Disney Marriages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have examined popular culture, the perspectives of young children from various cultures still have not been discussed at length in such studies. In order to listen to these children's voices, this paper focuses on young immigrant Korean girls in the United States. It particularly examines their interpretations of marriage…

  13. Treating young adults with type 2 diabetes or monogenic diabetes.

    PubMed

    Owen, Katharine R

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It's important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic type 1 diabetes is characterised by positive β-cell antibodies and absence of endogenous insulin secretion. Young type 2 diabetes is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Monogenic β-cell dysfunction is characterised by non-autoimmune, C-peptide positive diabetes with a strong family history, while mitochondrial diabetes features deafness and other neurological involvement. Severe insulin resistance involves a young-onset metabolic syndrome often with a disproportionately low BMI. A suspected diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is confirmed with genetic testing, which is widely available in specialist centres across the world. Treatment of young adult diabetes is similarly diverse. Mutations in the transcription factors HNF1A and HNF4A and in the β-cell potassium ATP channel components cause diabetes which responds to low dose and high dose sulfonylurea agents, respectively, while glucokinase mutations require no treatment. Monogenic insulin resistance and young-onset type 2 diabetes are both challenging to treat, but first line management involves insulin sensitisers and aggressive management of cardiovascular risk. Outcomes are poor in young-onset type 2 diabetes compared to both older onset type 2 and type 1 diabetes diagnosed at a similar age. The evidence base for treatments in monogenic and young-onset type 2 diabetes relies on studies of moderate quality at best and largely on extrapolation from work conducted in older type 2 diabetes subjects. Better quality

  14. Lower Zinc Bioavailability May Be Related to Higher Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort), which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women) aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. Results We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80th percentile value of cIMT (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009), and especially in elderly men (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021). We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. Conclusions Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk. PMID:24223217

  15. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  16. Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

  17. Infected urachal cyst in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Muśko, Natalia; Dobruch, Jakub; Piotrowicz, Sebastian; Szostek, Przemysław; Borówka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The urachus is the remnant of the cloaca, which in adults attaches the bladder dome to the umbilicus. After birth it obliterates and presents as the midline umbilical ligament. Patent urachal anomalies are usually detected in childhood. In adults they occur very rarely and the presentation and diagnosis may be occasionally challenging. We present and discuss the case of an infected urachal cyst found in a 30-year-old adult. PMID:25140240

  18. The Study of Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong Duk; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jung Jae; Chung, Un-Sun

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC) including reliability and validity. The TSCYC is an instrument to identify trauma symptoms in children from age 3 to 12 yr by their caretakers. The Korean version of the TSCYC was administered to the caretakers of a normative group of 299 children (137 boys and 162 girls) aged 3 to 12 yr and a traumatized group of 73 sexually abused children (22 boys and 51 girls) aged 3 to 12 yr and their caretakers rated the TSCYC and the Child Behavior Checklist and the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Among normative group, 88 performed a re-test after 4 weeks. The internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha of total scale of the TSCYC was 0.92 (normative group) and 0.96 (traumatized group). For the nine clinical scales in the TSCYC, it ranged between 0.46-0.92 and 0.77-0.96, respectively. Test-retest correlation of the TSCYC was good (Pearson r score ranging 0.52-0.96). Correlations between the TSCYC and other measures of corresponding constructs were satisfactory. Regarding discriminant validity, the mean total score of the TSCYC was significantly higher in the traumatized children than in the normative group. This study demonstrated that Korean version of the TSCYC is a reliable measure with excellent internal consistency and good stability over 4-week test-retest interval. It can be recommended for clinicians to screen for trauma symptoms after child sexual abuse in Korean young children between the ages 3 and 12. PMID:26339177

  19. Exploring Heavy Drinking Patterns Among Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Tali; Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Crutchfield, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who were followed into young adulthood (ages 20 and 22). Cluster analyses using heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems in young adulthood resulted in groups of drinkers with different patterns. Groups were examined across and within race. Associations between young adult drinking groups and adolescent family and individual factors were tested. Results: Groups followed well-established race differences, with Whites clustering into frequent drinking groups more than Blacks, and Blacks clustering into non–heavy drinking groups more than Whites. Further, Black heavy drinkers reported fewer alcohol problems than White counterparts. Parental monitoring, consistent discipline, ethnic identity, and delinquency were associated with adult heavy episodic drinking groups for both races. Monitoring and delinquency, along with parental norms, were associated with drunkenness groups for both races. However, race differences were observed for drunkenness clusters such that attachment was predictive for White clusters, and parental guidelines and discipline were predictive for Black clusters. Conclusions: Large race differences in heavy drinking at young adulthood were confirmed. Family dynamics in 10th grade were identified as important for the development of different drinking patterns in the early 20s, when many individuals have left home, which suggests a key target for substance use prevention programs. PMID:25208202

  20. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  1. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  2. Item and relational processing in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fisher, L M; McDowd, J M

    1993-03-01

    The item and relational information framework of memory provided a methodology for an analytical approach to age differences in encoding and retrieval processes. Subjects were given related or unrelated words to sort or rate for pleasantness. Young adults performed better than older adults in free recall, but older adults were able to use both item and relational information as well as young adults. In a second experiment, subjects also sorted or rated a list composed of different numbers of category items. The pattern of free recall and cued recall scores indicated that item and relational information affected the memory performance of both age groups in a similar fashion. By examining memory in terms of item and relational information, it appears that older adults do not have difficulty combining two types of target information during encoding and that the information assists in recall of target items. PMID:8473699

  3. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

  4. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  5. Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional status in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Na, Youn Ju

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which is being used at the Samsung Medical Center. In total, 305 (190 males and 115 females) participants consented and completed the 3-day diet records and FFQ. Age, gender and energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0.317 (polyunsaturated fatty acid) to 0.748 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.550. The weighted kappa value ranged from 0.18 (vitamin A) to 0.57 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.36. More than 75% of the subjects were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles. The FFQ had reasonably good validity compared with that of another study. Therefore, our FFQ is considered a proper method to assess nutrient intake in healthy Korean adults. PMID:23198024

  6. Magnetic resonance image-based cerebellar volumetry in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, I J; Cho, T H; Lee, N J; Uhm, C S; Kim, H; Suh, Y S

    1999-08-01

    The effects of age and gender on cerebellar size have not been established yet. To understand these effects, the area of cerebellar vermis and the volume of cerebellum were measured using serial magnetic resonance images of 124 Korean adults free of neurologic symptoms and signs. Cerebellar volume of male was significantly larger than that of female, although the size of vermis did not show significant gender difference. Correlation analysis revealed that cerebellar volume was not affected by aging. Regressional analysis demonstrated that female vermis had a tendency to shrink after age of 50, whereas male vermis and total cerebellar volume in both sexes were not altered with aging. The different response of vermis with aging and maintenance of cerebellum volume need to be more explored. PMID:10462116

  7. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  8. Repetition priming of nonwords in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Light, L L; La Voie, D; Kennison, R

    1995-03-01

    In 3 experiments, a pronunciation task was used to examine repetition priming of novel nonwords in young and older adults. The contributions of item and associative priming to the total repetition priming effect were assessed. In Experiment 1, age consistency was found in both components of repetition priming after 9 repetitions of nonwords. Experiment 2 established that young and older adults were similar in item and associative priming after as few as 2 repetitions of nonwords. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that associative priming persists for at least 3 min and that it is dissociable from cued recall. The overall pattern of results strongly argues that elaborative processing is not necessary to obtain associative priming in indirect memory tasks and that young and older adults show similar magnitudes of associative priming. PMID:7738504

  9. Does the maxillary anterior ratio in Korean adults follow the Golden Proportion?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of changes in the horizontal plane angle on the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth during the acquisition of frontal view photographs, derive these ratios for Korean adults on the basis of the data obtained, and analyze them using the Golden Proportion as a reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS In experiment I, 30 plaster casts were mounted on an articulator and positioned on the angle-measuring device with a center setting of 0°. The device was rotated to 10° in 1° increments in a counterclockwise direction. At each angle, photographs were obtained and analyzed. Experiment II was based on 60 patients who visited the Department of Prosthodontics at Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from February 2012 to February 2015. The patients were divided into three groups [Male (M), Female (F), Total (M + F)]. Frontal views were obtained for all groups and analyzed. RESULTS From 1° to 10°, the relative mesiodistal width ratios for the maxillary anterior teeth showed no significant differences from those at 0°. In all three groups, the relative width ratio of the maxillary central incisor was smaller than that specified in the Golden Proportion; the opposite was true for the canine. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth do not follow the Golden Proportion in Korean adults, and that a change in the horizontal plane angle from 1° to 10° during frontal photography does not affect these ratios. PMID:27141256

  10. Comparison of Surrogate Markers as Measures of Uncomplicated Insulin Resistance in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jong; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Bae; Lee, Jee Yon; Lee, Hye Sun; Hong, Jung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is known to increase the risk of various cardiometabolic diseases and in-sulin resistance (IR) has known to have central role in the development of MS. Many surrogate indices of IR have been proposed and the detection of MS might be a suitable model for assessing the accuracy of surrogate indices. The aims of our study are to invest the most appropriate index by assessment of the diagnostic capacity of IR among each surrogate index and identifying cut-off values for discriminating uncomplicated MS in Korean adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, assessing 294 Korean adults, 85 of whom were diagnosed with uncomplicated MS. The sensitivities and specificities of five surrogate IR indices were compared to discriminate MS from healthy subjects; these included fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, McAuley index, and Disse index. Correlations between each index value were assessed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation methods. Results The McAuley index showed the highest area under the curve (0.85), specificity (86.12%), accuracy (82.31%), positive predictive value (68.13%), and negative predictive value (88.67%) to distinguish MS, with a cut-off point of 5.3 defined. Correlation coefficients of the five indices showed that the McAuley index had the strongest correlation with IR. Conclusion The McAuley index showed the best accuracy in the detection of MS as a surrogate marker of IR. To establish more effective and accurate standards of measuring IR, comprehensive and multi-scaled studies are required. PMID:27274391

  11. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won-Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. Methods The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous month. The question regarding sleep need was "How much sleep do you need to be at your best during the day?" Unmet sleep need was calculated as sleep need minus habitual sleep duration. Participants with a score of >10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered to have EDS. Results The overall prevalence of EDS was 11.9%. Approximately one-third of the participants (31.9%) reported not getting at least 7 hours of sleep. An unmet sleep need of >0 hours was present in 30.2% of the participants. An adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant excess risk of EDS in the groups with unmet sleep needs of ≥2 hours [odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27–2.54] and 0.01–2 hours (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02–1.98). However, habitual sleep duration was not significantly related to EDS. Conclusions EDS was found to be associated with unmet sleep need but not with habitual sleep duration when both factors were examined together. We suggest that individual unmet sleep need is more important than habitual sleep duration in terms of the relation to EDS. PMID:26833986

  12. Young Adult Authors on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flench, Chris Ebert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the Internet…

  13. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…

  14. Rick: A Suicide of a Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    1997-01-01

    Using a narrative reconstruction, presents the case of a young man who, without prior warning, kills himself. Using a psychic autopsy, posits that the man lacked ego strength, was overly narcissistic, and deeply troubled. Offers guiding remarks for such cases and notes that therapists must recognize patients' concealment of suicidal thoughts. (RJM)

  15. Scotopic spatiotemporal sensitivity differences between young and old adults

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Cynthia L.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Volbrecht, Vicki J.; Werner, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Our lab has previously demonstrated losses in contrast sensitivity to low spatial frequencies under scotopic conditions with older adults. It is not clear, however, whether the temporal frequency of a stimulus alters the relation between age and the spatial contrast sensitivity function (sCSF) under scotopic conditions. Methods A maximum-likelihood, two-alternative, temporal forced-choice QUEST procedure was used to measure threshold to spatially and temporally modulated stimuli in both young (mean = 26 years) and old (mean = 75 years) adults. Results In general, the shapes of the spatial and temporal CSFs were low-pass for both young and old observers; contrast sensitivity decreased at approximately the same rate with increasing spatial frequency and temporal frequency for both age groups, although the overall sensitivity of the old group was lower than that of the young group. The high-frequency resolution limit was lower for the old group compared to the young group. Conclusions The differences in contrast sensitivity between the young and old groups suggest a uniform loss in sensitivity of the channels mediating spatial and temporal vision. Because of this loss, the spatial and temporal window of visibility for the older adults is compromised relative to the younger adults. PMID:20629957

  16. Perceived Neighborhood Fear and Drug Use Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Theall, Katherine P.; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between perceptions of neighborhood safety and drug use, as well as mediation by depression and self-esteem. Methods The sample included 210 inner-city young adults (18 to 25 years) recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Results Respondents who indicated greater fear of their neighborhood environment also had significantly greater levels of drug use than did those with lower perceived fear. However, this relationship was not a result of lower self-esteem or higher levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Exploratory results point to the need to consider the broader role of the community environment and its impact on drug use among young adults. PMID:19182981

  17. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  18. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults: causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Osula, S; Bell, G; Hornung, R

    2002-01-01

    The case report in this review illustrates an acute myocardial infarction in a young adult probably due to arterial thrombosis that can be attributed to a hypercoagulable state resulting from the nephrotic syndrome. Although rare, acute myocardial infarction should be considered in young adults presenting with chest pain. A detailed clinical history may help to identify the aetiology, and guide subsequent management, but diagnostic coronary angiography is essential. Careful risk factor modification and treatment of the underlying cause should reduce the incidence of recurrent cardiac events. PMID:11796868

  19. Nephropathy in youth and young adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Triplitt, Curtis L; Lynch, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence and progression of nephropathy associated with early onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a consequence of the ongoing epidemic of childhood obesity. Minimal evidence regarding treatment effectiveness of renovascular comorbidities in youth with early onset T2D is available, due to the relatively recent emergence of T2D in youth and young adults. Extrapolation of adult therapy guidelines is not an ideal approach to making therapeutic decisions in this population. Evolving management and intervention strategies are based on accumulating longitudinal data from cohorts of well characterized youth and young adults with T2D. The degree of similarity in histologic findings and disease specific characteristics of kidney disease in patients with early onset T2D and albuminuria compared with affected adults is not well characterized. Early aggressive therapies to minimize the impact of nephropathy are indicated as the evidence for best therapies in youth with T2D are further explored. PMID:24398660

  20. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  1. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's α=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

  2. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  3. Hypermnesia: age-related differences between young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Widner, R L; Otani, H; Smith, A D

    2000-06-01

    Hypermnesia is a net improvement in memory performance that occurs across tests in a multitest paradigm with only one study session. Our goal was to identify possible age-related differences in hypermnesic recall. We observed hypermnesia for young adults using verbal (Experiment 1) as well as pictorial (Experiment 2) material, but no hypermnesia for older adults in either experiment. We found no age-related difference in reminiscence (Experiments 1 and 2), though there was a substantial difference in intertest forgetting (Experiments 1 and 2). Older, relative to young, adults produced more forgetting, most of which occurred between Tests 1 and 2 (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, older, relative to young, adults produced more intrusions. We failed to identify a relationship between intrusions and intertest forgetting. We suggest that the age-related difference in intertest forgetting may be due to less efficient reinstatement of cues at test by older adults. The present findings reveal that intertest forgetting plays a critical role in hypermnesic recall, particularly for older adults. PMID:10946539

  4. College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

  5. PERSONALITY AND SUCCESS PROFILES CHARACTERISTIC OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECK, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    MAJOR SUCCESS-FAILURE SYNDROMES WERE STUDIED FROM DATA OBTAINED IN A PREVIOUS STUDY (COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT NO. 1533) ON 100 MENTALLY RETARDED, YOUNG MALE ADULTS. STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS HAD BEEN CONDUCTED WITH THE SUBJECTS, THEIR PARENTS, AND THEIR SUPERVISORS. FACTOR ANALYSIS HAD DEVELOPED 21 BASIC PREDICTORS OF SUCCESS AND 17 AFTER-TRAINING…

  6. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  7. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  8. Attention, Working Memory, and Grammaticality Judgment in Typical Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine resource allocation and sentence processing, this study examined the effects of auditory distraction on grammaticality judgment (GJ) of sentences varied by semantics (reversibility) and short-term memory requirements. Method: Experiment 1: Typical young adult females (N = 60) completed a whole-sentence GJ task in distraction…

  9. Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

  10. Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

  11. Moving Out and Marriage: What Do Young Adults Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldscheider, Calvin; Goldscheider, Frances K.

    Living independently before marriage is part of a broader pattern of family and demographic change characterizing modern societies since World War II. This study examined expectations about premarital residential independence among young adults. Data were obtained from 28,240 high school seniors who participated in the High School and Beyond study…

  12. Cerebral Specialization in Young Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two groups of right-handed young adults with and without Down Syndrome (N=24) performed a rapid unimanual finger-tapping task under two conditions: alone and while sound-shadowing (repeating) single-syllable, high frequency words. Results provided no evidence for reverse (right hemisphere) lateralization of speech in individuals with Down…

  13. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  14. HYDRATION STATUS AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate hydration levels are important for both mental and physical functioning. Research conducted in young adults suggests that mild levels of dehydration (2%-4%) can negatively influence cognitive performance in a variety of tasks, but these data are inconsistent. Dehydration may be relatively...

  15. America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

  16. Components of the Lonely Experience in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswick, Ruth Ann; And Others

    Research has identified high school and college students as the groups experiencing the greatest severity of loneliness. The manifestations of loneliness in adolescents and young adults were examined in a group of college (N=192) and high school (N=98) students. All subjects completed the Revised Loneliness Scale and a questionnaire about…

  17. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  18. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

  19. Mapping Images to Objects by Young Adults with Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmien, Stefan; Wohldman, Erica

    2008-01-01

    How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in young adults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen.…

  20. Parental Death in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…

  1. Young Adults Do Not Think World Knowledge Is Vital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A new survey has found that most young adults in the United States have difficulty identifying Iraq on an unlabeled map of the Middle East, or are unaware that the population of China is more than four times that of the United States. This lack of geographic literacy goes beyond simple gaps in knowledge and skills for most of these people do not…

  2. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adult (13 to 21)

    MedlinePlus

    ... What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 ... is a young-adult education program in your school or community. This program focuses on teaching life skills, such as cooking, ...

  3. Perspectives of Young Adults with Disabilities on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…

  4. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  5. External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…

  6. Young Adult Literature: From Middle School to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Susan; Nugent, Harold

    Learning difficult literary concepts (such as point of view, symbolism, or internal monologue) while reading difficult and often unfamiliar content prematurely places too many demands upon middle school and high school students. Young adult literature allows students to address the demands of a new concept while reading more familiar content. One…

  7. Effects of Assertive Training on Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…

  8. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  9. Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

  10. Off the Shelves: Poetry and Verse Novels for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that young adult literature can help teachers expose their students to…

  11. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  12. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  13. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  14. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  15. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  16. Not so Fast: Reassessing Gender Essentialism in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories…

  17. Gender Differences in Hypertension and Hypertension Awareness Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY; ZAJACOVA, ANNA

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that men have higher levels of hypertension and lower levels of hypertension awareness than women, but it remains unclear if these differences emerge among young adults. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study examines gender differences in hypertension and hypertension awareness among U.S. young adults, with special focus on factors that may contribute to observed disparities (N = 14,497). Our results show that the gender disparities in hypertension status were already evident among men and women in their twenties: women were far less likely to be hypertensive compared to men (12% vs. 27%). The results also reveal very low levels of hypertension awareness among young women (32% of hypertensive women were aware of their status) and even lower levels among men (25%). Finally, this study identifies key factors that contribute to these observed gender disparities. In particular, health care use, while not related to the actual hypertension status, fully explains the gender differences in hypertension awareness. The findings thus suggest that regular medical visits are critical for improving hypertension awareness among young adults and reducing gender disparities in cardiovascular health. PMID:25879259

  18. Playing with Fire. Creative Conflict Resolution for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Fiona; Fine, Nic

    A training program is presented for helping teenagers and young adults deal creatively with interpersonal conflict and violence. It explores the dynamics of anger, hurt, conflict, communication, cooperation, and assertiveness as it teaches listening, mediation, and conflict-defusing skills. The manual consists of 10 sections, 8 of which form the…

  19. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  20. Ways to Join the Living Conversation about Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Rarely do students and teachers see themselves as people who have the authority to talk back to the gatekeepers; instead, they are on the receiving end of a conversation begun by others. But the conversation about young adult (YA) books--like the authors who write them--is a living thing. Students and teachers can help to shape it. In this…

  1. 100 More Popular Young Adult Authors: Biographical Sketches and Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Bernard A.

    Intended as a ready reference for teenagers looking for information about their favorite writers, this book features 100 biographical sketches and biographies of popular young adult authors. The book includes many authors who are prize winners, many who have shown strength and consistency in writing, and some who have pioneered new directions or…

  2. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  3. Vocational Outcomes for Young Adults with Multiple Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full…

  4. Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

    This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

  5. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  6. Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darolyn Lyn

    This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom. Several…

  7. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  8. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  9. Strategic Selection of Children's and Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Laura M.; McIlhagga, Kristen K. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss strategic selection of literature for children and young adults based on the characteristics of written text and images as teachers and parents choose books for classroom and home settings. The topic is approached from two stances/lenses: (1) the cognitive processes used while reading and the ways different genres, topics, and…

  10. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  11. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  13. Employment Information Needs of Chinese Young Adults in Sheffield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sheila; Zhu, Wen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the question of how Chinese young adults (18-26 years old) in Sheffield seek employment information, and what sources and channels they use. Data collection was via a semi-structured questionnaire (78 responses) and via nine follow-up interviews with respondents to the questionnaire. Fifty-five percent felt that they had…

  14. Young Adult Literature Research in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…

  15. Nonfiction for Young Adults: From Delight to Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty; Abrahamson, Richard F.

    Suggesting that the vital element nonfiction lacks is professional attention, this book shows the literary qualities of nonfiction as well as defining its importance for young adults. The book discusses seven issues related to information books, each issue making up a single chapter. The first chapter addresses the reading interests of teenagers,…

  16. Young Adult Moral Exemplars: The Making of Self Through Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuba, M. Kyle; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to explore the differences between young adult moral exemplars and comparison individuals by studying their life stories. Moral exemplars were nominated for their extraordinary moral commitment to the social organizations where they volunteered or worked. Forty moral exemplars, along with 40 matched comparison…

  17. Tsunami Summer! 2003 Young Adult Summer Library Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for young adults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory councils,…

  18. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  19. Initial College Attendance of Low-Income Young Adults. Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.3 million low-income young adults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…

  20. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  1. Young Adult Occupational Achievement. Early Expectations versus Behavioral Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Sutterlin, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of young adults' occupational aspirations during the first seven years after high school with occupations held at age 30 showed that, no matter when expectations were measured, fewer than half achieved their aspirations. Among those who do not, men tend to move to higher occupations/positions, whereas women move down or leave the labor…

  2. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  3. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  4. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  5. Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

  6. ERIC/RCS: Booklists on Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorney, Jacqueline M.

    1987-01-01

    Annotates booklists of literature for young adults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black…

  7. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:27622178

  8. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  9. A study of the awareness of chronic liver diseases among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Kim, Seok Hyun; Eun, Jong Ryul

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic liver disease is closely associated with lifestyle, and public enlightenment of the lifestyle factors is important in reducing prevalence of chronic liver disease. The KASL (Korean Association for the Study of the Liver) conducted a survey of basic information and epidemiological data regarding chronic liver diseases. Methods A survey of chronic liver disease involving a total of 2,794 respondents was conducted. The respondents included patients and their guardians, visitors for health check-ups, and online pollees who completed a questionnaire on the awareness of fatty liver or chronic liver disease. Results Of the entire cohort, 854 (39.7%) said they have had or still have fatty liver or an elevated transaminase level (>40 IU/L), but only 23.4% of the respondents had visited a hospital. It was found that 35% of healthy subjects and 45% of patients and their guardians misunderstood hepatitis B as the hereditary disesase. Furthermore, 26% of the subjects responded that patients with inactive hepatitis B do not require regular follow-up. While 17.9% answered that it is not too late to test for liver cancer when symptoms arise, 38.8% believed that liver transplant in liver cancer patients has a low success rate and is thus not recommended. Conclusions Despite the inundation of information and widespread media advertising, the awareness of chronic liver disease is unsatisfactory among Korean adults. Systematic nationwide studies are needed to obtain data and information regarding the prevalence of chronic liver disease and patterns of use of the health-care system. PMID:21757980

  10. Coronary artery calcium scores and cardiovascular risk factors in 31,545 asymptomatic Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sung Mok; Sung, Jidong; Cho, Soo Jin; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the distribution of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) by age group and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and to evaluate the association between CV risk factors and CACS classification in asymptomatic adults. The study included 31,545 asymptomatic Koreans, over 20 years of age with no previous history of malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or stroke, who underwent CACS computed tomography at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 2005 and June 2013. Mean (±SD) age was 53.8 (±8.5) years overall, 56.1 (±8.3) in men, and 53.3 (±8.5) in women. They were classified into five groups based on their resting CACS: none (CAC = 0), minimal (0 < CAC ≤ 10), mild (10 < CAC ≤ 100), moderate (100 < CAC ≤ 400), and extensive (400 > CAC). Older age groups exhibited higher CACS values. The proportion of CACS classification in our study was 55.5 % with no CACS, 9.5 % with minimal CACS, 19.8 % with mild CACS, 10.8 % with moderate CACS, and 4.3 % with extensive CACS. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for CV risk factors to determine their association with CACS. When analyzed according to sex, in males, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, chronic kidney disease, and smoking status. While, in females, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of HT, DM, and obesity. CV risk factors appear to be significantly associated with CACS in the Korean population. PMID:27119164

  11. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  12. Pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, David; Amadi, Chiemezie; Beckman, Irwin; Patel, Shweta; Surampudi, Ramana

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas are soft-tissue tumors, rare in adults. Accounting for nearly 5% of childhood cancers, they represent less than 0.03% of adult malignancies (1, 2). Three different subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma have been described (embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic), making up approximately 50%, 30%, and 20% of the cases, respectively (3). Although the definitive diagnosis is made pathologically, some distinguishing features among these subtypes, and between rhabdomyosarcomas and other soft-tissue tumors, can be suggested on MRI and CT. We present an interesting case of a 20-year-old female with a locally aggressive pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. While the prognosis has improved with newer treatment techniques, overall survival rates remain poor. Our case study presents typical features of a rare disease, which can often present a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians.

  13. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  14. Serum ferritin levels are associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Yoon; Kim, Min Kyung; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kim, Kyung Rae; Park, Jong Suk

    2016-08-01

    Although an association between serum ferritin and atherosclerosis has been suggested, limited epidemiologic data are available regarding the association between ferritin and arterial stiffness in healthy adults. A total of 2932 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles including ferritin were measured. The arterial stiffness was measured using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Serum ferritin levels were classified into quartiles and baPWV values gradually increased with each ferritin quartile. Multiple regression analysis showed that ferritin levels were independently correlated with baPWV. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, as compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios for high baPWV (>75(th) percentile) were 1.15 (0.84-1.56), 1.37 (0.97-1.73), and 1.46 (1.29-2.17) among men (p for trend < 0.05) and 1.24 (0.87-1.79), 1.53 (1.09-2.16), and 1.80 (1.25-2.82) among women (p for trend < 0.05), for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of ferritin, respectively. In conclusion, serum ferritin levels are independently associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults. PMID:26926288

  15. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea. PMID:25975449

  16. Muscle dissatisfaction in young adult men

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle. PMID:16594989

  17. The experience of uncertainty in young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Amélie; Laizner, Andréa Maria; Hunter, Patricia; Hutchison, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the experience of uncertainty in young adults with cancer. A purposeful sample of 6 young adults between the ages of 19 and 30 years undergoing chemotherapy treatment was recruited. Participants were interviewed twice using semistructured interviews. The investigators used constant comparison to examine the content of the transcript for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text that related to uncertainty. Findings revealed 3 major emerging themes. The first one being "types of uncertainty," which includes uncertainty and efforts at the right place, uncertainty and aspects of treatment, uncertainty and personal abilities, and uncertainty and the feasibility of plans related to life goals. Uncertainty was also found to trigger the development of certainties, which led to the second theme, "certainties: helpful or not?" A third emerging theme, dealing with uncertainty, described a variety of strategies used by young adults that included living on a day-to-day basis, being selfish, believing, getting information, trusting the physician, concentrating on positive things, keeping energy by pacing oneself, choosing social support, and trying to live a normal life. A consequence of dealing with the uncertainty and the cancer journey is the "enlightened path." It emerged and revealed how the cancer journey changed their lives. A number of implications for nursing practice therefore warrant consideration, especially fostering a sense of normalcy by identifying common behaviors, feelings, or needs among these young adults with cancer. Sharing this information and facilitating interactions with other young adults with cancer has the potential to promote coping with uncertainty. PMID:19661789

  18. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Qi; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-26

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas. PMID:26452024

  19. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-01

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas. PMID:26452024

  20. Extraordinary moral commitment: young adults involved in social organizations.

    PubMed

    Matsuba, M Kyle; Walker, Lawrence J

    2004-04-01

    The personality of exemplary young adults was studied in an effort to paint a portrait of moral excellence that expanded upon the traditional emphasis on moral reasoning maturity. These young adults were nominated based on their extraordinary moral commitment towards various social organizations. The sample included 40 moral exemplars and 40 matched comparison individuals who responded to a battery of questionnaires and participated in a semistructured interview. It was found that moral exemplars, in contrast to comparison individuals, were more agreeable, more advanced in their faith and moral reasoning development, further along in forming an adult identity, and more willing to enter into close relationships. These findings are discussed in the context of describing moral excellence from a multifaceted, personality perspective. PMID:15016070

  1. 1 in 13 Young Adults in U.S. Considered Suicide in Past Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159412.html 1 in 13 Young Adults in U.S. Considered Suicide ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About one in 13 young adults in the United States ...

  2. 1 in 13 Young Adults in U.S. Considered Suicide in Past Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159412.html 1 in 13 Young Adults in U.S. Considered Suicide ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About one in 13 young adults in the United States ...

  3. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... 12 ounces of beer or five ounces of wine.) Finally, quit smoking. Among other things, smoking damages ...

  4. Young LGBT Adults Are Target of FDA Stop-Smoking Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young LGBT Adults Are Target of FDA Stop-Smoking Campaign Tobacco use is common among these 18- ... and Drug Administration has launched an LGBT stop-smoking campaign. "We know LGBT young adults in this ...

  5. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults ...

  6. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: High Blood Pressure More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously believed. With more ...

  7. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  8. Young Adult Perspectives on a Successful Transition from Pediatric to Adult Care in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sobota, Amy E.; Umeh, Emeka; Mack, Jennifer W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This qualitative study sought to learn from young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) about their experience leaving pediatric care and perspective on what makes a successful transition. Methods Fifteen young adults with SCD who had left pediatric care within the previous five years participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. Results Four main themes emerged from the analysis: facilitators of transition (meeting the adult provider prior to transfer, knowing what to expect, gradually taking over disease self-management and starting the process early), barriers to transition (negative perceived attitude of adult staff, lack of SCD specific knowledge by both patients and staff, and competing priorities interfering with transition preparation), what young adults wished for in a transition program (opportunities to meet more staff prior to transfer, more information about the differences between pediatric and adult care, learning from a peer who has been through the process, more SCD teaching, and flexibility in transition preparation) and how they define a successful transition (gradually assuming responsibility for self-management of their SCD). Conclusion Our findings present unique opportunities to learn from young adults with SCD about ways to improve current transition programs. PMID:27175364

  9. Binge Drinking and Its Relation to Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Im, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background It is reported that heavy drinking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. But there have been few studies on the relationship between the intensity of drinking and metabolic syndrome when drinking the same amount of alcohol. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in Korean adult men. Methods From the database of the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007-2010, data of 8,305 adult men (≥19 years of age) was included in this analysis. Cross-sectional relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome was investigated adjusting for pure alcohol consumed per day. Results Adjusting for various confounders including pure alcohol consumed per day, the adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in those in higher frequency (more than 1/wk) binge drinking group was 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.03; P for trend = <0.001) compared to those in the non-binge drinking group. Through analysis of the relationship between pure alcohol consumed per day and metabolic syndrome, it was found that pure alcohol consumed per day had a positive relation to metabolic syndrome in the higher frequency binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.041). The relationship was inverse in the non-binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusion Our study found a positive relationship between frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in adult men. And the effect of drinking on metabolic syndrome may depend on the frequency of binge drinking. Further studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:25120888

  10. Dairy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Anseong and Ansan Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353

  11. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  12. Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Zebrack, Brad J

    2011-05-15

    Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748

  13. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  14. Young adult women: lifestyle and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Schank, M J; Lawrence, D M

    1993-08-01

    A study of 76 young adult women, 38 nursing students and 38 non-nursing students, examined their lifestyle practices and health locus of control (HLOC). Findings revealed a significant difference between reported lifestyle practices and the career choice of these young adult women. The lifestyle practice areas in which the most notable differences occurred included: use of seat belts, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of junk food intake, use of illegal drugs and hours of sleep per night. While differences in HLOC were evident between nursing and non-nursing students, no relationship was found between a young woman's HLOC and her lifestyle practices. The differences in HLOC showed that nurses were more frequently pure internal whereas most non-nurses were found to be double externals. The pure chance category had the fewest number of respondents. The difference in lifestyle practices between these young adult women can be explained in part by curriculum variations, as can the difference in HLOC patterns. PMID:8376662

  15. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  16. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  17. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications. PMID:26051175

  18. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  19. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  20. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Register (FR) on May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32116-32121) sets forth rules to implement the TRICARE Young Adult... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums...

  1. 76 FR 23479 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Interim final rule with... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TRICARE Young ] Adult program is a premium-based...

  2. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from EMT Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Loh-Sze

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…

  3. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  4. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained stable.…

  5. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  6. The Effects of Framing Vocational Choices on Young Adults' Sets of Career Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…

  7. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  8. Hip Dysplasia in the Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Gala, Luca; Clohisy, John C; Beaulé, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Hip dysplasia is a leading precursor of osteoarthritis and is seen in 20% to 40% of patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. An increase in mechanical stress on the cartilage matrix with failure of the acetabular labrum represents the major pathomechanism of degeneration. Because the prevalence of associated femoral deformities is high (>50%), the structural anatomy of the dysplastic hip must be assessed in multiple planes using radiographs and, if needed, advanced imaging modalities. Acetabular osteotomy (periacetabular and/or rotational) is the most commonly used procedure for the treatment of the majority of dysplastic hips in adults. Modern total hip replacement remains an excellent option for the more arthritic joints. Difficulties can arise from anatomical abnormalities and previous operations. PMID:26738905

  9. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  10. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that…

  11. Visual statistical learning in children and young adults: how implicit?

    PubMed Central

    Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane

    2015-01-01

    Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory. PMID:25620943

  12. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  13. Association between Sleep Duration and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Korean Adults: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Rong; Shin, Jin-Young; Gim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and IFG. Methods This cross-sectional study included 14,925 Korean adults (5,868 men and 9,057 women) ≥19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012. Blood glucose levels were measured after at least eight hours of fasting. Study subjects were categorized into three groups based on self-reported sleep duration (<7, 7–8, or >8 h/d). IFG was diagnosed according to recommendations American Diabetes Association guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates. Results In men, short sleep duration (<7 hours) was associated with increased risk of IFG (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.96) compared to adequate sleep duration (7–8 hours), whereas long sleep duration (>8 hours) was not associated with risk of IFG (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.18). In women, sleep duration was not associated with risk of IFG. Conclusion The association between sleep duration and IFG differed by sex; sleep deprivation, was associated with increased risk of IFG, especially in men. PMID:26885323

  14. Korean Culture as Portrayed in Young Children's Picture Books: The Pursuit of Cultural Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Park, Soyeon; Choi, Joung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how contemporary Korea and its culture are portrayed in children's picture books published in the United States. Our analysis of the representation of Korean culture in text and illustrations was based on a sample of 33 picture books written in English and published in the US between 1990 and…

  15. The Effects of Relationship Focused Intervention on Korean Parents and Their Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong Mee; Mahoney, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of Relationship Focused Intervention (RFI) on a sample of Korean mothers and their preschool-aged children with disabilities. Subjects were 18 mothers of children with developmental problems (ages 3-8 years). Ten of these mothers were assigned to an RFI Treatment group and eight to a No RFI Control…

  16. Consumer Decision-Making Styles: Comparison between United States and Korean Young Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafstrom, Jeanne L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Data from 310 Korean college students (77.5 percent), when compared to a U.S. sample, revealed that (1) overall consumer decision-making styles are similar; (2) Brand Conscious and Perfectionist styles were in the top 3 in both groups; and (3) construct validity of most scales of the Consumer Style Index was confirmed. (SK)

  17. Proximal and Distal Predictors of Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Young Korean Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated proximal and distal predictors of reading comprehension by including latent factors such as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, word reading, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension. The sample consisted of 79 five-year-old Korean-monolingual children who were assessed at the end…

  18. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual's knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  19. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  20. Evaluation of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in a Sample of Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Yoo, Ji Eun

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the psychometric qualities and construct validity of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS; Ellison in J Psychol Theol 11:330-340, 1983) using a sample of 470 Korean adults. Two factor analyses, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, were conducted in order to test the validity of the SWBS. The results of the factor analyses supported the original two-dimensional structure of the SWBS-religious well-being (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) with method effects associated with negatively worded items. By controlling for method effects, the evaluation of the two-factor structure of SWBS is confirmed with clarity. Further, the differential pattern and magnitude of correlations between the SWB subscales and the religious and psychological variables suggested that two factors of the SWBS were valid for Protestant, Catholic, and religiously unaffiliated groups except Buddhists. The Protestant group scored higher in RWB compared to the Buddhist, Catholic, and unaffiliated groups. The Protestant group scored higher in EWB compared to the unaffiliated groups. Future studies may need to include more Buddhist samples to gain solid evidence for validity of the SWBS on a non-Western religious tradition. PMID:25735753

  1. Reference Intervals for Plasma Amyloid β in Korean Adults Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Kim, Kyu Nam; Cho, Hye Min; Lee, Duck Joo; Cho, Doo Yeoun

    2016-11-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are important components of plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that a low plasma ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 may precede the development of the sporadic form of AD. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for plasma Aβ in Korean adults. A total of 370 apparently healthy individuals (181 males and 189 females aged 40-69 yr) without cognitive impairment were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were measured by using a human amyloid β assay kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories, Japan). Reference intervals were established according to the "CLSI guidelines for defining, establishing, and verifying reference intervals in the clinical laboratory". There was no need to partition the data with respect to gender or age group. The 95th percentile reference intervals for Aβ40 and Aβ42 were 127-331 pg/mL and 2.31-19.84 pg/mL, respectively. The reference interval for the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was 0.011-0.092. Plasma Aβ concentrations obtained in this study could be used as reference intervals for clinical purposes. PMID:27578514

  2. Multisensory integration across the senses in young and old adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Li, Po Ching Clara; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee

    2011-01-01

    Stimuli are processed concurrently and across multiple sensory inputs. Here we directly compared the effect of multisensory integration (MSI) on reaction time across three paired sensory inputs in eighteen young (M=19.17 yrs) and eighteen old (M=76.44 yrs) individuals. Participants were determined to be non-demented and without any medical or psychiatric conditions that would affect their performance. Participants responded to randomly presented unisensory (auditory, visual, somatosensory) stimuli and three paired sensory inputs consisting of auditory-somatosensory (AS) auditory-visual (AV) and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Results revealed that reaction time (RT) to all multisensory pairings was significantly faster than those elicited to the constituent unisensory conditions across age groups; findings that could not be accounted for by simple probability summation. Both young and old participants responded the fastest to multisensory pairings containing somatosensory input. Compared to younger adults, older adults demonstrated a significantly greater RT benefit when processing concurrent VS information. In terms of co-activation, older adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of visual-somatosensory co-activation (i.e., multisensory integration), while younger adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of auditory-visual and auditory-somatosensory co-activation. This study provides first evidence in support of the facilitative effect of pairing somatosensory with visual stimuli in older adults. PMID:22024545

  3. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  4. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  5. Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

    2014-09-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

  6. Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David B.; Link, Daniel C.; Mason, Philip J.; Bessler, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

  7. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  8. Young adults with intellectual disability recall their childhood.

    PubMed

    Starke, Mikaela

    2011-12-01

    Eleven young adults with an intellectual disability were interviewed for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of growing up in homes where at least one parent had the same or a similar disability. Two main themes emerged from the interviews. Firstly, a clear majority of the young adults had positive experiences of family life during their upbringing, as expressed especially through their memories of their grandparents. Secondly, the study participants all described experiences of being bullied and harassed outside the family context. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of the parents, the family, and informal networks in the upbringing of these children. The study also considers the consequences that the study participants' negative experiences of peer contacts and their sense of exclusion might have for their prospects in later life. PMID:22129525

  9. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  10. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R.; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; De Pauw, S.; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D.; Wilkins, K.; Rogers, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  11. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  12. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, R; Aubin, S; Czaykowski, P; De Pauw, S; Johnson, A; McKillop, S; Szwajcer, D; Wilkins, K; Rogers, P

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas-medical, psychosocial, and research-and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  13. Effect of Symptoms of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Korean Conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Bo-Seok; Lee, So-Jin; Bhang, Soo Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study is conducted to investigate the effect of symptoms of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 224 conscripts during 5 weeks of military basic training. Methods Total number of subject is 224 conscripts. We evaluated past and present symptoms of ADHD with Korean-Wender Utah rating scale (K-WURS) and Korean adult attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale (K-AADHDS) and stress and symptoms of PTSD with Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument-K (BEPSI-K), the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-K) on 1 week and 5 weeks later of basic military training. Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate risk factors of PTSD using SPSS program and Path analysis also was used to find relationship between past and present ADHD and PTSD simultaneously using AMOS program. Results Present symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.145, CI=1.054-1.245, p=0.001) and Past symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.049, CI=1.005-1.095, p=0.028) were significant risk factor of PTSD symptoms on 1st week of basic military training. The symptoms of PTSD on fist week was also significant risk factor of PTSD after 5weeks of basic military training (OR=1.073, CI=1.020-1.129, p=0.006). Using path analysis, we could found confirm these relations between past and present ADHD symptoms and symptoms of PTSD. Conclusion The result suggests that past and present symptoms of ADHD are the risk factor of symptoms of PTSD on first week. And the symptoms of PTSD on first week are also risk factor of PTSD symptoms on last weeks in Korean conscripts. The symptoms of ADHD might make an important role in vulnerability of the symptoms of PTSD in Korean conscripts. PMID:22707966

  14. Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ≤49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ≥80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ≥13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

  15. Osteoporosis, vitamin C intake, and physical activity in Korean adults aged 50 years and over

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate associations between vitamin C intake, physical activity, and osteoporosis among Korean adults aged 50 and over. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on bone mineral density measurement data from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The study sample comprised 3,047 subjects. The normal group was defined as T-score ≥ −1.0, and the osteoporosis group as T-score ≤ −2.5. The odds ratios for osteoporosis were assessed by logistic regression of each vitamin C intake quartile. [Results] Compared to the lowest quartile of vitamin C intake, the other quartiles showed a lower likelihood of osteoporosis after adjusting for age and gender. In the multi-variate model, the odds ratio for the likelihood of developing osteoporosis in the non-physical activity group significantly decreased to 0.66, 0.57, and 0.46 (p for trend = 0.0046). However, there was no significant decrease (0.98, 1.00, and 0.97) in the physical activity group. [Conclusion] Higher vitamin C intake levels were associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged over 50 with low levels of physical activity. However, no association was seen between vitamin C intake and osteoporosis risk in those with high physical activity levels. PMID:27134348

  16. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25508851

  17. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25486720

  18. Child to adult: transitional care for young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel

    Managing the transitional care needs of young adults with a complex chronic illness such as cystic fibrosis (CF) as they move from a child-orientated to adult setting has been reported in the literature as challenging and stressful, and may impart additional risks to the young person's health. However, in the Republic of Ireland, which has the highest incidence of CF in the world, the current services provided for children during this transitional period are still reported as underdeveloped. The aim of the author's research was to explore and understand the experience of young people before and after their transitional care, and the factors that both contribute to and hinder that experience. A qualitative approach guided by phenomenological tradition, and using in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that there are a range of needs required for patients during this transitional period, including the need for information, interventions that decrease the negative feelings associated with transition (e.g. distress, anxiety, uncertainty), structured service, and an approach to care that focuses on young adults. The author concludes that health professionals in the clinical setting who have responsibility for young adults in transitional care should focus on these needs to provide a more relevant and effective transition service. PMID:23252167

  19. Cancer-Specific Outcomes Among Young Adults Without Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Falit, Benjamin; Mendu, Mallika L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hu, Jim C.; Martin, Neil E.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Alexander, Brian M.; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will likely improve insurance coverage for most young adults, but subsets of young adults in the United States will face significant premium increases in the individual market. We examined the association between insurance status and cancer-specific outcomes among young adults. Methods We used the SEER program to identify 39,447 patients age 20 to 40 years diagnosed with a malignant neoplasm between 2007 and 2009. The association between insurance status and stage at presentation, employment of definitive therapy, and all-cause mortality was assessed using multivariable logistic or Cox regression, as appropriate. Results Patients who were uninsured were more likely to be younger, male, nonwhite, and unmarried than patients who were insured and were also more likely to be from regions of lower income, education, and population density (P < .001 in all cases). After adjustment for pertinent confounding variables, an association between insurance coverage and decreased likelihood of presentation with metastatic disease (odds ratio [OR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.94; P = .003), increased receipt of definitive treatment (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.50; P < .001), and decreased death resulting from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.91; P = .002) was noted. Conclusion The improved coverage fostered by the ACA may translate into better outcomes among most young adults with cancer. Extra consideration will need to be given to ensure that patients who will face premium increases in the individual market can obtain insurance coverage under the ACA. PMID:24888800

  20. Correlation between hypertension and hyperglycemia among young adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Midha, Tanu; Krishna, Vinay; Shukla, Rishi; Katiyar, Praveen; Kaur, Samarjeet; Martolia, Dinesh Singh; Pandey, Umeshwar; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the correlation between blood pressure levels and fasting plasma glucose levels among young adults attending Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur, India. METHODS: The present study was cross-sectional in nature, conducted among students in the Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur. Study subjects included 185 young adults. Among them, 94 were males and 91 were females, in the age group 17 to 19 years. RESULTS: Mean age among males was 18.5 ± 1.5 years and among females was 17.9 ± 1.8 years. Of the total 185 study subjects, 61 (32.9%) were classified as pre-diabetic and 20 (10.8%) as pre-hypertensive. Mean waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and serum high density lipoprotein did not vary significantly between normoglycemic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, the mean diastolic blood pressure of pre-diabetics (82 ± 5 mmHg) was significantly higher than normoglycemics (79 ± 6 mmHg). Mean serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and serum very low density lipoprotein was also higher among pre-diabetic subjects in comparison to normoglycemic subjects and the difference was statistically significant. Upon multiple linear regression analysis, it was observed that body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.149), diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.375) and serum LDL (β = 0.483) were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose. Multiple linear regression with diastolic blood pressure as the outcome variable showed that BMI (β = 0.219), fasting blood glucose (β = 0.247) and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.510) were significantly associated. CONCLUSION: A significant prevalence of pre-diabetes and pre-hypertension in young adults is a matter of concern therefore all young adults need to be targeted for screening of diabetes and hypertension and lifestyle modification. PMID:25685764

  1. ACQUIRED MULTIFOCAL TUFTED ANGIOMAS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Biswas, Surajit Kumar; Barma, Kuntal Deb

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, localized to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, occurring primarily on the trunk and extremities of children. The lesions are usually asymptomatic but, rarely, paroxysmal painful episodes may be associated. The occurrence of eruptive TA is still rarer and had been described almost exclusively in association with immunocompromised states. We report here a case of acquired painful multifocal tufted angiomas on the face and neck in an immunocompetent young adult. PMID:21965850

  2. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  3. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  4. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M

    2012-04-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

  5. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    PubMed

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified. PMID:7618909

  6. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  7. Health Disparities Among Young Adult Sexual Minorities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24–32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured body mass index; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2013. Results Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. PMID:25241194

  8. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  9. List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445

  10. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  11. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  12. Genetic and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol Use in Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; Lau, Anna S.; Lee, Steve S.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Among Asian American young adults, variations in alcohol-metabolizing genes (i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH2] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH1B]) are protective, whereas Korean ethnicity, family history of alcohol problems (FH), and acculturation represent risk factors for alcohol misuse. This study aims to integrate these genetic and environmental factors in a sample of Asian Americans expressing a wide range of alcohol use behaviors and problems. Method: Participants were 97 Asian American young adults (42% female) recruited as heavy and light drinkers (n = 49 and 48, respectively). Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Timeline Followback, Vancouver Acculturation Index, and Family Tree Questionnaire. All participants provided buccal cell samples for DNA analysis. Results: Family history–positive (FH+) subjects reported greater alcohol use than family history–negative (FH–) subjects. A FH × ALDH2 interaction was observed such that FH– subjects demonstrated no ALDH2 effect, yet in FH+ subjects, the ALDH2*2 genotype was associated with increased alcohol use. A significant main effect of acculturation was also moderated by FH such that the positive association between acculturation and alcohol use was greater among FH+ subjects and, in particular, among FH+ men. Conclusions: Although preliminary, these results suggest that the potential protective effects conferred by ALDH2 and ADH1B are moderated by FH, such that a positive FH appeared to abolish the protective effect of these genes. Further, acculturation was associated with greater alcohol use in FH+ subjects only. If replicated in larger samples, these data suggest that alcohol-metabolism genes may not be protective in the context of high environmental risk. PMID:26402349

  13. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

  14. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  15. Understanding Gender through Disney's Marriages: A Study of Young Korean Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Much American popular culture has often been criticized for its negative portrayals of females and its potentially harmful influence on young children. However, there are insufficient studies about American young girls' actual understanding of these female representations. Specifically, the perspectives of young immigrant girls have hardly been…

  16. Physical Activity Level of Korean Adults with Chronic Diseases: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ho-Seong; An, Ah-Reum; Choi, Ho-Chun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Heon; Oh, Seung-Min; Seo, Young-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Proper physical activities are known to be helpful in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, the physical activity level of patients with chronic diseases is low. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical activity compliance of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2010-2012 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We included 13,873 individuals in the analysis. The level of physical activity compliance was measured by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results In the univariate analysis, the subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to comply with the physical activity guidelines less faithfully than their healthy counterparts. The proportion of subjects with hypertension who were insufficiently physically active was 65.4% among the men and 75.8% among the women. For diabetes, the proportions were 66.7% and 76.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the subjects with dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant difference in physical activity compliance was observed between the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts for both sexes. Conclusion The patients with hypertension or diabetes tended to have lower physical activity prevlaence than their healthy counterparts. However, for dyslipidemia, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Given the significance of physical activities in the management of chronic diseases, the physical activities of these patients need to be improved. PMID:26634091

  17. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  18. Young adult veteran perceptions of peers' drinking behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-02-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  19. A Young Adult Diet for Adults: Bring on the Good Stuff!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follos, Alison

    2004-01-01

    "Title Trekking program" is a young adult reading program that encourages students to read books from a carefully selected reading list and reflect about them in a journal. The program's momentum comes from personal communication and encouragement, which includes staff sharing good books with their students, sharing them with each other, and…

  20. Dietary quality differs by consumption of meals prepared at home vs. outside in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating out has been reported to have negative effects on nutritional status. However, eating out can include meals prepared at home and eaten outside. Conversely, meals eaten at home can be brought from outside, as take-out and home deliveries have become common in Korea. Thus, we tested whether or not meal preparation location influences daily diet quality. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009, 4,915 Korean adults (20-64 years) were classified into two groups: home-made meal group (HMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared at home (n = 4,146), and non-home-made meal group (NHMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared outside home (n = 769). Daily diet quality was determined by energy intake, nutrient intake, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and Diet Diversity Score (DDS). RESULTS Compared to the HMG, the NHMG was more likely to consist of men, single, employed, educated and of a higher economic status (all, P < 0.01). The NHMG showed higher energy intakes (1,776 vs. 2,116 kcal/day) with higher percentages of energy from protein (15 vs. 23%) and fat (14 vs. 16%) and lower intakes of dietary fiber, phosphorus, potassium, niacin, and vitamin C (all, P < 0.01) than the HMG, with some variations among age groups. The NHMG tended to consume foods prepared by frying and grilling and had more one-dish meals such as bibimbap, noodles, and dumplings but also showed higher dietary diversity. CONCLUSIONS It should be noted that home-made meals do not necessarily guarantee a healthy diet, and the effects of meal preparation location on nutritional status might vary depending on socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:27247726

  1. Association between urinary levels of bisphenol-A and estrogen metabolism in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jee; Lee, Dongho; Chung, Bong Chul; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Jeongae

    2014-02-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) possesses estrogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo as an endocrine disrupting chemical. Humans experience a long-term and cumulative exposure to BPA. BPA was detectable in 97.3% of 1904 urine specimens from Korean adults. We investigated urinary estrogen concentrations in subjects with low and high BPA concentrations and its possible association with estrogen metabolism. Urine samples were collected from a high BPA concentration group (BPA-H; n=100, 11.05 ± 20.47 μg/g creatinine) and a low BPA concentration group (BPA-L; n=100, 0.70 ± 0.22 μg/g creatinine) from Korea Biomonitoring Program of Hazardous Materials Survey 2009-2010. Urinary estrogens were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted, and then derivatized for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estrogen levels were higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group. Concentrations of estrone, 17β-estradiol, and their hydroxylated metabolites in both men and women were significantly higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group (p<0.04). Furthermore, in the BPA-H group, estrogen metabolism to 4-hydroxy-estrone and 4-hydroxy-17β-estradiol was more active than that to 2-hydroxy-estrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol. Although single measurement and/or single spot urine samples limit the measurement of long-term exposure to BPA, we found significant differences of estrogen metabolism in the BPA-H and the BPA-L groups. The increase of hydroxyestrogens, especially 4-hydroxyestrogens, can be an important factor resulting negative effects of prolonged exposure to BPA. PMID:23954212

  2. Associations of Low Environmental Exposure to Multiple Metals with Renal Tubular Impairment in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungryul; Lim, Ji-ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Kwon, Ho-jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Heon; Park, Jung-duck

    2016-01-01

    Recently several studies reported that the renal toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) may exist in even a low level exposure. In terms of the deterioration of tubular function, it affects the loss of divalent metals and leads to other complications, so renal tubular effect of heavy metals should be well managed. Considering the exposure to heavy metals in reality, it is hard to find the case that human is exposed to only one heavy metal. We designed a cross-sectional study using Korean Research Project on the Integrated Exposure Assessment (KRIEFS) data to investigate the renal effects of multiple metal exposure in general population. We used blood Pb and urinary Cd as exposure measures, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as renal tubular impairment outcome. We conducted linear regression to identify the association between each heavy metal and urinary NAG and β2-MG. And then, we conducted linear regression including the interaction term. Of 1953 adults in KRIEFS (2010~2011), the geometric mean of blood Pb and urinary Cd concentration was 2.21 μg/dL (geometric SD = 1.49 μg/dL) and 1.08 μg/g cr (geometric SD = 1.98 μg/g cr), respectively. In urinary Cd, the strength of the association was also high after adjusting (urinary NAG: β = 0.44, p < 0.001; urinary β2-MG: β = 0.13, p = 0.002). Finally, we identified the positive interactions for the two renal biomarkers. The interaction effect of the two heavy metals of β2-MG was greater than that of NAG. It is very important in public health perspective if the low level exposure to multiple heavy metals has an interaction effect on kidney. More epidemiological studies for the interaction and toxicological studies on the mechanism are needed. PMID:26977259

  3. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making. PMID:27086002

  4. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  5. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p < .05) associated with inadequate sunscreen use (vs. nonuse) included skin cancer risk perceptions (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0), perceived barriers to sunscreen use (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9), and stronger personal norms for applying sunscreen (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.2). These findings provide insight into the attributes that enable or inhibit the use of sunscreen among young competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context. PMID:21059896

  6. Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

    2005-08-01

    This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ɛ invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

  7. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  8. Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

  9. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  10. Perception of "appropriate" age for retirement among young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people.

    PubMed

    Joulain, M; Mullet, E; Lecomte, C; Prévost, R

    2000-01-01

    The "appropriate" age for retirement as it is perceived by young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people has been studied. No respondents were surprised or had trouble expressing an opinion about the minimum and maximum "appropriate" ages for retirement. Representations of the "appropriate" retirement age vary primarily as a function of the perceived physical constraints involved in the occupation, and also depend on the age of the person being questioned; the younger the respondent, and lower the perceived "appropriate" minimum age. There was no tendency among the young adults to prolong the work life of older individuals. Nor was there a tendency to associate aging with the loss of intellectual capacities likely to lead to early retirement. PMID:10735183

  11. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  12. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID

  13. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID

  14. Habitual use of vocal fry in young adult female speakers.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Lesley; Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Slavin, Dianne

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of vocal fry in young adult Standard American-English (SAE) speakers. This was a preliminary attempt (1) to determine the prevalence of the use of this register in young adult college-aged American speakers and (2) to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal fry in these speakers. Subjects were 34 female college students. They were native SAE speakers aged 18-25 years. Data collection procedures included high quality recordings of two speaking conditions, (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) sentence reading task. Data analyses included both perceptual and acoustic evaluations. Results showed that approximately two-thirds of this population used vocal fry and that it was most likely to occur at the end of sentences. In addition, statistically significant differences between vocal fry and normal register were found for mean F(0) minimum, F(0) maximum, F(0) range, and jitter local. Preliminary findings were taken to suggest that use of the vocal fry register may be common in some adult SAE speakers. PMID:21917418

  15. Influence of message error type on Korean adults' attitudes toward an individual who uses augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC. PMID:25716683

  16. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow,  Susan; Cohen-Filipic,  Jessye; Kloss,  Jacqueline D.; Munshi,  Teja; Perlis,  Clifford S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

  18. Differences in maximal isometric tongue strength and endurance of healthy young vs. older adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Hwan; Park, Ji-Su; Jo, Young-Moon; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and endurance of young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study recruited 60 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged 67 to 75 years) at a university and in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and endurance. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was significantly higher in the young adult group than the older adult group. Maximal tongue endurance was longer in the young adult group than in the older adult group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength and endurance than young adults. PMID:27134371

  19. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-05-18

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26645897

  20. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  1. Management of Total Cancer Pain: A Case of Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Aanchal; Singh, Suraj Pal; Kashyap, Komal; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Pain due to cancer is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by the patients at some or the other time during the course of treatment or disease progression. The multidimensional nature of cancer pain is characterized by various dimensions including physical, social, psychological, and spiritual; which together constitute the term “total pain”. Young cancer patients illustrate their unique psychological and developmental needs. This case report highlights the concept of “total cancer pain” in a young adult and demonstrates his distinctive social, spiritual, and psychological sufferings. The report emphasizes that addressing all these concerns is considerably significant in order to provide optimal pain relief to the patient. In the present scenario, it has been done by a skillful multiprofessional team communicating effectively with both the patient and the carer. PMID:25125874

  2. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  3. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  4. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Maurer, Jaclyn; Wheatley, Virginia; Cottone, Ellen; Clancy, Michele

    2007-04-01

    Food mishandling in home kitchens likely causes a significant amount of foodborne disease; however, little is known about the food safety hazards lurking in home kitchens. The purposes of this study were to audit the kitchens of young adults with education beyond high school to identify food safety problems and develop recommendations for education efforts. Researchers developed a criterion-referenced home kitchen observation instrument to assess compliance of home food storage and rotation practices (e.g., temperature), sanitation and chemical storage, and general kitchen condition (e.g., infestation) with recommended practices. The instrument contained seven scales: Kitchen Cleanliness (eight items), Appliance Cleanliness (three items), Cleaning Supplies Availability (eight items), Temperatures (Food Thermometer Access & Refrigerator/Freezer Temperatures) (five items), Cold Food Storage (seven items), Dry Food Storage (eight items), and Poisons Storage (two items). Descriptive statistics were conducted to describe the study population, as a whole, and by gender. A total of 154 young adults (mean age, 20.7+/- 1.3 SD) enrolled in a northeastern university participated. Participants scored 70% or higher on Poisons Storage, Dry Food Storage, Kitchen Cleanliness, and Cleaning Supplies Availability scales but less than 60% on the Appliance Cleanliness and Cold Food Storage scales. Performance was lowest on the Temperatures scale. Females scored significantly higher than males on the Kitchen Cleanliness and Cleaning Supply Availability scales. Average refrigerator and freezer temperatures were higher than recommendations. Food safety education targeted at this young adult population needs to evolve into focused messages pertaining to the key food safety violations in this population. PMID:17477272

  5. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

  6. Differentiating Asthma Phenotypes in Young Adults through Polyclonal Cytokine Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zoratti, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne; Wegienka, Ganesa; Nicholas, Charlotte; Bobbitt, Kevin R.; Woodcroft, Kimberley J.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research has emphasized the need to better discriminate asthma phenotypes and consider underlying mechanistic endotypes in epidemiological and clinical studies. While allergic asthma and non-allergic asthma are frequently combined into one disease category in observational research and clinical trials, few studies have investigated the extent to which these two separate phenotypes are associated with distinct cytokine immunological profiles in a representative young adult population. Objective To investigate the cytokine production-based endotypes underlying the clinical phenotypes of allergic and non-allergic asthma among a population-based birth cohort evaluated as young adults. Methods Subjects included 18–21 year-old members (n=540) of a suburban Detroit birth cohort study, the Childhood Allergy Study. PMA-stimulated whole blood IL4, IL5, IL10, IL12, IL13, IL17A, IL17F, IL22 and IFNγ secretory responses were analyzed for associations comparing participants with allergic versus non-allergic asthma phenotypes to those without asthma. Results Th2-polarized responses, measured as higher mean IL5 and IL13 secretion and lower ratios of IFNγ and IL12 to three Th2 cytokines IL4, IL5, or IL13, were observed only in allergic asthmatics. Non-allergic asthma was associated with Th1-polarized responses including higher adjusted IFNγ secretion compared to both allergic asthmatics and surprisingly, to those without asthma [OR=2.5 (1.2–5.1), p<0.01]. Conclusions As expected, young adults with a history of an allergic asthma phenotype exhibit a Th2-polarized cytokine response after polyclonal stimulation. However, Th1-polarization was observed in subjects with a history of non-allergic asthma. Allergic and non-allergic asthma are associated with etiologically distinct immune endotypes underscoring the importance of discriminating these endotypes in research analyses and clinical management. PMID:24801891

  7. The effects of relationship focused intervention on Korean parents and their young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Mee; Mahoney, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of Relationship Focused Intervention (RFI) on a sample of Korean mothers and their preschool-aged children with disabilities. Subjects were 18 mothers of children with developmental problems (ages 3-8 years). Ten of these mothers were assigned to an RFI Treatment group and eight to a No RFI Control group. The RFI was adopted from the Family/Child Curriculum (Mahoney, G. (1999; Family/Child Curriculum: A relationship focused approach to parent education/early intervention. Tallmadge, OH: Family Child Learning Center). This intervention focused on teaching mothers to use responsive interactive strategies through a process of modeling, coaching, role-playing and video feedback. It was implemented with parents during weekly group and individual intervention sessions that were conducted over three months period. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention assessments of parent-child interaction indicated that RFI was effective at encouraging parents to become more responsive, affective and achievement oriented with their children. These changes in mothers' interactional style were associated with an 18% increase in children's interactive behaviors. Regression analyses indicated that increases in children's behavior were associated positively with maternal responsiveness and negatively with maternal achievement orientation. Results from this study are discussed in terms of (a) implementing RFI with Korean mothers and (b) the mechanisms by which RFI promotes children's development. PMID:15590243

  8. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  9. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in young adult- a case report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour, which usually presents as a painless mass in the scrotum or groin. A case of para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma in a 17-year-old male is being reported here who presented with chronic scrotal pain. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare non germ cell tumour of scrotal sac in children and young adult/teens which can invade testis at presentation. Embryonal variant is the most common type. 40% cases can have metastasis to retroperitoneal lymph node. Diagnosis can be done on high degree of clinical suspicion coupled with biopsy and immunohistochemistry. Multimodality approach of treatment is often beneficial for patients. PMID:26023555

  10. "Coming out" stories of gay and lesbian young adults.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Nicole E

    2010-01-01

    Gay and lesbian young adults (N = 53) were interviewed about coming out to their parents. Analyses of memory content were conducted. Hypotheses related to disclosure were largely supported. Participants typically first disclosed their sexual orientation to a friend. More participants came out to their mother than their father. When disclosure was made to both parents, mothers were told prior to fathers. Mothers were often told using direct methods, whereas fathers were typically informed using indirect methods. Mothers tended to inquire about their sons' sexuality; mothers inquired less with daughters. Findings are discussed in relation to autobiographical memory, sexuality, and clinical literatures. PMID:20924929

  11. Meningovascular neurosyphilis: a report of stroke in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Antanas; Krasauskaite, Egle; Urbonaviciūte, Inga

    2010-01-01

    A young adult patient with meningovascular neurosyphilis in the form of acute ischemic stroke with right hemiparesis and speech disturbance is reported. CT scan showed features of ischemic infarct and extensive laboratory studies were made before the diagnosis ultimately was revealed. Such cases could result in confusion for the clinician, and high index of clinical suspicion of this condition is required since syphilis is not routinely tested, as routine screening is seen to be of low diagnostic yield. As clinical practice indicates, it remains a difficult problem approaching diagnosis of neurosyphilis, and this is achieved through exclusion of neurosyphilis as a clinical possibility. PMID:20571297

  12. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  13. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C.; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  14. [Endocrine consequences in young adult survivors of childhood cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. PMID:26776287

  15. Incidental and intentional encoding in young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Alanís, Bernarda; Cansino, Selene

    2004-08-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in young and elderly adults during the performance of an incidental encoding task (subjects were unexpectedly given a recognition test) followed by an intentional task (subjects expected the recognition test). Both tasks consisted of an encoding stage in which subjects classified words (natural/artificial) and a recognition stage in which they indicated whether the words were old (presented during the encoding stage) or new. In both groups and tasks, the ERPs, during encoding, differed as a function of subsequent recognition: the old words correctly recognized generated greater amplitude potentials than the incorrect ones. The memory processes expressed by these ERPs are preserved in elderly adults, independently of whether the information is incidentally or intentionally encoded. PMID:15257155

  16. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  17. Childhood social inequalities influences neural processes in young adult caregiving.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, Shaun S; Evans, Gary W; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E

    2015-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults' neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry versus acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty. PMID:25981334

  18. Excessive Sleep and Lack of Sleep Are Associated With Slips and Falls in the Adult Korean Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impacts of excessive sleep duration on falls. This study investigated the associations between sleep duration and falls among Korean adults in a wide range of age groups while adjusting for numerous confounding factors. Data collected from study participants ranging in age from 19 to 109 years old were analyzed from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). Sleep duration was divided into 5 groups: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9  hours per day. The relations between sleep duration and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, days of vigorous or moderate physical activity, income, education, alcohol use, smoking, stress, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and asthma were controlled for as confounding factors. Associations between sleep duration and falls were analyzed in 19 to 40, 41 to 60, and 61+ year age groups. Furthermore, the relations between sleep duration and indoor versus outdoor falls were analyzed. Both ≤6 and ≥8  hours of sleep per day were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time and ≥2 times per year) in the overall adult population (P < 0.001 in both instances). In a subgroup analysis, sleep durations of ≤5 and ≥9  hours were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time a year) in each age group. Six hours of sleep was not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times per year) in the 61+ year age group, and 8 and 9  hours of sleep were not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times a year) in the 19 to 40 year age group. This study demonstrated that long as well as short sleep durations are associated with an increased incidence of falls. However, these relations were not evident in elderly populations with short sleep durations or in young adults with long

  19. Spousal Support in Diabetes Self-Management among Korean Immigrant Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer J.; Park, Jenny J.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean seniors and their spouses. We conducted two focus groups with diabetic participants and three with their spouses from the greater Los Angeles Korean community asking participants to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group was composed of 4–9 participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and treatment among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean seniors might have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  20. Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Herman, Debra S.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult female. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18–29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of 2 sessions of MI-MM or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). Participants’ marijuana use was assessed at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months post-treatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = −2.42, p=.015), 7.81 (z = −2.78, p=.005), and 6.83 (z = −2.23, p=.026) fewer days at months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136

  1. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving

    PubMed Central

    PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

    2007-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them. PMID:17114089

  2. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed. PMID:26246453

  3. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  4. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of the alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examines demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (18–29) who misuse prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs, more than three quarters reported recent sex without a condom, and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that white race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25569204

  5. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  7. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  8. Perpetuation theory and the racial segregation of young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2016-03-01

    Previous research confirms a strong empirical association between the racial composition of young adults' residential areas and the racial compositions of the residential areas and schools of their youth. Perpetuation theory predicts that part of this association is causal. The present study uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) and the U.S. Censuses of 1990 and 2000 to test for this effect with regression models, propensity-score-weighted models with robustness tests, and regression models that look at long-distance movers. The findings suggest that the association declines rapidly as the distance moved increases, but it remains robust even at long distances. It is also stronger for African Americans and more assimilated Latinos than for whites and less assimilated Latinos. These findings suggests that to some extent, young white, African American, and Latino adults are residentially segregated from each other because they grew up that way. Policies that promote integrating youth residentially and/or desegregating schools may contribute to residential integration over time. PMID:26857168

  9. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  10. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  11. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  12. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  13. Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

    2010-04-01

    Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274

  14. Do young adults demand more dental services as their income increases?

    PubMed

    Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe

    2002-12-01

    Several studies from the USA have shown that there is a positive and strong relationship between income and demand for dental care. All these studies have been performed on populations where treatment needs were high. Today, young adults represent one group of the population where treatment needs are low. But young adults will not necessarily demand or utilize more dental services as their income increases. As we do not know the extent to which demand will increase when income increases among young adults, future needs for dental manpower could be less than predicted from previous studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between income and demand/utilization for dental services among young adults in Norway. The analyses were performed on two large sets of survey data, collected in 1985 and 1995, which were representative of the Norwegian population aged 20 years and above. The main finding was that the increase in demand with an increase in income was less for young adults than for older adults. In particular, there was a marked fall in the income elasticities among young adults from 1985 to 1995. The fall in the income elasticity corresponds to a marked decrease in the prevalence of dental diseases among young adults during that period. Our results imply that future policies for dental manpower should take into account the lower income elasticity for young adults compared to for older adults, and that future needs for dental personnel should be planned accordingly. PMID:12453118

  15. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults. PMID:23774283

  16. Corrective Tibial Osteotomy in Young Adults Using an Intramedullary Nail

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Seung-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed below tibial tuberosity using a percutaneous multiple drill-hole technique. Conventional intramedullary tibial nail was used for fixation without bone graft. Radiographic evaluations were made using mechanical alignment (MA), posterior tibial slope angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Union time, loss of correction, implant failure, and associated complications were also investigated. Results The mean MA was significantly changed from -9.7° preoperatively to 1.1° at the final follow-up (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the proximal tibial anatomy and patellar height. All patients achieved radiographic bony union at an average of 3.1 months without loss of correction. The only complication was knee pain due to nail prominence in 3 patients. Conclusions Radiographic evaluation indicated that PTO using an intramedullary tibial nail leads to significant improvement in radiographic parameters without changes in posterior tibial slope or patellar height. We found that this technique could be a less invasive and effective alternative for correction of the varus knee in young adults. PMID:24944974

  17. Battle on the Gender Homefront: Depictions of the American Civil War in Contemporary Young-Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2007-01-01

    The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…

  18. Perspectives of young adults with cerebral palsy on transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Bastien, Danaë; Bell, Emily; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Racine, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare is a well-established challenge for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders like cerebral palsy. With regard to ethics, some of the key aspects to explore include the following: if and how individuals feel respected during the transition process; if and how their values and preferences are developed and integrated within transition; and if and how young patients are prepared to participate in decision making (to be autonomous) within the transition. We carried out a qualitative study on 14 young adults with cerebral palsy. Some participants reported positive experiences. However, several tension points were identified, including before the transition (eg, transition envisaged with fear and apprehension); during the transition (eg, lack of cooperation or communication between providers in the pediatric and adult healthcare systems); and after the transition (eg, feelings of abandonment). We discuss the clinical influence and ethical significance of better capturing ethical values within the transition process and preparing young individuals to engage in discussions about their health and disease management. PMID:23948690

  19. Relationship between Secondhand Smoking with Depressive Symptom and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Non-Smoker Adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Wook; Shin, Jin-Young; Goo, Ae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that mental health is affected not only by smoking, but also by secondhand smoking. But the most researches have been conducted in North America and/or Europe. We examined whether this relationship remains evident within the South Korean population. Specifically, we investigated the effect of secondhand smoking on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Methods We analyzed data from 6,043 non-smoking adults who participated in the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compared the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in 3,006 participants who were exposed to secondhand smoking in the office or at home with 3,037 non-exposed participants. Results In unadjusted logistic regression analysis, secondhand smoking exposure group had more suicidal ideations than no secondhand smoking exposure (16.1% vs. 12.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.241–1.804), but risk of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between two groups (15.2% vs. 12.2%; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.997–1.460). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Among those exposed to secondhand smoking, the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.866–1.299) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.139–1.802) for suicidal ideation. Overall, secondhand smoking at home was significantly related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Among females, secondhand smoking exposure at home only (not in the office) was related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Conclusion Exposure to secondhand smoking, especially at home, may be associated with an increase in especially in female depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among adults in South Korea. PMID:27073608

  20. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  1. Modernity and Postmodernity Related Issues in Developing Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education in Korean Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    Korean society is in the midst of a conflict between modern and postmodern condition. The concept of modernity is rooted in the Enlightenment, which valued reason and proposed the rational and progressive construction and transformation of society and reality. As a result of a rational differentiation between culture and society, modern phenomena…

  2. Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Abrams, David B.; Vallone, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of young adults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for young adults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence. PMID:22666279

  3. Acoustic characteristics of vowels by normal Malaysian Malay young adults.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.85±18.54 and 238.27±24.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. PMID:21429707

  4. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

  5. Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Joffe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice. The varying types of GCTs, defined by primary site and/or age at presentation, can look very similar microscopically. However, there is growing evidence that they may have different molecular characteristics, different biology and different requirements for curative treatments. Whilst in adult testicular GCTs there is evidence for an environmental cause during fetal development and a genetic component, these causative factors are much less well understood in other GCTs. GCTs are some of the most curable cancers in adults, but some patients exhibit resistance to standard treatments. Because of this, today's clinical research is directed at understanding how to best utilize toxic therapies and promote healthy survivorship. This chapter explores the biology, behavior and treatment of GCTs and discusses how the AYA group of GCTs may hold some of the keys to understanding fundamental unanswered questions of biological variance and curability in GCTs. PMID:27595361

  6. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult ADHD symptoms in Korea: results of the Korean epidemiologic catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Bae, Jae Nam; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Ahn, Joon Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-04-30

    We examined the prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Korean community using data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Psychiatric Disorders in Korea conducted in 2006. A total of 6081 subjects aged 18 to 59 years participated in this study. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener and Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. The frequencies of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders, sleep disturbances, and suicidal tendency were compared in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Odds ratios and significance levels were calculated. The 6 month prevalence of adult ADHD symptoms was 1.1%. Associations between ADHD symptoms and alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, somatoform disorder, sleep disturbances, and suicidality were overwhelmingly positive and significant (P<0.05), after controlling for gender and age. Adult ADHD symptoms are highly associated with substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, sleep disturbances and suicidality, suggesting that clinicians should carefully evaluate and treat such psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:20724004

  7. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling. PMID:25722077

  8. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of udenafil, a novel PDE-5 inhibitor, in healthy young Korean subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Hyung; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Chung, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Sohn, Dong-Ryul; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Shin, Sang-Goo; Paick, Jae-Seung; Jang, In-Jin

    2008-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of udenafil, a novel phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-rising, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose study was conducted in healthy Korean subjects. The subjects were allocated to single-dose groups of 25, 50, 100, 200 or 300 mg (eight subjects in each dose group, including two placebos), or to multiple-dose groups of 100 or 200 mg (once-daily dosing for 7 days; nine subjects in each dose group, including three placebos). Serial samples of blood and urine were collected after oral administration and the drug concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring clinical laboratory parameters and adverse events. RESULTS Udenafil reached peak plasma concentrations at 0.8–1.3 h, and then declined mono-exponentially with a terminal half-life of 7.3–12.1 h in the single-dose study. The area under the time–concentration curves (AUC) and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) increased supraproportionally with increasing dose in the single-dose study. During multiple dosing, a steady state was reached at 5 days and little accumulation occurred after repeated dosing for 7 days. Udenafil was generally well tolerated in these healthy subjects, and no serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS Udenafil was safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers. The AUC and Cmax of udenafil increased supraproportionally with increasing dose upon single administration, but there was no significant drug accumulation upon multiple administrations. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 5 inhibitor is a widely used agent that facilitates penile erection. Udenafil is newly developed as a PDE-5 inhibitor. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS This is the first study to determine the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of udenafil in

  9. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

  10. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  11. Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2010. The self-administered questionnaire which assessed information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, alcohol use, previous dental visit, dental appearance satisfaction, tooth shape, size, arrangement and strength was the tool of data collection. The data was subjected to descriptive, Chi-square and regression statistics using statistical package for the social sciences version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). (P < 0.05) was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 399 undergraduates which are made up of 179 (44.9%) males and 220 (55.1%) females with mean age of 24.66 (4.20) years participated in this study. Self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction was expressed by 79.4% (317/399) of the participants. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction were skin color (P = 0.03, odds ratio [OR] =2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-6.09) and perceived tooth strength (P = 0.02, OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 1.40-24.28) among males and alcohol consumption (P = 0.04, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95] and perceived size of tooth (P = 0.02, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.15-4.89) among females. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among the participants were ethnicity (P = 0.04, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), skin color (P = 0.04, OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.93), perceived tooth size (P = 0.03, OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.07-3.09) and strength (P = 0.01, OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.58-7.41). Conclusion: Ethnicity, tooth arrangement

  12. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  13. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea. PMID:26459613

  14. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  15. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  16. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  17. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18–30 years. Methods A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch population aged 18–30 years, stratified by age, sex, marital status and education, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA online. Internal consistency of the PedsQL_YA scales was determined with Cronbach’s alphas. Norm scores were obtained by calculating the mean PedsQL scale scores by gender, age and health status. Differences in scale scores were analyzed for gender, age and health status (construct validity) using two-sample t-tests and effect sizes were calculated. Construct validity was determined by testing differences in PedsQL scores between healthy young adults and young adults with chronic health conditions. Results All scales of the PedsQL_YA showed satisfactory to excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alphas between .77 and .94. Men reported higher scores (indicating better HRQOL) than women on all scales (p < .01), except for school/work functioning. No age differences were found. Young adults with chronic health conditions scored lower on all scales (p < .001) than healthy young adults, indicating good construct validity. Effect sizes varied from medium to large. Conclusions The Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA has adequate psychometric properties. With the availability of reliable norm data, the PedsQL_YA can be used as a tool in the evaluation of health related quality of life in healthy young adults and those with a chronic health condition. PMID:24438218

  18. Predictors of the Severity and Serious Outcomes of Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Hur, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heon; Choi, Gil-Soon; Lee, Soo-Keol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differences in definitions of the condition, relevant triggers, and the geographical locations of study centers, cause estimates of the prevalence of anaphylaxis to vary. Recent epidemiological data indicate that the incidence of anaphylaxis is rising. Methods To investigate the causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis in Korean adults, factors associated with the severity of the condition, and serious outcomes, a retrospective medical record review was performed on adult patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2007 and 2011 in 15 University Hospitals of South Korea. Results A total of 1,806 cases (52% male, age 16-86 years) were reported. Cutaneous symptoms (84.0%), combined with respiratory (53.9%) and/or cardiovascular (55.4%) symptoms, were the most frequent presentations. Using a recognized grading system, 1,776 cases could be classified as either mild, 340; moderate, 690; or severe, 746. Although eliciting factors varied significantly by age, gender, and regional and seasonal factors, drugs (46.5%; including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and radiocontrast media) were the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by foods (24.2%), insect stings (16.4%), exercise (5.9%), and unknown etiology (7.0%). All of age, multi-organ involvement, a history of allergic disease, and drug-induced anaphylaxis, were significant predictors of serious outcomes requiring hospital admission or prolongation of hospital stay. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed for 7.4% of reported cases. Conclusions The principal causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adults were drugs, food, and insect stings. Drug-associated anaphylaxis, a history of allergic disease, multi-organ involvement, and older age, were identified as predictors of serious outcomes. PMID:25553259

  19. Aging faces and aging perceivers: young and older adults are less sensitive to deviations from normality in older than in young adult faces.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Past studies examining the other-age effect, the phenomenon in which own-age faces are recognized more accurately than other-age faces, are limited in number and report inconsistent results. Here we examine whether the perceptual system is preferentially tuned to differences among young adult faces. In experiment 1 young (18-25 years) and older adult (63-87 years) participants were shown young and older face pairs in which one member of each pair was undistorted and the other had compressed or expanded features. Participants indicated which member of each pair was more normal and which was more expanded. Both age groups were more accurate when tested with young compared with older faces-but only when judging normality. In experiment 2 we tested a separate group of young adults on the same two tasks but with upright and inverted face pairs to examine the differential pattern of results between the normality and discrimination tasks. Inversion impaired performance on the normality task but not the discrimination task and eliminated the young adult advantage in the normality task. Collectively, these results suggest that the face processing system is optimized for young adult faces and that abundant experience with older faces later in life does not reverse this perceptual tuning. PMID:24303745

  20. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

  1. Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Charaniya, Riyaz; Ahuja, Arvind; Mittal, Sakshi; Sahoo, Ratnakar

    2016-01-01

    Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis (BRIC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of cholestatic jaundice. The initial episode of jaundice generally occurs before second decade of life and can persist for several weeks to months before resolving spontaneously. It is a benign disease and even after repeated episodes of jaundice, fibrosis of liver cell does not occur. We had a young adult patient who was having recurrent episodes of cholestatic jaundice with intervening symptom free period for last 20 years. He had first episode of jaundice at the age of eight and since then had several similar episodes. Diagnosis was made by classical clinical presentation and histopathological findings. We intend to report this case due to rarity of this disease in India. PMID:27504332

  2. Dissociative fugue: Recurrent episodes in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Upadhyaya, Sunnetkumar; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one's customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one's past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1½ year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family. PMID:26257491

  3. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders.

    PubMed

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether NPAP was effective in decreasing cognitive distortions and criminal thinking patterns and increasing prosocial skills of the juveniles compared with TAU. No direct intervention effects were found on any of the outcome measures. Moderator analyses, however, showed several interaction effects of ethnicity and coping skills for both NPAP and TAU youths. Furthermore, NPAP dropouts displayed significantly more indirect aggression at posttest compared with youths dropping out from TAU. Possible explanations for the mostly null effects are discussed, including implications for further research, policy, and practice. PMID:25829455

  4. Topical spironolactone reduces sebum secretion rates in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, A; Ito, M

    1996-04-01

    The effects of topically applied spironolactone on the sebum secretion rates (SSR) of young adults were investigated. SSR was expressed as the ratio of wax esters/[cholesterol+cholesterol esters] (WE/[C+CE]) and the amount of sebaceous lipids (squalene, triacylglycerol and wax esters). Topical spironolactone 5% gel applied to the right cheeks of the subjects produced a significant reduction in the SSR at 12 weeks (4 weeks after termination of application), but not at 8 weeks (the end of treatment). Untreated "control" areas (the left cheeks of the subjects) showed no significant change during the study. None of the subjects experienced skin rash or signs of local irritation. This results suggests that topical spironolactone may be effective in the treatment of acne patients with high SSR. PMID:8935338

  5. Dissociative fugue: Recurrent episodes in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Upadhyaya, Sunnetkumar; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one's customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one's past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1½ year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family. PMID:26257491

  6. Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires.

  7. Orphanhood and fertility in young adults: Evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bozzoli, Carlos G

    2016-09-01

    I study the relation between orphanhood and fertility patterns in young adults using a longitudinal survey from the city of Cape Town, South Africa. The data set combines two survey waves with a year-by-year life history calendar that records key outcomes (e.g., schooling, work, fertility). It also provides information on so-called 'parental investments' (time and material support), family background, and literacy and numeracy test scores. I find that orphans exhibit significantly higher rates of teenage pregnancy. In particular, teenage motherhood is 19% points more likely among (female) orphans. These results suggest that orphanhood may leave a long-lasting 'imprint' in terms of premature fertility, especially in teenage females. PMID:27239730

  8. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings’ quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants’ quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants’ alcohol use patterns. PMID:26339202

  9. The Migraine-Ischemic Stroke Relation in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by specific risk factors such as patent foramen ovale or endothelial dysfunction and more frequent in particular conditions like spontaneous cervical artery dissection; (2) migraine is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; (3) the link is caused by migraine-specific drugs; (4) migraine and ischemic vascular events are linked via a genetic component. In the present paper, we will review epidemiological studies, discuss potential mechanisms of migraine-induced stroke and comorbid ischemic stroke, and pose new research questions. PMID:21197470

  10. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  11. Peer influence on event reports among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

    2011-08-01

    When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594

  12. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  13. On the Question of Integrating Young Adult Literature into the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Uses the author's own novels and those of Chris Crutcher to explore the harm that is sometimes done to literature labeled Young Adult. Explores a disturbing trend in the publishing, packaging, and attitudes toward such novels: packaging and cover art which panders, and the refusal to hold young adult literature to high standards. (SR)

  14. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  15. Factors Related to Smoking in College and Not in College Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koval, John; Pederson, Linda; Zhang, Xiaohe

    2006-01-01

    This study sought variables associated with current smoking for young adult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 young adults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…

  16. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  17. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

  18. The Experience of Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, David; Germano, Carmela; Johanson, Graeme; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is known to be common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the nature of their experiences or the strategies they use to live and cope with their reported anxiety. In this qualitative study, we began to address this issue through two focus groups involving 11 young adults with ASD, and 10…

  19. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  20. Expanding Services to Young Disadvantaged Adults. Public Library Training Institutes Library Service Guide No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Barbara

    After descriptions of some problems encountered by disadvantaged youths and some general services libraries can provide, specific guidelines for library services to young disadvantaged adults are given. These include services both inside and outside the library: the selection of staff to work with the young adults, cooperation between the library…