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Sample records for kostyrko tibor alt

  1. Founder of systems chemistry and foundational theoretical biologist: Tibor Gánti (1933-2009).

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    With his chemoton theory theoretical biologist and chemical engineer Tibor Gánti was one of the most outstanding intellects behind systems chemistry and the at the foundations of theoretical biology. A brief review of his oeuvre is presented. This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to his memory. PMID:25957522

  2. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  3. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nausea, vomiting Abdominal swelling and/or pain Jaundice Dark urine, light-colored stool Itching ( pruritus ) ALT may ... sponsored by ... Learn more about ... Understanding Your Tests Inside the Lab In the News Article Index About ...

  4. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  5. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M; Tabaka, Leonard J

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  6. ALT telomeres get together with nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Eric; Lingner, Joachim

    2015-02-26

    Nuclear receptors bind chromosome ends in "alternative lengthening of telomeres" (ALT) cancer cells that maintain their ends by homologous recombination instead of telomerase. Marzec et al. now demonstrate that, in ALT cells, nuclear receptors not only trigger distal chromatin associations to mediate telomere-telomere recombination events, but also drive chromosome-internal targeted telomere insertions (TTI). PMID:25723159

  7. An innovative alt-alt telescope for small observatories and amateur astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Conconi, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghigo, M.; Landoni, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spanó, P.; Tomelleri, R.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper want to show an innovative amateur oriented telescope with an unconventional alt-alt conguration. The goal is to make a telescope with good optical quality reducing production costs by adopting a gimbal based mounting to develop an alt-alt conguration suitable for a telescope. Reduce costs while preserving the optical quality is a necessary condition to allow small groups of amateur astronomers, schools and cultural clubs, with reduced economic resources, to acquire an astronomical instrument that encourages learning and advancing astrophysical knowledge. This unconventional mechanism for the realization of a telescope alt-alt provides signicant advantages. The traditional rotary motors coupled with expensive precision bearings are replaced with two simple linear actuators coupled to a properly preloaded gimbal joint and the cell becomes the primary structure of the telescope. A second advantage would be secured by mechanical simplicity evident in the easy portability of the instrument. The frame alt-alt has some limitations on the horizon pointing but does not show the zenith blind spot of the alt-az mount. A dedicated alt-alt pointing and tracking model is under development to be compatible with commercial telescope softwares and with the proposed new mounting.

  8. The ALTE mysteries: who's to blame?

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. A recent paper on apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in newborn babies brought to mind an experience from practice, the cause of which remains a mystery. As many similar events are unexplained, is it acceptable that there is a tendency in the literature to claim that skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are risk factors for ALTEs? PMID:27008761

  9. ALT-3 target design and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-12

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

  10. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  11. SMARCAL1 Resolves Replication Stress at ALT Telomeres.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kelli E; Maréchal, Alexandre; Flynn, Rachel Litman

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cells overcome replicative senescence by exploiting mechanisms of telomere elongation, a process often accomplished by reactivation of the enzyme telomerase. However, a subset of cancer cells lack telomerase activity and rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway, a recombination-based mechanism of telomere elongation. Although the mechanisms regulating ALT are not fully defined, chronic replication stress at telomeres might prime these fragile regions for recombination. Here, we demonstrate that the replication stress response protein SMARCAL1 is a critical regulator of ALT activity. SMARCAL1 associates with ALT telomeres to resolve replication stress and ensure telomere stability. In the absence of SMARCAL1, persistently stalled replication forks at ALT telomeres deteriorate into DNA double-strand breaks promoting the formation of chromosome fusions. Our studies not only define a role for SMARCAL1 in ALT telomere maintenance, but also demonstrate that resolution of replication stress is a crucial step in the ALT mechanism. PMID:26832416

  12. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Wolf, G.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Hsu, W.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs.

  13. Effects of BRCA2 deficiency on telomere recombination in non-ALT and ALT cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that BRCA2 affects telomere maintenance. Interestingly, anti cancer treatments that involve BRCA2 and telomerase individually are currently being explored. In the light of the above recent studies their combinatorial targeting may be justified in the development of future treatments. In order to investigate effects of BRCA2 that can be explored for this combinatorial targeting we focused on the analysis of recombination rates at telomeres by monitoring T-SCEs (Telomere Sister Chromatid Exchanges). Results We observed a significant increase in T-SCE frequencies in four BRCA2 defective human cell lines thus suggesting that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. To test this hypothesis further we analyzed T-SCE frequencies in a set of Chinese hamster cell lines with or without functional BRCA2. Our results indicate that introduction of functional BRCA2 normalizes frequencies of T-SCEs thus supporting the notion that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. Given that ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) positive cells maintain telomeres by recombination we investigated the effect of BRCA2 depletion in these cells. Our results show that this depletion causes a dramatic reduction in T-SCE frequencies in ALT positive cells, but not in non-ALT cells. Conclusion BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres in cells that maintain them by conventional mechanisms. Furthermore, BRCA2 depletion in ALT positive cells reduces high levels of T-SCEs normally found in these cells. Our results could be potentially important for refining telomerase-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22152194

  14. Simultaneous Extended ALT Flaps for Foot Salvage After Severe Frostbite.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Marius; Bota, Olimpiu; Fodor, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Plantar area reconstruction represents the most challenging part of the lower limb. The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap proved to be a versatile flap for this special area. Herein, we present the application of bilateral ALT free flaps for foot salvage after frostbite injury and long-term follow-up. Single perforator bilateral ALT flaps (304 and 320 cm) were harvested and anastomosed to posterior tibial vessels. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was anastomosed to the calcaneal branches of the posterior tibial nerve. The two-point discrimination test showed values from 16 to 28 mm in different flap areas 5 years later. The patient is able to walk with crutches. This is the first case report of bilateral ALT for foot salvage. PMID:26284647

  15. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  16. Interchromosomal Homology Searches Drive Directional ALT Telomere Movement and Synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam Woo; Dilley, Robert L.; Lampson, Michael A.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Telomere length maintenance is a requisite feature of cellular immortalization and a hallmark of human cancer. While most human cancers express telomerase activity, approximately 10-15% employ a recombination-dependent telomere maintenance pathway known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) that is characterized by multi-telomere clusters and associated promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. Here, we show that a DNA double-strand break (DSB) response at ALT telomeres triggers long-range movement and clustering between chromosome termini, resulting in homology-directed telomere synthesis. Damaged telomeres initiate increased random surveillance of nuclear space before displaying rapid directional movement and association with recipient telomeres over micron-range distances. This phenomenon required Rad51 and the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer, which are essential for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. These findings implicate a specialized homology searching mechanism in ALT dependent telomere maintenance and provide a molecular basis underlying the preference for recombination between non- sister telomeres during ALT. PMID:25259924

  17. ALTE Handbook of European Language Examinations and Examination Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Language Testers in Europe, Cambridge (England).

    The handbook describes language examinations offered and examination systems administered by members of the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE). An introductory section describes the rationale behind the founding of the organization, lists its 22 current members, and states its aims and objectives. Subsequent sections detail the…

  18. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL

  19. Quick look analysis of an emergency separation for ALT captive-inert flight 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.; Seale, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Emergency separation capability for the landing configuration of ALT Captive Inert Flight Number One was investigated. The quick look analysis confirms emergency separation capability under nominal conditions for the ALT landing configuration. The recommended emergency separation procedure under those conditions is not applicable to all ALT configurations.

  20. Initial ALT-I pump limiter studies on TEXOR

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.; Watson, R.D.; Gauster, W.B.; Campbell, G.A.; Goebel, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    The ALT-I pump limiter has been used to control the fueling and recycling characteristics of TEXTOR during stable, reproducible tokamak discharges. The module has been operated in three modes: (1) Normal Limiter, with no particle collection, (2) Particle Scoop, with a maximum approx. 2 x 10/sup -3/ torr pressure rise in the 700 liter unpumped collection chamber, and (3) Pump Limiter, with up to approx. 10,000 1/s pumping speed and particle removal rates of up to 6 x 10/sup 20//s. In a comparison of operation in modes (1) and (3) using identical gas fueling programs, the total core electron number decreased by as much as 50%. The effective TEXTOR particle confinement time, tau/sub p/* = tau/sub p//(1-R), was decreased by a similar ratio. Within the throat region, during typical operation, electron densities and temperatures were 6 x 10/sup 11/ to 2 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 3/ and 15 to 30 eV. These conditions are representative of an operating regime in which there is high reionization of neutrals, but no change in incoming plasma parameters in the throat region. Energetic particles near the deflector plate were observed. During a gradual insertion of TiC-coated ALT-I beyond the stainless steel TEXTOR main limiters, the density of Ti in the plasma increased to a level similar to those of Cr and Fe. The gas injection fueling efficiency while puffing hydrogen directly into the plasma at the pump limiter tangency point was measured to be > 0.9. These results are discussed in conjunction with measurements of particle flows within ALT-I and other plasma diagnostics to characterize pump limiter operation on TEXTOR.

  1. DSLR Double Star Astrometry Using an Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Haworth, David

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the double star's angular separation and position angle measurements could be successfully measured with a motor driven, alt-azimuth Dobsonian-mounted Newtonian telescope (without a field rotator), and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. Additionally, the project was constrained by using as much existing equipment as much as possible, including an Apple MacBook Pro laptop and a Canon T2i camera. This project was additionally challenging because the first author had no experience with astrophotography.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin; Shen, He Ding

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Vaginulus alte and Homoiodoris japonica are described first in the article. The mitogenomes (14 772 bp and 14 601 bp) contain 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes, and one putative control region (CR). CR is not well characterized due to the lack of discrete conserved sequence blocks. This characteristic is similar with CRs of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes, which is the typical bivalvia mitochondrial gene composition. PMID:26244691

  3. Two crews for the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two crews for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are, left to right, Astronauts C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot of the first crew; Fred W. Haise Jr., commander of the first crew; Joe H. Engle, commander of the second crew; and Richard H. Truly, pilot of the second crew. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  4. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  5. An 18-Inch Direct Drive Alt-Az Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Rowe, Dave; Gray, Dan; Albertson, Billy; Chiu, Wilson; Kirkup, Michelle; Murphy, Drew; Ridgely, John; Schmitt, Josh; Swanson, Matt; Urban, Rob; Liu, Tong; Branch, Howard; Chelborad, Cary; Keller, Allan

    2008-05-01

    A modest aperture alt-az telescope has been designed and is being built for student use at California Polytechnic State University. The telescope's drive system has no gears, belts, or friction wheels; instead direct drive motors and high resolution encoders are completely integrated into the bearing assemblies and telescope superstructure. In altitude, for instance, a ring of permanent magnets is firmly mounted to the OTA while an opposing ring of coils is mounted on the inside of a fork arm. The electronic control system has been designed to operate these brushless motors in a high- precision mode. To achieve the highest possible closed loop servo bandwidth, the structure was designed -- using finite element analysis as well as traditional tools -- to have a very high natural frequency. The direct drive system and stiff structure should effectively counter wind gusts when the telescope is operated out in the open or within a roll-off roof observatory.

  6. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  7. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  8. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  9. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  10. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  11. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  12. Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-10-01

    The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

  13. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II.

  14. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85-90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  15. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  16. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  17. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85–90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  18. Liver Injury Assessment by Vetscan VS2 Analyzer and Most Frequently Used ALT/GTP Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Avila, Diana; Frimodig, Jane C.; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J; Gobejishvili, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Liver injury is estimated by serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) levels in experimental animal models. Laboratories use various techniques to measure ALT levels including assay reagents and chemistry analyzers. VetScan VS2 (VS2) is widely used in veterinary clinics and research laboratories for highly reproducible, convenient and effective testing. Alternatively, ALT liquid reagent is used by laboratories to estimate liver injury in animal studies. The aim of this study was to perform comparative analyses of data obtained from these two assays in two different animal models. Methods In this study, we used two different mouse models and compared the ALT levels measured using VetScan VS2 chemistry analyzer and ALT liquid reagent. Immunohistochemical analysis of hepatic tissue was also performed to document liver pathology. The first model is a high fat diet feeding model that results in a mild hepatic steatosis (fat accumulation in the liver) without elevation of ALT levels. For a severe liver injury model, we employed a hepatotoxin-induced liver injury model (carbon tetrachloride, CCl4), which leads to the development of hepatic fibrosis and very high ALT levels. Results VetScan VS2 and ALT reagent gave different values of ALT for all animal groups. However, linear regression analysis showed a significantly high association between ALT levels obtained by VS2 and ALT liquid reagent in a high-fat feeding model with no liver injury. For the CCl4 induced liver injury model, serum dilution (5 and 10 times) was performed to obtain accurate results with ALT reagent. ALT levels acquired from both techniques showed a close association. Interestingly, this correlation was closer when serum was diluted 5 fold. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both methods give similar results when evaluating liver injury in animal studies. However, the serum dilution factor is critical for severe liver injury assessment when using ALT reagent and requires some

  19. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  20. Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Unexplained Elevation in ALT Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Naga

    2013-01-01

    Background Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with metabolic syndrome. Participants in NHANES III with unexplained elevation in ALT levels have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that the serum concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with unexplained elevation in ALT. Methods A total of 6,826 fasting subjects underwent morning physical examination and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From these participants, we have constructed cases with unexplained elevation in ALT (n = 308) and compared their serum vitamin D concentrations to matched controls with normal ALT (N = 979). We examined the prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT level across different quartiles of vitamin D levels. Results Participants with unexplained elevation in ALT had significantly lower serum vitamin D levels compared to controls (61.8 ± 26.0 nmol/l vs. 66.8 ± 27.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01). The unadjusted prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT in patients with highest to lowest quartiles of serum vitamin D levels were 21.4, 21.4, 25.6, and 31.5%, respectively. Compared to lowest quartile, patients with top two quartiles of serum vitamin D levels had significantly lower prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT (OR, 95% CI for highest quartile 0.62 [0.43–0.89] and for third quartile 0.61 [0.42–0.86]). This relationship persisted even after controlling for metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and serum triglycerides. Conclusions This study suggests a significant inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and unexplained elevation in ALT. Further studies are needed to confirm this observation and to understand the basis for and implications of this observation. PMID:21503677

  1. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. PMID:26511282

  2. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  3. Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals. PMID:23137391

  4. Increased AST/ALT ratio in azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, W; Gójska-Zygner, O; Norbury, L J; Wedrychowicz, H

    2012-01-01

    The AST/ALT ratio was estimated in 182 dogs infected with Babesia canis. Among these dogs 65 had anaemia and 68 were azotaemic. Student's t test was used to compare means of the AST/ALT ratio in anaemic and non-anaemic dogs, and in azotaemic and non-azotaemic dogs (p < 0.05). The differences in AST/ALT ratio between anaemic (1.52 +/- 1.15) and non-anaemic (1.76 +/- 1.34) dogs were statistically insignificant (p = 0.23), however, the comparison of AST/ALT ratio between azotaemic (2.68 +/- 1.52) and non-azotaemic (1.08 +/- 0.53) dogs revealed a significantly higher value of this index in azotaemic dogs (p = 0.00). The present results suggest that kidney injury contributed to increased AST activity in these dogs. PMID:23214368

  5. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  6. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  7. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. PMID:26395961

  8. The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lubke, Gitta H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-07-01

    High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were assessed in a large sample of twins, their siblings, parents and spouses (N = 8,371; age range 18-90). For GGT and ALT, but not for AST, genetic structural equation modeling showed evidence for quantitative sex differences in the genetic architecture. There was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, i.e. the same genes were expressed in males and females. Both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important for GGT in females (total heritability h(2) 60 %) and AST in both sexes (total h(2) 43 %). The heritability of GGT in males and ALT for both sexes was due to additive effects only (GGT males 30 %; ALT males 40 %, females 22 %). Evidence emerged for shared environmental factors influencing GGT in the male offspring generation (variance explained 28 %). Thus, the same genes influence liver enzyme levels across sex and age, but their relative contribution to the variation in GGT and ALT differs in males and females and for GGT across age. Given adequate sample sizes these results suggest that genome-wide association studies may result in the detection of new susceptibility loci for liver enzyme levels when pooling results over sex and age. PMID:23580007

  9. A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT).

    PubMed

    Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Françoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Boussin, François D

    2015-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2Rγ (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

  10. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  11. ALT in the polarized Drell-Yan process at RHIC and HERA energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Y.; Koike, Yuji; Nishiyama, N.

    1998-06-01

    We present a leading order (LO) estimate for the longitudinal-transverse spin asymmetry (ALT) in the nucleon-nucleon polarized Drell-Yan process at RHIC and HERA-N energies in comparison with ALL and ATT. ALT receives contribution from g1, the transversity distribution h1, and the twist-3 distributions gT and hL. For the twist-3 contribution we use the bag model prediction evolved to a high energy scale by the large-Nc evolution equation. We found that ALT (normalized by the asymmetry in the parton level) is much smaller than the corresponding ATT. Twist-3 contribution given by the bag model also turned out to be negligible.

  12. National blood requirement, serum ALT and hepatitis in Ethiopian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Zawde, D; Sisay, Y

    1991-10-01

    To appraise the national blood requirement and supply, and to determine the impact of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening on the blood supply, 407 random blood donor sera were tested for HBsAg, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and ALT activity. HBsAg and anti-HIV antibody were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Hepanostica and Welcozyme kits, respectively. The Western Blot test was performed to confirm anti-HIV positive sera by the ELISA technique. ALT was determined by an automated photometer using ALAT kits and serologic testing for syphilis was done by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The amount of blood required in Ethiopia and the actual supply was calculated on the basis of the number and type of hospital beds in Addis Abeba and the amount of blood transfusions in units per hospital bed. The results showed that the combined donor and unit rejection rate was 34.6%. The annual blood requirement was 7 units for emergency and 4 units for nonemergency beds. The national blood requirement in 1989 was 64,350-80,000 units, but the supply met only a third of the requirement. The mean and 2SD cut off ALT levels were 28 and 69 IU/L, respectively. ALT was elevated in 9.1% of HBsAg positive but apparently healthy donors, while HBsAg screening eliminated 25% of those with elevated ALT activity. This data suggests that there is a serious blood shortage in Ethiopia and that the currently supplied blood is relatively unsafe in terms of hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1659534

  13. Langmuir probe measurements in the TEXTOR tokamak during ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Campbell, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.

    1986-04-01

    Langmuir probes have been used to characterize the edge plasma of the TEXTOR tokamak and measure the parameters of the plasma incident on the ALT-I pump limiter during ohmic and ICRH heating. Probes mounted directly on the ALT limiter, and a scanning probe located 90/sup 0/ toroidally from the limiter, provide data for the evaluation of pump limiter performance and its effect on the edge plasma. The edge plasma is characterized by density and flux e-folding lengths of about 1.8cm when ALT is the main limiter. These scrape-off lengths do not vary significantly as ALT is moved between the normal 42-46cm minor radii, but increase to over 2.2cm when ALT is inserted to 40cm. The flux to probes at a fixed position in the limiter shadow varies by less than 25% for core density changes of a factor of five. This suggests that the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/, scales as the core density. Estimates from the probes indicate that tau/sub p/ is on the order of the energy confinement time, tau/sub E/. The edge electron temperature, T/sub e/, typically decreases by a factor of two when the core density is raised from 1 to 4 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. The T/sub e/ profile is essentially flat in the limiter shadow, with values of 10-25 eV depending on the core plasma density and ICRH power. ICRH heating increases the electron temperature and flux in proportion to the coupled power. With ALT as the primary limiter and no direct shadowing, the ion side receives 2 to 3 times the flux of the electron side during both ohmic and ICRH heating. The edge plasma is not directly modified by pump limiter operation, but changes with the core plasma density as particle removal lowers the recycling of neutrals in the boundary.

  14. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  15. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  16. The Basis of Aluminum Tolerance Encoded by the Alt3 Locus of Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to cope with drought and nutrient stresses by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al tolerant. At the Alt3 Al tolerance locus on rye ...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  2. Keeping It in the Family: ATRX Loss Promotes Persistent Sister Telomere Cohesion in ALT Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Roake, Caitlin M; Artandi, Steven E

    2015-09-14

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Ramamoorthy and Smith report that cancer cells that maintain their chromosome ends through alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) display persistent sister telomere cohesion. This delayed resolution of sister telomere cohesion depends upon the loss of ATRX and its histone-sequestering function and is associated with increased recombination between sister telomeres. PMID:26373274

  3. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K.; Lue, Neal F.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and “trapped” the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  4. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2015-10-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure. PMID:26492073

  5. Determination of mask induced polarization effects on AltPSM mask structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollein, Ingo; Teuber, Silvio; Bubke, Karsten

    2005-06-01

    In the process of discussion of possible mask-types for the 5x nm node (half-pitch) and below, the alternating phase-shifting mask (AltPSM) is a potential candidate to be screened. The current scenario suggests using 193 nm immersion lithography with NA values of up to 1.2 and above. New optical effects from oblique incident angles, mask-induced polarization of the transmitted light and birefringence from the substrate need to be taken into account when the optical performance of a mask is evaluated. This paper addresses mask induced polarization effects from dense lines-and-space structures on a real mask. Measurements of the polarization dependent diffraction efficiencies have been performed on AltPSM masks. Experimental results show good agreement with simulations. A comparison with Binary Masks is made.

  6. Loss of ATRX Suppresses Resolution of Telomere Cohesion to Control Recombination in ALT Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Smith, Susan

    2015-09-14

    The chromatin-remodeler ATRX is frequently lost in cancer cells that use ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) for telomere maintenance, but its function in telomere recombination is unknown. Here we show that loss of ATRX suppresses the timely resolution of sister telomere cohesion that normally occurs prior to mitosis. In the absence of ATRX, the histone variant macroH2A1.1 binds to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase tankyrase 1, preventing it from localizing to telomeres and resolving cohesion. The resulting persistent telomere cohesion promotes recombination between sister telomeres, while it suppresses inappropriate recombination between non-sisters. Forced resolution of sister telomere cohesion induces excessive recombination between non-homologs, genomic instability, and impaired cell growth, indicating the ATRX-macroH2A1.1-tankyrase axis as a potential therapeutic target in ALT tumors. PMID:26373281

  7. Two members of the first crew of the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The two members of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. They are Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr. (left), commander; and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  8. Antioxidant and antifatigue activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata rhizomes in rats.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-11-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  9. Detection of TTV in peripheral blood cells from patients with altered ALT and AST levels.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jaqueline Carvalho; Nasser, Thiago Franco; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Carneiro, Juliana Laino do Val; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2008-04-01

    This work analyzes the prevalence of TTV DNA in peripheral blood cells from patients with hepatic alterations and healthy blood donors and measures levels of sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, phosphatase alkaline, total and direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in certain randomly selected patients. DNA samples from 111 individuals were evaluated. They were divided into two groups, "A" (study) and "B" (control), including 54 patients with liver enzyme alterations (ALT/AST) presenting non-B-non-C hepatitis and 57 blood donors, respectively. TTV DNA was determined by nested PCR. Certain products of the second-round PCR were sequenced. Serum biochemical assay was performed and disclosed TTV in 31.48% (17/54) of patients in group A and 5.26% (3/57) in the control group B. TTV prevalence was significantly higher in patients with liver disease than in healthy donors. In group A, sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, phosphatase alkaline, total and direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were analyzed in certain randomly selected patients and no significant difference in biochemical levels (p>0.05) was found when TTV infected and noninfected individuals were compared. Knowledge related to TTV has rapidly increased, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This led us to question the role of TTV and doubt remains as to whether or not it is just a commensal virus. Further studies are necessary to confirm and extend these findings. PMID:18623984

  10. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Jon-Kway; Wang, Hui-Yun; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. PMID:25421533

  11. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  12. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p↑ p → → h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑ p → → h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑ p → h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  13. Spermine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) polyspermine as a safe and efficient aerosol gene carrier for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2014-07-01

    The clinical success of gene therapy critically depends upon the safety and efficiency of delivery system used. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) has been commonly used as an efficient cationic polymeric gene carrier due to its high transfection efficiency, its cytotoxicity and nondegradability limit the polymer's therapeutic applications in clinical trials. In this study, biocompatible polyspermine based on spermine (SPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate (SPE-alt-PEG) was synthesized using a Michael-type addition reaction, and its ability as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy was evaluated. SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine was complexed with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes were characterized by particle size and surface charge by dynamic light scattering, complex formation and DNA protection ability by gel retardation, and complex shape by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The SPE-alt-PEG copolymer showed low cytotoxicity, and SPE-alt-PEG/DNA complexes showed efficacious transfection efficiency compared with 25 kDa PEI (PEI 25K). Also SPE-alt-PEG/GFP complexes were efficiently transferred into the lungs after aerosol administration without toxicity, and delivery of Pdcd4 gene as a therapeutic gene with SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine greatly reduced tumor size as well as tumor numbers in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice compared relative to the effect observed for PEI 25K. These results suggest that SPE-alt-PEG has potential as a gene carrier for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:23929634

  14. Functional analysis of a highly conserved abundant larval transcript-2 (alt-2) intron 2 repeat region of lymphatic filarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-06-01

    The filarial-specific protein abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) is expressed exclusively in the infective larval stage (L3) and is a crucial protein for establishing immunopathogenesis in human hosts. The alt-2 gene has a conserved minisatellite repeat (29 or 27bp) in intron 2 (IR2) whose significance within lymphatic filarial species is unknown. Here, we report the role of IR2 in the regulation of alt-2 gene expression using an in vitro model. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified the presence of a putative nuclear protein binding region within IR2. Subsequent transient expression experiments in eukaryotic cell lines demonstrated that the IR2 downregulated the expression of a downstream luciferase reporter gene, which was further validated with RT-PCR. We therefore identify IR2 as a suppressor element that regulates L3 stage-specific expression of alt-2. PMID:24681262

  15. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046–0.0143, P<0.001). Conclusions The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  16. Thermal load distribution near the tips of the ALT-II limiter roof on TEXTOR-94

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, T.; Finken, K. H.; Mank, G.; Noda, N.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of these investigations is the description of the power flux on roof-like limiters near the LCFS. Here, the specific subject is the toroidal pump limiter ALT-II of TEXTOR-94. Similar to other plasma facing objects, the surface of ALT-II is shaped to enhance the plasma wetted area; this is achieved by reducing the angle of incidence of the magnetic field to less than 1° for the first 10 mm of the SOL. This small angle of incidence enhances all effects of toroidal non-uniformity as given, for example, by magnetic field ripple. Extensive modelling explains well the observed heating pattern on the limiter surface due to the ripple effect. In contrast to the expectations from density and temperature distributions in the SOL and at the edge of the confined region, an excessive power density is deposited on the first few millimetres near the tip of the limiter roof. Physical effects which could cause this phenomenon are discussed.

  17. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Münch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09 mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711. PMID:21612515

  18. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  19. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  20. Cdk-dependent phosphorylation regulates TRF1 recruitment to PML bodies and promotes C-circle production in ALT cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Florence R; Ho, Angus; Walker, John R; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2016-07-01

    TRF1, a duplex telomeric DNA binding protein, is implicated in homologous-recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres, known as ALT. However, how TRF1 promotes ALT activity has yet to be fully characterized. Here we report that Cdk-dependent TRF1 phosphorylation on T371 acts as a switch to create a pool of TRF1, referred to as (pT371)TRF1, which is recruited to ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) in S and G2 phases independently of its binding to telomeric DNA. We find that phosphorylation of T371 is essential for APB formation and C-circle production, both of which are hallmarks of ALT. We show that the interaction of (pT371)TRF1 with APBs is dependent upon ATM and homologous-recombination-promoting factors Mre11 and BRCA1. In addition, (pT371)TRF1 interaction with APBs is sensitive to transcription inhibition, which also reduces DNA damage at telomeres. Furthermore, overexpression of RNaseH1 impairs (pT371)TRF1 recruitment to APBs in the presence of campothecin, an inhibitor that prevents topoisomerase I from resolving RNA-DNA hybrids. These results suggest that transcription-associated DNA damage, perhaps arising from processing RNA-DNA hybrids at telomeres, triggers (pT371)TRF1 recruitment to APBs to facilitate ALT activity. PMID:27185864

  1. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concr

  2. Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for ALT in hadron production from pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yuji; Pitonyak, Daniel; Yoshida, Shinsuke

    2016-08-01

    We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions, i.e., p↑ p → → h X. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

  3. Double Spin Asymmetry ALT in the Production of Photons, Hadrons, and Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Daniel

    We calculate the double spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT in proton-proton (pp) collisions for the production of photons, hadrons, and jets in the collinear twist-3 framework. These processes allows us for the first time to access a complete set of collinear twist-3 functions. We also give numerical estimates for the asymmetries of which photon production shows the most promise of a measurable effect. Furthermore, we comment on how these asymmetries would allow us to probe the gluon helicity down to as of yet unexplored x values, remark on the importance of these effects in determining the evolution of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x, x), and discuss their usefulness in resolving the true mechanism behind the large transverse single spin asymmetries (SSAs) measured in pp collisions.

  4. Progress report on pump limiter developments for the TEXTOR tokamak: ALT-I

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Campbell, G.A.; Doyle, B.L.; Finken, F.H.; Gauster, W.B.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    A collaborative program is underway to field a comprehensive pump limiter experimental program on TEXTOR: Advanced Limiter Test-I (ALT-I). Either of two interchangeable limiter modules may be attached to an insertion/rotation mechanism to direct particles to the about1 m/sup 3/ pumping chamber. Pumping is provided primarily by a solid getter assembly at about20,000 1/sec. Variation of geometric dimensions and gas puffing in the modules will allow the study of plasma and neutral interaction in differing recycle regimes. Multiple diagnostic systems are incorporated into the pump limiter design for use in conjunction with TEXTOR plasma diagnostics. Initial experiments are scheduled for December 1983.

  5. Nuclear-receptor-mediated telomere insertion leads to genome instability in ALT cancers.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Paulina; Armenise, Claudia; Pérot, Gaëlle; Roumelioti, Fani-Marlen; Basyuk, Eugenia; Gagos, Sarantis; Chibon, Frédéric; Déjardin, Jérôme

    2015-02-26

    The breakage-fusion-bridge cycle is a classical mechanism of telomere-driven genome instability in which dysfunctional telomeres are fused to other chromosomal extremities, creating dicentric chromosomes that eventually break at mitosis. Here, we uncover a distinct pathway of telomere-driven genome instability, specifically occurring in cells that maintain telomeres with the alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism. We show that, in these cells, telomeric DNA is added to multiple discrete sites throughout the genome, corresponding to regions regulated by NR2C/F transcription factors. These proteins drive local telomere DNA addition by recruiting telomeric chromatin. This mechanism, which we name targeted telomere insertion (TTI), generates potential common fragile sites that destabilize the genome. We propose that TTI driven by NR2C/F proteins contributes to the formation of complex karyotypes in ALT tumors. PMID:25723166

  6. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  7. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  8. Different expression of alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT)-associated proteins/mRNAs in osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YI; CAI, LIN; WEI, REN-XIONG; HU, HAO; JIN, WEI; ZHU, XIAO-BIN

    2011-01-01

    Tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS), are capable of evading senescence and cell death, which is caused by telomere loss with cell division. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is considered as the main telomere maintenance mechanism in OS. In this study, we investigated the expression of ALT-associated proteins and mRNAs in human OS cell lines. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression in OS cell lines, while the expression of mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Whole-genome expression arrays were used to analyze the expression of all the mRNAs involved in telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) including human telomerase reverse transcriptase, promyelocytic leukemia proteins and other related proteins. OS and normal cell lines do not express telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) as a key subunit of telomerase, although they show varying levels of ALT-associated proteins and mRNAs such as PML, Rad52, MRE11 and FEN1 by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. A number of mRNAs that play essential roles in ALT are expressed more in OS cell lines than in the osteoblast cell line, as shown by whole-genome expression arrays. In conclusion, OS cell lines maintain their telomere length primarily through the ALT mechanism. There are numerous other proteins that regulate this process in OS; therefore, anti-ALT therapy may be a more effective method to treat OS than anti-telomerase therapy. PMID:22848311

  9. ALT1, a Snf2 Family Chromatin Remodeling ATPase, Negatively Regulates Alkaline Tolerance through Enhanced Defense against Oxidative Stress in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  10. Liver Enzymes: Interaction Analysis of Smoking with Alcohol Consumption or BMI, Comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Lutz P.; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Background A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. Methodology/Principal Findings The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI). Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001) and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001). The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. Conclusion The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury. PMID:22132177

  11. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  12. The effect of IFN-based therapies on the short-term dynamics of alt in HCV-infected patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, R. M.; Talal, A. H.; Layden, J. E.; Powers, K. A.; Layden, T. J.; Perelson, Alan S.,

    2002-01-01

    IFN therapy of HCV-infection has been shown to reduce production of virus from infected cells, but its effect on hepatocytes is less well understood. One indicator of liver damage is ALT, which has been used as an associated diagnostic for HCV infection.

  13. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  14. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations. PMID:26007633

  15. AltAnalyze and DomainGraph: analyzing and visualizing exon expression data.

    PubMed

    Emig, Dorothea; Salomonis, Nathan; Baumbach, Jan; Lengauer, Thomas; Conklin, Bruce R; Albrecht, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for increasing protein diversity. However, its functional effects are largely unknown. Here, we present our new software workflow composed of the open-source application AltAnalyze and the Cytoscape plugin DomainGraph. Both programs provide an intuitive and comprehensive end-to-end solution for the analysis and visualization of alternative splicing data from Affymetrix Exon and Gene Arrays at the level of proteins, domains, microRNA binding sites, molecular interactions and pathways. Our software tools include easy-to-use graphical user interfaces, rigorous statistical methods (FIRMA, MiDAS and DABG filtering) and do not require prior knowledge of exon array analysis or programming. They provide new methods for automatic interpretation and visualization of the effects of alternative exon inclusion on protein domain composition and microRNA binding sites. These data can be visualized together with affected pathways and gene or protein interaction networks, allowing a straightforward identification of potential biological effects due to alternative splicing at different levels of granularity. Our programs are available at http://www.altanalyze.org and http://www.domaingraph.de. These websites also include extensive documentation, tutorials and sample data. PMID:20513647

  16. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  17. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  18. Comparison Study II: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas G.; Coombs, Lee C.

    2012-07-01

    Eight double stars with separations between 13 and 48 arc seconds were studied. Their separations and position angles were measured using an equatorial mounted refractor and and alt-az mounted reflector. A 2x Barlow lens was used along with a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece to magnify the separation. Comparison of the possible effect of magnitude difference on the separation and position angle measurements was investigated.

  19. A Comparison Study: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas; Coombs, Lee

    2010-10-01

    Separation and position angle measurements were made on seven different double star systems with a six-inch equatorial mounted refractor and an eighteen-inch alt-az reflector. The accuracies of the observations made with the two instruments were compared to each other and the corresponding literature values. The results indicated both telescopes can be used to accurately measure the separation and position angles of double stars for separations greater than 25 arc seconds.

  20. The immunomodulatory, antitumor and antimetastatic responses of melanoma-bearing normal and alcoholic mice to sunitinib and ALT-803: a combinatorial treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Kari A; Little, Alexander A; McBride, Alisha A; Garcia, Savanna R; Brar, Kiranjot K; Zhu, Zhaohui; Platt, Amity; Zhang, Faya; Meadows, Gary G; Zhang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    ALT-803, a novel IL-15/IL-15 receptor alpha complex, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, were examined for their single and combined effects on the growth of subcutaneous B16BL6 melanoma and on lymph node and lung metastasis. The study was conducted in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice drinking water (Water mice) and in mice that chronically consumed alcohol (Alcohol mice), which are deficient in CD8(+) T cells. Sunitinib inhibited melanoma growth and was more effective in Alcohol mice. ALT-803 did not alter tumor growth or survival in Water or Alcohol mice. Combined ALT-803 and sunitinib inhibited melanoma growth and increased survival, and these effects were greater than sunitinib alone in Water mice. ALT-803 and alcohol independently suppressed lymph node and lung metastasis, whereas sunitinib alone or in combination with ALT-803 increased lymph node and lung metastasis in Water and Alcohol mice. Initially, ALT-803 increased IFN-γ-producing CD8(+)CD44(hi) memory T cells and CD8(+)CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) effector memory T cells and sunitinib decreased immunosuppressive MDSC and T regulatory cells (Treg). However, the impact of these treatments diminished with time. Subcutaneous tumors from Water mice showed increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells, CD8(+)CD44(hi) T cells, NK cells, and MDSC cells and decreased Treg cells after ALT-803 treatment. PMID:27481107

  1. Model study by FT-IR of the interaction of select cholate dissolution inhibitors with poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Gabor, Allen H.; Medina, Arturo N.

    1999-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interaction between the polymer matrix and the cholate based dissolution inhibitors are being studied by Fourier Transform-IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the simple cholate derivatives undergo, in a blend with poly(norbornene-alt- maleic anhydride) and in a blend with the terpolymers poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-t-butylacrylate) and poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-acrylic acid), stronger interaction as seen by shifts in the OH region of the spectra than do blends with dimeric or oligomeric cholates.

  2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and outcomes in persons with acute coronary syndromes: insights from the GRACE-ALT analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Lavanya; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Andrew T; Mendelsohn, Aurora; Ray, Joel G

    2012-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, but no data exist about the relation between NAFLD and adverse outcomes in persons with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We evaluated elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as a marker of NAFLD, in association adverse outcomes following ACS. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of participants enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) admitted for ACS to St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, between 1999 and 2007. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the change in maximum measured cardiac troponin I (cTnI) per each 1 IU/l increase in serum ALT concentration. The association between an elevated ALT >90th centile, and adverse outcomes in-hospital and at 6 months were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, serum creatinine, glucose, triglycerides and LDL-C, as well as chronic statin or other lipid-lowering agent use. Results 528 participants were included. Each 1 IU/l increase in ALT was associated with an increase in maximum measured cTnI of 0.16 µg/l (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22). An elevated ALT concentration >90th percentile was associated with a maximum measured cTnI in the highest quartile (adjusted OR 7.07, 95% CI 1.83 to 27.37). An elevated ALT >90th percentile was also significantly associated with all-cause mortality in-hospital, and up to 6 months after discharge (adjusted OR 8.96, 95% CI 3.28 to 24.49). Conclusions NAFLD, determined by an elevated serum ALT, is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes in persons with ACS. Whether ALT is a valid and independent prognostic marker in ACS remains to be determined.

  3. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine. PMID:26843073

  4. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fiona T M; Chan, F Lyn; R McGhie, James D; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R; Wong, Lee H

    2015-03-11

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  6. Shape evolution of SrCO{sub 3} particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jiaguo . E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Guo Hua; Cheng Bei

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, strontium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with strontium nitrate in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the concentration of PSMA on the morphologies and phase structures of strontium carbonate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that SrCO{sub 3} particles with various shapes, such as bundles, dumbbells, irregular aggregates and spheres could be obtained by varying the concentration of PSMA. A schematic illustration was proposed to account for the shape evolution of the as-prepared SrCO{sub 3} particles.

  7. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  8. Total upper and lower eyelid replacement following thermal burn using an ALT flap--a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C; Farace, F; Puddu, A; Canu, V; Posadinu, M A

    2008-01-01

    Upper and lower eyelid unilateral full thickness reconstruction in a patient with no available adjacent tissues because of burns or trauma sequelae is a surgical challenge. A case of severe thermal burn with unilateral complete defect of both upper and lower eyelids is reported, together with the surgical technique of reconstruction. The patient was a 65-year-old man who sustained deep burns of the head and neck with upper airway burns after falling into a fireplace. After tracheostomy and acute resuscitation, he underwent escharectomy and coverage of his head and neck burns with split thickness skin grafts and with full thickness skin grafts to the eyelids. There was incomplete take of the skin grafts to the upper and lower left eyelids. In these areas, infection and loss of the tarsum and subsequent eyelid retraction led to exposure keratitis and blurred vision. After healing and respiratory rehabilitation, he was referred to our microsurgical unit for upper and lower eyelid reconstruction. A free forearm flap was first considered, but the Allen test was negative. Therefore, a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was chosen to provide skin eyelid coverage. The flap was harvested including fascia and centred on one perforator. The levator muscle stump and conjunctiva from both upper and lower cul-de-sacs were dissected and advanced. Flap vessels were anastomosed to the superficial temporal artery and vein. The conjunctiva and the fascia replaced the new inner upper and lower lamella. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a perforator flap, the ALT flap, in full thickness reconstruction of both upper and lower eyelids and may be a reliable option in such selected and challenging situations. PMID:17954041

  9. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15Rα-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

  10. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting. PMID:26174883

  11. Computational study of pH-dependent oligomerization and ligand binding in Alt a 1, a highly allergenic protein with a unique fold.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Bretones, Jorge; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Cubells, Nuria; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Pacios, Luis F

    2016-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a highly allergenic protein from Alternaria fungi responsible for several respiratory diseases. Its crystal structure revealed a unique β-barrel fold that defines a new family exclusive to fungi and forms a symmetrical dimer in a butterfly-like shape as well as tetramers. Its biological function is as yet unknown but its localization in cell wall of Alternaria spores and its interactions in the onset of allergy reactions point to a function to transport ligands. However, at odds with binding features in β-barrel proteins, monomeric Alt a 1 seems unable to harbor ligands because the barrel is too narrow. Tetrameric Alt a 1 is able to bind the flavonoid quercetin, yet the stability of the aggregate and the own ligand binding are pH-dependent. At pH 6.5, which Alt a 1 would meet when secreted by spores in bronchial epithelium, tetramer-quercetin complex is stable. At pH 5.5, which Alt a 1 would meet in apoplast when infecting plants, the complex breaks down. By means of a combined computational study that includes docking calculations, empirical pKa estimates, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we identified a putative binding site at the dimeric interface between subunits in tetramer. We propose an explanation on the pH-dependence of both oligomerization states and protein-ligand affinity of Alt a 1 in terms of electrostatic variations associated to distinct protonation states at different pHs. The uniqueness of this singular protein can thus be tracked in the combination of all these features. PMID:27090909

  12. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles suppressed colon carcinoma established subcutaneously in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Kyu; Kim, Kyung Keun; Cho, Sang-Hee; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Jere, Dhananjay; Cho, Chong-Su; Chung, Ik-Joo

    2010-05-01

    Biodegradable gene carrier, termed as PEI-alt-PEG, has been synthesized based on Michael addition reaction between lower Mw PEI and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate and tested its potential of anti-metastatic cancer gene therapy by using anti-KITENIN short hairpin RNA. KITENIN is known to promote invasion of mouse colon adenocarcinoma in vivo. Intratumoral administration of anti-KITENIN shRNA-loaded PEI-alt-PEG nanoparticles has shown suppressed proliferlation and enhanced apoptosis signal in tumor compared to commercial available liposome, leading to delayed tumor growth. PMID:20358939

  13. AltMV TGB1 nucleolar localization requires homologous interaction and correlates with cell wall localization associated with cell-to-cell movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to for...

  14. Functional complementation of fumonisin biosynthesis in FUM1-disrupted fusarium verticillioides by the AAL-toxin polyketide synthase gene ALT1 from Alternaria alternata f. sp. Lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangcheng; Vogeler, Chad; Du, Liangcheng

    2008-06-01

    Fumonisins and AAL-toxins are mycotoxins produced by several widespread fungal pathogens of crops. The carbon backbone of the mycotoxins originates from a highly reduced, acyclic polyketide, a C18 chain for fumonisins and a C16 chain for AAL-toxins. Fungal reduced polyketides are assembled by iterative modular polyketide synthases (PKS), and their biosynthetic mechanism is not very clear. Here, we cloned the PKS gene, ALT1, from the tomato pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. Lycopersici and introduced it into Fusarium verticillioides 5777, which does not produce fumonisins due to a disrupted fumonisin PKS gene, FUM1. An ALT1 transformant of strain 5777 produced fumonisin B series as well as fumonisin analogues. The results provide experimental evidence for the function of ALT1, which encodes a PKS for mycotoxin biosynthesis. The results also show that the C16-synthesizing ALT1 is able to support the C18 fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides, suggesting that the final size of the fungal reduced polyketides is not determined by the PKSs alone. Unlike other PKSs, these PKSs do not have a thioesterase/cyclase domain. The release of polyketide precursors that are covalently attached to the PKSs involves a distinct mechanism, which probably determines the structure of the final products. PMID:18435561

  15. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, AZD4619, induces alanine aminotransferase-1 gene and protein expression in human, but not in rat hepatocytes: Correlation with serum ALT levels.

    PubMed

    Thulin, Petra; Bamberg, Krister; Buler, Marcin; Dahl, Björn; Glinghammar, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum is the standard biomarker for liver injury. We have previously described a clinical trial with a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist (AZD4619), which unexpectedly caused increased serum levels of ALT in treated individuals without any other evidence of liver injury. We pinpointed a plausible mechanism through which AZD4619 could increase serum ALT levels; namely through the PPARα-specific activation of the human ALT1 gene at the transcriptional level. In the present study, we present data from the preceding rat toxicity study, demonstrating that AZD4619 had no effect on rat serum ALT activity levels, and further experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this species-related difference. Our results revealed that AZD4619 increased ALT1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in human, but not in rat primary hepatocytes. Cloning of the human and rat ALT1 promoters into luciferase vectors confirmed that AZD4619 induced only the human, but not the rat ALT1 gene promoter in a dose-dependent manner. In PPARα-GAL4 reporter gene assays, AZD4619 was >100-fold more potent on the human vs. rat PPARα levels, explaining the differences in induction of the ALT1 gene between the species at the concentration range tested. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the human and rat ALT1 reporter gene assays for testing future drug candidates at the preclinical stage. In drug discovery projects, these assays elucidate whether elevations in ALT levels observed in vivo or in the clinic are due to metabolic effects rather than a toxic event in the liver. PMID:27430334

  16. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  17. A radiometric and petrographic interpretation of discrepancies on uranium content in samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate a correlation between anomalous Uranium (U) content and petrographic features of some soil and rock samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (North-central Sicily, Italy). A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in "Marinelli" beakers for 20 days before the measurement to ensure that radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi was reached. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis was used to quantify radioactivity concentrations. Mineralogical and chemical features of the samples were determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analyses. The average values of concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K were respectively 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1) while the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1). Linear relationships were observed between (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K concentrations: the activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ac were comparable, while those of (40)K were about 10 times greater. An exception was highlighted for a group of samples where (226)Ra activities were much higher than expectations. Chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples have made it possible to justify these anomalies. PMID:24389108

  18. Thermal load distribution on the ALT-II limiter of TEXTOR-94 during RI mode operation and during disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finken, K. H.; Denner, T.; Mank, G.

    2000-03-01

    Thermographic measurements using an IR scanner have been performed at the pump limiter ALT-II of TEXTOR-94 during RI mode discharges and during disruptions. The measurements on the RI mode discharges were done to complete the TEXTOR database which had shown a structured decay pattern of the deposited power. It was found that the underlying radial heat flux can be described by two exponential decay functions. This structure, which generates an unexpected heat component close to the tangent line, has been observed in all discharge conditions including the RI mode. During disruptions, the heat is released in short pulses with a typical duration of 0.01-0.1 ms. The radial decay length of these pulses has a similar shape to the heat flux during normal discharges: it consists again of a strong component close to the tangent line with a radial decay length of 2-5 mm and probably one with a decay length of the order of 1 cm. The heat is released at the time when the edge electron temperature of the plasma drops, when intense hydrogen and carbon fluxes occur near the walls, and when electrical currents in the limiter blades are excited. In a tentative interpretation, the temporal and spatial structure of the heat pulse is attributed to the presence and growth of a laminar zone at the plasma edge, which is connected with the ergodization of the plasma edge during a disruption.

  19. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  20. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  1. New semi-conducting poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Balkiss; Hriz, Khaled; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Kreher, David; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    An anthracene-based semi-conducting polymer (P1) and its cyano-analogue (P2) were synthesized via the Wittig and Knoevenagel polycondensations. The polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and have number-average molecular weights of 13,750 and 6430 g mol-1 for P1 and P2, respectively. The DSC analyzes show a good thermal stability and an amorphous morphology in solid state for these organic materials. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis. The effect of cyano group on the photophysical properties of poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s was investigated. The results demonstrate an enhancement in the ionization potential and a significant improvement of the fluorescence yield due to introduction of such groups into the π-conjugated system. Single-layer diodes based on these organic semiconductors have been fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  2. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  3. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  4. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples

    PubMed Central

    Noubary, Farzad; Coonahan, Erin; Schoeplein, Ryan; Baden, Rachel; Curry, Michael; Afdhal, Nezam; Kumar, Shailendra; Pollock, Nira R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress) as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time. Methods 96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi); subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Findings For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L). Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L) or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L); a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L). Conclusions The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired

  5. Test and analysis of the stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hesheng; Jiang, Chongguo; Wu, Wang; Wang, Jinso; Zhang, Yuncheng; Xiong, Yaoheng; Yang, Wanjiang; Niu, Xin

    The test and analysis of the static and dynamic stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope at Yunnan Observatory are carried out. The actual velocities and accelerations to be needed for tracking the Moon and the Lageos satellite are simulated. The tested results show that the stability of friction drive system can meet the needs of the ±1″tracking accuracy.

  6. Aluminum-Dependent Terminal Differentiation of the Arabidopsis Root Tip Is Mediated through an ATR-, ALT2-, and SOG1-Regulated Transcriptional Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sjogren, Caroline A.; Bolaris, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    By screening for suppressors of the aluminum (Al) hypersensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant als3-1, it was found that mutational loss of the Arabidopsis DNA damage response transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF GAMMA RESPONSE1 (SOG1) confers increased Al tolerance similar to the loss-of-function mutants for the cell cycle checkpoint genes ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA AND RAD3 RELATED (ATR) and ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2). This suggests that Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip is an active process resulting from activation of the DNA damage checkpoint by an ATR-regulated pathway, which functions at least in part through SOG1. Consistent with this, ATR can phosphorylate SOG1 in vitro. Analysis of SOG1’s role in Al-dependent root growth inhibition shows that sog1-7 prevents Al-dependent quiescent center differentiation and endoreduplication in the primary root tip. Following Al exposure, SOG1 increases expression of several genes previously associated with DNA damage, including BRCA1 and PARP2, with gel-shift analysis showing that SOG1 can physically associate with the BRCA1 promoter in vitro. Al-responsive expression of these SOG1-regulated genes requires ATR and ALT2, but not ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED, thus demonstrating that in response to chronic Al exposure, ATR, ALT2, and SOG1 function together to halt root growth and promote terminal differentiation at least in part in a transcription-dependent manner. PMID:26320227

  7. Effect of Segregation of Secondary Phase Particles and "S" Line on Tensile Fracture Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded 2024Al-T351 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2013-09-01

    A 5-mm-thick 2024Al-T351 plate was friction stir welded (FSWed) at welding speeds of 100, 200, and 400 mm min-1 with a constant rotation rate of 800 rpm, and the microstructure and tensile fracture behavior of the joints were investigated in detail. FSW resulted in the redistribution of secondary phase particles along the recrystallized grain boundaries at the nugget zone (NZ), forming linear segregation bands consisting of secondary phase particles. The segregation bands, mainly present in the shoulder-driven zone, were believed to result from periodic material flow, with the average band spacing on the longitudinal and horizontal cross sections equal to the tool advancement per revolution. At a low welding speed of 100 mm min-1, in spite of the highest density of segregation bands, the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joint fractured along the low hardness zone (LHZ) of the heat-affected zone because of large hardness gap between NZ and LHZ. Increasing the welding speed to 200 and 400 mm min-1 reduced both the hardness gap between NZ and LHZ and the density of segregation bands. In this case, the segregation bands played a role, resulting in unusual fracture of the joints along the segregation bands. The "S" line originated from the oxide film on the initial butting surfaces and did not affect the fracture behavior of the FSWed 2024Al-T351 joints.

  8. Lower liver cancer risk with antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with normal to minimally elevated ALT and no cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Joseph K.; Yang, Hwai-I; Le, An; Nguyen, Nghia H.; Lin, Derek; Vu, Vinh D.; Chaung, Kevin; Nguyen, Vincent; Trinh, Huy N.; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian Q.; Chen, Chien-Jen; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For chronic hepatitis B (CHB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN) is often used as a major criteria to initiate treatment in absence of cirrhosis, though patients with lower ALT may not be free from future risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to examine the effect of antiviral therapy on HCC incidence based on ALT levels. We performed a retrospective study on 3665 patients consisting of United States and Taiwanese REVEAL-HBV cohort who were consecutive, treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic CHB patients aged ≥40 years. Patients were categorized by ALT cutoffs (≥2 × ULN vs <2 × ULN) and subgrouped by treatment status. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate cumulative incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of HCC adjusting for REACH-B scores. A total of 202 patients developed HCC. Antiviral treatment significantly reduced HCC risk: HR 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.58; P = 0.001. HCC incidence per 100,000 person-years was significantly higher in untreated versus treated patients, even for those with ALT < 2 × ULN: 314.46 versus 0 per 100,000 person-years, P = 0.0042. For patients with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ≥ 2000 IU/mL, the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were 15 and 14 to prevent 1 incident HCC at year 10 for patients with ALT < 2 × ULN and ≥2 × ULN, respectively. After adjustment by REACH-B score, antiviral treatment significantly decreased HCC incidence even in patients with ALT < 2 × ULN. NNT to prevent 1 incident HCC after 10 years of therapy was low (14–15) in patients with mildly elevated HBV DNA ≥ 2000 IU/mL regardless of ALT levels. PMID:27495067

  9. YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> dc SQUID array for multichannel magnetometry and multichannel flip-chip current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Zakosarenko, V.; IJsselsteijn, R.; Stolz, R.; Schultze, V.; Chwala, A.; Hoenig, H. E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    1999-09-01

    We have prepared arrays of single-layer washer-type dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) on 10 mm × 10 mm bicrystal substrates. Each SQUID in the array is equipped with its own modulation loop, which makes a separate operation of them possible. Arrays containing nine or 11 dc SQUIDs have been tested and the crosstalk between neighbouring channels has been found to be 5%. The field sensitivity of the SQUIDs is 85 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 and 105 nT icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 for the nine- and 11-device array, respectively. The equivalent flux noise is typically icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> 20 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 Hz-1/2 down to 1 Hz with ac bias reversal. A field resolution of less than 2.1 pT Hz-1/2 has been obtained for at least eight channels on a chip. By using multiturn YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> input coils and mounting them in a flip-chip configuration together with the single-layer dc SQUIDs we have been able to build three-channel current sensors. The current sensitivity equals 3-3.5 icons/Journals/Common/mu" ALT="mu" ALIGN="TOP"/>A icons/Journals/Common/Phi" ALT="Phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0-1 depending on the alignment of the flip-chip configuration. The current resolution of the devices is < 70 pA Hz-1/2. We show the possibility of building sensitive magnetometers by connecting the input coil of these current sensors to a normal-conducting pickup antenna.

  10. Patterns of viral load in chronic hepatitis B patients in Brazil and their association with ALT levels and HBeAg status.

    PubMed

    Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Gaburo, Nelson; Cheinquer, Hugo; L'Italien, Gilbert; Affonso de Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau; Mantilla, Patricia; Cure-Bolt, Nancy; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2009-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is a predictor of the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. Nevertheless, the distribution of viral load levels in chronic HBV patients in Brazil has yet to be described. This cross-sectional study included 564 participants selected in nine Brazilian cities located in four of the five regions of the country using the database of a medical diagnostics company. Admission criteria included hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity, availability of HBV viral load samples and age >or=18 years. Males comprised 64.5% of the study population. Mean age was 43.7 years. Most individuals (62.1%) were seronegative for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Median serum ALT level was 34 U/L. In 58.5% of the patients HBV-DNA levels ranged from 300 to 99,999 copies/mL; however, in 21.6% levels were undetectable. Median HBV-DNA level was 2,351 copies/mL. Over 60% of the patients who tested negative for HBeAg and in whom ALT level was less than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range had HBV-DNA levels > 2,000 IU/mL, which has been considered a cut-off point for indicating a liver biopsy and/or treatment. In conclusion, HBV-DNA level identified a significant proportion of Brazilian individuals with chronic hepatitis B at risk of disease progression. Furthermore, this tool enables those individuals with high HBV-DNA levels who are susceptible to disease progression to be identified among patients with normal or slightly elevated ALT. PMID:20009133

  11. Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    M'Kada, Helmi; Perazzo, Hugo; Munteanu, Mona; Ngo, Yen; Ramanujam, Nittia; Fautrel, Bruno; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Ratziu, Vlad; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Leblond, Véronique; Delattre, Jean Yves; Samson, Yves; Caen, Olivier Lyon; Bricaire, François; Khayat, David; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Herson, Serge; Amoura, Zahir; Tilleul, Patrick; Deckmyn, Olivier; Coriat, Pierre; Delpech, Vincent Nicolas; Boulogne, Philippe; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening. Design We prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care strategy for 24-week period based on referral cases to the hepatology unit. In the centralized strategy, a designated study biochemist identified patients with ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal values (ULN) and notified the designated hepatologists, who then went to the patients' wards, analyzed the charts, and if necessary, interviewed the identified patients. During these two periods, patients with possible DILI were included after signing an informed consent in an ongoing European diagnostic study (SAFE-T consortium). Results During the 24-week period of the standard strategy, 12 (0.04%) patients out of a total of 28,145 were identified as having possible DILI, and 11 of these accepted to be included in the protocol. During the one-week proactive period, 7 patients out of a total of 1407 inpatients (0.498%) [odds ratio vs. standard = 12.1 (95% CI, 3.9–32.3); P<0.0001] were identified with possible DILI, and 5 were included in the protocol. Conclusion A simple strategy based on the daily analysis of cases with ALT >3 ULN by designated biochemists and hepatologists identified 12 times more acute cases of drug-induced liver disease than the standard strategy. This pilot cohort is registered on the number AP-HP P110201/1/08-03-2011 and AFSSAPS B110346-70. PMID:22905129

  12. New use of an old drug: chloroquine reduces viral and ALT levels in HCV non-responders (a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial).

    PubMed

    Peymani, Payam; Yeganeh, Behzad; Sabour, Siamak; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Keyvani, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saied; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autophagy, but the virus assimilates the autophagic response into its own life cycle. Chloroquine (CQ) is an autophagy inhibitor that is clinically used to treat malaria. The aims of this pilot clinical trial were to evaluate the therapeutic potential and short-term safety of CQ in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, who were unresponsive to a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Ten non-responders to previous antiviral treatment(s) were randomized to receive either CQ (150 mg daily for 8 weeks) or placebo, and were followed for 4 weeks after CQ therapy. HCV RNA load and plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured at baseline, week 4 (initial response), week 8 (end-of-treatment response), and at the end of 12 weeks. A significant decrease in HCV RNA after the treatments (week 8) was observed in all patients in the CQ group (P = 0.04). However, HCV RNA levels increased within 4 weeks after discontinuation of CQ treatment although they were still lower than baseline. In addition, the ALT normalized during treatment in the CQ group. However, this response was also lost after treatment cessation. This study provides preliminary evidence that CQ is possibly a safe treatment option for HCV non-responders. PMID:26998724

  13. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  14. Surface grafting of octylamine onto poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) gate insulators for low-voltage DNTT thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yun-Seo; Yi, Mi Hye; Kim, Ji-Heung; Kim, Yun Ho; Jang, Kwang-Suk

    2016-03-28

    This study investigates a spin-coating method for modifying the surface properties of a poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) gate insulator. The 60 nm-thick PEMA thin film exhibits excellent electrical insulating properties, and its surface properties could be easily modified by surface grafting of octylamine. Due to surface treatment via spin-coating, the surface energy of the PEMA gate insulator decreased, the crystal quality of the organic semiconductor improved, and consequently the performance of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) was enhanced. Our results suggest that the surface treatment of the PEMA gate insulator could be a simple and effective method for enhancing the performance of organic TFTs. PMID:26940136

  15. Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

  16. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol. PMID:26381639

  17. Elevated Preoperative Serum Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase (ALT/AST) Ratio Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Curative Treatment for Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Lin; Li, Jian-Pei; Li, Lin-Fang; Zeng, Tao; He, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The level of anine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio in the serum was often used to assess liver injury. Whether the ALT/AST ratio (LSR) was associated with prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative LSR in patients with GA. A retrospective study was performed in 231 patients with GA undergoing curative resection. The medical records collected include clinical information and laboratory results. We investigated the correlations between the preoperative LSR and overall survival (OS). Survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were finally enrolled. The median overall survival was 47 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative LSR was an independent prognostic factor in GA. Patients with LSR ≤ 0.80 had a greater risk of death than those with LSR > 0.80. The LSR was independently associated with OS in patients with GA (hazard ratio: 0.610; 95% confidence interval: 0.388–0.958; p = 0.032), along with tumor stages (hazard ratio: 3.118; 95% confidence interval: 2.044–4.756; p < 0.001) and distant metastases (hazard ratio: 1.957; 95% confidence interval: 1.119–3.422; p = 0.019). Our study first established a connection between the preoperative LSR and patients undergoing curative resection for GA, suggesting that LSR was a simple, inexpensive, and easily measurable marker as a prognostic factor, and may help to identify high-risk patients for treatment decisions. PMID:27294917

  18. Ion irradiation effects on critical temperature of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-ALT="delta" /> and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-ALT="delta" />

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsumoto, K.; Takai, Y.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured resistivity modification of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2212) films H+, 100 keV He+ and 1 MeV O+ irradiation at normal incidence and at room temperature. It appears that degradation of critical temperature (Tc) follows the nuclear collision process or scales with the displacement per atom as in other high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxides such as YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO), assuming a displacement threshold energy of 20 eV. No significant difference of Tc degradation is observed between Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. It is also found that Tc degradation of Bi-based HTSC oxide films is quite similar to that of Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Tl-2223), indicating that Bi-based and Tl-based HTSC oxides are more sensitive to ion irradiation than YBCO.

  19. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2′-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  20. Rhodium-coordinated poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) copolymer acting as photocatalyst for visible-light-powered NAD⁺/NADH reduction.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Kerstin T; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi; Kollender, Jan Philipp; Himmelsbach, Markus; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

    2014-09-10

    A 2,2'-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD(+)/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390-650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD(+). With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  1. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  2. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 21. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ... 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  3. The effect of side-chain length on the solid-state structure and optoelectronic properties of fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole based conjugated polymers--a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Eslamibidgoli, Mohammad J; Lagowski, Jolanta B

    2012-11-01

    Using the dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D/B97D) approach, we have performed bulk solid-state calculations to investigate the influence of side-chain length on the molecular packing and optoelectronic properties of poly (9,9-di-n-alkylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) or FnBT's where n is the number of CH(2) units in the alkyl side-chains. Our results indicate that the FnBT's with longer side-chains in their most stable configurations, due to the significant intermolecular interactions between the side-chains, form lamellar crystal structures. On the other hand, for the FnBT's with shorter side-chains, two nearly degenerate stable crystal structures with nearly hexagonal symmetries have been found. These different packing structures can be attributed to the microphase separations between the flexible side-chains and the rigid backbones whose existence has been discussed in previous investigations for other hairy rod polymers. As a result of the efficient interchain interactions for the lamellar structures, the dihedral angle between the F and BT units is reduced by about 30°, providing a more planar configuration for the backbone. In turn, a more planar backbone leads to a decrease, about 0.2 and 0.3 eV, of the band gaps of the lamellar structures relative to the gap values for the gas and the nearly hexagonal phases, respectively. Time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) was used to study the excited states of the monomers of FnBT's with various lengths of side-chains. TD-DFT study suggests that the absorption spectrum of the polymers with longer side-chains is red-shifted relative to the polymers with shorter side-chains and the gas phase. PMID:23050864

  4. Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 Ω m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological

  5. The research on property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. The function of servo system compensation network in control system (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-06-01

    According to the requirement of SLR (Satellite Laser Range) using 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope of Yunnan Observatory, and the analysis of function of cascade compensation network in control system and the observation results, the compensation network of servo system of 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope, and the performance of control system after its compensation are discussed in this article. When friction drive is fulfilled by two torque motors, and PD compensation network in servo control system is used, it is found that the capability of rapid tracking of the 1.2 m telescope is actually improved, and the telescope can achieve 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration, 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity, and it can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  6. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  7. Beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{LT} in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target at 1.4

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Katich, J; Qian, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Lerose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L-G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2012-02-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry A{LT} for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16A{LT} asymmetries were extracted from the measured {3}He asymmetries and proton over {3}He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g{1T}{q} and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π{-} production on {3}He and the neutron, while our π{+} asymmetries are consistent with zero. PMID:22400926

  8. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; Lerose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L.-G.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.

    2012-02-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized He3 target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured He3 asymmetries and proton over He3 cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on He3 and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.

  9. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  10. The AST/ALT (De-Ritis) ratio: A novel marker for critical limb ischemia in peripheral arterial occlusive disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rief, Peter; Pichler, Martin; Raggam, Reinhard; Hafner, Franz; Gerger, Armin; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The aspartat aminotransferase (AST)/alanin aminotransferase (ALT) (De-Ritis) ratio (AAR) is an easily applicable blood test. An elevated AAR on the one hand has been associated with an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD on the other hand is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and diabetes. As the AAR is also elevated in case of muscular damage, we investigated AAR and its association with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients.In our cross-sectional study, we included 1782 PAOD patients treated at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Patients with chronic alcohol consumption (>20 g/day) were excluded. AAR was calculated and the cohort was categorized into tertiles according to the AAR. An optimal cut-off value for the continuous AAR was calculated by applying a receiver operating curve analysis to discriminate between CLI and non-CLI.In our cohort, occurrence of CLI significantly increased with an elevation in AAR. As an optimal cut-off value, an AAR of 1.67 (sensitivity 34.1%, specificity 81.0%) was identified. Two groups were categorized, 1st group containing 1385 patients (AAR < 1.67) and a 2nd group with 397 patients (AAR > 1.67). CLI was more frequent in AAR > 1.67 patients (166 [41.9%]) compared to AAR < 1.67 patients (329 [23.8%]) (P < 0.001), as was prior myocardial infarction (28 [7.1%] vs 54 [3.9%], P = 0.01). Regarding inflammatory parameters, C-reactive protein (median 8.1 mg/L [2.9-28.23] vs median 4.3 mg/L [2.0-11.5]) and fibrinogen (median 427.5 mg/dL [344.25-530.0] vs 388.0 mg/dL [327.0-493.0]) also significantly differed in the 2 patient groups (both P < 0.001). Finally, an AAR > 1.67 was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.3) for CLI even after adjustment for other well-established vascular risk factors.An increased AAR is significantly associated with patients

  11. The property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. Mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-03-01

    According to the special requirement we have made the Laser Ranging for satellites on the low orbit of the Earth using the 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. This article discusses the mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives of the telescope. When friction drives are fulfilled with two moment electromotors, the telescope an reach 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration and 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity. This can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  12. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA–MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA–MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA–DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  13. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  14. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  15. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  16. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  17. Model study by FT-IR and 13C NMR of the interaction of poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives with select cholate dissolution inhibitors or with select iodonium and sulfonium phot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya L.; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Yan, Zhenglin; Reiser, Arnost

    2000-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interactions between poly (norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) based resins and cholate based dissolution inhibitors (DIs) were studied by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. We also studied the role that photo-acid generators (PAGs) play in the dissolution of these polymer resins. We attempted to disentangle the hydrophobic effects of the DIs and PAGs from the specific interactions (Van der Waal's, hydrogen bonding or ionic) that these materials have within the polymer system. We employed solubility studies of DIs and PAGs using cloud point determinations and dissolution inhibition experiments on spun films to determine the extent that hydrophobicity and polymer interactions play in development. We found that for simple cholate derivatives the interactions with maleic anhydride repeating units parallel the dissolution inhibition sequence (t-butyllithocholate > t-butyldeoxycholate > t-butylcholate). For a wider range of cholate derivatives, the cloud point in water is a useful predictive tool, in that it takes into account both the hydrophobicity and the propensity to interact with other moieties. Thus for these materials, dissolution inhibition is governed by both interactions between the DI and the polymer, and the hydrophobic nature of the DIs. In contrast, for the PAGs, the cloud point is not a good predictive tool for dissolution inhibition. We found for onium salt materials, that the extent of dissolution inhibition is predicated by the size of the anion. For example, large sterically hindered anions which give rise to PAGs that exhibit poor solubility in water, paradoxically also show poor dissolution inhibition. This may be because the steric hinderance disfavors interactions with the polymer matrix.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-pressure synthesis, crystal growth, phase diagrams, structural and magnetic properties of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x, HgBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+ALT="delta" /> and quasi-one-dimensional cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, J.; Meijer, G. I.; Schwer, H.; Molinski, R.; Kopnin, E.; Conder, K.; Angst, M.; Jun, J.; Kazakov, S.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Hofer, J.; Alyoshin, V.; Sin, A.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we present a review of high-gas-pressure single crystal growth studies of YBa2Cu4O8 and Y2Ba4Cu7O15-x performed in oxygen pressure up to 3000 bar and Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-7) compounds in argon pressure up 11 000 bar at temperature up to 1200 °C. Chain compounds A1-xCuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) have been synthesized at high oxygen pressure up to 2000 bar. High-pressure phase diagram studies of the investigated systems are also discussed. Structure analyses of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x (n = 6-8), Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-8), Sr0.73CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)4Cu6O10 single crystals have been performed. The effects of substitutions and trends in bondlengths are discussed. The vortex state properties of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and YBa2Cu4O8 single crystals are compared. For Hg-based compounds, the influence of oxygen content, chemical substitutions and radiation defects on vortex pinning were determined. The quasi-one-dimensional cuprates Ca0.83CuO2 and Sr0.73CuO2 show an antiferromagnetically ordered state of long-range 3D character at T < 10 K. The spin dynamics of Sr0.73CuO2, measured by inelastic neutron scattering, indicate that this ordered state coexists with a dimerized singlet ground state.

  19. Pen and Pal Are Nucleotide-Sugar Dehydratases That Convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-Deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and Then to UDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

  20. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices. PMID:26754052

  1. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  2. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  3. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter S; Kwilas, Anna R; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W

    2016-03-29

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1-) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  4. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Kwilas, Anna R.; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1−) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor–bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  5. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  6. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  7. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  8. Balanced Ambipolar Poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-tetrafluorobenzene) Semiconducting Polymers Synthesized via Direct Arylation Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Guojie; Wang, Mingfeng

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of an ambipolar π-conjugated copolymer consisting of alternating diketopyrrolopyrrole and tetrafluorobenzene via direct arylation polymerization (DAP) is reported. Two different combinations of monomers are investigated under various catalytic conditions for DAP. The target polymer obtained under an optimized catalytic condition shows minimal structural defects, a number-average molecular weight of 33.2 kDa, and balanced electron and hole mobility of 1 × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) S(-1) in the organic field-effect transistors fabricated and tested under ambient conditions. PMID:26421942

  9. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  10. Phase I Trial of Universal Donor NK Cell Therapy in Combination With ALT803

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Myeloproliferative Syndromes; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Colon Carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of Rectum; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Ewing's Sarcoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  11. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  12. Analysis of the double-spin asymmetry ALT in inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.; Schäfer, A.; Zhou, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the collinear twist-3 framework, we analyze the double-spin asymmetry in collisions between longitudinally polarized nucleons and transversely polarized nucleons with focus on hadron and jet production. As was the case in direct photon production, the double-spin dependent cross section for hadron and jet production has the advantage of involving a complete set of collinear twist-3 functions for a transversely polarized nucleon. In addition, we outline further benefits of this observable for a potential future measurement at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which includes insight on the gluon helicity distribution as well as information on the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function TF(x,x) that plays a crucial role in single-spin asymmetries.

  13. Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MEGAMP flux compression generator experiment ALT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B. G.; Rodriguez, G.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Clark, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded: (1) A velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner innersurface velocity throughout the entire range of travel, (2) Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion, and, (3) Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics performed very well. Major results are maximum current: 32.3 MA, velocity at impact: greater than 12 km/sec, symmetry: the impact pins indicated that the liner was smooth, solid, and axially symmetric upon arrival at the diagnostic package. The LANL team fabricated, installed, and recorded the three diagnostics presented here. All necessary equipment was brought to the site in Russia. The VNIIEF team fielded other diagnostics to measure machine performance. Results of machine diagnostics are reported in other presentations.

  14. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  15. Advanced limiter test (ALT-1) in the TEXTOR tokamak: concept and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Grontz, S.P.; Prinja, A.K.; Gauster, W.B.; Malinowski, H.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Blewer, R.S.; Whitley, J.B.; Dippel, K.H.; Fuchs, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concept and experimental design of a pump-limiter for the TEXTOR tokamak is described. The module is constructed of stainless steel with a compound curvature head designed to limit the maximum heat flux to 300 W/cm/sup 2/. The head is made of TiC-coated graphite containing a variable-aperture slot to admit plasma to a deflector plate for ballistic pumping action. The assembly is actively pumped using Zr-Al getters with an estimated hydrogen pumping speed of 3 x 10/sup 4/ 1/s. The aspect ratio of the pump duct and the length of the plasma channel are both variable to permit study of plasma plugging, ballistic scattering, and enhanced gas-conduction effects. The module can be moved radially by 10 cm to permit its operation either as the primary or secondary limiter. Major diagnostics include Langmuir and solid state probes, bolometers, infrared thermography, thermocouples, ion gauges, manometers, and a gas mass analyzer.

  16. Modeling and calibration of pointing errors with alt-az telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new model for improving the pointing accuracy of a telescope. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) convention was used to perform an error analysis of the telescope's kinematics. A kinematic model was used to relate pointing errors to mechanical errors and the parameters of the kinematic model were estimated with a statistical model fit using data from two large astronomical telescopes. The model illustrates the geometric errors caused by imprecision in manufacturing and assembly processes and their effects on the pointing accuracy of the telescope. A kinematic model relates pointing error to axis position when certain geometric errors are assumed to be present in a telescope. In the parameter estimation portion, the semi-parametric regression model was introduced to compensate for remaining nonlinear errors. The experimental results indicate that the proposed semi-parametric regression model eliminates both geometric and nonlinear errors, and that the telescope's pointing accuracy significantly improves after this calibration.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of AltSB, A Major Aluminum Tolerance Gene in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils represents a major constraint for crop production as ~ 50% of the potentially arable soils worldwide are acidic. Therefore, understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying plant Al tolerance has been a major focus for a number of laboratories aroun...

  18. Durch Raum und Zeit reisen - Eine Theorie gibt Antworten auf alte Fragen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Im Rahmen der Relativitätstheorie, sei es die spezielle oder auch allgemeine, kommt man zwangsläufig auf die Fragestellung, ob Zeitreisen möglich sind oder nicht. Es gibt darüber sehr viele Veröffentlichungen, da dieses Thema offensichtlich viele Leute beschäftigt: Naturwissenschaftler, Philosophen, Filmautoren. Wir wollen hier nur einige grundlegende Fragestellungen aufgreifen: Kann man in die Zukunft reisen? Gibt es Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit? Wie sieht es aus mit Reisen in die Vergangenheit? Wir unterschieden dabei zwischen mathematischen, physikalischen und technischen Lösungen, die Zeitreisen entweder erlauben oder unmöglich machen.

  19. Audit on the appropriateness of integrated COPD management: the “ALT-BPCO” project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non communicable chronic diseases (including respiratory ones) are the leading cause of death and disability. To cope with them we need to redesign the health system, improving primary prevention, screening, and outpatient services, while fully integrating different branches of the health service. The Italian Ministry of Health published extended guidelines on integrated COPD management (COPD-GL) in 2010. In2011 a condensed version was produced. These documents define appropriateness of management regarding both the specialist and the health service. Methods An internal audit on how clinical practice conforms to COPD-GL standards was implemented in one Italian region involving 29 respiratory units (RU) (65.8% of the total regional RU): data were collected from the clinical database at time zero and after 6 months. In the meantime, specialists of RU underwent education on COPD-GL. Results At time zero, significant gaps between current practice and recommendations emerged both in medical practice (mean agreement 25%) and in the health organization (48%). At month 6 the gaps were reduced more in clinical practice (60.7%) than in organization (54.7%). Conclusions It is easier to resolve the gaps in specialist clinical practice than the organizational gaps, changing which is the politicians’ task. Correcting specialists’ inappropriateness may be worthless if this is not accompanied by improvement of the organizational obstacles. The search for appropriateness should not be limited only to specialists or to a strict control of drug prescription but should include all the organizational aspects. Implementation of COPD-GL calls for actions on the part of both specialists and the health system. PMID:25097757

  20. Fundamental studies of dissolution inhibition in poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlihan, F. M.; Dabbagh, G.; Rushkin, I.; Hutton, R.; Bolan, K.; Reichmanis, E.; Nalamasu, O.; Yan, Z.; Reiser, A.

    2001-07-01

    The dissolution inhibition mechanism for tert-butylcarboxylate (e.g. tert-butyl cholate) dissolution inhibitors and onium salt photoacid generators (PAG's) were examined in terpolymers of poly(norbornene-maleic anhydride-acrylic acid) (P(NB/MA/AA)). For tert-butyl carboxylates, increasing hydrophobicity increased the dissolution inhibition ability. Dissolution promotion tracked with the number of carboxylic acid moieties and the hydrophobicity of carboxylic acids moieties released upon acidolytic cleavage of the tert-butyl carboxylate. For onium salt PAG's, increasing the hydrophobicity and size of fluorinated anions decreased dissolution inhibition.

  1. Back to the roots - die Anfänge der Dermatologie in der altägyptischen Medizin.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. PMID:27027750

  2. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  3. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  4. CONSTRUCTION OF A RYE CV. BLANCO BAC LIBRARY, AND PROGRESS TOWARDS CLONING THE RYE ALT3 ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being an important cereal crop, rye (Secale cereale L.) provides valuable traits for other crops, as a parent of the amphidiploid triticale, and as a donor of translocated chromosome segments in wheat. Rye possesses excellent tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses that could p...

  5. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transpo...

  6. Unusually high stability of a poly(alkylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) conjugated copolymer in its n and p-doped states.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mikhael D; Fisyuk, Alexander S; Demadrille, Renaud; Markevich, Elena; Gofer, Yossi; Aurbach, Doron; Pron, Adam

    2006-08-21

    Incorporation of electron accepting units (oxadiazole) into the 2,5-thienylene conjugated chain leads to a significant improvement in the n-doping-undoping redox stability of the resulting polymer. PMID:16883416

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Private Enterprise Education (11th, San Antonio, Texas, April 6-8,. 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Private Enterprise, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Papers in these proceedings are grouped under the following headings: addresses, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, free market economics, public policy, and economic education. Papers include "Economic Freedom and Private Enterprise" (Murray L. Weidenbaum); "Marxism and the Free, Capitalist Society" (Tibor R. Machan); "Knowledge,…

  8. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  9. Altération hydrothermale des monazites-(Ce) des pegmatites du district de Santa Maria de Itabira (Minas Gerais, Brésil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Essaïd; Marciano, Vitoria; Marques^Correia Neves, José; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Riffel, Bruno Fernando; Nalini, Herminio Arias; Fernandes, Maria Lourdes; Nasraoui, Mohamed

    1998-05-01

    Monazite-(Ce) is found in granitic pegmatites in the Santa Maria de Itabira pegmatite district (Minas Gerais, Brazil). During the magmatic stage, monazite-(Ce) seems to have had higher contents of cheralite and huttonite in the solid solution. The Th content in primary monazite-(Ce) is high and characteristic for each pegmatite body. During the late stage (albitization), the mean LREE content in the altered zone is slightly higher and Th content is very low. The accessory mineral assemblages changed; huttonite and cheralite crystallize together with Th-poor and La-rich monazite-(Ce) at the border of altered crystals. Nd/Sm and U/Pb ratios are also changed during the hydrothermal stage.

  10. Positional Cloning and Characterization of AltSB, a Major Aluminum Tolerance Gene in Sorghum: Toward the Identification of the Molecular and Physiological basis of Allelic effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint for agriculture on acid soils, which comprise over half of the world’s potentially arable lands. However, the molecular basis underlying the most accepted tolerance mechanism based on Al-induced organic acid release by root apices, is only now being elucidate...

  11. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    della Corte, A.; Corato, V.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Muzzi, L.; Polli, G. M.; Reccia, L.; Turtù, S.; Bruzzone, P.; Salpietro, E.; Vostner, A.

    2010-04-01

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb3Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb3Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

  12. 75 FR 9645 - Additional Designations of Individuals and Entities Pursuant to Section 804(b) of the Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... de Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; DOB 28 Feb 1974; alt. DOB 18 Sep 1989; alt. DOB 6 Aug 1973; POB El..., Caborca, Sonora 83610, Mexico; DOB 8 Mar 1970; alt. DOB 6 Mar 1970; alt. DOB 12 Jun 1967; alt. DOB 12 Jun 1979; alt. DOB 2 Feb 1982; POB Ario de Rosales, Michoacan, Mexico; alt. POB Guanajuatillo,...

  13. Apports des phyllosilicates dans la différenciation entre altération hypogène et altération supergène dans le basalte triasique du Moyen Atlas (Maroc)Contribution of phyllosilicates to distinguish between hypogene alteration and weathering in Triassic basalt from Middle Atlas (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekayir, Abdelilah; Danot, Michel; Allali, Nabil

    2002-09-01

    Triassic basalt of the Middle Atlas has been subject to metamorphic transformation then weathering. Occurrence in both metabasalt and saprolite of ubiquitous clay minerals, such as smectite and mixed layers chlorite-smectite, makes it difficult to distinguish between the two alteration facies and explains the interest of complementary sources of information. In the Bhallil weathering profile, petrographical and mineralogical analyses of primary igneous minerals and their alteration products coupled with Fe oxidation state determination in clay fractions allow to identify three alteration facies: ( i) metamorphic basalt, where iron occurs mainly as the ferrous form; ( ii) the lower part of saprolite, where iron is partially oxidized to its ferric form; ( iii) the upper part of saprolite, where iron is completely oxidized. To cite this article: A. Dekayir et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 877-884.

  14. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  15. Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking and Aspartate Aminotransferase:Alanine Aminotransferase (AST:ALT) Ratio, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT), and Apolipoprotein A1 and B in the U.S. Population*

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Qi, Rong; Crabb, David W.; Witzmann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The misuse of alcohol, even at levels just above two drinks per day, is a public health problem, but identifying patients with this potentially unhealthy drinking is hindered by the lack of tests. Several blood tests, such as those testing for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) or mean corpuscular volume (MCV), are among the commonly used markers to identify very heavy drinking, but combinations of these markers have rarely been tested in lighter drinkers. We examined the relationship between alcohol drinking and the levels of these markers in a national population-based study composed primarily of lighter drinkers. Method: Data were analyzed from 8,708 adult participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey after excluding subjects with iron overload; with hepatitis B and C; who were pregnant; and who were taking prescription drugs such as phenytoin (Dilantin), barbiturates, and hydroxyurea (Droxia and Hydrea). The relationship between the amount of alcohol drinking and GGT, aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase ratio, MCV of erythrocytes, and apolipoprotein A1 and B were analyzed and adjusted for potential liver injury risk factors. Results: The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol drinking (defined as consumption of more than two standard drinks per day) was 6.7%. Heavier drinkers tended to be younger and reported an average of 4.2 drinks per day. When tested alone or in combination, the sensitivity and positive predictive values for these blood tests were too low to be clinically useful in identifying the subjects in the heavier drinking category. Conclusions: In this large, national, population-based study, the markers of heavy drinking studied here, either alone or in combination, did not appear to be useful in identifying unhealthy drinking. More work is needed to find the novel marker(s) associated with risky alcohol drinking. PMID:20230722

  16. Fabrication and characterization of PVA/ODA-MMT-poly(MA-alt-1-octadecene)-g-graphene oxide e-spun nanofiber electrolytes and their response to bone cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Salimi, Kouroush; Bunyatova, Ulviya; Acar, Selim; Salamov, Bahtiyar; Turk, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a new approach to fabrication and characterization of novel polymer nanofiber electrolytes from intercalated PVA/ODA-MMT nanocomposite as a matrix polymer and encapsulated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with amphiphilic reactive copolymer as partner polymers using electrospinning method. The chemical and physical structures, surface morphology, thermal behaviors and electric conductivity of nanocomposites and nanofibers were investigated using analyses methods including FTIR, XRD, SEM, DSC-TGA and conductivity analysis. Significant improvements in nanofiber morphology and size distribution were observed when GO and reactive organoclay were incorporated as reinforcement fillers into various matrix/partner solution blends. The structural factors of matrix-partner polymer nanocomposite particles with higher zeta-potential play important roles in both chemical and physical interfacial interactions and phase separation processing and also lead to the formation of nanofibers with unique surface morphologies and good conductivities. The cytotoxic, necrotic and apoptotic effects of chosen nanofibers on osteocarcinoma cells were also investigated. These multifunctional, self-assembled, nanofibrous surfaces can serve as semi-conductive and bioactive platforms in various electrochemical and bio-engineering processes, as well as reactive matrices used for the immobilization of various biopolymer precursors. PMID:26838849

  17. UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical and in situ conductance studies of unusual stability of n- and p-doped poly(dimethyldioctylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) under high cathodic and anodic polarizations.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Z; Levi, M D; Salitra, G; Demadrille, R; Fisyuk, A; Zaban, A; Aurbach, D; Pron, A

    2008-02-21

    Combined CV studies and UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigations revealed an unusual stability of the p- and n-doped PMOThOD in the wide potential window of 4 V. The n-doping process occurs in this polymer down to -2.7 V (vs. Ag/Ag+) in a non-destructive way with the characteristic development of the omega3 transition as a function of the doping level. In situ electronic transport studies revealed a high conductivity of the n-doped polymer which implies high mobility of the negatively charged carriers in the freshly doped PMOThOD film electrodes. An increase in the cathodic polarization, long-term cycling of the film electrodes, especially of higher thickness, results in a growing contribution of the negatively charged carriers trapping to the redox properties of the PMOThOD. The trapping of the charged carriers reduces gradually the electronic conductance of the PMOThOD film, but its effect on the redox-capacity of the film (in a typical scan rates range up to 50 mV s(-1)) is only minor. PMID:18259643

  18. A 18-yr long (1993-2011) snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt.) for driving and evaluating snowpack models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, S.; Lejeune, Y.; Lesaffre, B.; Panel, J.-M.; Poncet, D.; David, P.; Sudul, M.

    2012-02-01

    A quality-controlled snow and meteorological dataset spanning the period 1 August 1993-31 July 2011 is presented, originating from the experimental station Col de Porte (1325 m altitude, Chartreuse range, France). Emphasis is placed on meteorological data relevant to the observation and modelling of the seasonal snowpack. In-situ driving data, at the hourly resolution, consist in measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming short-wave and long-wave radiation, precipitation rate partitioned between snow- and rainfall, with a focus on the snow-dominated season. Meteorological data for the three summer months (generally from 10 June to 20 September), when the continuity of the field record is not warranted, are taken from a local meteorological reanalysis (SAFRAN), in order to provide a continuous and consistent gap-free record. Evaluation data are provided at the daily (snow depth, snow water equivalent, runoff and albedo) and hourly (snow depth, albedo, runoff, surface temperature, soil temperature) time resolution. Internal snowpack information are provided from weekly manual snowpit observations (mostly consisting in penetration resistance, snow type, snow temperature and density profiles) and from a hourly record of temperature and height of vertically free "settling" disks. This dataset has been partially used in the past to assist in developing snowpack model and is presented here comprehensively for the purpose of multi-year model performance assessment. The data is placed on the PANGAEA repository (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.774249) as well as on the public ftp server ftp://ftp-cnrm.meteo.fr/pub-cencdp/.

  19. An 18-yr long (1993-2011) snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt.) for driving and evaluating snowpack models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, S.; Lejeune, Y.; Lesaffre, B.; Panel, J.-M.; Poncet, D.; David, P.; Sudul, M.

    2012-07-01

    A quality-controlled snow and meteorological dataset spanning the period 1 August 1993-31 July 2011 is presented, originating from the experimental station Col de Porte (1325 m altitude, Chartreuse range, France). Emphasis is placed on meteorological data relevant to the observation and modelling of the seasonal snowpack. In-situ driving data, at the hourly resolution, consist of measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, windspeed, incoming short-wave and long-wave radiation, precipitation rate partitioned between snow- and rainfall, with a focus on the snow-dominated season. Meteorological data for the three summer months (generally from 10 June to 20 September), when the continuity of the field record is not warranted, are taken from a local meteorological reanalysis (SAFRAN), in order to provide a continuous and consistent gap-free record. Data relevant to snowpack properties are provided at the daily (snow depth, snow water equivalent, runoff and albedo) and hourly (snow depth, albedo, runoff, surface temperature, soil temperature) time resolution. Internal snowpack information is provided from weekly manual snowpit observations (mostly consisting in penetration resistance, snow type, snow temperature and density profiles) and from a hourly record of temperature and height of vertically free ''settling'' disks. This dataset has been partially used in the past to assist in developing snowpack models and is presented here comprehensively for the purpose of multi-year model performance assessment. The data is placed on the PANGAEA repository (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.774249) as well as on the public ftp server ftp://ftp-cnrm.meteo.fr/pub-cencdp/.

  20. ALT-C 96: Integrating Technology into the Curriculum. Conference Programme and Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (3rd, Glasgow, Scotland, September 16-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Shona, Ed.

    This program for the 1996 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the poster sessions, discussions, workshops, and software demonstrations, and provides abstracts of the 38 papers presented. Topics covered by the papers include: hand-held technology for mathematics; modeling global warming; computer-mediated communications; Java;…

  1. ALT-C 95: Changing Education, Changing Technology. Conference Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (2nd, Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom, September 11-13, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David, Ed.

    This program for the 1995 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the presentations of the discussions, demonstrations, workshops, and poster sessions. Abstracts of the following papers presented at the conference are included: "New Structures for Learning" (Patrick Allen & Kate Sankey); "Multiple System Conferencing" (Susan…

  2. 75 FR 20672 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., Yemen; Diplomatic Passport 000021986 (Yemen); alt. Diplomatic Passport A011892 (Yemen); alt. Diplomatic Passport A009829 (Yemen); National ID No. 1417576 (Yemen) issued 7 Jan 1996; Passport 00514146...

  3. Results of an aerodynamic investigation of a space shuttle orbiter/747 carrier vehicle configuration to establish a free-stream data base for ALT separation investigations, utilizing a 0.0125-scale model (48-0/AX1318I-1) in the ARC 14-foot wind tunnel (CA23A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Force and moment data are presented which were obtained for each vehicle separately at a Mach number of 0.6, and for the mated orbiter/747 configuration at Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7. Orbiter angles of attack from 0 degrees to +12 degrees and 747/Carrier angles of attack from -3 degrees to +7 degrees were investigated at angles of sideslip of 0 degrees and -5 degrees. Model variables include orbiter elevon and rudder deflections, orbiter tail cone-on and off, various orbiter/747 attach structure configurations, 747 stabilizer and rudder deflections, and 747 CAM modification components-on and off. Photographs of test configurations are included.

  4. Analyse de cartes pédologiques pour identifier le rôle du régime tectonique sur la répartition régionale de la perméabilité des altérites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplot, Vincent; Curmi, Pierre; Walter, Christian; Bernoux, Martial

    2000-04-01

    Soil maps analysis to identify the role of the tectonic regime on saprolite permeability regional distribution. For applied geology, e.g., geotechnics or hydrogeology, it is of prime interest to know the spatial distribution of the saprolite permeability. This study focuses on the role of the tectonic regime on saprolite permeability regional distribution. Comparison of data concerning the uplift regime and soil organisation data from several pedological maps of the Armorican Massif (France) showed that blocks in relative uplift were characterized by a low proportion of hydromorphic soils, whereas a higher proportion marked blocks in relative downlift. Such differences can be related to the denudation regime, which affects the saprolite permeability.

  5. Interaction of mineral dust with gas phase nitric acid and sulfur dioxide during the MINATROC II field campaign: First estimate of the uptake coefficient alt="image" location="equation/jgrd12143-math-0002.gif" href="urn:x-wiley:01480227:media:jgrd12143:jgrd12143-math-0002"/> from atmospheric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umann, B.; Arnold, F.; Schaal, C.; Hanke, M.; Uecker, J.; Aufmhoff, H.; Balkanski, Y.; van Dingenen, R.

    2005-11-01

    Mineral dust, one of the most abundant aerosols by mass in the atmosphere, may have a lasting but to date almost unexplored effect on the trace gases nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). These gases have an important influence on, for example, the tropospheric ozone cycle, aerosol formation or acid rain. Within the second part of the MINATROC project (Mineral Dust and Tropospheric Chemistry) we investigated the interaction of mineral dust with gaseous HNO3 and SO2. The measurements were performed on a high mountain plateau (Izaña, Tenerife, 2367 m asl) using the highly sensitive CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) technique. During five periods of medium and one period of high atmospheric dust load, the HNO3 concentration decreased with increasing dust concentrations, and in all cases the HNO3 detection limit was reached. From the HNO3 decrease the uptake coefficient ? was calculated for the first time on the basis of in situ measurements. For the observed events, ? varied between 0.017 and 0.054. Moreover, during the dust events a significant decrease of ozone (O3) of the order of 30% was detected. The measurements and the analyses made in this paper show that the direct uptake of O3 on dust is a minor pathway for O3 depletion compared to the indirect effect, i.e., HNO3 depletion on dust which takes away a source of the O3 precursors nitrogen oxides. In contrast, a general interaction between SO2 and mineral dust was not observed. Positive as well as negative and no correlations between SO2 and mineral dust were detected.

  6. Sur l'origine par altération du substratum schisteux de la minéralisation chlorurée des eaux d'une nappe côtière sous climat semi-aride (Chtouka-Massa, Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimissa, Samira; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Mudry, Jacques; Hsissou, Youssef

    2004-11-01

    The origin of chloride ions in groundwater from the Chtouka-Massa plain (Morocco) was studied by using chemical and isotopic analyses of water, and petrographic and chemical analyses of rocks. It appears that the schist formation, which forms the basement of the studied aquifer, is the main source of the high Cl - concentrations in groundwater. In these schists, chloride is, for a part, probably contained in biotites, and is released into groundwater through the weathering of these minerals. However, the exceptionally high chloride contents of these schists are difficult to explain if one does not assume that they also contain evaporitic-type minerals. To cite this article: S. Krimissa et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  7. Letter of Appreciation to 2004 Journal of Optical Networking Reviewers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    The international scientific and engineering professions rely on the work of countless reviewers to ensure the quality of the research published in technical journals. Like all such journals, JON benefits from the tireless efforts of these volunteers. Below is a list of 2004 JON reviewers who have agreed to have their names published. We sincerely thank these reviewers, as well as those not listed, for their assistance to JON and praise them for their dedication to their profession. The system simply would not work without them. Charalambos Anastassiou Ivan Andonovic Nirwan Ansari Chris Bintjas Martin Birk Zoran Bojkovic Xiren Cao Yang Cao Calvin C.K. Chan Yongmao Chang Yang Chen Kwok-Wai Cheung Nim-Kwan Cheung Su Fong Chien Wilson Chu Yun Chung Tibor Cinkler Ignacio de Miguel Jiun S. Deng Jitender Deogun H.J.S. Dorren Mark Feuer Samrat Ganguly

  8. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust Part 1: Six refugees who fled.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bock, Julia; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2016-01-01

    From the times of Moritz Kaposi, Hungarian Jewish physicians have significantly contributed to the development of dermatology. Part 1 of this special report highlights some of the early Jewish dermatologists in Hungary. It also tells the stories of five Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who fled anti-Semitism in Hungary, or other European countries, between 1920 and 1941: Frederick Reiss, Emery Kocsard, Stephen Rothman, Peter Flesch, and George Csonka. A sixth Hungarian dermatologist, Tibor Benedek, was persecuted by the Nazis, because he had a Jewish wife, forcing the couple to flee Germany. Part 2 will focus on the ordeal faced by Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who did not leave their homeland during World War II. PMID:26903191

  9. Impact of Camping on Soil Properties at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Tibor, Matthew A.

    2014-05-01

    Recreational activity at campsites can cause compaction and metal contamination of soils. This study compared the bulk densities, penetration resistance values, organic matter contents, and Zn, Mn, and Cu contents of soils sampled from zones of varying recreational activity within the campsites at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA. The results of this study showed that there were statistically significant increases in the soil bulk densities and soil penetration resistance values compared to the controls. However, the low recreational intensity has not compacted the surface soils beyond an average of 1.36 g cm-3, which is not dense enough to hinder the root growth of the surrounding vegetation. There were no statistically significant differences between the soil organic matter content of the different activity zones at the 95% confidence interval. Zinc values were four orders of magnitude and Cu values three to four orders of magnitude below US EPA guideline limits. The EPA does not have guidelines for Mn, but Mn levels were lower than reported typical natural values for a nearby area. Therefore, metal contents were not high enough to be of concern. Taken together, these results were interpreted to indicate that the low-intensity camping activities that occur at Strawberry Lake campground have not had a significant negative impact on the soils found there. Additional information on this study can be found in Tibor and Brevik (2013). Reference Tibor, M.A., and E.C. Brevik. 2013. Anthropogenic Impacts on Campsite Soils at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota. Soil Horizons 54: doi:10.2136/sh13-06-0016.

  10. 76 FR 54535 - Designation of Three Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ..., Abdurrochim); DOB 16 Nov 1977; alt. DOB 16 Nov 1974; POB Solo, Indonesia; alt. POB Sukoharjo, Central Java... 1970; POB Central Java, Indonesia; nationality Indonesia (individual) . Dated: August 16, 2011....

  11. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may signal a decrease in kidney function. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , alanine amino transferase (ALT) , aspartate amino transferase (AST) , and bilirubin ; ALP, ALT, and AST are liver enzymes; bilirubin is produced by the liver. Elevated concentrations ...

  12. 78 FR 10000 - Unblocking of Five (5) Individuals as Specially Designated Global Terrorists Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... DARWISH, Sulayman Khalid (a.k.a. ``ABU AL-GHADIYA''), Syria; DOB 1976; alt. DOB circa 1974; POB Outside Damascus, Syria; nationality Syria; Passport 3936712 (Syria); alt. Passport 11012 (Syria)...

  13. Multiplex PCR method for detection of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes.

    PubMed

    Kingombe, Cesar I Bin; D'Aoust, Jean-Yves; Huys, Geert; Hofmann, Lisa; Rao, Mary; Kwan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. This assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. A total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. The alt gene was detected with 34 reference strains (97%) and occurred singly in 14% of these strains. The frequency of occurrence of the act/alt, act/alt/ast, and alt/ast gene patterns in reference strains was 14 (40%), 2 (6%), and 2 (6%), respectively. An unpredicted amplicon was detected in 11 reference strains (31%). Characterization of this amplicon showed that its size was 148 bp, as generated by the AHLF and AHLR primers, and that it uniquely aligned with the Aeromonas salmonicida A449 genome sequence (GenBank accession number CP000644). This amplicon was named Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida hypothetical protein amplicon (AssHPA). In the 537 food-borne isolates, the act and alt genes were most dominant and were detected in 349 (65%) and 452 (84%) isolates, respectively, either alone or in combinations. The act and alt genes occurred singly in 30 (6%) and 128 (24%) of these strains, respectively. The act/alt gene pattern occurred in 315 isolates (59%), whereas the ast gene was always linked to strains exhibiting the act/alt/ast and alt/ast gene combinations in 4 (0.7%) and 5 (0.9%) isolates, respectively. The uniplex amplification of three enterotoxin genes separately confirms the specificity of the unique selected primers. This multiplex PCR is rapid and simple and can detect the presence of three Aeromonas enterotoxin genes in a single assay. PMID:19933350

  14. 78 FR 21007 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 13348

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Liberia; nationality Liberia; alt. nationality Nigerian (individual) . 2. COOPER, Randolph; DOB 28 Oct... 27 Oct 1967; alt. DOB 27 Oct 1963; Former Managing Director, Liberian Petroleum Refining Company..., Vladimir Abramovich); DOB 14 Dec 1947; alt. DOB 18 Oct 1946; nationality Ukraine; Passport...

  15. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus) naturally infects several ornamental plants. Differences were previously noted between systemic symptoms induced in Nicotiana benthamiana by different isolates of AltMV, and by four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP. Virus accumulation was enhance...

  16. The Success of Advanced Learning Technologies for Instruction: Research and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldeway, Dan O.

    2002-01-01

    Data from three graduate programs using advanced learning technologies (ALTs) identified important human factors issues in technology use in three categories: learners (needs, skills, support, and motivation related to ALTs); faculty (attitudes, skills, support, and motivation related to ALTs); and technical staff (methods of providing assistance,…

  17. Regularization of a non-characteristic Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation in multiple dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosowski, Yvonne; von Lieres, Eric; Schneider, Adrian

    1999-06-01

    In this paper we consider the non-characteristic Cauchy problem 0266-5611/15/3/307/img1" ALT="(equation)"/> where 0266-5611/15/3/307/img2" ALT="(equation)"/> with appropriate coefficient functions a, b and c. Assuming that the Cauchy data icons/Journals/Common/varphi" ALT="varphi are given inexactly by a function icons/Journals/Common/varphi" ALT="varphiicons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> satisfying ||icons/Journals/Common/varphi" ALT="varphi" ALIGN="TOP"/>-icons/Journals/Common/varphi" ALT="varphi" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>||Hricons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> for some ricons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 and that f(y,t): = u(l,y,t) exists and belongs to Hs(icons/Journals/Common/BbbR" ALT="BbbR" ALIGN="TOP"/>n-1 × icons/Journals/Common/BbbR" ALT="BbbR" ALIGN="TOP"/>) for some sicons/Journals/Common/in" ALT="in" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/BbbR" ALT="BbbR" ALIGN="TOP"/>, it is desired to calculate f from the improper data icons/Journals/Common/varphi" ALT="varphi" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>. This problem is well known to be severely ill-posed: a small perturbation in the Cauchy data may cause a dramatically large error in the solution. In this paper the following mollification method is suggested for this problem: if the Cauchy data are given inexactly then we mollify them by projection on elements of Meyers multiresolution approximation {Vj}jicons/Journals/Common/in" ALT="in" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/BbbZ" ALT="BbbZ" ALIGN="TOP"/>. Within every space Vj the solution of the above problem depends continuously on the data, and we can find a mollification parameter J depending on the noise level icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> in the Cauchy data such that the error estimation between the

  18. Alternative lengthening of telomeres renders cancer cells hypersensitive to ATR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Rachel Litman; Cox, Kelli E; Jeitany, Maya; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Bryll, Alysia R; Ganem, Neil J; Bersani, Francesca; Pineda, Jose R; Suvà, Mario L; Benes, Cyril H; Haber, Daniel A; Boussin, Francois D; Zou, Lee

    2015-01-16

    Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replication protein A (RPA) with telomeres after DNA replication, creating a recombinogenic nucleoprotein structure. Inhibition of the protein kinase ATR, a critical regulator of recombination recruited by RPA, disrupts ALT and triggers chromosome fragmentation and apoptosis in ALT cells. The cell death induced by ATR inhibitors is highly selective for cancer cells that rely on ALT, suggesting that such inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ALT-positive cancers. PMID:25593184

  19. Rapid induction of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Arnoult, Nausica; Lackner, Daniel H.; Oganesian, Liana; Haggblom, Candy; Corpet, Armelle; Almouzni, Genevieve; Karlseder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway of mammalian chromosome end maintenance has remained an unresolved issue. We have discovered that co-depletion of the histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b in human cells induced all hallmarks of ALT in both primary and cancer cells. These included the formation of ALT associated PML bodies (APBs), extra-chromosomal telomeric DNA species an elevated frequency of telomeric sister chromatid exchanges (t-SCE) events and inter-telomeric exchange of an integrated tag. The induction of ALT characteristics in this setting led to the simultaneous suppression of telomerase. We identified that ALT induction is positively regulated by RAD17 and BLM, while negatively regulated by EXO1 and DNA2. The induction of ALT phenotypes as a consequence of ASF1 depletion strongly support the hypothesis that ALT is a consequence of a histone management dysfunction. PMID:24413054

  20. Sex and the Library. Confirmed by the Research: There is Sex in the Library [and] Alt.sex: Detour off the Information Highway [and] Sex in Public (Libraries): An Historical Sampler of What Every Librarian Should Know [and] Mission Position: Censorship in the Corporate Library [and] Hard Cases: Some Issues Concerning the First Amendment's Protection of Free Speech and Free Press [and] Subtle Censors: Collection Development in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracy, Pauletta Brown, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Six articles address issues of censorship and sexuality in libraries. Highlights include: surveys of censorship in North Carolina, acceptable use policies for the Internet, perceptions of librarians' sexuality, the proprietary nature of corporate library holdings, contemporary views and interpretation of First Amendment rights, and collection…

  1. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Tran Nguyen Thanh; Tseng, Tina T.-C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy) and Nafion®) modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx)) immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s) and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA), respectively). The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2) (N = 10), respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C). The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L) and reasonable recoveries (70%~107%) were obtained. PMID:27240366

  2. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Tran Nguyen Thanh; Tseng, Tina T-C

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy) and Nafion(®)) modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx)) immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s) and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA), respectively). The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10-900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm²) (N = 10), respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at -20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C). The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at -20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L) and reasonable recoveries (70%~107%) were obtained. PMID:27240366

  3. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    PubMed

    Napier, Christine E; Huschtscha, Lily I; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R; Hendrickson, Eric A; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-06-30

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT. PMID:26001292

  4. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α transactivates the mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase gene in the kidney of Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Salgado, María C; Metón, Isidoro; Anemaet, Ida G; González, J Diego; Fernández, Felipe; Baanante, Isabel V

    2012-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) plays an important role in amino acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. The preference of carnivorous fish for protein amino acids instead of carbohydrates as a source of energy lead us to study the transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial ALT (mALT) gene and to characterize the enzyme kinetics and modulation of mALT expression in the kidney of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) under different nutritional and hormonal conditions. 5'-Deletion analysis of mALT promoter in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays allowed us to identify HNF4α as a new factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of mALT expression. Quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that starvation and the administration of streptozotocin (STZ) decreased HNF4α levels in the kidney of S. aurata, leading to the downregulation of mALT transcription. Analysis of the tissue distribution showed that kidney, liver, and intestine were the tissues with higher mALT and HNF4α expression. Kinetic analysis indicates that mALT enzyme is more efficient in catalyzing the conversion of L: -alanine to pyruvate than the reverse reaction. From these results, we conclude that HNF4α transactivates the mALT promoter and that the low levels of mALT expression found in the kidney of starved and STZ-treated fish result from a decreased expression of HNF4α. Our findings suggest that the mALT isoenzyme plays a major role in oxidazing dietary amino acids, and points to ALT as a target for a biotechnological action to spare protein and optimize the use of dietary nutrients for fish culture. PMID:21607544

  5. Effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty on the rate of filtering surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Lynch, M.G.

    1986-03-01

    We examined the impact of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) on the overall rate of filtering surgery on a resident service. From 1981 through 1984, 121 eyes underwent ALT for treatment of uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma despite maximum tolerated medical therapy. Mean intraocular pressure decreased from 27 +/- 4 mmHg to 20 +/- 5 mmHg (median follow-up, 9 months). From 1978 through 1981, the mean annual rate of filtering surgery was 16. Only one filtering procedure was performed in 1982, the first full year of ALT use. However, 15 filtering procedures were performed in 1983 and 18 were performed in 1984. Despite a large number of apparently effective ALT treatments and despite an overall reduction in outpatient visits of 20%, the rate of filtering surgery has returned to the pre-ALT level. This suggests that ALT may be effective in delaying the need for surgery, but in many cases it probably does not prevent surgery.

  6. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study.

    PubMed

    Zile, Melanie A; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (<110 beats per minute). Since pressure alternans occurs simultaneously with MTWA and has a higher signal to noise ratio, it may be a better predictor of arrhythmia, although the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between force alternans (FORCE-ALT), the cellular manifestation of pressure alternans, and action potential voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart

  7. A Case of Apparent Life-Threatening Event: Comorbid Gastric Volvulus Associated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Epilepsy in a 4-Month-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yoshihiko; Horiike, Masaki; Tatsumi, Ako; Sakamoto, Haruko; Fujino, Hisanori; Sumimoto, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most isolated episodes of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) do not lead to the diagnosis of serious conditions, and their prognoses are generally benign. However, recurrent ALTEs are often associated with a risk of future serious adverse events and should be evaluated for appropriate management. Here we present ALTE case in which gastric volvulus associated gastroesophageal reflux disease was detected as an etiology initially, followed by the detection of epilepsy as another etiology. Clinicians should consider possibility of two or more etiologies in a single recurrent ALTE case. PMID:27293941

  8. Oxidative in vitro metabolism of the Alternaria toxins altenuene and isoaltenuene.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Erika; Herrmann, Carina; Altemöller, Martina; Podlech, Joachim; Metzler, Manfred

    2009-04-01

    The mycotoxins altenuene (ALT) and isoaltenuene (iALT) frequently occur in food and feed items infested by fungi of the genus Alternaria, but nothing is known about their oxidative metabolism in mammals. We have therefore incubated ALT and iALT with microsomes from rat liver in the presence of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-generating system and analyzed the extracted metabolites with HPLC and GC-MS after trimethylsilylation. Both toxins formed a major metabolite, which was tentatively identified as the 8-hydroxylation product by GC-MS analysis and by its methylation by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase. Three minor metabolites were tentatively identified as 10-hydroxy- and two stereoisomers of 4-hydroxy-ALT and -iALT. The same metabolic pattern was observed in microsomes from different rat strains and from pigs and humans. Moreover, incubation of ALT with rat liver slices provided evidence that the same oxidative metabolites were formed under in vivo-like conditions. Thus, ALT and iALT exhibit a considerable propensity for undergoing metabolic hydroxylation reactions, and the toxicological properties of the oxidative metabolites should now be studied. PMID:19065583

  9. Alternaria extract activates autophagy that induces IL-18 release from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Murai, Hiroki; Okazaki, Shintaro; Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Hosoki, Koa; Yasutomi, Motoko; Sur, Sanjiv; Ohshima, Yusei

    2015-09-01

    Alternaria alternata is a major outdoor allergen that causes allergic airway diseases. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) has been shown to induce airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 and thereby initiate Th2-type responses. We investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in IL-18 release from ALT-E-stimulated airway epithelial cells. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were stimulated with ALT-E in the presence of different inhibitors of autophagy or caspases. IL-18 levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. The numbers of autophagosomes, an LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, and p62 degradation were determined by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin, which inhibit the formation of preautophagosomal structures and autolysosomes, respectively, suppressed ALT-E-induced IL-18 release by cells, whereas caspase 1 and 8 inhibitors did not. ALT-E-stimulation increased autophagosome formation, LC-3 conversion, and p62 degradation in airway epithelial cells. LPS-stimulation induced the LC3 conversion in A549 cells, but did not induce IL-18 release or p62 degradation. Unlike LPS, ALT-E induced airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 via an autophagy dependent, caspase 1 and 8 independent pathway. Although autophagy has been shown to negatively regulate canonical inflammasome activity in TLR-stimulated macrophages, our data indicates that this process is an unconventional mechanism of IL-18 secretion by airway epithelial cells. PMID:26032499

  10. A Case of Apparent Life-Threatening Event: Comorbid Gastric Volvulus Associated Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Epilepsy in a 4-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Yoshihiko; Horiike, Masaki; Tatsumi, Ako; Sakamoto, Haruko; Fujino, Hisanori; Sumimoto, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most isolated episodes of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) do not lead to the diagnosis of serious conditions, and their prognoses are generally benign. However, recurrent ALTEs are often associated with a risk of future serious adverse events and should be evaluated for appropriate management. Here we present ALTE case in which gastric volvulus associated gastroesophageal reflux disease was detected as an etiology initially, followed by the detection of epilepsy as another etiology. Clinicians should consider possibility of two or more etiologies in a single recurrent ALTE case. PMID:27293941

  11. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  12. The systems perspective at the crossroads between chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    de la Escosura, Andrés; Briones, Carlos; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2015-09-21

    During the last century a number of authors pointed to the inherently systemic and dynamic nature of the living, yet their message was largely ignored by the mainstream of the scientific community. Tibor Ganti was one of those early pioneers, proposing a theoretical framework to understand the living principles in terms of chemical transformation cycles and their coupling. The turn of the century then brought with it a novel 'systems' paradigm, which shined light on all that previous work and carried many implications for the way we conceive of chemical and biological complexity today. In this article tribute is paid to some of those seminal contributions, highlighting the importance of adopting a systems view in present chemistry, particularly if plausible mechanisms of chemical evolution toward the first living entities want to be unraveled. We examine and put in perspective recent discoveries in the emerging subfield of 'prebiotic systems chemistry', reaching the conclusion that the functional coupling of protocellular subsystems (i.e., protometabolism, protogenome and membrane compartment) is the most challenging target to make qualitative advances in the problem of the origins of life. For the long-awaited goal of assembling an autonomous protocell from its most basic molecular building blocks, we further suggest that a systems integrative strategy should be considered from the earliest synthetic steps, already at the level of monomer precursors, opening the way to biogenesis. PMID:25983045

  13. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  14. A Mechanistic Assessment of the Discordance between Normal Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels and Altered Liver Histology in Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xianqiong; Yang, Jiaen; Tang, Jinmo; Gu, Chong; Huang, Lijian; Zheng, Ying; Liang, Huiqing; Wang, Min; Wu, Chuncheng; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Manying; Yu, Zhijian; Mao, Qianguo

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms underlying the discordance between normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and significant alterations in liver histology of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with persistent normal ALT (PNALT) or minimally elevated ALT. A total of 300 treatment-naive chronic HBV-infected patients with PNALT (ALT ≤ upper limit of normal [ULN, 40 U/ml]) or minimally elevated ALT (1-2×ULN) were retrospectively enrolled. All patients underwent liver biopsy and histological changes were analyzed along with biochemical and HBV markers. Among 300 participants, 177 were HBeAg-positive and 123 HBeAg-negative. Significant histologic abnormalities were found in 42.9% (76/177) and 52.8% (65/123) of HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients, respectively. Significant fibrosis, which is a marker of prior injury, was more frequently detected than significant necroinflammation (suggesting active liver injury) in both HBeAg-positive and -negative groups, suggesting that liver injury occurred intermittently in our cohort. No significant differences were noticed in the percentage of patients with severe fibrosis between HBeAg-positive and negative phases or between ages 30 and 40 and over 40, suggesting that the fibrosis was possibly carried over from an early phase. Finally, lowering ALT ULN (30 U/L for men, 19 U/L for women) alone was not adequate to increase the sensitivity of ALT detection of liver injury. However, the study was limited to a small sample size of 13 HBeAg-positive patients with ALT in the revised normal range. We detected significant liver pathology in almost 50% of chronic HBV infected patients with PNALT (ALT ≤ 40 U/ml) or minimally elevated ALT. We postulated that small-scale intermittent liver injury was possibly responsible for the discordance between normal serum ALT and significant liver changes in our cohort. PMID:26230094

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus, Isolated from Achyranthes bidentata in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Yusa, Akira; Nishida, Shuko; Tanno, Kazuyuki; Keima, Takuya; Nijo, Takamichi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) infecting Achyranthes bidentata was first detected in Asia, and the complete genome sequence (6,604 nucleotides) was determined. Sequence identity analysis and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that this isolate is the most phylogenetically distant AltMV isolate worldwide. PMID:26988034

  16. Effects of Computer-Based Early-Reading Academic Learning Time on Early-Reading Achievement: A Dose-Response Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuston, Edward Benjamin Hull

    2010-01-01

    Academic learning time (ALT) has long had the theoretical underpinnings sufficient to claim a causal relationship with academic achievement, but to this point empirical evidence has been lacking. This dearth of evidence has existed primarily due to difficulties associated with operationalizing ALT in traditional educational settings. Recent…

  17. 75 FR 15772 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...; Leonides Guerra No. 97 y Eugenio Lopez No. 97, Colonia San Rafael, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Claveles... RIOJAS, Eleazar; a.k.a. GONZALEZ MARTINEZ, Erick); Cuauhtemoc 805, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; Diaz... Valle Hermoso, Tamaulipas; Alt. POB La Libertad, Cunduacan, Tabasco, Mexico; Alt. POB San...

  18. Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-10-01

    Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic-paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including 'prosociality', 'communication', 'details/patterns' and 'imagination' in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower 'prosociality', which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower 'prosociality' also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects. PMID:23946005

  19. RHODIUM CATALYZED CONJUGATED ADDITION OF UNSATURATED CARBONYL COMPOUNDS BY TRIPHENYLBISMUTH IN AQUEOUS MEDIA AND UNDER AN AIR ATMOSPHERE. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    In the presence of a rhodium catalyst, alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-unsaturated est...

  20. Extrapolating active layer thickness measurements across Arctic polygonal terrain using LiDAR and NDVI data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Rowland, Joel C.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Brumby, Steven P.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Wainwright, Haruko; Wilson, Cathy J.; Altmann, Garrett L.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Peterson, John; Ulrich, Craig; Tweedie, Craig E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2014-08-01

    Landscape attributes that vary with microtopography, such as active layer thickness (ALT), are labor intensive and difficult to document effectively through in situ methods at kilometer spatial extents, thus rendering remotely sensed methods desirable. Spatially explicit estimates of ALT can provide critically needed data for parameterization, initialization, and evaluation of Arctic terrestrial models. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach using high-resolution remotely sensed data for estimating centimeter-scale ALT in a 5 km2 area of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Barrow, Alaska. We use a simple regression-based, machine learning data-fusion algorithm that uses topographic and spectral metrics derived from multisensor data (LiDAR and WorldView-2) to estimate ALT (2 m spatial resolution) across the study area. Comparison of the ALT estimates with ground-based measurements, indicates the accuracy (r2 = 0.76, RMSE ±4.4 cm) of the approach. While it is generally accepted that broad climatic variability associated with increasing air temperature will govern the regional averages of ALT, consistent with prior studies, our findings using high-resolution LiDAR and WorldView-2 data, show that smaller-scale variability in ALT is controlled by local eco-hydro-geomorphic factors. This work demonstrates a path forward for mapping ALT at high spatial resolution and across sufficiently large regions for improved understanding and predictions of coupled dynamics among permafrost, hydrology, and land-surface processes from readily available remote sensing data.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF ALPHA-AMINO GAMMA-LACTONE VIA A NOVEL TANDEM THREE-COMPONENT REACTION OF ALKENES, GLYOXYLATES AND AMINES. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>-Amino alt="small gamma, Greek" border=0>-lactones were generated by an InCl3...

  2. 75 FR 77044 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ..., Felicien (a.k.a. IRAKEZA, Fred); DOB 1967; POB Murama, Kinyinya, Rubungo, Kigali, Rwanda; nationality Rwanda; Lt. Col. (individual) 2. ZIMURINDA, Innocent; DOB 1 Sep 1972; alt. DOB 1975; POB Ngungu, Masisi... District (Northern Province), Rwanda; alt. POB Nyakinama, Ruhengeri, Rwanda; FDLR President; FDLR 2nd...

  3. Optimal cut-off value of alanine aminotransferase level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Akihito; Tatsumi, Fuminori; Okauchi, Seizo; Yabe, Hiroki; Tsuda, Tomohiro; Okutani, Kazuma; Yamashita, Kazuki; Nakashima, Koji; Kaku, Kohei; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2016-07-01

    Optimal cut-off value of ALT level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver was as low as 28.0 U/L. We should consider the possibility of fatty liver even when ALT level is within normal range in subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. PMID:27373695

  4. Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic–paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including ‘prosociality’, ‘communication’, ‘details/patterns’ and ‘imagination’ in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower ‘prosociality’, which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower ‘prosociality’ also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects. PMID:23946005

  5. Insights into Alternanthera mosaic virus TGB3 functions: Interactions with Nicotiana benthamiana PsbO correlate with chloroplast vesiculation and veinal necrosis caused by TGB3 overexpression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein is involved in viral movement. AltMV TGB3 subcellular localization was previously shown to be distinct from that of Potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, and a chloroplast binding domain identified; veinal necrosis and chloroplast vesiculati...

  6. Flu I.Q. Widget

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Winter-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Fall-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ...

  7. THE BINDING OF COCAINE TO CYCLODEXTRINS. (R826653)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Cocaine binds into alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-cyclodextrin, but not detectably into alt="small alpha, Greek" border=...

  8. Developing an Alternanthera mosaic virus vector for efficient clonging of Whitefly cDNA RNAi to screen gene function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; genus Potexvirus) is distinguished from the type member of the genus, Potato virus X by features of viral movement and variation within triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1). AltMV TGB1 variants TGB1L88 and TGB1P88 confer strong and weak silencing suppression, respect...

  9. Variability in alternanthera mosaic virus isolates from different hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have determined the complete genome sequences of Alternanthera mosaic virus phlox isolate PA (AltMV-PA) and four infectious clone variants derived from AltMV-SP, as well as partial sequences of other isolates from various types of phlox, and from portulaca, nandina, and cineraria. Phylogenetic co...

  10. 50 CFR 679.7 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sea lion critical habitat in Area 542. Conduct directed fishing for Atka mackerel inside waters 10 nm... hours, A.l.t., to December 31, 2400 hours, A.l.t. (24) Atka mackerel directed fishing in the Bering Sea subarea. Conduct directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and adjacent State...

  11. Widgets and Buttons

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/images/search.gif" align="absmiddle" width="57" height="24" border="0" title="Search" alt="Search"/> ... medlineplus/images/search.gif" align="absmiddle" width="57" height="24" border="0" title="Search" alt="Search"/> ...

  12. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  13. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... FR 11778, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., June 10, 2010, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t... specifications for Pacific cod included in the final harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR... unused amount of Pacific cod from trawl catcher vessels to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3...

  14. The Education and Training of Learning Technologists: A Competences Approach (Report to IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technologies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Kinshuk; Koper, Rob; Okamoto, Toshio; Spector, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The educational and training requirements of Advanced Learning Technology (ALT) need to engage with curricula that reflect the varied requirements of the workplace and of society. Students have a range of interests and ambitions in ALT which the instructional process has to accommodate and support. With these considerations in mind the IEEE…

  15. NEW METABOLITES FROM THE MICROBIAL OXIDATION OF FLUORINATED AROMATIC COMPOUNDS. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    m-Bromo-alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,Assembly of telomeric chromatin to create ALTernative endings.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Almouzni, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    Circumvention of the telomere length-dependent mechanisms that control the upper boundaries of cellular proliferation is necessary for the unlimited growth of cancer. Most cancer cells achieve cellular immortality by up-regulating the expression of telomerase to extend and maintain their telomere length. However, a small but significant number of cancers do so via the exchange of telomeric DNA between chromosomes in a pathway termed alternative lengthening of telomeres, or ALT. Although it remains to be clarified why a cell chooses the ALT pathway and how ALT is initiated, recently identified mutations in factors that shape the chromatin and epigenetic landscape of ALT telomeres are shedding light on these mechanisms. In this review, we examine these recent findings and integrate them into the current models of the ALT mechanism. PMID:25172551

  16. Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

  17. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  18. Influences of Peat, Surface and Subsurface Water, and Snow on Active Layer Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Atchley, Adam; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L; Harp, Dylan; Wilson, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but the strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.

  19. Influences of Peat, Surface and Subsurface Water, and Snow on Active Layer Thickness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Atchley, Adam; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L; Harp, Dylan; Wilson, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  1. Telomere maintenance through recruitment of internal genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Seo, Beomseok; Kim, Chuna; Hills, Mark; Sung, Sanghyun; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Eunkyeong; Lim, Daisy S; Oh, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Rachael Mi Jung; Chun, Jongsik; Shim, Jaegal; Lee, Junho

    2015-01-01

    Cells surviving crisis are often tumorigenic and their telomeres are commonly maintained through the reactivation of telomerase. However, surviving cells occasionally activate a recombination-based mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Here we establish stably maintained survivors in telomerase-deleted Caenorhabditis elegans that escape from sterility by activating ALT. ALT survivors trans-duplicate an internal genomic region, which is already cis-duplicated to chromosome ends, across the telomeres of all chromosomes. These 'Template for ALT' (TALT) regions consist of a block of genomic DNA flanked by telomere-like sequences, and are different between two genetic background. We establish a model that an ancestral duplication of a donor TALT region to a proximal telomere region forms a genomic reservoir ready to be incorporated into telomeres on ALT activation. PMID:26382656

  2. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-01

    Active layer thickness (ALT), the uppermost layer of soil that thaws on an annual basis, is a direct control on the amount of organic carbon potentially available for decomposition and release to the atmosphere as carbon-rich Arctic permafrost soils thaw in a warming climate. We investigate how key site characteristics affect ALT using an integrated surface/subsurface permafrost thermal hydrology model. ALT is most sensitive to organic layer thickness followed by snow depth but is relatively insensitive to the amount of water on the landscape with other conditions held fixed. The weak ALT sensitivity to subsurface saturation suggests that changes in Arctic landscape hydrology may only have a minor effect on future ALT. However, surface inundation amplifies the sensitivities to the other parameters and under large snowpacks can trigger the formation of near-surface taliks.

  3. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24–28 weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ≥7.8 mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels with GDM. Relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion due to interaction and synergy index were used to estimate additive interaction between high ALT and overweight/obesity for GDM. Finally, 1332 (7.7%) women had GDM. ALT levels were positively associated with GDM risk without a clear threshold. Using ALT levels <22 U/L as the referent, the middle ALT levels (≥22 to <40 U/L) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals): 1.41(1.21–1.65)] and high ALT levels (≥40 U/L) [1.62 (1.31–2.00)] were associated with increased GDM risk. Maternal overweight/obesity greatly enhanced the OR of ALT ≥22 U/L from 1.44 (1.23–1.69) to 3.46 (2.79–4.29) with significant additive interactions. In conclusion, elevated ALT levels in the first trimester even within normal range predicted GDM risk, further enhanced by overweight/obesity. PMID:27264612

  4. Alanine Aminotransferase Is Associated with an Adverse Nocturnal Blood Glucose Profile in Individuals with Normal Glucose Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. Methods A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00–20∶00) and nocturnal (20∶00–06∶00) mean blood glucose (MBG) levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. Results The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT <17 IU/L (P<0.05). Nocturnal MBG was positively correlated with ALT levels (Pearson correlation analysis: r = 0.187, P = 0.001), and the correlation remained significant after correction for the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.105, P = 0.041). No correlations were found between diurnal MBG and ALT, and nocturnal or diurnal MBG and aspartate aminotransferase or gamma-glutamyltransferase (all, P>0.05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05). Conclusions Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation. PMID:23424646

  5. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald Cw; Chan, Juliana Cn; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24-28 weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ≥7.8 mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels with GDM. Relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion due to interaction and synergy index were used to estimate additive interaction between high ALT and overweight/obesity for GDM. Finally, 1332 (7.7%) women had GDM. ALT levels were positively associated with GDM risk without a clear threshold. Using ALT levels <22 U/L as the referent, the middle ALT levels (≥22 to <40 U/L) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals): 1.41(1.21-1.65)] and high ALT levels (≥40 U/L) [1.62 (1.31-2.00)] were associated with increased GDM risk. Maternal overweight/obesity greatly enhanced the OR of ALT ≥22 U/L from 1.44 (1.23-1.69) to 3.46 (2.79-4.29) with significant additive interactions. In conclusion, elevated ALT levels in the first trimester even within normal range predicted GDM risk, further enhanced by overweight/obesity. PMID:27264612

  6. Alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype in malignant vascular tumors is highly associated with loss of ATRX expression and is frequently observed in hepatic angiosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Liang, Cher-Wei; Hsu, Hung-Han; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a mechanism using homologous recombination to maintain telomere length and sustain limitless replicability of cancer cells. Recently, ALT has been found to be associated with inactivation of either α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein. In this study, 119 tumors (88 angiosarcomas, 11 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, and 20 Kaposi sarcomas) were analyzed to determine the ALT status, its relationship to loss of ATRX/DAXX expression, and the clinicopathological features. In addition, the mutation status in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) promoter was also studied. Loss of ATRX expression was observed in 21% (16/77) of the primary angiosarcomas and 9% (1/11) of epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas. DAXX expression was intact in all but 2 ATRX-deficient angiosarcomas. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed 28% (17/61) of the primary angiosarcomas were ALT positive. Remarkably, ALT was highly associated with loss of ATRX expression: all but 2 ALT-positive angiosarcomas were ATRX deficient. Notably, hepatic angiosarcomas were frequently ATRX deficient (8/13) and/or ALT positive (8/12). None of the secondary angiosarcomas were ATRX/DAXX deficient or ALT positive. The only ATRX-deficient epithelioid hemangioendothelioma was positive for ALT. Forty-seven angiosarcomas were tested for TERT promoter mutation. Despite the fact that angiosarcoma occurs most commonly in sun-damaged skin, mutation was detected in only 1 radiation-associated angiosarcoma (2%). We conclude that ALT is an important telomere maintenance mechanism in primary angiosarcomas. This feature is highly associated with loss of ATRX expression and is frequently observed in hepatic angiosarcomas. PMID:26190196

  7. Photon fluence perturbation correction factors for solid state detectors irradiated in kilovoltage photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobit, Paul N.; Sandison, George A.; Nahum, Alan E.

    2000-02-01

    Dose perturbation correction factors, ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> (p ), for LiF, CaF2 and Li2 B4 O7 solid state detectors have been determined using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Each detector was simulated in the form of a disc of diameter 3.61 mm and thickness 1 mm irradiated in a clinical kilovoltage photon beam at a depth of 1 cm in a water phantom. The perturbation correction factor ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> (p ) is defined as the deviation of the absorbed dose ratio from the average mass energy absorption coefficient ratio of water to the detector material, (ALT="mubar" ALIGN="TOP"/> en /ALT="rho" ALIGN="TOP"/> )med,det , which is evaluated assuming that the photon fluence spectrum in the medium and in the detector material are identical. We define another mass energy absorption coefficient ratio, (ALT="kappabar" ALIGN="TOP"/> en /ALT="rho" ALIGN="TOP"/> )med,det , which is evaluated using the actual photon fluence spectrum in the medium and detector for LiF and CaF2 rather than assuming they are identical. (ALT="kappabar" ALIGN="TOP"/> en /ALT="rho" ALIGN="TOP"/> )med,det predicts the average absorbed dose ratio of the medium to the detector material within 0.3%. When the difference in atomic number between the cavity and the phantom material is large then their photon fluence spectra will differ substantially resulting in a difference between (ALT="kappabar" ALIGN="TOP"/> en /ALT="rho" ALIGN="TOP"/> )med,det and (

  8. Alternative lengthening of telomeres is enriched in, and impacts survival of TP53 mutant pediatric malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mangerel, Joshua; Price, Aryeh; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Brzezinski, Jack; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Merino, Diana; Baskin, Berivan; Wasserman, Jonathan; Mistry, Matthew; Barszczyk, Mark; Picard, Daniel; Mack, Stephen; Remke, Marc; Starkman, Hava; Elizabeth, Cynthia; Zhang, Cindy; Alon, Noa; Lees, Jodi; Andrulis, Irene L; Wunder, Jay S; Jabado, Nada; Johnston, Donna L; Rutka, James T; Dirks, Peter B; Bouffet, Eric; Taylor, Michael D; Huang, Annie; Malkin, David; Hawkins, Cynthia; Tabori, Uri

    2014-12-01

    Although telomeres are maintained in most cancers by telomerase activation, a subset of tumors utilize alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to sustain self-renewal capacity. In order to study the prevalence and significance of ALT in childhood brain tumors we screened 517 pediatric brain tumors using the novel C-circle assay. We examined the association of ALT with alterations in genes found to segregate with specific histological phenotypes and with clinical outcome. ALT was detected almost exclusively in malignant tumors (p = 0.001). ALT was highly enriched in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (12 %), choroid plexus carcinomas (23 %) and high-grade gliomas (22 %). Furthermore, in contrast to adult gliomas, pediatric low grade gliomas which progressed to high-grade tumors did not exhibit the ALT phenotype. Somatic but not germline TP53 mutations were highly associated with ALT (p = 1.01 × 10(-8)). Of the other alterations examined, only ATRX point mutations and reduced expression were associated with the ALT phenotype (p = 0.0005). Interestingly, ALT attenuated the poor outcome conferred by TP53 mutations in specific pediatric brain tumors. Due to very poor prognosis, one year overall survival was quantified in malignant gliomas, while in children with choroid plexus carcinoma, five year overall survival was investigated. For children with TP53 mutant malignant gliomas, one year overall survival was 63 ± 12 and 23 ± 10 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.03), while for children with TP53 mutant choroid plexus carcinomas, 5 years overall survival was 67 ± 19 and 27 ± 13 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.07). These observations suggest that the presence of ALT is limited to a specific group of childhood brain cancers which harbor somatic TP53 mutations and may influence the outcome of these patients. Analysis of ALT may contribute to risk stratification and targeted therapies to

  9. A chemically modified carbon paste electrode with d-lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotranferase enzyme sequences for d-lactic acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Shu, H C; Wu, N P

    2001-04-12

    An amperometric biosensor was constructed for the analysis of d-lactic acid based on immobilizing d-lactate dehydrogenase(d-LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), NAD(+), a redox polymer and polyethylenimine in carbon paste. The effect of addition of ALT in the paste, using enzyme sequences of ALT/d-LDH, was insignificant for d-lactic acid analysis. The responses of d-lactic acid in ALT/d-LDH paste electrode are the same as those in d-LDH paste electrode. However, the interference effect of pyruvate in the sample can be substantially reduced if sodium glutamate was applied in the carrier solution. When ALT immobilized in control porous glass as an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was mounted in flow injection analysis system with the d-LDH paste electrode as detector for d-lactate analysis, the interference of the pyruvate can be significantly eliminated. The adverse effect of pyruvate in the samples for d-lactic acid analysis was reduced more effectively in ALT IMER with d-LDH electrode than in ALT/d-LDH electrode. PMID:18968259

  10. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Katharina I; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  11. Alternative lengthening of telomeres: recurrent cytogenetic aberrations and chromosome stability under extreme telomere dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

    2013-11-01

    Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

  12. Iron(III) coordination chemistry of alterobactin A: a siderophore from the marine bacterium Alteromonas luteoviolacea.

    PubMed

    Holt, Pamela D; Reid, Richard R; Lewis, Brent L; Luther, George W; Butler, Alison

    2005-10-17

    Alterobactin A is a siderophore produced by the oceanic bacterium Alteromonas luteoviolacea. The thermodynamic stability constant of the ferric alterobactin A (Alt-A) complex was estimated from electrochemical measurements on the basis of a previously reported linear relationship between the reduction potentials and the pH-independent stability constants for known iron(III) complexes. The reduction potential of the ferric alterobactin A complex determined by square wave voltammetry is -0.972 V vs SCE and reversible, corresponding to a thermodynamic stability constant of 10(51+/-2). Potentiometric titration of Fe(III)-Alt-A shows the release of six protons on complexation of Fe(III) to Alt-A. The 1H NMR resonances of the Ga(III)-Alt-A complex show that the C-4, C-5, and C-6 catecholate protons and the C(alpha) and C(beta) protons of both beta-hydroxyaspartate moieties are shifted downfield relative to the free ligand, which along with the potentiometric titration data is consistent with a complex in which Fe(III) is coordinated by both catecholate oxygen atoms and both oxygen atoms of each beta-hydroxyaspartate. The UV-vis spectrum of Fe(III)-Alt-A is invariant over the pH range 4-9, indicating the coordination does not change over a wide pH range. In addition, in the absence of a coordinated metal ion, the serine ester of Alt-A hydrolyzes forming Alt-B. PMID:16212394

  13. Effects of ventromedial and lateral hypothalamic stimulation on chemically-induced liver injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, M.; Shimazu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of hypothalamic stimulation on experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCL/sub 4/) or dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) were studied in rats, by measuring plasma alanine amino-transferase (ALT) activity as an index of acute liver injury. Electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VHM) in CCl/sub 4/-treated rats caused a marked increase in plasma ALT activity, accompanied by a significant decrease in ALT activity in the liver, although CCl4 treatment alone had no significant effect on plasma ALT activity. A similar effect of VHM stimulation on plasma ALT activity was observed in rats treated with DMN, another hepatotoxic chemical. No such exaggerated effect of VMH stimulation on plasma ALT activity was observed after stimulation of the lateral hypothalamic area (LH). Surgical sympathetic denervation of the liver greatly suppressed the increase in plasma ALT activity after CCl/sub 4/ injection and VMH stimulation. Measurement of regional blood flow indicated that VMH stimulation did not produce a significant change in blood flow to the liver. These results suggest that the VMH is involved in the progress of chemically-induced liver injury through activation of the sympathetic nerve, possibly by affecting liver metabolism more than the blood flow change to the liver.

  14. Topoisomerase II inhibition suppresses the proliferation of telomerase-negative cancers.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsun; Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Li, Tsai-Kun; Hung, Ting-Wei; Chang, Li-Te; Hsin, Ling-Wei; Teng, Shu-Chun

    2015-05-01

    Telomere maintenance is required for chromosome stability, and telomeres are typically elongated by telomerase following DNA replication. In both tumor and yeast cells that lack telomerase, telomeres are maintained via an alternative recombination mechanism. Previous studies have indicated that yeast Sgs1 and Top3 may work together to remove highly negative supercoils that are generated from recombination. However, the mechanism by which cells eradicate highly positive supercoils during recombination remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that TOP2 is involved in telomere-telomere recombination. Disturbance of telomeric structure by RIF1 or RIF2 deletion alleviates the requirement for TOP2 in telomere-telomere recombination. In human telomerase-negative alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) cells, TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown decreases ALT-associated PML bodies, increases telomere dysfunction-induced foci and triggers telomere shortening. Similar results were observed when ALT cells were treated with ICRF-193, a TOP2 inhibitor. Importantly, ICRF-193 treatment blocks ALT-associated phenotypes in vitro, causes telomere shortening, and inhibits ALT cell proliferation in mice. Taken together, these findings imply that TOP2 is involved in the ALT pathway, perhaps by resolving the highly positive supercoil structure at the front of the helicase. Inhibition of topoisomerase II may be a promising therapeutic approach that can be used to prevent cell proliferation in ALT-type cancer cells. PMID:25430478

  15. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Katharina I.; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  16. Hepatic Pathology Among Patients Without Known Liver Disease Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: Observations and a Perspective from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, David E.; Berk, Paul D.; Hsu, Jesse Y.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Flum, David; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Roerig, James; Machado, Laura L.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Belle, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver biopsy is not routine during bariatric surgery. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is widely used to screen for liver disease. We assessed the relationship between ALT and pathology in biopsies from Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) patients with normal preoperative ALTs. Methods Biopsies from the LABS-1 and LABS-2 studies were scored using the NASH CRN and Ishak systems. Diagnosis and histology were examined in relation to ALT. Results 693 suitable biopsies were evaluated. Biopsied patients had a median age of 45 years; 78.6% were female and 35.1% diabetic; median BMI was 46 kg/m2. 635 biopsied patients had preoperative ALTs. Median ALT was 25 IU/L, (IQR 19–36 IU/L); 26.6% had an ALT >35 IU/L and 29.9% exceeded the more restrictive Prati criteria for normal. Using the Prati criteria, 7.9% of participants with normal ALT had steatohepatitis and 5.3% had ≥stage 2 fibrosis. Logistic regression models were used to predict the probabilities of having bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis or a diagnosis of borderline/definite steatohepatitis in the unbiopsied LABS-2 sample. The proportion of biopsied participants with these findings was very similar to the modeled results from the unbiopsied cohorts. We estimated that 86.0% of participants with advanced fibrosis and 88.1% of participants with borderline/definite steatohepatitis were not biopsied and went undiagnosed. Conclusion As ALT did not reliably exclude significant obesity-related liver disease in bariatric surgery patients, consideration should be given to routine liver biopsy during bariatric surgery and medical follow-up of significant hepatic pathology. PMID:24782263

  17. PrP genotype frequencies and risk evaluation for scrapie in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Martemucci, Giovanni; Iamartino, Daniela; Blasi, Michele; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Concerns regarding scrapie in sheep breeding have increased in the last few decades. The present study was carried out in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy. In order to find breeding animals resistant to scrapie, the PrP genes of 1,205 animals from entire flocks of dairy native Apulian Leccese and Altamurana breeds, and Sicilian Comisana breed, were analysed for polymorphisms at codons 136, 154, and 171 related to scrapie resistance/susceptibility. The Altamurana breed was considered as two populations (Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe), based on presumed cross-breeding. A total of five alleles and ten different genotypes were found. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds followed by ARR, the most resistant allele to scrapie, which was highly prevalent in Comisana (50%) and in native Alt-Cav (42.4%). The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at not negligeable levels in allocthonous Comisana (3.5%), at a low frequency (0.2%) in native Leccese and Alt-Cra-Zoe, while it was absent in Alt-Cav. The frequencies of PrP genotypes with a very low susceptibility risk to scrapie (R1) was higher in Comisana and Alt-Cav. The most susceptible genotype, ARQ/VRQ, was found only in Comisana. Within the Altamurana breed, there were notable differences between Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe sheep. The Alt-Cav was characterised by the absence of VRQ and AHQ alleles and by the higher frequency of the ARR/ARR genotype (18.7%). Breeding programs, mainly in endangered breeds such as Altamurana, should be conducted gradually, combining resistance to scrapie, maintenance of genetic variability, and production. PMID:26549664

  18. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine decorated polymeric nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baocheng; Ding, Yuanyuan; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Han, Yuzhen; Han, Jingtian

    2015-06-01

    A novel targeting drug delivery system containing poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)58-b-polystyrene130 (P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) as a copolymer backbone, N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) as a targeting moiety was designed and synthesized. The NAG grafted copolymer (NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) was characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. The NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited spherical shapes with an average diameter about 56.27±0.43 nm, low critical micelle concentration of 0.028 mg/mL, negative zeta potential -41.46±0.99 mV, high drug loading 25.83±1.09% and encapsulation efficiency 69.69±3.98%. In vitro cell cytotoxicity was conducted to confirm the safety of the NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) results showed that the NAG targeting moiety enhanced the internalization and targeting ability of NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Anticancer activity toward MCF-7 cells and HT29 cells showed that DOX-loaded NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited a higher antitumor activity compared to DOX-loaded P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles, which could attribute to NAG receptor-mediated endocytosis. These results suggest that the biocompatible and non-toxic NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles may be used as an effective targeting drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:25921641

  19. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  20. Leiomyosarcoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres is associated with aggressive histologic features, loss of ATRX expression, and poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Hsu, Hung-Han; Yang, Ching-Yao

    2015-02-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with poor patient survival. Recently, it was shown that 53% to 62% of leiomyosarcomas use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as their telomere maintenance mechanism. The molecular basis of this mechanism has not been elucidated. Studies of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor have suggested that the inactivation of either α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein is associated with the ALT phenotype. In this study, we sought to determine the clinicopathologic features of leiomyosarcoma with the ALT phenotype and the possible relationship between this phenotype and ATRX/DAXX expression. Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) promoter mutation analysis was also performed. Ninety-two leiomyosarcomas derived from the uterus, retroperitoneum/intra-abdomen, and various other sites were analyzed. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that 59% (51/86) of leiomyosarcomas had the ALT phenotype. Loss of ATRX expression was observed in 33% of the tumors (30/92), and all but 2 ATRX-deficient tumors were ALT positive. Both the ALT phenotype and loss of ATRX expression were associated with epithelioid/pleomorphic cell morphology, tumor necrosis, and poor differentiation. None of the 92 cases lost DAXX expression. No TERT promoter mutation was detected (n=39). For survival analysis, poor differentiation, high FNCLCC grade, tumor size, and ALT phenotype were correlated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis. Tumor size and ALT phenotype remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. We concluded that the ALT phenotype in the leiomyosarcoma is associated with aggressive histologic features, loss of ATRX expression, and poor clinical outcome. PMID:25229770

  1. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with thyroid diseases with and without alanine aminotransferase levels above the upper tertile - Cross-sectional analytical study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nathanael de Oliveira E; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Colombo, Bruno da Silveira; Corrêa, Carina Gabriela; Hatanaka, Simone Aiko; Canalli, Maria Heloisa Büsi da Silva; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

    2016-04-01

    Objective Thyroid disease affects 6.6% of the general population. The liver is fundamental in metabolizing thyroid hormones, and hepatocytes are often affected in thyroid disease. We aimed to compare clinical and laboratory parameters among thyroid disease patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels above vs. below the upper tertile. Subjects and methods A retrospective cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the endocrinology clinic at Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital. Patients with thyroid disease between August 2012 and January 2014 were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected from medical records. Results One hundred patients were included, of which 14.0% were male, with a mean age of 49.1 ± 14.4 years. ALT levels ranged from 9 to 90 U/L, and the ALT upper tertile was defined as 0,64 times the upper normal limit (xUNL). Patients with ALT levels above the upper tertile exhibited a higher proportion of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), a higher mean abdominal circumference and a higher frequency of elevated TSH levels than did patients with ALT levels below the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis, ALT ≥ 0.64 (xUNL) was independently associated with abdominal circumference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.087, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0012-0167, P = 0.022). ALT (xUNL) correlated positively with total cholesterol (r = 0.213, P = 0.042). Conclusions In patients with thyroid diseases, it was observed that those with ALT above the upper tertile are associated with abdominal circumference and ALT levels correlate with total cholesterol. PMID:26331222

  2. Special Issue: Tenth International Congress on Numerical Methods in Laminar and Turbulent Flow. Issue Edited by Esteban Saatdjian.Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 735-895(15 April 1999)

    Preface

    Tenth international congress on numerical methods in laminar and turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamuro, Takaji; Yoshino, Masato; Ogino, Fumimaru

    1999-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the fifteen-velocity model is applied to simulations of isothermal flows in a three-dimensional porous structure. A periodic boundary condition with a pressure difference at the inlet and outlet is presented. Flow characteristics at a pore scale and pressure drops through the porous structure are calculated for various Reynolds numbers. It is found that at high Reynolds numbers, unsteady vortices appear behind bodies and the flow field becomes time-dependent. Calculated pressure drops through the structure are compared with well-known empirical equations based on experimental data. The results agree well with the Blake-Kozeny equation for low Reynolds numbers and with the Ergun equation for high Reynolds numbers. Copyright

  3. Volume 10, Issue 11-12© 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH, Fed. Rep. of GermanySave Title to My Profile

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    Volume 10, Issue 11-12, Pages 887-984(November 2001)

    Original Paper

    Imaging of atomic orbitals with the Atomic Force Microscope - experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, F. J.; Bielefeldt, H.; Hembacher, S.; Mannhart, J.

    2001-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a mechanical profiling technique that allows to image surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent progress in reducing the noise of this technique has led to a resolution level where previously undetectable symmetries of the images of single atoms are observed. These symmetries are related to the nature of the interatomic forces. The Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is studied by AFM with various tips and AFM images are simulated with chemical and electrostatic model forces. The calculation of images from the tip-sample forces is explained in detail and the implications of the imaging parameters are discussed. Because the structure of the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is known very well, the shape of the adatom images is used to determine the tip structure. The observability of atomic orbitals by AFM and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed.

  4. Special Issue: Tenth International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids, Tucson, Arizona.Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-406(15 September 1999)

    Preface

    Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oden, J. T.; Prudhomme, S.

    1999-09-01

    We present a new approach to deliver reliable approximations of the norm of the residuals resulting from finite element solutions to the Stokes and Oseen equations. The method is based upon a global solve in a bubble space using iterative techniques. This provides an alternative to the classical equilibrated element residual methods for which it is necessary to construct proper boundary conditions for each local problem. The method is first used to develop a global a posteriori error estimator. It is then applied in a strategy to control the numerical error in specific outputs or quantities of interest which are functions of the solutions to the Stokes and Oseen equations. Copyright

  5. Special Issue: Very large eddy simulation. Issue Edited by Dimitris Drikakis.Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 763-864(30 July 2002)

    Research Article

    Embedded turbulence model in numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drikakis, D.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the use of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws as an embedded turbulence modelling approach. Different Godunov-type schemes are utilized in computations of Burgers' turbulence and a two-dimensional mixing layer. The schemes include a total variation diminishing, characteristic-based scheme which is developed in this paper using the flux limiter approach. The embedded turbulence modelling property of the above methods is demonstrated through coarsely resolved large eddy simulations with and without subgrid scale models. Copyright

  6. Volume 51, Issue 7-8Copyright © 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimSave Title to My Profile

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    Volume 51, Issue 7-8, Pages 639-896(July 2003)

    Preface

    Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, O.

    2003-07-01

    We briefly review a possible scheme for getting the known QCD scaling laws within string theory. In particular, we consider amplitudes for exclusive scattering of hadrons at large momentum transfer and hadronic form factors.

  7. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  8. Chlorine isotope variations across the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jaime D.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2008-11-01

    Chlorine isotope ratios were determined for volcanic gas, geothermalwell, ash, and lava samples along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana volcanicfront, serpentinite clasts and muds from serpentine seamounts(Conical, South Chamorro, Torishima), basalts from the Guguancross-chain, and sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)Sites 800, 801, 802, and 1149. There is no systematic variationin ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl values along the volcanic front in either gas or ashsamples. In contrast, distinct variations occur across the arc,implying variations in the fluid source at different depthswithin the subduction zone. Serpentinite clasts and serpentinemuds from the seamounts tap a source of 30 km depth and haveALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl values of structurally bound chloride of +0.4ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ±0.4ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> (n = 24), identical to most seafloor serpentinites, suggestinga serpentinite (chrysotile and/or lizardite to antigorite transition)fluid source. Tapping deeper levels of the subduction zone ( 115-130km depth), volcanic gases and ashes have ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl values averaging-1.1ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ± 1.0ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> (n = 29), precisely overlapping therange measured in sediments from ODP cores (-1.1ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ±+0.7ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0">, n = 11) and limited altered oceanic crust (AOC). Bothsediments and AOC are possible Cl sources in the volcanic front.The Guguan cross-chain basalts come from the greatest depthsand have an average ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl value of +0.2ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ± 0.2ALT="{per thousand

  9. Soil CO2 flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke; Goh, Kah Joo

    2005-02-01

    Soil CO2 flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO2 flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C malt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">2 halt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">1 for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C malt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">2 halt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">1 for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C malt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">2 halt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">1 for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO2 flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO2 flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C malt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">2 yralt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">1 followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C malt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">2 yralt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">1 and sago at 1.1 kg C malt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">2 yralt

  10. Evaluation to the effect of B2O3-La2O3-SrO-Na2O-Al2O3 bonding agent on Ti6Al4V-porcelain bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C Q; Wu, S Q; Lu, Y J; Gan, Y L; Guo, S; Lin, J J; Huang, T T; Lin, J X

    2016-10-01

    Low-fusing bonding agents have been widely applied in Ti-ceramics restorations. As an important category, borate bonding agents have great potentials in increasing Ti-porcelain bonding. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of borate bonding agent with addition of Na2O and Al2O3 on Ti6Al4V-porcelain bonding. The thermal properties of borate bonding agent, such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp), were investigated to establish the sintering process. And the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was to evaluate the matching effect of porcelain to Ti6Al4V. The bond strength was analyzed by the three point bending test. The microscopic morphology of the borate bonding agent surface after sintering, the interface of Ti-borate bonding agent-porcelain, and the fracture mode after porcelains fracture, were studied to assess the influence of borate bonding agent on Ti6Al4V-ceramics. With the addition of Na2O and Al2O3, the porcelain residues were observed increased indication on the Ti6Al4V surface after porcelain fracture and the bond strength was acquired the maximum (49.45MPa) in the bonding agent composition of 75.70B2O3-5.92La2O3-11.84SrO-4.67Na2O-1.87Al2O3. Those results suggest that borate bonding agent is an effective way to improve the Ti6Al4V-ceramics bond strength. And the addition of Na2O and Al2O3 strengthen this effect. PMID:27344231

  11. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2010, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, and ``other...

  12. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 11, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2011, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, and ``other...

  13. 76 FR 23511 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2011, through 1200 hrs...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  14. 77 FR 42193 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 1... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, squids,...

  15. 75 FR 23189 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2010, through 1200..., deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  16. 77 FR 24154 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2012, through 1200...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  17. 77 FR 46338 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 1, 2012, through..., rockfish, deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  18. 78 FR 30242 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013), for the period 1200 hours, A.l.t., April 1, 2013, through..., rockfish, deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  19. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2012, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, squids,...

  20. Metachronous carcinoma of rectum with reconstruction of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect using a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Amy Siu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of large, complex defects of the abdominal wall after resection of malignant tumors can be challenging. The transfer of an anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a feasible and effective option. However, no report has been published on the use of ALT flap after metachronous colonic tumor resection so far. We present an original case of resection of metachronous carcinoma of rectum with reconstruction of the abdominal wall defect using an ALT flap harvested with its aponeurosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. Functional and esthetic results were satisfactory. There was no postoperative incisional hernia or tumor recurrence. We conclude that abdominal wall defects of large sizes can be successfully reconstructed using an appropriately designed ALT flap; a simple, single-stage effective reconstruction. PMID:27161142

  1. 77 FR 33103 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2012, through..., octopuses, and sculpins. This prohibition does not apply to fishing for pollock by vessels using...

  2. An accelerated life test model for solid lubricated bearings based on dependence analysis and proportional hazard effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Shaoping; Bai, Guanghan

    2014-02-01

    Solid lubricated bearings are important mechanical components in space, and accelerated life tests (ALT) of them are widely conducted. ALT model is needed to give the lifetime of solid lubricated bearings with ALT data, and former accelerated life test models of solid lubricated models are mainly statistical models, while physical models can imply an understanding of the failure mechanism and are preferred whenever possible. This paper proposes a physical model, which is called copula dependent proportional hazards model. A solid lubricated bearing is considered as a system consisting of several dependent items and Clayton copula function is used to describe the dependence. Proportional hazard effect is also considered to build the model. An ALT of solid lubricated bearing is carried out and the results show that this model is effective.

  3. Coniferyl Ferulate Incorporation into Lignin Enhances the Alkaline Delignification and Enzymatic Degradation of Cell Walls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating ester interunit linkages into lignin could facilitate fiber delignification and utilization. In model studies with maize cell walls, we examined how partial substitution of coniferyl alcohol (a normal monolignol) with coniferyl ferulate (an ester conjugate from lignan biosynthesis) alt...

  4. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  5. Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders, and Gallstone Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bile from the liver (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin). Inflammation of the pancreas is best ... associated with an increase in the products and enzymes made by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas, which ...

  6. Advanced Limiter Test-II Program to field a toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak. Progress report, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.

    1985-12-31

    During the first quarter, the UCLA members of the ALT-II team worked primarily on the development of the experimental program plan and the diagnostics selection, and on the data acquisition system. These programs are discussed in this report.

  7. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  8. EX VIVIO DETECTION OF KINASE AND PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification involved in every aspect cellular function. Levels of protein phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are regulated by the opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases, the expression of which can be alt...

  9. Temporarily Turning Blue Sometimes Normal for Babies, Doctors Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... it." Tieder explained that the term ALTE was applied to these events back in the 1980s, when ... is very reassuring for parents. BRUE will be applied to cases based on more tightly defined criteria ...

  10. Optimization of an Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Liver Model: Clearance Studies with 7-Ethoxycoumarin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption (VO2), vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, and meta...

  11. Knee and Ankle Reconstruction With Reverse Anterolateral Thigh and Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap From One Donor Site.

    PubMed

    Choi, KyeongBeom; Cho, JaeHo; Park, MyongChul; Park, Dong Ha; Lee, Il Jae

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap is used in distal lower extremity reconstruction. Reverse ALT flap has become one of the most popular choices for knee joint soft tissue defects. A 53-year-old man sustained a degloving injury in the right lateral side of the lower extremity from the lateral malleolar area to the knee joint area. The contamination was severe, necessitating serial debridement and negative pressure wound therapy. After 4 weeks, no more soft tissue necrosis was evident. No more microorganism growth was confirmed by swab culture. ALT free flap using proximal perforator was planned for lateral malleolar area reconstruction and reverse ALT flap using distal perforator was planned to cover knee joint after confirming the pedicle length was sufficient for simultaneous knee and lateral malleolar area reconstruction. PMID:27317019

  12. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  13. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, Peter C.; Gordon, N. Ross; Simmons, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an "authentic lung tissue" or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  14. OXIDATIVE STRESS MEDIATES AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE-INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Insight into the mechanism(s) by which ambient air particulate matter (PM) mediates adverse health effects is needed to provide biological plausibility to epidemiological studies demonstrating associations between PM exposure and increased morbidity and mortality. Alt...

  15. 75 FR 23847 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Democratic Republic of the; DOB 1973; POB Nord-Kivu, DRC; alt. POB Rwanda; nationality Congo, Democratic.... MUTEBUZI, Jules), Rwanda; DOB 6 Jul 1960; POB South Kivu, DRC; nationality Congo, Democratic Republic...

  16. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Disorders of Smell & Taste Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Arthur Wu, ... M. Patel MD INTRODUCTION Olfaction (the sense of smell) is an important function of the nasal cavity ...

  17. Suppression of the alternative lengthening of telomere pathway by the chromatin remodelling factor ATRX.

    PubMed

    Clynes, David; Jelinska, Clare; Xella, Barbara; Ayyub, Helena; Scott, Caroline; Mitson, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Higgs, Douglas R; Gibbons, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen per cent of cancers maintain telomere length independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-associated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. A unifying feature of these tumours are mutations in ATRX. Here we show that expression of ectopic ATRX triggers a suppression of the pathway and telomere shortening. Importantly ATRX-mediated ALT suppression is dependent on the histone chaperone DAXX. Re-expression of ATRX is associated with a reduction in replication fork stalling, a known trigger for HR and loss of MRN from telomeres. A G-quadruplex stabilizer partially reverses the effect of ATRX, inferring ATRX may normally facilitate replication through these sequences that, if they persist, promote ALT. We propose that defective telomere chromatinization through loss of ATRX promotes the persistence of aberrant DNA secondary structures, which in turn present a barrier to DNA replication, leading to replication fork stalling, collapse, HR and subsequent recombination-mediated telomere synthesis in ALT cancers. PMID:26143912

  18. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW REPORT: CFC (CHLOROFLUOROCARBON) EMISSIONS FROM RIGID FOAM MANUFACTURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report estimates total chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from the various rigid foam manufacturing processes and from the foam products themselves, and examines potential methods for reducing these emissions. Options studied include replacement of CFC-blown products with alt...

  19. Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

  20. 50 CFR 679.42 - Limitations on use of QS and IFQ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulatory areas. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 679.42, see the List of CFR... vessel must contact NMFS at 800-304-4846 (option 1) between 0600 and 0000 A.l.t. and receive a...

  1. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIRUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH), USA. ignificant increases in serum blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, triglycerides, inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL,...

  2. A WATERSHED-LEVEL APPROACH TO STUDY THE PUTATIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LANDUSE CHANGE AND SURFACE WATER FLOW ALTERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-generationally prudent management of watershed resources will require attention to the interdependence between shifting landuse distributions and their effects on watershed hydrology. Development and increased proportion of impervious surface area has been found to alte lan...

  3. Telomerase-Independent Paths to Immortality in Predictable Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers commandeer the activity of telomerase - the remarkable enzyme responsible for prolonging cellular lifespan by maintaining the length of telomeres at the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is only normally active in embryonic and highly proliferative somatic cells. Thus, targeting telomerase is an attractive anti-cancer therapeutic rationale currently under investigation in various phases of clinical development. However, previous reports suggest that an average of 10-15% of all cancers lose the functional activity of telomerase and most of these turn to an Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres pathway (ALT). ALT-positive tumours will therefore not respond to anti-telomerase therapies and there is a real possibility that such drugs would be toxic to normal telomerase-utilising cells and ultimately select for resistant cells that activate an ALT mechanism. ALT exploits certain DNA damage response (DDR) components to counteract telomere shortening and rapid trimming. ALT has been reported in many cancer subtypes including sarcoma, gastric carcinoma, central nervous system malignancies, subtypes of kidney (Wilm's Tumour) and bladder carcinoma, mesothelioma, malignant melanoma and germ cell testicular cancers to name but a few. A recent heroic study that analysed ALT in over six thousand tumour samples supports this historical spread, although only reporting an approximate 4% prevalence. This review highlights the various methods of ALT detection, unravels several molecular ALT models thought to promote telomere maintenance and elongation, spotlights the DDR components known to facilitate these and explores why certain tissues are more likely to subvert DDR away from its usually protective functions, resulting in a predictive pattern of prevalence in specific cancer subsets. PMID:22315652

  4. Incomplete transfer of accessory loci influencing SbMATE expression underlies genetic background effects for aluminum tolerance in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Melo, Janaina O; Lana, Ubiraci G P; Piñeros, Miguel A; Alves, Vera M C; Guimarães, Claudia T; Liu, Jiping; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Maron, Lyza G; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2013-01-01

    Impaired root development caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction in crops cultivated on acid soils, which are widespread worldwide. In sorghum, the major Al-tolerance locus, AltSB , is due to the function of SbMATE, which is an Al-activated root citrate transporter. Here we performed a molecular and physiological characterization of various AltSB donors and near-isogenic lines harboring various AltSB alleles. We observed a partial transfer of Al tolerance from the parents to the near-isogenic lines that was consistent across donor alleles, emphasizing the occurrence of strong genetic background effects related to AltSB . This reduction in tolerance was variable, with a 20% reduction being observed when highly Al-tolerant lines were the AltSB donors, and a reduction as great as 70% when other AltSB alleles were introgressed. This reduction in Al tolerance was closely correlated with a reduction in SbMATE expression in near-isogenic lines, suggesting incomplete transfer of loci acting in trans on SbMATE. Nevertheless, AltSB alleles from the highly Al-tolerant sources SC283 and SC566 were found to retain high SbMATE expression, presumably via elements present within or near the AltSB locus, resulting in significant transfer of the Al-tolerance phenotype to the derived near-isogenic lines. Allelic effects could not be explained by coding region polymorphisms, although occasional mutations may affect Al tolerance. Finally, we report on the extensive occurrence of alternative splicing for SbMATE, which may be an important component regulating SbMATE expression in sorghum by means of the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway. PMID:22989115

  5. Ischaemic Markers in Acute Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Sushanta Kumar; Nanda, Rachita; Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nayak, Parsuram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic injury of varied aetiology may progress to Acute Liver Failure (ALF). Compromised microcirculation is thought to be a deciding factor of hepatic hypoxia may be involved in disease progression that needs early detection. Ischaemia markers like serum Ischaemia- modified albumin (IMA), ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index have been suggested for its detection at early stage. Aim To find out the association of Ischaemia markers like serum IMA, ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index in acute hepatic injury cases. Materials and Methods Forty one diagnosed acute liver injury cases of varied aetiology admitted in Department of Medicine, and Gastroenterology of SCB Medical College, Cuttack were enrolled in the study along with 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Blood collected at time of admission and at time of discharge (1st day and 7th day) were evaluated for FPG, RFT, LFT, Serum Albumin along with serum LDH, IMA, PT-INR and platelet count. Result Serum bilirubin, hepatic enzymes, IMA, PT-INR was more markedly raised in cases than controls on the 1st day of admission. ALT-LDH ratio and index were significantly low in complicated cases. However, on responding to treatment the ALT-LDH index on 7th day registered a rise in comparison to the 1st day, while serum IMA revealed an insignificant decline showing improvement in hepatic hypoxia. ALT-LDH ratio remains more or less same on response to treatment. Conclusion Serum IMA and ALT-LDH Index reveals association with disease process in Acute Hepatic Injury cases both clinically and biochemically and can be used as supportive parameters for the diagnosis of disease process. PMID:27190791

  6. Protective immune responses to biolistic DNA vaccination of Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript-2.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S K; Sambanthamoorthy, S; Dakshinamoorthy, G; Munirathinam, G; Ramaswamy, K

    2012-10-01

    Biolistic vaccination using gene gun is developed as a safer tool for delivery of DNA vaccines, a technique that combines high vaccine efficiency with lower antigen dosage and lower cost per vaccine dose. In this study, we compared the protective responses in mice after delivering the Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript-2 (BmALT-2) DNA vaccine using the conventional intradermal approach or with the needleless gene gun delivery approach. BmALT-2 is a leading vaccine candidate against B. malayi, a lymphatic filarial parasite of human. After optimizing the DNA dose and gene gun parameters for delivery into mouse skin, groups of mice were biolistically vaccinated with 5 μg of BmALT-2pVAX. Groups of mice vaccinated intradermally with 5 μg or 100 μg of BmALT-2pVAX was used for comparison of vaccine efficacy. Results demonstrated that gene gun vaccination with 5 μg of BmALT-2pVAX conferred significant protection against challenge infection that was comparable to the degree of protection conferred by intradermal vaccination with 100 μg of BmALT-2pVAX. This observation was further supported by an in vitro antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. Analysis of the immune response showed that the gene gun vaccination predominantly induced an IgG1 antibody response and significantly high Th2 cytokine response (IL-4) from spleen cells compared to intradermal BmALT-2 DNA delivery that induced predominantly an IgG2a and Th1 cytokine response (IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α). These findings show that host protective responses could be achieved with 20 fold decrease in DNA dose using a gene gun and could prove to be an efficient delivery method in BmALT-2 DNA vaccination against lymphatic filariasis. PMID:22885273

  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the course of aminotransferase elevation during prolonged acetaminophen administration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen administration for more than 4 days causes aminotransferase elevation in some subjects. The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial is to describe the course of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in subjects administered 4 g/day of acetaminophen for at least 16 days. Methods A randomized, placebo controlled trial of acetaminophen (4 g/day) vs placebo. Subjects were healthy volunteers with normal liver enzymes. The primary outcome was the course of ALT during acetaminophen administration. All subjects were treated for a minimum of 16 days. Subjects with ALT elevation at day 16 were continued on treatment until these elevations resolved up to a maximum of 40 days. Subjects were also evaluated for elevation of INR or serum bilirubin as evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Results 157/205 (77%) completed acetaminophen subjects had no ALT elevation or transient elevations that resolved by day 16. Of the 48 subjects who had ALT elevations at study day 16, 47 continued on acetaminophen and had resolution by study day 40. One acetaminophen subject did not have resolution by study day 40, and the course of aminotransferase elevation suggests an alternative cause. One placebo subject had an ALT elevation at day 16 that resolved by day 22. The highest observed ALT among all acetaminophen subjects was 191 IU/L. The mean ALT at day 16 was 4.4 IU/L higher for the acetaminophen than for the placebo group. No subject developed liver dysfunction. Conclusions A minority of subjects treated with 4 g/day of acetaminophen for 16 days will have low-grade aminotransferase elevations that are not accompanied by liver dysfunction and resolve if administration is continued. Trials registration Clintrials.gov NCT00743093 registered August 26, 2008 PMID:25047090

  8. Extrapolating active layer thickness measurements across Arctic polygonal terrain using LiDAR and NDVI data sets

    PubMed Central

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Rowland, Joel C; Hubbard, Susan S; Brumby, Steven P; Liljedahl, Anna K; Wainwright, Haruko; Wilson, Cathy J; Altmann, Garrett L; Dafflon, Baptiste; Peterson, John; Ulrich, Craig; Tweedie, Craig E; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2014-01-01

    Landscape attributes that vary with microtopography, such as active layer thickness (ALT), are labor intensive and difficult to document effectively through in situ methods at kilometer spatial extents, thus rendering remotely sensed methods desirable. Spatially explicit estimates of ALT can provide critically needed data for parameterization, initialization, and evaluation of Arctic terrestrial models. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach using high-resolution remotely sensed data for estimating centimeter-scale ALT in a 5 km2 area of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Barrow, Alaska. We use a simple regression-based, machine learning data-fusion algorithm that uses topographic and spectral metrics derived from multisensor data (LiDAR and WorldView-2) to estimate ALT (2 m spatial resolution) across the study area. Comparison of the ALT estimates with ground-based measurements, indicates the accuracy (r2 = 0.76, RMSE ±4.4 cm) of the approach. While it is generally accepted that broad climatic variability associated with increasing air temperature will govern the regional averages of ALT, consistent with prior studies, our findings using high-resolution LiDAR and WorldView-2 data, show that smaller-scale variability in ALT is controlled by local eco-hydro-geomorphic factors. This work demonstrates a path forward for mapping ALT at high spatial resolution and across sufficiently large regions for improved understanding and predictions of coupled dynamics among permafrost, hydrology, and land-surface processes from readily available remote sensing data. PMID:25558114

  9. 78 FR 42024 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish and Dusky Rockfish in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Regulatory Area of the GOA under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40638 July 8, 2013). As of...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file..., Alaska local time (A.l.t.), July 10, 2013, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 12, 2013. Comments must...

  10. Anatomical variations and pre-operative imaging technique concerning the anterolateral thigh flap: guiding the surgeon.

    PubMed

    De Beule, Tom; Van Deun, Wouter; Vranckx, Jan; de Dobbelaere, Bart; Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has widespread use throughout the body because of the many engineering options. The ALT has a complex local vasculature, which can be of importance for the surgical approach. In general, the flap receives its perfusion from branches of the lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA). The LCFA, however, has a large anatomic variance. CT angiography can guide the surgeon in the selection of the most suitable site and aid in the surgical approach. PMID:27150071

  11. Year-to-year variability in haemoglobin mass response to two altitude training camps

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Kemp, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Aim To quantify the year-to-year variability of altitude-induced changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in elite team-sport athletes. Methods 12 Australian-Footballers completed a 19-day (ALT1) and 18-day (ALT2) moderate altitude (∼2100 m), training camp separated by 12 months. An additional 20 participants completed only one of the two training camps (ALT1 additional n=9, ALT2 additional n=11). Total Hbmass was assessed using carbon monoxide rebreathing before (PRE), after (POST1) and 4 weeks after each camp. The typical error of Hbmass for the pooled data of all 32 participants was 2.6%. A contemporary statistics analysis was used with the smallest worthwhile change set to 2% for Hbmass. Results POST1 Hbmass was very likely increased in ALT1 (3.6±1.6%, n=19; mean±∼90 CL) as well as ALT2 (4.4±1.3%, n=23) with an individual responsiveness of 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. There was a small correlation between ALT1 and ALT2 (R=0.21, p=0.59) for a change in Hbmass, but a moderately inverse relationship between the change in Hbmass and initial relative Hbmass (g/kg (R=−0.51, p=0.04)). Conclusions Two preseason moderate altitude camps 1 year apart yielded a similar (4%) mean increase in Hbmass of elite footballers, with an individual responsiveness of approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. Nevertheless, the same individuals generally did not change their Hbmass consistently from year to year. Thus, a ‘responder’ or ‘non-responder’ to altitude for Hbmass does not appear to be a fixed trait. PMID:24282208

  12. Association between Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Urosepsis in Children with Acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongwan; Lee, Sung Hyun; Ryoo, Eell; Cho, Hye Kyung; Kim, Yun Mi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urosepsis in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN). Methods We retrospectively identified all children who were managed in our hospital with APN during a decade period. In our study a diagnosis of APN was defined as having a positive urine culture and a positive (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. We compared those with elevated ALT and those with normal ALT according to the following variables: age, gender, duration of fever prior to admission, presence of hypotension, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, presence of anemia, white blood cells count, platelet count, blood culture result, and grades of vesicoureteral reflux. In addition, the correlation between elevated ALT and positive blood culture was analyzed in detail. Results A total of 996 children were diagnosed with APN, of which 883 were included in the study. ALT was elevated in 81 children (9.2%). In the analysis of demographic characteristics, the number of children with elevated ALT was higher in children between 0 to 3 months, boys, and in those with positive blood culture (p=0.002, 0.036, and 0.010, respectively). In multivariate analysis of variables associated with positive blood culture, age younger than 3 months, elevated ALT, elevated CRP, and elevated creatinine showed statistical significance (p=0.004, 0.030, 0.043, and 0.044, respectively). Conclusion Our study demonstrates the association between elevated ALT and increased prevalence of urosepsis in addition to elevated CRP, elevated creatinine, and age younger than 3 months in children with APN. PMID:27066449

  13. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two "sun-leaf-like" surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature. PMID:27377989

  14. Comparative time efficiency of aligner therapy and conventional edgewise braces.

    PubMed

    Buschang, Peter H; Shaw, Steven G; Ross, Mike; Crosby, Doug; Campbell, Phillip M

    2013-11-18

    Abstract Objective: To compare the time efficiency of aligner therapy (ALT) and conventional edgewise braces (CEB) based on large samples of patients treated by the same highly experienced orthodontist, with the same treatment goals for both groups of patients. Materials and Methods: The retrospective portion of the study evaluated 150 CEB patients who were matched, based on mandibular crowding and number of rotated teeth, to 150 ALT patients. All records were obtained at one orthodontist's office. All of the patients had mild-to-moderate Class I malocclusions (≤5 mm incisor crowding) and were treated nonextraction. Age, gender, total treatment time, total number of appointments, types of appointments, materials used, mandibular crowding, and number of rotated teeth were recorded from the patients' records. The prospective portion of the study timed the various types of appointments for both treatments with a stopwatch. Results: Compared to ALT, CEB required significantly (P < .01) more visits (approximately 4.0), a longer treatment duration (5.5 months), more emergency visits (1.0), greater emergency chair time (7.0 minutes), and greater total chair time (93.4 minutes). However, ALT showed significantly (P < .01) greater total material costs and required significantly more total doctor time than CEB (P < .01). Conclusions: Whether the greater time efficiency of ALT offsets the greater material costs and doctor time required depends on the experience of the orthodontist and the number of ALT case starts. PMID:24245817

  15. The Advantages of Structural Equation Modeling to Address the Complexity of Spatial Reference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro S.; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis; Silva, Joana; Takashima, Akihiko; Sousa, Nuno; Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Costa, Patrício S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive performance is a complex process influenced by multiple factors. Cognitive assessment in experimental animals is often based on longitudinal datasets analyzed using uni- and multi-variate analyses, that do not account for the temporal dimension of cognitive performance and also do not adequately quantify the relative contribution of individual factors onto the overall behavioral outcome. To circumvent these limitations, we applied an Autoregressive Latent Trajectory (ALT) to analyze the Morris water maze (MWM) test in a complex experimental design involving four factors: stress, age, sex, and genotype. Outcomes were compared with a traditional Mixed-Design Factorial ANOVA (MDF ANOVA). Results: In both the MDF ANOVA and ALT models, sex, and stress had a significant effect on learning throughout the 9 days. However, on the ALT approach, the effects of sex were restricted to the learning growth. Unlike the MDF ANOVA, the ALT model revealed the influence of single factors at each specific learning stage and quantified the cross interactions among them. In addition, ALT allows us to consider the influence of baseline performance, a critical and unsolved problem that frequently yields inaccurate interpretations in the classical ANOVA model. Discussion: Our findings suggest the beneficial use of ALT models in the analysis of complex longitudinal datasets offering a better biological interpretation of the interrelationship of the factors that may influence cognitive performance. PMID:26955327

  16. Scaffolds from alternating block polyurethanes of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) with stimulation and guidance of nerve growth and better nerve repair than autograft.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuqing; Li, Linjing; Chen, Kevin C; Chen, Feiran; Liu, Xiangyu; Ye, Jianfu; Li, Wei; Xu, Kaitian

    2015-07-01

    Nerve repair scaffolds from novel alternating block polyurethanes (PUCL-alt-PEG) based on PCL and PEG without additional growth factors or proteins were prepared by a particle leaching method. The scaffolds have pore size 10-20 µm and porosity 92%. Mechanical tests showed that the polyurethane scaffolds have maximum loads of 5.97 ± 0.35 N and maximal stresses of 8.84 ± 0.5 MPa. Histocompatiblity of the nerve repair scaffolds was tested in a SD rat model for peripheral nerve defect treatment. Two types of treatments including PUCL-alt-PEG scaffolds and autografts were compared in rat model. After 32 weeks, bridging of a 12 mm defect gap by the regenerated nerve was observed in all rats. The nerve regeneration was systematically characterized by sciatic function index (SFI), electrophysiology, histological assessment including HE staining, immunohistochemistry, ammonia sliver staining, Masson's trichrome staining and TEM observation. Results revealed that nerve repair scaffolds from PUCL-alt-PEG exhibit better regeneration effects compared to autografts. Electrophysiological recovery was seen in 90% and 87% of rats in PUCL-alt-PEG and autograft groups respectively. Biodegradation in vitro and in vivo shows good degradation match of PUCL-alt-PEG scaffolds with nerve regeneration. It demonstrates that plain nerve repair scaffolds from PUCL-alt-PEG biomaterials can achieve peripheral nerve regeneration satisfactorily. PMID:25410272

  17. Daptomycin antibiotic lock therapy for hemodialysis patients with Gram-positive bloodstream infections following use of tunneled, cuffed hemodialysis catheters: retrospective single center analysis.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Wen; Yang, Wu-Chang; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Yang, Chih-Yu; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Huang, Ling-Ju; Lin, Pei-Yu; Wang, Chih-Chun; Li, Szu-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) is a major complication in hemodialysis patients. We assessed the efficacy of systemic daptomycin (DPT) plus DPT antibiotic lock therapy (DPT-ALT) for catheter salvage in patients with Gram-positive CRBSIs. This is a retrospective study of hemodialysis patients with tunneled and cuffed hemodialysis catheters. All patients were from a single institution in Taipei and received systemic DPT plus DPT-ALT for the treatment of Gram-positive CRBSI. Successful resolution of CRBSI was implemented. Resolution of fever within 48 hours, negative result of repeated blood cultures after resolution of fever, no clinical evidence of CRBSI relapse and no need for catheter removal were measured. Fifteen hemodialysis patients received DPT-ALT for CRBSI, nine with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), two with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), three with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and one with polymicrobial infections. Systemic DPT plus DPT-ALT cured 11 patients (73.3%). Treatment failed in all three MRSA cases (two with MRSA and one with MRSA + Enterococcus faecalis). Retrospective design and small sample size were the limitations of this study. Systemic DPT plus DPT-ALT appears to be a promising treatment for CRBSI from CONS and MSSA, but not for MRSA CRBSI. Systemic DPT plus DPT-ALT should be considered for patients with CRBSIs caused by certain species. PMID:26549513

  18. Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 protein treatment attenuates experimentally-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Vishal; Amdare, Nitin; Yadav, Ravi Shankar; Tarnekar, Aaditya; Goswami, Kalyan; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2015-11-01

    Helminths are known to modulate host's immunity by suppressing host protective pro-inflammatory responses. Such immunomodulatory effects have been experimentally shown to have therapeutic implications in immune mediated disorders. In the present study, we have explored a filarial protein i.e. Brugia malayi recombinant abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT2) for its therapeutic effect in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis in mouse model. The immunomodulatory activity of rBmALT-2 was initially confirmed by demonstrating that it suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide synthesis and down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro by peritoneal exudate cells of mice. Treatment with rBmALT2 reduced severity of colitis associated with significant reduction in weight loss, disease activity, colon damage, mucosal edema and histopathological score including myeloperoxidase activity in colon tissues. rBmALT2 was comparatively more effective in attenuation of colitis when used in the preventive mode than when used for curative purpose. The therapeutic effect of rBmALT2 was found to be associated with downregulation of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17 and upregulation of IL-10 cytokines. These results provide strong experimental evidence that BmALT2 could be a potential alternative therapeutic agent in colitis. PMID:26669016

  19. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1. Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two “sun-leaf-like” surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature. PMID:27377989

  20. Chemical aspects of coumarin compounds for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    The normalization of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has been proved to be a strategy for preventing the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection. Glycyrrhizin, a plant medicine, normalizes plasma ALT and prevents HCC. However, glycyrrhizin is administered intravenously and thereby chemical which is effective on oral administration is required. Coumarin compounds are active components of herbs used for the treatment of various diseases. The ability of coumarin compounds to lower plasma ALT were examined using mice concanavalin A-induced hepatitis and mice anti-Fas antibody-induced hepatitis. Furanocoumarins pd-Ia, pd-II and pd-III lower plasma ALT, but they are large molecules that are hardly absorbed on oral administration. Furocoumarin effectively lowers plasma ALT, but the safety range between the effective and toxic dosages is narrow. In contrast, osthole, a simple coumarin, causes strong reduction of plasma ALT and also inhibits caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, this chemical is quite safe upon large dose administration. In the structure of osthole, the methoxy group at position-7 and the 3-methyl-2-butenyl group at position-8 were elucidated to be essential for the beneficial effect of this chemical. We conclude that osthole will become a leading chemical for synthesizing a compound which prevents HCC on oral administration. PMID:15720260

  1. InSAR analysis of surface deformation over permafrost to estimate active layer thickness based on one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhao, Rong; Hu, Jun; Wen, Lianxing; Feng, Guangcai; Zhang, Zeyu; Wang, Qijie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate active layer thickness (ALT) over permafrost based on InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observation and the heat transfer model of soils. The time lags between the periodic feature of InSAR-observed surface deformation over permafrost and the meteorologically recorded temperatures are assumed to be the time intervals that the temperature maximum to diffuse from the ground surface downward to the bottom of the active layer. By exploiting the time lags and the one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils, we estimate the ALTs. Using the frozen soil region in southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as examples, we provided a conceptual demonstration of the estimation of the InSAR pixel-wise ALTs. In the case study, the ALTs are ranging from 1.02 to 3.14 m and with an average of 1.95 m. The results are compatible with those sparse ALT observations/estimations by traditional methods, while with extraordinary high spatial resolution at pixel level (~40 meter). The presented method is simple, and can potentially be used for deriving high-resolution ALTs in other remote areas similar to QTP, where only sparse observations are available now. PMID:26480892

  2. Plasma glutathione S-transferase and F protein are more sensitive than alanine aminotransferase as markers of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Beckett, G J; Foster, G R; Hussey, A J; Oliveira, D B; Donovan, J W; Prescott, L F; Proudfoot, A T

    1989-11-01

    Concentrations of glutathione S-transferase (GST; glutathione transferase; EC 2.5.1.18) B1 subunits, F protein, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) were measured in sequential plasma samples taken from nine patients with self-administered paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning. GST exceeded the reference interval in all patients at the time of admission, and F protein was increased in seven. In contrast, abnormal activities of ALT in plasma were found in only one of the nine on admission, a patient admitted 12 h after poisoning. Subsequent to admission nine, eight, and five patients, respectively, had abnormal concentrations of GST, F protein, and ALT. When expressed as multiples of the upper reference limit, the highest values for GST measured in each patient always far exceeded the greatest abnormalities in ALT; this was true for F protein in only five patients. Patients in whom the concentration of GST exceeded 10 micrograms/L on admission subsequently went on to develop moderate or severe liver damage, despite treatment with N-acetylcysteine. F protein and ALT measurements on admission were not as efficient as GST at predicting the clinical outcome of the patients. We conclude that GST and F protein offer clear advantages over ALT for detecting minor degrees of acute liver dysfunction, particularly when only centrilobular damage may be involved. PMID:2582614

  3. Membrane formation in the chamber angle after failure of argon laser trabeculoplasty: analysis of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Koller, T; Sturmer, J; Reme, C.; Gloor, B

    2000-01-01

    AIM—Membrane formation in the chamber angle induced by argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) can be a cause of treatment failure. Identification of risk factors for membrane formation was the primary aim of this retrospective study.
METHODS—Semithin sections of trabeculectomy specimens obtained in a 2 year period were examined by light microscopy. 122 eyes which were treated with one or more ALTs before trabeculectomy were identified. In 46 eyes, a sufficient amount of trabecular meshwork was obtained to permit morphological analysis.
RESULTS—Eyes treated with ALT had a significantly higher incidence of membrane formation (p=0.001). In 23/46 specimens a cellular and collagenous membrane was observed covering the entire trabecular meshwork. In 14/23 specimens (61%), this membrane was readily visible at low power magnification (×40). Comparison of these eyes with those without membrane formation revealed a significant difference in the number of ALTs (mean 2.07 (SD 0.73) v 1.48 (0.59); p=0.026) and in preoperative IOP (32.0 (9.7) v 26.2 (8.4) mm Hg; p=0.04).
CONCLUSIONS—Membrane formation in the chamber angle is a frequent cause of ALT failure. The major risk factor is the number of ALTs performed.

 PMID:10611099

  4. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  5. Parallel Olfactory Processing in the Honey Bee Brain: Odor Learning and Generalization under Selective Lesion of a Projection Neuron Tract

    PubMed Central

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The function of parallel neural processing is a fundamental problem in Neuroscience, as it is found across sensory modalities and evolutionary lineages, from insects to humans. Recently, parallel processing has attracted increased attention in the olfactory domain, with the demonstration in both insects and mammals that different populations of second-order neurons encode and/or process odorant information differently. Among insects, Hymenoptera present a striking olfactory system with a clear neural dichotomy from the periphery to higher-order centers, based on two main tracts of second-order (projection) neurons: the medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). To unravel the functional role of these two pathways, we combined specific lesions of the m-ALT tract with behavioral experiments, using the classical conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER conditioning). Lesioned and intact bees had to learn to associate an odorant (1-nonanol) with sucrose. Then the bees were subjected to a generalization procedure with a range of odorants differing in terms of their carbon chain length or functional group. We show that m-ALT lesion strongly affects acquisition of an odor-sucrose association. However, lesioned bees that still learned the association showed a normal gradient of decreasing generalization responses to increasingly dissimilar odorants. Generalization responses could be predicted to some extent by in vivo calcium imaging recordings of l-ALT neurons. The m-ALT pathway therefore seems necessary for normal classical olfactory conditioning performance. PMID:26834589

  6. InSAR analysis of surface deformation over permafrost to estimate active layer thickness based on one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhao, Rong; Hu, Jun; Wen, Lianxing; Feng, Guangcai; Zhang, Zeyu; Wang, Qijie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate active layer thickness (ALT) over permafrost based on InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observation and the heat transfer model of soils. The time lags between the periodic feature of InSAR-observed surface deformation over permafrost and the meteorologically recorded temperatures are assumed to be the time intervals that the temperature maximum to diffuse from the ground surface downward to the bottom of the active layer. By exploiting the time lags and the one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils, we estimate the ALTs. Using the frozen soil region in southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as examples, we provided a conceptual demonstration of the estimation of the InSAR pixel-wise ALTs. In the case study, the ALTs are ranging from 1.02 to 3.14 m and with an average of 1.95 m. The results are compatible with those sparse ALT observations/estimations by traditional methods, while with extraordinary high spatial resolution at pixel level (~40 meter). The presented method is simple, and can potentially be used for deriving high-resolution ALTs in other remote areas similar to QTP, where only sparse observations are available now. PMID:26480892

  7. Relation between Liver Transaminases and Dyslipidaemia among 2-10 y.o. Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Nuñez, Georgina M.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of liver damage and dyslipidaemia. This study aimed to explore the associations of liver biomarkers with overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia in Mexican children. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a 414 subjects aged between 2 and 10 years old (47.8% girls) who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST ratio, and major components of serum lipid profile were assessed. Results Children with high ALT (defined as ≥P75) showed higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia than their counterparts, with high prevalence of high TChol (P = 0.053), non-HDL-chol, TG, and low HDL-chol. Children with an AST/ALT ≥T3 ratio were 0.43-times (95% CI: 0.25–0.74) and 0.27-times (95% CI: 0.17–0.44) low likely to be overweight/obese and to have dyslipidaemia than those with an AST/ALT ALT ratio groups. Conclusions Our results pose the need for further investigation on whether AST/ALT may be useful as screening test in the assessment of children with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27203747

  8. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay–based assays for environmental Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles; Portnoy, Jay; Sever, Michelle; Arbes, Samuel; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternaria alternata–derived allergenic materials are causes of human disease. Several immunoassays exist to quantify these materials. Objective To compare methods for evaluating Alternaria content. Methods Four methods, including 1 monoclonal antibody (MAb)–based assay specific for recombinant Alt a 1, 1 MAb-based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, 1 polyclonal antibody (PAb)–based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, and 1 PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria extract, were evaluated. Environmental samples collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing were examined. Alternaria spore counts were determined in dust by observation. Results The MAb-based assay for recombinant Alt a 1 detected Alternaria in few samples (25%); the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria proteins detected antigen in 97% of the samples. The PAb- and MAb-based assays for purified Alt a 1 detected antigen in 100% of the samples. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 assays directed against purified Alt a 1. There was a positive correlation between the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria and the PAb-based assay for Alt a 1. Nearly all the dust samples contained Alternaria spores, and there was a strong positive correlation between counts and all assays. Conclusion Because of the multifaceted nature of Alternaria, the disparities between methods for quantifying Alternaria, the cross-reactivity between fungal allergens, and the documented genetic promiscuity of this fungus, enzyme immunoassays using PAbs against a range of Alternaria proteins will probably produce the most reliable estimation of overall Alternaria exposure in house dust. PMID:17042141

  9. Repeated Elevation of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Lower Extremity Orthopedic Trauma Does Not Affect Flap Viability.

    PubMed

    Kotick, James D; Mitchell, William; Bayouth, Lilly; Klein, Richard; Lee, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Background The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has a key role regarding limb salvage and has facilitated the preservation of function and esthetics in lower extremity reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to review the advantages of the ALT flap when used early in the reconstruction of the trauma patient; specifically, its long-term viability when ALT flap reconstruction is followed by recurrent flap elevation performed to allow a variety of sequential orthopedic operations including washout, antimicrobial disc placement, and reinstrumentation. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed to review all ALT flaps performed by the authors from January 2009 to October 2012 at the Orlando Regional Medical Center. A total of 69 patients with an average age of 38 years were included in the study leading to a total of 69 ALT flaps indicated for traumatic orthopedic wounds. Out of these, 29 flaps were elevated at least once leading to a total of 49 flap elevations. Results The median number of days to flap elevation was 117 with a minimum of 1 day and a maximum of 540 days. A total of 42% flaps were elevated at least once after initial placement for reinstrumentation, washout, or antibiotic disk placement. Overall, 52% of the flaps were lifted once, 34% were lifted twice, and 14% were lifted more than thrice. There is no statistically significant difference in the complication rate between elevating the flap compared with primary ALT placement. Conclusion We conclude, therefore, there is no elevated risk to long-term viability by elevating the ALT flap. This combined with the ease of elevation makes it a safe procedure to be performed as needed for access to the deep tissues. PMID:26382873

  10. Liver Enzymes Are Associated With Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, and Glucagon Concentration in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Laville, Martine; Anderwald, Christian H.; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the association between risk of type 2 diabetes and elevated concentrations of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanineaminotransferase (ALT) remain poorly characterized. We explored the association of liver enzymes with peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, insulin clearance, and glucagon concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 1,309 nondiabetic individuals from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study; all had a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of insulin secretion and hepatic insulin extraction. The hepatic insulin resistance index was calculated in 393 individuals. RESULTS In both men and women, plasma concentrations of GGT and ALT were inversely related with insulin sensitivity (M/I) (all P < 0.01). Likewise, the hepatic insulin resistance index was positively correlated with both GGT (r = 0.37, P < 0.0001, men; r = 0.36, P < 0.0001, women) and ALT (r = 0.25, P = 0.0005, men; r = 0.18, P = 0.01, women). These associations persisted in multivariable models. Increased GGT and ALT were significantly associated with higher insulin secretion rates and with both reduced endogenous clearance of insulin and hepatic insulin extraction during the OGTT (P = 0.0005 in men; P = 0.003 in women). Plasma fasting glucagon levels increased over ALT quartiles (men, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 11.2 ± 5.1 vs. 9.3 ± 3.8 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0002; women, 9.0 ± 4.3 vs. 7.6 ± 3.1, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In healthy individuals, increased GGT and ALT were biomarkers of both systemic and hepatic insulin resistance with concomitant increased insulin secretion and decreased hepatic insulin clearance. The novel finding of a positive correlation between ALT and fasting glucagon level concentrations warrants confirmation in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21521874

  11. Acute Hepatitis C Virus in an HIV Clinic: A Screening Strategy, Risk Factors, and Perception of Risk

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, A.K.; Maynard, M.A.; Chapman, S.; Gholam, P.; Blackard, J.T.; Rich, J.; Mayer, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is being acquired undetected among HIV-infected individuals. A practical way to regularly screen HIV-infected patients for acute HCV irrespective of perceived risk or symptoms is needed. We piloted implementation of an acute HCV screening strategy using routine HIV clinical care schedules and the least costly blood tests, in a Rhode Island HIV care center. Study participants had ongoing HCV risk, completed questionnaires encompassing risk behaviors and perception of risk, and were screened with quarterly alanine aminotransferase (ALT). ALT rise triggered HCV RNA testing, with pooled rather than individual specimen HCV RNA testing for underinsured participants. Participants were primarily older, college-educated men who have sex with men (MSM) with history of sexually transmitted infection other than HIV. One of 58 participants developed acute HCV in 50 person–years of observation for an annual incidence of 2.0% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–11.1%). The majority (54%) of MSM did not perceive that traumatic sexual and drug practices they were engaging in put them at risk for HCV. Unprotected sex often occurred under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Self-reported HCV risk and participation in several risk behaviors declined during the study. It was possible to collect frequent ALTs in a busy HIV clinic with 71% of total projected ALTs obtained and 88% of participants having at least one ALT during the 9-month follow-up period. All instances of ALT rise led to reflexive HCV RNA testing. Tracking quarterly ALT for elevation to systematically prompt HCV RNA testing before seroconversion is a promising approach to screen for acute HCV in a real-world HIV clinical setting. PMID:21859307

  12. Telomerase reverse transcriptase expression protects transformed human cells against DNA-damaging agents, and increases tolerance to chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, H B; Hukezalie, K R; Thompson, C A H; Au-Yeung, T T T; Ludlow, A T; Zhao, C R; Wong, J M Y

    2016-01-14

    Reactivation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression is found in more than 85% of human cancers. The remaining cancers rely on the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a recombination-based mechanism for telomere-length maintenance. Prevalence of TERT reactivation over the ALT mechanism was linked to secondary TERT function unrelated to telomere length maintenance. To characterize this non-canonical function, we created a panel of ALT cells with recombinant expression of TERT and TERT variants: TERT-positive ALT cells showed higher tolerance to genotoxic insults compared with their TERT-negative counterparts. We identified telomere synthesis-defective TERT variants that bestowed similar genotoxic stress tolerance, indicating that telomere synthesis activity is dispensable for this survival phenotype. TERT expression improved the kinetics of double-strand chromosome break repair and reduced DNA damage-related nuclear division abnormalities, a phenotype associated with ALT tumors. Despite this reduction in cytological abnormalities, surviving TERT-positive ALT cells were found to have gross chromosomal instabilities. We sorted TERT-positive cells with cytogenetic changes and followed their growth. We found that the chromosome-number changes persisted, and TERT-positive ALT cells surviving genotoxic events propagated through subsequent generations with new chromosome numbers. Our data confirm that telomerase expression protects against double-strand DNA (dsDNA)-damaging events, and show that this protective function is uncoupled from its role in telomere synthesis. TERT expression promotes oncogene-transformed cell growth by reducing the inhibitory effects of cell-intrinsic (telomere attrition) and cell-extrinsic (chemical- or metabolism-induced genotoxic stress) challenges. These data provide the impetus to develop new therapeutic interventions for telomerase-positive cancers through simultaneous targeting of multiple telomerase activities. PMID

  13. The associations of physical activity and adiposity with alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Sattar, Naveed; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2005-06-01

    The mechanisms linking obesity and inactivity to diabetes mellitus are unclear. Recent studies have shown associations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with diabetes. In a random sample of 3,789 British women aged 60-79 years, the authors examined the associations of obesity and physical activity with ALT and GGT (1999-2001). Both body mass index and waist:hip ratio were independently (of each other, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and childhood and adulthood social class) positively and linearly associated with ALT and GGT. In adjusted models, a one-standard-deviation increase in body mass index was associated with a 0.46-units/liter (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16, 0.75) increase in ALT and a 2.14-units/liter (95% CI: 0.99, 3.30) increase in GGT. Similar results for a one-standard-deviation increase in waist:hip ratio were 13.96 (95% CI: 10.44, 17.48) for ALT and 39.44 (95% CI: 25.89, 52.98) for GGT. Frequency of physical activity was inversely and linearly associated with GGT in fully adjusted models, but the inverse association with ALT was attenuated towards the null after adjustment for body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Adjustment for ALT and GGT resulted in some attenuation of the strong linear associations of body mass index and waist:hip ratio with diabetes. These findings provide some support for the suggestion that the relation between obesity and diabetes is, at least in part, mediated by liver pathology. PMID:15901629

  14. Identification and pharmacological characterization of the prostaglandin FP receptor and FP receptor variant complexes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Y; Woodward, D F; Guzman, V M; Li, C; Scott, D F; Wang, J W; Wheeler, L A; Garst, M E; Landsverk, K; Sachs, G; Krauss, A H-P; Cornell, C; Martos, J; Pettit, S; Fliri, H

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: A prostamide analogue, bimatoprost, has been shown to be effective in reducing intraocular pressure, but its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Hence, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of this effect of bimatoprost, we focused on pharmacologically characterizing prostaglandin FP receptor (FP) and FP receptor variant (altFP) complexes. Experimental approach: FP receptor mRNA variants were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The FP-altFP4 heterodimers were established in HEK293/EBNA cells co-expressing FP and altFP4 receptor variants. A fluorometric imaging plate reader was used to study Ca2+ mobilization. Upregulation of cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (Cyr61) mRNA was measured by Northern blot analysis, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by western analysis. Key results: Six splicing variants of FP receptor mRNA were identified in human ocular tissues. Immunoprecipitation confirmed that the FP receptor is dimerized with altFP4 receptors in HEK293/EBNA cells co-expressing FP and altFP4 receptors. In the studies of the kinetic profile for Ca2+ mobilization, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) elicited a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ followed by a steady state phase. In contrast, bimatoprost elicited an immediate increase in intracellular Ca2+ followed by a second phase. The prostamide antagonist, AGN211335, selectively and dose-dependently inhibited the bimatoprost-initiated second phase of Ca2+ mobilization, Cyr61 mRNA upregulation and MLC phosphorylation, but did not block the action of PGF2α. Conclusion and implications: Bimatoprost lacks effects on the FP receptor but may interact with the FP-altFP receptor heterodimer to induce alterations in second messenger signalling. Hence, FP-altFP complexes may represent the underlying basis of bimatoprost pharmacology. PMID:18587449

  15. Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Events, an Educational Review

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians have received a frantic call from anxious parents stating that their child had stopped breathing, become limp, or turned blue but then had recovered quickly. An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as “an episode that is frightening to the observer, and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing”. The incidence of ALTE is reported to be 0.05% to 6%. The knowledge about the most common causes and factors associated with higher risk of ALTE could be resulted in a more purposeful approach, improving the decision making process, and benefiting both children and parents. The aim of this review article was to report the epidemiology, etiology, evaluation, management, and disposition of ALTE. Infants with an ALTE might present no signs of acute illness and are commonly managed in the emergency settings that often require significant medical attention; hence, the emergency medicine personnel should be aware of the its clinical importance. There is no specific treatment for ALTE; therefore, the clinical evaluations should be focused on the detection of the underlying causes, which will define the outcomes and prognosis. ALTE is a confusing entity, representing a constellation of descriptive symptoms and signs; in other words, it is not a diagnosis. There are multiple possible etiologies and difficulties in evaluating and managing infants with these events, which are challenges to primary care physicians, emergency medicine specialists, and subspecialty pediatricians. The evaluation of these events in infants includes a detailed history, appropriate physical examination, diagnostic tests guided by obtained clues from the history and physical examination, and observation in the emergency department. PMID:26512363

  16. Long-term day-and-night rotating shift work poses a barrier to the normalization of alanine transaminase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p = 0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p = 0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p = 0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval

  17. Urban Geocryology: Mapping Urban-Rural Contrasts in Active-Layer Thickness, Barrow Penninsula, Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klene, A. E.; Nelson, F. E.

    2014-12-01

    As development proceeds in the high latitudes, information about interactions between urban influences and the thickness of the active layer above permafrost becomes vital, particularly given the possibility of increasing temperatures accompanying climate change. Permafrost characteristics are often mapped at small geographical scales (i.e., over large areas), at low resolution, and without extensive field validation. Although maps of active-layer thickness (ALT) have been created for areas of relatively undisturbed terrain, this has rarely been done within urbanized areas, even though ALT is a critical factor in the design of roads, buildings, pipelines, and other elements of infrastructure. The need for detailed maps of ALT is emphasized in work on potential hazards in permafrost regions associated with global warming scenarios. Northern Alaska is a region considered to be at moderate to high risk for thaw-induced damage under climatic warming. The Native Village of Barrow (71°17'44"N; 156°45' 59"W), the economic, transportation, and administrative hub of the North Slope Borough, is the northernmost community in the USA, and the largest native settlement in the circum-Arctic. A winter urban heat island in Barrow, earlier snowmelt in the village, and dust deposition downwind of gravel pads and roads are all urban effects that could increase ALT. A recent empirical study documented a 17 to 41 cm difference in ALT between locations in the village of Barrow and surrounding undeveloped tundra, even in similar land-cover classes. We mapped ALT in the Barrow Peninsula, with particular attention to contrasts between the urbanized village and relatively undisturbed tundra in the nearby Barrow Environmental Observatory. The modified Berggren solution, an advanced analytic solution to the general Stefan problem of calculating frost and thaw depth, was used in a geographic context to map ALT over the 150 km² area investigated in the Barrow Urban Heat Island Study. The

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes in the General Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Chinese population. Methods: This study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study which was conducted in rural areas of China from the 2012 to 2013 Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study (NCRCHS), and 11,573 adults with complete data were included in our final analysis. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Serum ALT and AST levels within the reference range were divided into quartiles, and their associations with MetS were evaluated by logistic regressions. Results: A total of 7.4% and 3.5% participants had elevated serum ALT and AST levels, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 37.3% in males and 45.8% in females. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found ALT level elevation, even within the reference range, was independently associated with MetS. The odds ratio (OR) values of MetS in the ALT quartiles 2–4 groups within the reference range were 1.113 (95% CI: 1.019–1.280), 1.375 (95% CI: 1.212–1.560), 1.878 (95% CI: 1.650–2.138) compared with the ALT quartile 1 group, and OR in the elevated ALT group was 3.020 (95% CI: 2.496–3.653). Positive relationship for MetS was also observed in elevated AST group (OR: 1.689, 95% CI: 1.314–2.171), but within the reference range, the AST level was not associated with MetS. Conclusions: Serum ALT level, even within the reference range, was significantly associated with MetS. However, only elevated AST levels above 40 U/L was positively associated with MetS. Within the reference range, we did not find a relationship between AST levels and MetS. PMID:26901209

  19. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity Following Acclimatization to High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Duffin, James; Lovering, Andrew T.; Roach, Robert C.; Kayser, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL), upon ascent (ALT1) and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16) to 5260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95 vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P = 0.024) and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5%/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P = 0.026) to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177, 95% CI [139, 215], P < 0.001; slope: 10.3%/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P = 0.003) compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P = 0.982), while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P = 0.001 vs. SL), indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude. PMID:26779030

  20. A conserved alternative form of the purple sea urchin HEB/E2-2/E2A transcription factor mediates a switch in E-protein regulatory state in differentiating immune cells.

    PubMed

    Schrankel, Catherine S; Solek, Cynthia M; Buckley, Katherine M; Anderson, Michele K; Rast, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    E-proteins are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with essential roles in animal development. In mammals, these are encoded by three loci: E2-2 (ITF-2/ME2/SEF2/TCF4), E2A (TCF3), and HEB (ME1/REB/TCF12). The HEB and E2-2 paralogs are expressed as alternative (Alt) isoforms with distinct N-terminal sequences encoded by unique exons under separate regulatory control. Expression of these alternative transcripts is restricted relative to the longer (Can) forms, suggesting distinct regulatory roles, although the functions of the Alt proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the single sea urchin E-protein ortholog (SpE-protein). The organization of the SpE-protein gene closely resembles that of the extended HEB/E2-2 vertebrate loci, including a transcript that initiates at a homologous alternative transcription start site (SpE-Alt). The existence of an Alt form in the sea urchin indicates that this feature predates the emergence of the vertebrates. We present additional evidence indicating that this transcript was present in the common bilaterian ancestor. In contrast to the widely expressed canonical form (SpE-Can), SpE-Alt expression is tightly restricted. SpE-Alt is expressed in two phases: first in aboral non-skeletogenic mesenchyme (NSM) cells and then in oral NSM cells preceding their differentiation and ingression into the blastocoel. Derivatives of these cells mediate immune response in the larval stage. Inhibition of SpE-Alt activity interferes with these events. Notably, although the two isoforms are initially co-expressed, as these cells differentiate, SpE-Can is excluded from the SpE-Alt(+) cell population. This mutually exclusive expression is dependent on SpE-Alt function, which reveals a previously undescribed negative regulatory linkage between the two E-protein forms. Collectively, these findings reorient our understanding of the evolution of this transcription factor family and highlight fundamental properties of E

  1. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  2. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S W; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003; ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed. PMID:27596383

  3. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  4. Meta-analysis of the influence of TM6SF2 E167K variant on Plasma Concentration of Aminotransferases across different Populations and Diverse Liver Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    A nonsynonymous E167K (rs58542926 C/T) variant in TM6SF2 gene was recently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We explored the association between E167K and plasma concentrations of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases through a meta-analysis. We also estimated the strength of the effect across diverse liver phenotypes, including NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis; fourteen studies were included. We found that ALT (p = 3.2 × 10−6, n = 94,414) and AST (p = 0007, n = 93,809) levels were significantly associated with rs58542926 in NAFLD. By contrast, rs58542926 was not associated with either ALT (p = 0.24, n = 4187) or AST (p = 0.17, n = 2678) levels in four studies on chronic hepatitis. In conclusion, the results of the pooled estimates in patients with NAFLD showed that carriers of the T allele (EK + KK), when compared with homozygous subjects for the C allele (EE genotype) have increased levels of aminotransferases; however, this increase represents –2.5 (9.8%) and 1.2 (5%) IU/L of ALT and AST respectively, which is fairly small compared with the large effect of PNPLA3- rs738409-G allele that is associated with a –28% increase in serum ALT. PMID:27278285

  5. Relationships between serum asunaprevir concentration and alanine aminotransferase elevation during daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection.

    PubMed

    Akuta, Norio; Sezaki, Hitomi; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Kawamura, Yusuke; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Mariko; Saitoh, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2016-03-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations were the most frequent adverse events during all-oral combinations with daclatasvir and asunaprevir for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underline mechanisms are unclear. Seventy patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection, who were introduced daclatasvir 60 mg once daily plus asunaprevir 100 mg twice daily for 24 weeks, were measured serum asunaprevir concentrations at the one point or more of 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of treatment. In 4 and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, asunaprevir concentrations in patients with albumin levels <3.6 g/dl at baseline were significantly higher than those in patients with albumin levels ≥3.6 g/dl. The baseline factors did not affect to ALT severe elevations (≥300 IU/l). At 2 weeks after the start of treatment, ALT severe elevations with asunaprevir concentrations of ≥800 ng/ml (54.5%) tended to indicate the higher rates than those of <800 ng/ml (17.6%). Furthermore, the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir improved ALT levels, regardless the significant decrease of serum asunaprevir concentrations. In conclusion, serum albumin levels affected to serum asunaprevir concentrations, and serum asunaprevir concentrations might partly affect to ALT severe elevations. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir to help in the design of more effective therapeutic regimens. PMID:26292191

  6. Effect of arsenic and chromium on the serum amino-transferases activity in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, Sesha Srinivas; Prabhath, N Arun; Raghavender, M; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. PMID:17911661

  7. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101 cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  8. Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Vutukuru, Sesha Srinivas; Arun Prabhath, N.; Raghavender, M.; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. PMID:17911661

  9. Adoptive chemoimmunotherapy using ex vivo activated memory T-cells and cyclophosphamide: tumor lysis syndrome of a metastatic soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gold, J E; Malamud, S C; LaRosa, F; Osband, M E

    1993-09-01

    Adoptively transferred immune cells in combination with chemotherapeutic agents form the basis for adoptive chemoimmunotherapy (ACIT) of neoplastic disease. Autolymphocytes (ALT-cells) are ex vivo activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from tumor-bearing hosts (TBH) that consist primarily of tumor-specific CD45RO+ (memory) T-cells. These ALT-cells combined with cimetidine (CIM) as autolymphocyte therapy (ALT), have previously been demonstrated to be a safe and active form of outpatient adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) in human TBH with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). We have previously described an effective ACIT protocol using ALT and cyclophosphamide (CY) for patients with relapsed and refractory non-RCC solid tumors. We now report a case of a patient with a metastatic gastric leiomyosarcoma to the liver, who developed a clinical picture consistent with a tumor-lysis syndrome (TLS), following salvage therapy for his tumor with ACIT using ALT and CY. TLS is a well-known complication resulting from the treatment of rapidly proliferating hematopoietic tumors such as Burkitt's lymphoma and acute lymphocytic leukemia. TLS has also been rarely described in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as certain solid tumors such as breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, and medulloblastoma. However, there have been no previous reports of TLS occurring either secondary to immunotherapy or in sarcomas. The nature of these unusual findings is discussed. PMID:8342564

  10. Can Aging in Place Be Cost Effective? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Graybill, Erin M.; McMeekin, Peter; Wildman, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to ‘age in place’ and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place. Design People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable), using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement. Methods Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style. Results Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered. Implications The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn. PMID:25058505

  11. Meta-analysis of the influence of TM6SF2 E167K variant on Plasma Concentration of Aminotransferases across different Populations and Diverse Liver Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2016-01-01

    A nonsynonymous E167K (rs58542926 C/T) variant in TM6SF2 gene was recently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We explored the association between E167K and plasma concentrations of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases through a meta-analysis. We also estimated the strength of the effect across diverse liver phenotypes, including NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis; fourteen studies were included. We found that ALT (p = 3.2 × 10(-6), n = 94,414) and AST (p = 0007, n = 93,809) levels were significantly associated with rs58542926 in NAFLD. By contrast, rs58542926 was not associated with either ALT (p = 0.24, n = 4187) or AST (p = 0.17, n = 2678) levels in four studies on chronic hepatitis. In conclusion, the results of the pooled estimates in patients with NAFLD showed that carriers of the T allele (EK + KK), when compared with homozygous subjects for the C allele (EE genotype) have increased levels of aminotransferases; however, this increase represents -2.5 (9.8%) and 1.2 (5%) IU/L of ALT and AST respectively, which is fairly small compared with the large effect of PNPLA3- rs738409-G allele that is associated with a -28% increase in serum ALT. PMID:27278285

  12. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S. W.; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003; ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed. PMID:27596383

  13. Visualization and quantitative analysis of extrachromosomal telomere-repeat DNA in individual human cells by Halo-FISH

    PubMed Central

    Komosa, Martin; Root, Heather; Meyn, M. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current methods for characterizing extrachromosomal nuclear DNA in mammalian cells do not permit single-cell analysis, are often semi-quantitative and frequently biased toward the detection of circular species. To overcome these limitations, we developed Halo-FISH to visualize and quantitatively analyze extrachromosomal DNA in single cells. We demonstrate Halo-FISH by using it to analyze extrachromosomal telomere-repeat (ECTR) in human cells that use the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway(s) to maintain telomere lengths. We find that GM847 and VA13 ALT cells average ∼80 detectable G/C-strand ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus, while U2OS ALT cells average ∼18 molecules/nucleus. In comparison, human primary and telomerase-positive cells contain <5 ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus. ECTR DNA in ALT cells exhibit striking cell-to-cell variations in number (<20 to >300), range widely in length (<1 to >200 kb) and are composed of primarily G- or C-strand telomere-repeat DNA. Halo-FISH enables, for the first time, the simultaneous analysis of ECTR DNA and chromosomal telomeres in a single cell. We find that ECTR DNA comprises ∼15% of telomere-repeat DNA in GM847 and VA13 cells, but <4% in U2OS cells. In addition to its use in ALT cell analysis, Halo-FISH can facilitate the study of a wide variety of extrachromosomal DNA in mammalian cells. PMID:25662602

  14. Visceral adipose tissue area as an independent risk factor for elevated liver enzyme in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Kwark, Min Sun; Kim, Won; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Chronic elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are associated with body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated liver enzyme levels and the visceral tissue area in subjects with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).An observational cohort study was conducted with subjects undergoing general health examinations. To evaluate the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area, a computed tomography scan was performed. NAFLD was diagnosed if a person demonstrated fatty liver on ultrasonography without a history of significant alcohol consumption or chronic liver disease. Abnormal liver enzyme levels were based on ALT elevations according to the updated Asian definition.Of the 5100 subjects, 3712 (72.8%) met the inclusion criteria, and NAFLD was found in 1185 subjects. Elevated ALT values were positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue area. These relationships were attenuated, although they remained significant in a dose-dependent manner, after adjusting for multiple liver injury risk factors. In addition, when body mass index and subcutaneous and visceral tissue areas were finally considered in combination, only visceral adipose tissue remained independently associated with elevated ALT levels in the ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD group (P for trend <0.001 for men and women).Elevated ALT levels were independently and dose-dependently associated with visceral fat accumulation in the healthy general population, especially in ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD patients. These results reemphasize the importance of visceral fat in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25738475

  15. Simulation: a teaching tool for liver transplantation anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shushma; Bane, Brian C; Boucek, Charles D; Planinsic, Raymond M; Lutz, John W; Metro, David G

    2012-01-01

    Anesthesia for liver transplantation (ALT) requires extensive preparation and rapid recognition of changing clinical conditions. Owing to the proliferation of transplant centers, greater number of anesthesia providers need training in specific skills required to treat these patients. These cases are no longer limited to few transplant centers; therefore, reduction of cases in individual centers has created a need for simulation training to prepare and supplement clinical experience. We have developed an ALT simulation course for senior anesthesia residents which combines didactic sessions with live-patient-based and mannequin-based simulation. Outcomes have been measured using pre- and post-simulation course quizzes as well as a survey given at the end of the month-long ALT rotation. Twenty-four senior anesthesiology residents (n = 24) have completed the ALT simulation course. Residents had an average score of 75% ± 10% on the pre-simulation quiz, which increased to 92% ± 6.5% on the post-simulation quiz (p < 0.001). Furthermore, survey scores indicated that residents noted that the course provided an improvement in their preparedness, confidence, anticipation, and understanding of the importance of communication skills in the care of this patient population. The ALT simulation course provided a standardized in-depth exposure to clinical issues involved in the perioperative care of liver transplant patients. PMID:22211653

  16. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  17. Unique C. elegans telomeric overhang structures reveal the evolutionarily conserved properties of telomeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Školáková, Petra; Foldynová-Trantírková, Silvie; Bednářová, Klára; Fiala, Radovan; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Trantírek, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    There are two basic mechanisms that are associated with the maintenance of the telomere length, which endows cancer cells with unlimited proliferative potential. One mechanism, referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), accounts for approximately 10–15% of all human cancers. Tumours engaged in the ALT pathway are characterised by the presence of the single stranded 5′-C-rich telomeric overhang (C-overhang). This recently identified hallmark of ALT cancers distinguishes them from healthy tissues and renders the C-overhang as a clear target for anticancer therapy. We analysed structures of the 5′-C-rich and 3′-G-rich telomeric overhangs from human and Caenorhabditis elegans, the recently established multicellular in vivo model of ALT tumours. We show that the telomeric DNA from C. elegans and humans forms fundamentally different secondary structures. The unique structural characteristics of C. elegans telomeric DNA that are distinct not only from those of humans but also from those of other multicellular eukaryotes allowed us to identify evolutionarily conserved properties of telomeric DNA. Differences in structural organisation of the telomeric DNA between the C. elegans and human impose limitations on the use of the C. elegans as an ALT tumour model. PMID:25855805

  18. [Telomere Recombination in Normal Mammalian Cells].

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, N S; Rubtsov, N B

    2016-01-01

    Two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance are known to date. The first includes the use of a special enzymatic telomerase complex to solve the problems that arise during the replication of linear DNA in a normal diploid and part of tumor cells. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), which is based on the homologous recombination of telomere DNA, represents the second mechanism. Until recently, ALT was assumed to be expressed only in 15-20% of tumors lacking active telomerase and, together with telomerase reactivation represented one of two possibilities to overcome the replicative senescence observed in somatic mammalian cells due to aging or during cell culturing in vitro. Previously described sporadic cases of combinations of the two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in several cell lines in vitro were attributed to the experimental design rather than to a real biological phenomenon, since active cellular division without active telomerase was considered to be the "gold standard" of ALT. The present review describes the morphological and functional reorganizations of mammalian telomeres observed with ALT activation, as well as recently observed,and well-documented cases of combinations between ALT-like and telomerase-dependent mechanisms in mammalian cells. The possible role of telomere recombination in telomerase-dependent cells is discussed. PMID:27183789

  19. Unique C. elegans telomeric overhang structures reveal the evolutionarily conserved properties of telomeric DNA.

    PubMed

    Školáková, Petra; Foldynová-Trantírková, Silvie; Bednářová, Klára; Fiala, Radovan; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Trantírek, Lukáš

    2015-05-19

    There are two basic mechanisms that are associated with the maintenance of the telomere length, which endows cancer cells with unlimited proliferative potential. One mechanism, referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), accounts for approximately 10-15% of all human cancers. Tumours engaged in the ALT pathway are characterised by the presence of the single stranded 5'-C-rich telomeric overhang (C-overhang). This recently identified hallmark of ALT cancers distinguishes them from healthy tissues and renders the C-overhang as a clear target for anticancer therapy. We analysed structures of the 5'-C-rich and 3'-G-rich telomeric overhangs from human and Caenorhabditis elegans, the recently established multicellular in vivo model of ALT tumours. We show that the telomeric DNA from C. elegans and humans forms fundamentally different secondary structures. The unique structural characteristics of C. elegans telomeric DNA that are distinct not only from those of humans but also from those of other multicellular eukaryotes allowed us to identify evolutionarily conserved properties of telomeric DNA. Differences in structural organisation of the telomeric DNA between the C. elegans and human impose limitations on the use of the C. elegans as an ALT tumour model. PMID:25855805

  20. Visualization and quantitative analysis of extrachromosomal telomere-repeat DNA in individual human cells by Halo-FISH.

    PubMed

    Komosa, Martin; Root, Heather; Meyn, M Stephen

    2015-02-27

    Current methods for characterizing extrachromosomal nuclear DNA in mammalian cells do not permit single-cell analysis, are often semi-quantitative and frequently biased toward the detection of circular species. To overcome these limitations, we developed Halo-FISH to visualize and quantitatively analyze extrachromosomal DNA in single cells. We demonstrate Halo-FISH by using it to analyze extrachromosomal telomere-repeat (ECTR) in human cells that use the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway(s) to maintain telomere lengths. We find that GM847 and VA13 ALT cells average ∼80 detectable G/C-strand ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus, while U2OS ALT cells average ∼18 molecules/nucleus. In comparison, human primary and telomerase-positive cells contain <5 ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus. ECTR DNA in ALT cells exhibit striking cell-to-cell variations in number (<20 to >300), range widely in length (<1 to >200 kb) and are composed of primarily G- or C-strand telomere-repeat DNA. Halo-FISH enables, for the first time, the simultaneous analysis of ECTR DNA and chromosomal telomeres in a single cell. We find that ECTR DNA comprises ∼15% of telomere-repeat DNA in GM847 and VA13 cells, but <4% in U2OS cells. In addition to its use in ALT cell analysis, Halo-FISH can facilitate the study of a wide variety of extrachromosomal DNA in mammalian cells. PMID:25662602

  1. The Frequent Adiponutrin (PNPLA3) Variant p.Ile148Met Is Associated with Early Liver Injury: Analysis of a German Pediatric Cohort.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Liebe, Roman; Maier, Ina B; Engstler, Anna Janina; Lammert, Frank; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The common adiponutrin (PNPLA3) variant p.Ile148Met is associated with liver injury. Here, we investigate the association of this polymorphism with hepatic and metabolic traits in a pediatric cohort. Patients and Methods. The study cohort comprised 142 German children (age 5-9 years, 98 overweight, 19 children with NAFLD). Results. Overweight children presented with increased serum ALT (P = 0.001) and GGT (P < 0.001) activities. ALT activities differed significantly (P = 0.02) between carriers of different PNPLA3 genotypes in the entire study cohort, in normal weight children (P = 0.02) and in children younger than 7 years (P = 0.02). Carriers of the prosteatotic PNPLA3 genotype p.148Met/Met displayed higher ALT activities as compared to children with the frequent genotype p.148Ile/Ile (P = 0.01). The BMI was however a stronger predictor of ALT activities compared to the PNPLA3 genotype (P < 0.001 and P = 0.06, resp.). The variant was associated with increased serum glucose levels (P = 0.01) and HOMA index (P = 0.02) in carriers of the p.148Ile/Met genotype but did not affect other metabolic traits or the presence of NAFLD. Discussion. The frequent PNPLA3 variant p.Ile148Met is associated with serum ALT activities already at a young age. PMID:26346943

  2. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. PMID:23499189

  3. The Frequent Adiponutrin (PNPLA3) Variant p.Ile148Met Is Associated with Early Liver Injury: Analysis of a German Pediatric Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Liebe, Roman; Maier, Ina B.; Engstler, Anna Janina; Lammert, Frank; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The common adiponutrin (PNPLA3) variant p.Ile148Met is associated with liver injury. Here, we investigate the association of this polymorphism with hepatic and metabolic traits in a pediatric cohort. Patients and Methods. The study cohort comprised 142 German children (age 5–9 years, 98 overweight, 19 children with NAFLD). Results. Overweight children presented with increased serum ALT (P = 0.001) and GGT (P < 0.001) activities. ALT activities differed significantly (P = 0.02) between carriers of different PNPLA3 genotypes in the entire study cohort, in normal weight children (P = 0.02) and in children younger than 7 years (P = 0.02). Carriers of the prosteatotic PNPLA3 genotype p.148Met/Met displayed higher ALT activities as compared to children with the frequent genotype p.148Ile/Ile (P = 0.01). The BMI was however a stronger predictor of ALT activities compared to the PNPLA3 genotype (P < 0.001 and P = 0.06, resp.). The variant was associated with increased serum glucose levels (P = 0.01) and HOMA index (P = 0.02) in carriers of the p.148Ile/Met genotype but did not affect other metabolic traits or the presence of NAFLD. Discussion. The frequent PNPLA3 variant p.Ile148Met is associated with serum ALT activities already at a young age. PMID:26346943

  4. Telomere Transcripts Target Telomerase in Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kreilmeier, Theresa; Mejri, Doris; Hauck, Marlene; Kleiter, Miriam; Holzmann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding transcripts from telomeres, called telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), were identified as blocking telomerase activity (TA), a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM), in tumors. We expressed recombinant TERRA transcripts in tumor cell lines with TA and with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to study effects on TMM and cell growth. Adeno- and lentivirus constructs (AV and LV) were established for transient and stable expression of approximately 130 units of telomere hexanucleotide repeats under control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human RNase P RNA H1 (hH1) promoters with and without polyadenylation, respectively. Six human tumor cell lines either using telomerase or ALT were infected and analyzed for TA levels. Pre-infection cells using telomerase had 1%-3% of the TERRA expression levels of ALT cells. AV and LV expression of recombinant TERRA in telomerase positive cells showed a 1.3-2.6 fold increase in TERRA levels, and a decrease in TA of 25%-58%. Dominant-negative or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) viral expression against human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) results in senescence, not induced by TERRA expression. Population doubling time, cell viability and TL (telomere length) were not impacted by ectopic TERRA expression. Clonal growth was reduced by TERRA expression in TA but not ALT cell lines. ALT cells were not affected by treatments applied. Established cell models and tools may be used to better understand the role of TERRA in the cell, especially for targeting telomerase. PMID:27537914

  5. Large-scale analysis of factors influencing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its relationship with liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bi, W R; Yang, C Q; Shi, Q; Xu, Y; Cao, C P; Ling, J; Wang, X Y

    2014-01-01

    Serum liver enzyme levels are often used effectively for the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to investigate the associations between serum liver enzyme levels and risks for NAFLD in over 8000 cases in a large-scale analysis. A cross-sectional survey with multiple stages and random samplings was performed from May 2007 to May 2009 on 8102 workers at Tongji University. A questionnaire was given, assessments of physical measurements, plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and liver enzymes were made, and real-time liver ultrasounds conducted. The prevalence of NAFLD in Tongji University was 22.2%. It was higher in males than in females (P = 0.0023). The body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum total triglycerides, serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) values were all higher in the NAFLD group than in the control group. For moderate and severe NAFLD patients, the ALT, AST and GGT values were significantly increased, high density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased, and drinking much, heavy entertainment and less exercise were more prevalent (P < 0.001). There were strong correlations between serum liver enzyme levels and NAFLD (P < 0.001), with GGT being a more sensitive marker for NAFLD than ALT or AST. ALT and GGT were independent predictors for NAFLD, and GGT was a better predictor than ALT for NAFLD. PMID:25117346

  6. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  7. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  8. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in Scottish blood donors.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Gillon, J; Yap, P L; Brookes, E; McOmish, F; Simmonds, P; Dow, B C; Follett, E A

    1994-06-01

    All blood donors in Scotland who were found to be infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the first 6 months of routine testing of all donations for anti-HCV were contacted. Those who attended were counselled, a history of exposure to risk was sought, and blood was taken for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level as a measure of liver function. The epidemiological features were then correlated with the virological findings and ALT. In the period under study between September 1991 and February 1992, 180,658 blood donors attended. The prevalence of HCV infection was 0.088%. Of the 151 donors who attended for counselling, 101 (68%) were male. Intravenous drug use was the most common risk activity (39%), followed by previous blood transfusion (15.2%), other parenteral exposure (11.2%) and heterosexual contact with a parenterally infected partner (8.6%); 29.1% of donors gave no history of possible exposure. Elevated ALT levels were found in 59%. ALT levels were higher in donors with HCV types 1 and 3 than in HCV type 2 or non-viraemic donors. The prevalence of HCV in Scottish blood donors is thus relatively low. This may relate to the effectiveness of donor selection procedures, but donors with risk activities which should debar them continue to donate. The combination of ALT and PCR appears to be useful in counselling and assessing infected donors. PMID:7921048

  9. The Online Mineral Library at the University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Burdette, E.; Clayton, M.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Minnesota maintains a world-class mineral collection comprising over 7000 specimens, many of which are museum quality. Prof. Newton H. Winchell started the collection in the 1850s shortly after the founding of the University itself. Many of the specimens come from pioneering mineralogists such as Winchell, George F. Kunz, and Tibor Zoltai. A small fraction of the most eye-catching samples are on public display within the Department of Earth Sciences, but until recently the vast majority of the collection was housed in locked metal cabinets, which meant that the collection received very little use by students and researchers. To improve the visibility and accessibility of our mineral collection we created an elegant, database-driven website (http://mineral.esci.umn.edu/). This dynamic website is one of the more extensive of its kind and allows the collection to be used as a tool for teaching and research. The searchable, online database contains high-resolution photographs of the University's mineral collection and provides access to the complete collection. Administrators can link numerous specimens to create online "collections" that emphasize particular themes, e.g., economic mineralogy, common mineral donors, or common geographic origin. The online database has already been interwoven into courses for Earth Science majors and non-majors. Researchers are able to explore the library for mineral standards for instrument calibration or more involved experimental research. Further, the online library allows graduate students and faculty to "check out" certain mineral specimens for research, which for the first time allows us to accurately track the use of the collection. The electronic framework for the Online Mineral Library was constructed using the Drupal open source content management system. Undergraduate interns are in the process of systematically photographing each of the mineral specimens for inclusion in the Online Library. Additionally

  10. Geochemical characterization of fluids along the Dead Sea Rift: implications for fluids sources and regional geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea Fault where a lateral displacement between the African and Arabian plates occurs is characterized by anomalous heat flux in the northern Israel area close to the border with Syria and Jordan (Shalev et al., 2012). The concentrations of He and CO2, and isotopic composition of He and total dissolved inorganic carbon were studied in cold and thermal waters collected along the Dead Sea Fault, in order to investigate the source of volatiles and their relationship with the tectonic framework of the Dead Sea Fault. The waters with higher temperature (up to 57.2 ° C) are characterized by higher amounts of CO2and helium (up to 55.72 and 1.91*10‑2 cc l‑1, respectively). Helium isotopic data (R/Ra from 0.11 to 2.14) and 4He/20Ne ratios (0.41 - 106.86) show the presence of deep-deriving fluids consisting of a variable mixture of mantle and crust end-members, with the former reaching up to 35%. Carbon isotope signature of total dissolved carbon from hot waters falls within the range of magmatic values, suggesting the delivery of deep-seated CO2. The geographical distribution of helium isotopic data and isotopic carbon (CO2) values coupled with (CO2/3He ratios) indicate a larger contribution of mantle-derived fluids affecting the northern part of the investigated area, where the waters reach the highest temperature and anomalous heat flux was recognized by Shalev et al. (2012). Such occurrence is probably favoured by the peculiar tectonic framework recognized in the northern part of Israel (Segev et al., 2006), including a Moho discontinuity up-rise and/or the presence of a deep fault system coupled with the recent magmatic activity. References: Segev, A., Rybakov, M., Lyakhovsky, V, Hofstetter, A, Tibor, G., Goldshmidt, V., 2006. The structure, isostasy and gravity field of the Levant continental margin and the southeast Mediterranean area. Tectonophysics 425, 137-157. Shalev, E., Lyakhosky, V., Weinstein, Y., Ben-Avraham, Z., 2013. The thermal structure of

  11. Autopoiesis: a review and a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2003-02-01

    the theory of autopoiesis had, and still has, a difficult time being accepted into the mainstream of life-science research. Finally, it is pointed out that the new interest in system biology and complexity theories may lead to a reappraisal of autopoiesis and related notions, as outlined also by other authors, such as Tibor Ganti and Stuart Kauffmann. PMID:12590297

  12. An Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus Audibility

    PubMed Central

    Searchfield, Grant D.; Kobayashi, Kei; Sanders, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Models of tinnitus suggest roles for auditory, attention, and emotional networks in tinnitus perception. A model of tinnitus audibility based on Helson’s (1964) adaptation level theory (ALT) is hypothesized to explain the relationship between tinnitus audibility, personality, memory, and attention. This theory attempts to describe how tinnitus audibility or detectability might change with experience and context. The basis of ALT and potential role of auditory scene analysis in tinnitus perception are discussed. The proposed psychoacoustic model lends itself to incorporation into existing neurophysiological models of tinnitus perception. It is hoped that the ALT hypothesis will allow for greater empirical investigation of factors influencing tinnitus perception, such as attention and tinnitus sound therapies. PMID:22707935

  13. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  14. Effect of Phenobarbital on Chloramphonicol-Induced Toxicity in Rat Liver and Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadizadeh, Massumeh; Esmailpoor, Masood; Goodarzi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of Chloramphenicol (CAP) on rat liver and small intestine. Effect of phenobarbital (PB) on CAP toxicity was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Rats were received CAP at doses of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg. Another group was pretreated with 80 mg/kg PB 30 min prior to administration of various doses of CAP. The experiment was repeated for seven consecutive days. Blood was collected for determination of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The liver and small intestine tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: CAP induced a dose dependent elevation of AST and ALT and produced injury in the liver and small intestine when compared to control animals. PB markedly decreased AST and ALT levels and protected liver and small intestine against CAP-induced toxicity. Conclusion : This study suggested rat liver and small intestine have potential to bioactivate CAP. PMID:24570836

  15. Studies of miscibility and specific interactions of antitumor-active anhydride copolymer and poly(ethylene glycol) blends.

    PubMed

    Can, Hatice Kaplan; Parvizikhosroshahi, Shahed; Uluışık, Erdem C

    2016-01-01

    The blending of polymers is of great interest, since the modification gives rise to diverse physical properties with the functionality of a polymer, without synthesis. Water-soluble antitumor-active poly(maleic anhydride-alt-acrylic acid) poly(MA-alt-AA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blends were prepared by casting, and compatible properties were investigated by dilute solution viscometry. Viscosity measurements were made on ternary systems of polymer (1)/polymer (2)/solvent (H2O) and p-dioxane, at different concentrations of PEG and poly(MA-alt-AA). The interaction parameters Δβ, μ, Δk, Δb, β and α, which have been proposed, have been obtained using the viscosity data, to probe the miscibility of the polymer blends. The solid blends prepared were characterized with ATR-FTIR, (1)H-NMR, DTA and TGA. PMID:25406735

  16. [Autoimmunization induced by interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Rocca, Pierre; Codes, Liana; Chevallier, Michèle; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2004-11-01

    We report the case of a 56 year-old woman with post-transfusion chronic hepatitis C who presented with a severe ALT flare up associated with a rapid progression of liver fibrosis during interferon alpha 2b therapy. Several hypotheses were considered to explain the etiology of this ALT flare: there was no viral super infection by other hepatotropic viruses, no toxic hepatitis, no metabolic disease, and no other specific liver diseases could be identified. HLA typing showed a specific profile A1 B8 DR3 (risk factor of auto-immunization during interferon alpha therapy) with antinuclear antibodies and anti smooth muscle antibodies. This case suggests that auto-immunization induced by interferon alpha should be investigated in case of ALT flare that is not followed by an HCV breakthrough. PMID:15657545

  17. Subacute and subchronic toxicity of Avalon(®) mixture (bentazone+dicamba) to rats.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Dragica; Szakonyne-Pasics, Ilona; Gašić, Slavica; Teodorović, Ivana; Rašković, Božidar; Brkić, Nenad; Nešković, Neško

    2015-05-01

    Subacute and subchronic toxicity of the herbicide Avalon(®), a mixture of bentazone and dicamba, were tested on rats. Avalon(®) was administered at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight/day for 28 and 90 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were monitored together with biochemistry parameters. The results showed that the mixture caused increases in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, elevated concentrations of sodium, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio in males. In females, ALT activity, cholesterol and phosphate levels were increased. The changes generally were dose related and, in most cases, females exhibited lower susceptibility than males. The effects of a mixture are, in the most cases, different from the effects of the individual substances. The effects of bentazone were not prevalent which would be expected taking the composition of the mixture into account. PMID:25863332

  18. [Severe apparent life-threatening event during "skin-to-skin": treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Marin, N; Valverde, E; Cabañas, F

    2013-10-01

    'Skin-to-skin' in healthy newborn infants is currently routine practice in Spanish maternity wards. This practice has shown benefits in increasing the duration of breast-feeding and maternal bonding behaviour with no significant adverse events. Early sudden deaths and severe apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) during the first 24 hours of life are infrequent, but well recognised. Risk factors during 'skin to skin' have been established. These events can lead to high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is now the standard of care for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and has shown to reduce mortality and neurological morbidity in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Although there are no clinical trials that evaluate hypothermia after a severe ALTE, neonates who suffer it should be considered for this treatment. We present a case of a healthy newborn who had an ALTE during skin-to-skin with his mother and was treated with hypothermia. PMID:24051185

  19. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mandy Oi Man; Lee, Jacky Wai Yip; Choy, Bonnie Nga Kwan; Chan, Jonathan Cheuk Hung; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is a relatively new type of laser used in treating open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and is reported to be equally efficacious to a first-line medication and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT). We summarize available evidence for considering SLT as an alternative treatment in OAG through systematic review and meta-analysis. Among OAG patients who range from newly diagnosed to those on maximally tolerated medical therapy, SLT results in a 6.9-35.9% intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Complications are rare and include an IOP spike requiring surgery, persistent macular edema, and corneal haze and thinning. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials shows that SLT is non-inferior to ALT and medication in IOP reduction and also in achieving treatment success. Number of medications reduction is similar between SLT and ALT. More robust evidence is needed to determine its efficacy as a repeated procedure. PMID:25113610

  1. Use of the anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of the pediatric anophthalmic orbit.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Sally L; Forrest, Christopher R; Borschel, Gregory H

    2016-01-01

    Children with acquired anophthalmia pose unique reconstructive challenges. With implant-based reconstruction, the current standard of care, there is a tendency toward intraorbital and adnexal tissue contraction and an increasing volume discrepancy with orbital growth, resulting in enophthalmos and eyelid retraction, and also difficulty in retaining an ocular prosthesis. We describe a novel technique for secondary reconstruction of the pediatric anophthalmic orbit using a small free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. The technique involves release of retracted eyelids and restoration of orbital volume with an ALT flap based on the superficial temporal vessels. The purpose of this study is to detail the results of treatment of a series of four consecutive patients with unilateral acquired anophthalmia managed with ALT flaps. Improved symmetry, successful retention of an ocular prosthesis, and patient satisfaction were achieved in all cases. PMID:26689123

  2. Use of Innovative Technologies in Pediatric Lower Extremity Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mountziaris, Paschalia M.; Soteropulos, Carol E.; Rezak, Kristen M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap has proven to be a reliable option for the coverage of soft tissue defects in adults and more recently in the pediatric population. When considering the use of the ALT flap in the pediatric patient, there are few studies that detail techniques specific to pediatric free flap management. We present a unique case of a 14- × 8-cm ALT flap used for traumatic wound coverage in a distal tibial injury in a 6-year-old girl. This case highlights innovative techniques in pediatric perioperative free flap monitoring and the use of continuous external tissue expansion to achieve delayed primary closure of the donor site. PMID:27622093

  3. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  4. Correlation of liver enzymes with diabetes and pre-diabetes in middle-aged rural population in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun-hui; Liu, Qian; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhe-long; Hu, Shu-hong; Zhou, Xin-rong; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Mu-xun; Tao, Jing; Yu, Xue-feng

    2016-02-01

    The survey aimed to explore the association of liver transaminases with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) in the middle-aged rural population in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 800 middle-aged subjects who lived in rural area of central China. The 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Participants were asked to complete physical examination and standard questionnaire. The serum liver transaminases (ALT and GGT), HbA1C and serum lipids were measured. In middle-aged rural population, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose combined with impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT) and DM was 4.0%, 11.8%, 2.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Some measurements were higher in males than in females, such as waist hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and liver enzymes (ALT and GGT). Further, we found that elevated serum GGT and ALT levels were significantly positively correlated with the prevalence of DM, independent of central obesity, serum lipid and insulin resistance (IR) in both genders. However, the correlation of GGT and ALT with pre-DM was determined by genders and characteristics of liver enzymes. Higher serum GGT was indicative of IGT in both genders. The association of serum ALT with pre-DM was significant only in female IGT group. In conclusion, our present survey shows both serum GGT and ALT are positively associated with DM, independent of the cardiovascular risk factors in both genders. PMID:26838740

  5. Use of Databases for Early Recognition of Risk of Diabetic Complication by Analysis of Liver Enzymes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Malenica, Maja; Prnjavorac, Besim; Causevic, Adlija; Dujic, Tanja; Bego, Tamer; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Because of increasing prevalence of T2MD worldwide, it’s very important to recognize risk factors for diabetic complications, as soon as possible. Symptoms of complications appear a few or many years after tissue damage. So, it’s imperative to establish surveillance of diabetics with laboratory and other diagnostic procedures for early recognition of diabetic complications. Follow up of clinical curs of diabetes, by using databases of patients, provide possibility for permanent analysis of important laboratory parameters and any changes could be registered. Although an emerging evidence suggests a strong association of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and γGT (gamma glutamyl transferase) activity with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT, γGT, and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activities in controlled T2DM. Material and Methods: Gender differences are of special interest in trying to follow diabetes progression and development of its complications. Here the activities of ALT, AST, γGT, ALP were analyzed as well as levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in 40 T2DM patients and 40 age-matched healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from all participants in regular 3-months intervals up to 6 months period. Standard IFCC enzyme protocols were used to determine enzyme activities. Results and discussion: In first measured interval, significantly higher activities of ALT (p= 0,050) and glucose levels (p=0,045) were shown in male. A significant correlation was shown between ALT and AST activity with FPG and HbA1c levels in first and third measured interval. ALT activity was much higher in the group of patients with poor glycemia control. Average levels of activities of enzymes stay nearly in normal limits, but changes of enzymes activities should be recognized as soon as possible, earlier than tissue changes and

  6. FPGA chip performance improvement with gate shrink through alternating PSM 90nm process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin; Panaite, Petrisor; Chacko, Manoj; Zhang, Yunqiang; Lei, Wen-Kang

    2005-11-01

    In the post-physical verification space called 'Mask Synthesis' a key component of design-for-manufacturing (DFM), double-exposure based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) is being increasingly applied at the 90nm node in addition with other mature resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and sub-resolution assist features (SRAF). Several high-performance IC manufacturers already use alt-PSM technology in 65nm production. At 90nm having strong control over the lithography process is a critical component in meeting targeted yield goals. However, implementing alt-PSM in production has been challenging due to several factors such as phase conflict errors, mask manufacturing, and the increased production cost due to the need for two masks in the process. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a mature, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. With minimum design changes, design houses usually are motivated by higher product performance for the existing designs. What follows is an in-depth review of the motivation to apply alt-PSM on a production FPGA, the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  7. Polyclonality of Concurrent Natural Populations of Alteromonas macleodii

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; López-Pérez, Mario; Megumi Mizuno, Carolina; García-Heredia, Inmaculada; Kimes, Nikole E.; Lopez-García, Purificación; Moreira, David; Ussery, David; Zaballos, Mila; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed a natural population of the marine bacterium, Alteromonas macleodii, from a single sample of seawater to evaluate the genomic diversity present. We performed full genome sequencing of four isolates and 161 metagenomic fosmid clones, all of which were assigned to A. macleodii by sequence similarity. Out of the four strain genomes, A. macleodii deep ecotype (AltDE1) represented a different genome, whereas AltDE2 and AltDE3 were identical to the previously described AltDE. Although the core genome (∼80%) had an average nucleotide identity of 98.51%, both AltDE and AltDE1 contained flexible genomic islands (fGIs), that is, genomic islands present in both genomes in the same genomic context but having different gene content. Some of the fGIs encode cell surface receptors known to be phage recognition targets, such as the O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide, whereas others have genes involved in physiological traits (e.g., nutrient transport, degradation, and metal resistance) denoting microniche specialization. The presence in metagenomic fosmids of genomic fragments differing from the sequenced strain genomes, together with the presence of new fGIs, indicates that there are at least two more A. macleodii clones present. The availability of three or more sequences overlapping the same genomic region also allowed us to estimate the frequency and distribution of recombination events among these different clones, indicating that these clustered near the genomic islands. The results indicate that this natural A. macleodii population has multiple clones with a potential for different phage susceptibility and exploitation of resources, within a seemingly unstructured habitat. PMID:23212172

  8. Alternaria-Induced Release of IL-18 from Damaged Airway Epithelial Cells: An NF-κB Dependent Mechanism of Th2 Differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jim; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Vaidya, Swapnil; Kalita, Anjana; Bacsi, Attila; Corry, David; Kurosky, Alexander; Brasier, Allan; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2012-01-01

    Background A series of epidemiologic studies have identified the fungus Alternaria as a major risk factor for asthma. The airway epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. These reports suggest that activated airway epithelial cells can produce cytokines such as IL-25, TSLP and IL-33 that induce Th2 phenotype. However the epithelium-derived products that mediate the pro-asthma effects of Alternaria are not well characterized. We hypothesized that exposure of the airway epithelium to Alternaria releasing cytokines that can induce Th2 differentiation. Methodology/Principal Finding We used ELISA to measure human and mouse cytokines. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) induced rapid release of IL-18, but not IL-4, IL-9, IL-13, IL-25, IL-33, or TSLP from cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells; and in the BAL fluids of naïve mice after challenge with ALT-E. Both microscopic and FACS indicated that this release was associated with necrosis of epithelial cells. ALT-E induced much greater IL-18 release compared to 19 major outdoor allergens. Culture of naïve CD4 cells with rmIL-18 induced Th2 differentiation in the absence of IL-4 and STAT6, and this effect was abrogated by disrupting NF- κB p50 or with a NEMO binding peptide inhibitor. Conclusion/Significance Rapid and specific release of IL-18 from Alternaria-exposed damaged airway epithelial cells can directly initiate Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4+ T-cells via a unique NF-κB dependent pathway. PMID:22347372

  9. Hepatotoxicity in a 52-week randomized trial of short-term versus long-term treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone in HIV-negative injection opioid users in China and Thailand*

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Gregory M.; Young, Alicia; Donnell, Deborah; Richardson, Paul; Aramrattana, Apinun; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua; Liu, Wei; Fu, Liping; Ma, Jun; Celentano, David D.; Metzger, David; Jackson, J. Brooks; Burns, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX), an effective treatment for opioid dependence, has been implicated in hepatic toxicity. However, as persons taking BUP/NX have multiple hepatic risk factors, comparative data are needed to quantify the risk of hepatoxicity with BUP/NX. Methods We compared rates of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation ≥ grade 3 (ALT ≥ 5.1 times the upper limit of normal) and graded bilirubin elevations in HIV-negative opioid injectors randomized to long-term (52 weeks) or short-term (18 days) medication assisted treatment (LT-MAT and ST-MAT, respectively) with BUP/NX in a multisite trial conducted in China and Thailand. ALT and bilirubin were measured at baseline, 12, 26, 40 and 52 weeks, times temporally remote from BUP/NX exposure in the ST-MAT participants. Results Among1036 subjects with at least one laboratory follow-up measurement, 76 (7%) participants experienced ALT elevation ≥ grade 3. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of ALT events was similar in participants randomized to LT-MAT compared with ST-MAT (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.98). This finding was supported by an as-treated analysis, in which actual exposure to BUP/NX was considered. Hepatitis C seroconversion during follow-up was strongly associated with ALT events. Bilirubin elevations ≥ grade 2 occurred in 2% of subjects, with no significant difference between arms. Conclusions Over 52-week follow-up, the risk of hepatotoxicity was similar in opioid injectors receiving brief and prolonged treatment with BUP/NX. These data suggest that most hepatotoxic events observed during treatment with BUP/NX are due to other factors. PMID:24999060

  10. Benign elevations in serum aminotransferases and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity in healthy volunteers treated with cholestyramine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are currently no serum biomarkers capable of distinguishing elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) that portend serious liver injury potential from benign elevations such as those occurring during cholestyramine treatment. The aim of the research was to test the hypothesis that newly proposed biomarkers of hepatotoxicity would not significantly rise in serum during elevations in serum ALT associated with cholestyramine treatment, which has never been associated with clinically relevant liver injury. Methods In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, cholestyramine (8g) was administered for 11 days to healthy adult volunteers. Serum from subjects with elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) exceeding three-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) were utilized for biomarker quantification. Results In 11 of 67 subjects, cholestyramine treatment resulted in ALT elevation by >3x ULN (mean 6.9 fold; range 3–28 fold). In these 11 subjects, there was a 22.4-fold mean increase in serum levels of miR-122 relative to baseline, supporting a liver origin of the serum ALT. Significant elevations were noted in mean levels of necrosis biomarkers sorbitol dehydrogenase (8.1 fold), cytokeratin 18 (2.1 fold) and HMGB1 (1.7 fold). Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18, a biomarker of apoptosis was also significantly elevated (1.7 fold). A rise in glutamate dehydrogenase (7.3 fold) may support mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusion All toxicity biomarkers measured in this study were elevated along with ALT, confirming the liver origin and reflecting both hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. Since cholestyramine treatment has no clinical liver safety concerns, we conclude that interpretation of the biomarkers studied may not be straightforward in the context of assessing liver safety of new drugs. PMID:25086653

  11. Anthropometric Indices in Adults: Which Is the Best Indicator to Identify Alanine Aminotransferase Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the correlations between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and a new body index, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in Chinese adults. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China in 2012–2013, and 11,331 adults were included in our final analysis. Results: BMI, WC, HC, WHtR, WHR and ABSI were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels. Spearman rank test showed that WHtR (r = 0.346 for men, r = 0.282 for women, both p < 0.001) had the highest correlation coefficient for ALT level, whereas ABSI showed the lowest, and the correlation coefficient of each measure was higher in men than that in women. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of each anthropometric measure, the multivariate logistic model presented that WHtR had the superiority of identifying the presence of elevated ALT (OR 4.38; 95% CI 3.15–6.08 for men, OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.91–6.33 for women, both p < 0.001), and the ABSI was the poorest predictor in men (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.93–3.27, p < 0.001). No association was observed for ABSI in women. Conclusions: Our results indicated that BMI, WC, HC, WHtR and WHR were able to determine elevated ALT presence, while ABSI was not capable. WHtR and to some extent BMI were the best body indices, for predicting the ALT levels in this population. Nevertheless, the predictive ability of ABSI as a novel body index was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices. PMID:26901214

  12. Hypovolemia During Early Exposure to 2,800 m Altitude: Effect of Rehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Farrell, P. A.; Loomis, J. L.; Fedele, M.; West, J.; Roessler, A.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism for reduction of total body water and plasma volume (PV) during initial exposure to acute attitude (ALT) is not clear. Ten man (25+/-SD 3yr. 1.99+/-0.l9sq m) were confined (sitting) for 12 hr in a chamber a 2800m ALT or at 305m(ground). They ate a controlled breakfast (450 kcal + 3ml/kg H2O) on the ground, and lunch and dinner at ALT for a total daily intake of 2,850 kcal (14%PRO, 67%CHO, 16%FAT, 26gNaCl). At hr 10 they consumed fluid-electrolyte drinks or water (12ml/kg, 948ml/day) with sessions at weekly intervals: (a) 185mEq/L Na, 283mOsm/kg; (b) 21.6Na, 365mOsm: and (c) water at ALT: and (d) water on the ground. After 10 hr at ALT%(Delta)PV(Hb-Hct) decreased (P<0.05) by (a) 9.0+/-SE1.5%, (b) 6.2+/-1.7%, (c) 7.4+/-2.2%. and (d) 9.0+/-2.4%. respectively. After drinking at 1200 hr PV increased by (a) 8.3% (P<0.05), (b) 2.8% (NS), (c) -0.9% (NS). and (d) by 0.8% (NS). respectively. The ground-induced hypovolemia suggests a confinement rather than an ALT effect. The increase in PV after the NaCl-NaCitrate drink (a) indicates that drink composition is mom important than as Osm for restoring PV in these Conditions.

  13. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects☆

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Methods Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Results Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. Conclusions As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27051595

  14. Augmented telomerase activity, reduced telomere length and the presence of alternative lengthening of telomere in renal cell carcinoma: plausible predictive and diagnostic markers.

    PubMed

    Pal, Deeksha; Sharma, Ujjawal; Khajuria, Ragini; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Kakkar, Nandita; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we analyzed 100 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for telomerase activity, telomere length and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) using the TRAP assay, TeloTTAGGG assay kit and immunohistochemical analysis of ALT associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies respectively. A significantly higher (P=0.000) telomerase activity was observed in 81 cases of RCC which was correlated with clinicopathological features of tumor for instance, stage (P=0.008) and grades (P=0.000) but not with the subtypes of RCC (P = 0.355). Notwithstanding, no correlation was found between telomerase activity and subtypes of RCC. Strikingly, the telomere length was found to be significantly shorter in RCC (P=0.000) to that of corresponding normal renal tissues and it is well correlated with grades (P=0.016) but not with stages (P=0.202) and subtypes (P=0.669) of RCC. In this study, telomere length was also negatively correlated with the age of patients (r(2)=0.528; P=0.000) which supports the notion that it could be used as a marker for biological aging. ALT associated PML bodies containing PML protein was found in telomerase negative cases of RCC. It suggests the presence of an ALT pathway mechanism to maintain the telomere length in telomerase negative RCC tissues which was associated with high stages of RCC, suggesting a prevalent mechanism for telomere maintenance in high stages. In conclusion, the telomerase activity and telomere length can be used as a diagnostic as well as a predictive marker in RCC. The prevalence of ALT mechanism in high stages of RCC is warranted for the development of anti-ALT inhibitors along with telomerase inhibitor against RCC as a therapeutic approach. PMID:25769384

  15. Carbamazepine-Induced Liver Injury Requires CYP3A-Mediated Metabolism and Glutathione Depletion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Iida, Azumi; Sasaki, Eita; Yano, Azusa; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2015-07-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is widely used as an antiepileptic agent and causes rare but severe liver injury in humans. It has been generally recognized that reactive metabolites formed via the metabolic activation reaction contribute to the onset of liver injuries by several drugs. However, the role of CBZ metabolism in the development of liver injury is not fully understood. In this study, we developed a novel rat model of CBZ-induced liver injury and attempted to elucidate the associated mechanisms by focusing on the metabolism of CBZ. The repeated administration of CBZ for 5 days in combination with l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione (GSH) synthesis inhibitor, resulted in increases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and centrilobular necrosis in the liver that were observed in various degrees. The CBZ and 2-hydroxy-CBZ concentrations in the plasma after the last CBZ administration were lower in the rats with high plasma ALT levels compared with those with normal plasma ALT levels, showing the possibility that the further metabolism of CBZ and/or 2-hydroxy-CBZ is associated with the liver injury. Although a single administration of CBZ did not affect the plasma ALT levels, even when cotreated with BSO, pretreatment with dexamethasone, a CYP3A inducer, increased the plasma ALT levels. In addition, the rats cotreated with troleandomycin or ketoconazole, CYP3A inhibitors, suppressed the increased plasma ALT levels. In conclusion, reactive metabolite(s) of CBZ produced by CYP3A under the GSH-depleted condition might be involved in the development of liver injury in rats. PMID:25870103

  16. Prevalence and Incidence of Liver Dysfunction and Assessment of Biomarkers of Liver Disease in HIV-Infected Asian Children

    PubMed Central

    Aurpibul, Linda; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Sophan, Sam; Boettiger, David; Wati, Dewi K.; Nguyen, Lam V.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Truong, Khanh H.; Do, Viet C.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yusoff, Nik K.N.; Razali, Kamarul; Kurniati, Nia; Fong, Siew M.; Nallusamy, Revathy; Sohn, Annette H.

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined the prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction prior to and after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD). Methods Data from children initiated on cART between 2–18 years of age with baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) available prior to and at least once after cART initiation in TApHOD between 2008–2012 were analyzed. Prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction, and biomarkers including the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB4 index were assessed. Results Data from 1930 children were included. Their median age was 6.9 years; 49% were male; 98% were perinatally infected; and 94% were initiated on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase-based cART regimens. Prior to cART, the prevalence of ALT ≥ 3 times the upper limit of normal (*ULN) was 5.8%. There were 8.5% of children with APRI >1.5 (suggestive of liver fibrosis), and 2.7% with FIB4 index >1.3 (predictive of possible cirrhosis). Among the 1143 cases with normal baseline ALT (≤1*ULN), the incidence of ALT 3*ULN after cART was 1.19/1000 person-months (95% CI 0.93–1.51). Two of 350 with available tests (0.6%) met Hy’s law (ALT >3*ULN and total bilirubin >2*ULN). By multivariate analysis, baseline hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL was a predictor of ALT >3*ULN, while age 5–9 years at cART initiation was protective for liver dysfunction. Conclusions We demonstrated a low prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction before and after cART initiation in children with normal baseline chemistries. In this population facing life-long cART, prospective surveillance for emergence of liver disease is warranted. PMID:25970117

  17. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  18. Comparison of Therapeutic Response and Clinical Outcome between HCV Patients with Normal and Abnormal Alanine Transaminase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Kung; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Tseng, Po-Lin; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lee, Chuan-Mo; Lin, Ming-Tsung; Yen, Yi-Hao; Hung, Chao-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Patients with chronic hepatitic C (HCV) infection and normal serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were considered to have mild disease. In Taiwan, these patients were not suggested for interferon (IFN) based therapies. The aim of study is to compare therapeutic outcomes between HCV patients with normal and elevated ALT levels. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on 3241 HCV patients treated by IFN based therapies. Patients with normal ALT levels were classified as group A (n = 186) while those with elevated ALT levels were group B (n = 3055). Results At baseline, incidence of diabetes mellitus, low platelet counts and cirrhosis were significantly higher in group B patients. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was comparable between the 2 groups (65.3% vs. 65.3%, P = .993). But significantly higher incidence of HCC development after HCV treatment was observed in group B (7.4% vs. 3.2%, P = .032). No significant differences with respect to the outcome of liver decompensation, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and mortality were noted between 2 groups. Multivariate analysis showed younger age, female gender, non-HCV genotype 1, lower viral load, higher platelet counts and non-cirrhosis were favorable factors for achieving SVR, rather than ALT levels. Further analysis revealed older age, cirrhosis, lower platelet levels and non- peg-interferon treatment are risk factors of HCC development. Conclusions HCV patients with normal ALT levels had similar response to antiviral therapy and low rate of HCC development after therapy. Antiviral therapies begun at early course of HCV infection may be beneficial to prevent disease progression. PMID:26968010

  19. Pulmonary vascular responsiveness in rats following neonatal exposure to high altitude or carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, A.; Penney, D.G. Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI )

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of adult and neonatal rats to high altitude increases pulmonary vascular responsiveness during the exposure. A study was undertaken to determine if a short exposure of neonatal rats to either high-altitude or carbon monoxide (CO) hypoxia would cause persistent alterations in pulmonary vascular responsiveness postexposure. One-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were obtained as 16 litters of 10-12 pups each. At 2 days of age, 4 litters were exposed to CO (500 ppm) for 32 days, and 4 litters were exposed to ambient air (AIR) in Detroit (200 m). Another 4 litters were exposed to 3500 m altitude (ALT) in a chamber for 32 days, and 3 litters were exposed to ambient conditions in Fort Collins (CON, 1524 m). After the exposures, all rats were maintained at 1524 m. At 2, 40, 76 and 112 days postexposure, lungs were isolated and perfused with Earle's salt solution (+Ficoll, 4 g%). Pulmonary vascular responsiveness was assessed by dose responses to angiotensin II (AII, 0.025-0.40 [mu]g) and acute hypoxia (3% O[sub 2] for 3 min). AII responses were higher in ALT vs CON rats at 2 and 40 days postexposure, but no differences were noted between CO and AIR rats. Baseline pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure (in isolated lungs) were higher in ALT rats at all four ages compared to the other three groups. Both the ALT and CO rats displayed hypertrophy of the right ventricle (RV) and the left ventricle (LV) at the termination of treatment and elevated hematocrit. LV hypertrophy and polycythemia regressed with time, but RV hypertrophy remained significant in the ALT rats through 112 days postexposure. The results indicate that neonatal exposure to ALT, but no CO, causes a persistent increase in pulmonary vascular responsiveness and RV hypertrophy for at least 112 days after termination of the exposure. 40 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Hyper-CK-emia in pediatric celiac disease: prevalence and clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Selimoglu, Mukadder Ayse; Ertekin, Vildan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2007-08-01

    Hyper-transaminasemia (HT) is a well-known laboratory sign of celiac disease (CD); however, hyper-creatine phosphokinase (CK)-emia (HCK) is not so familiar. As there are reported cases of myopathy associated CD in the literature, we aimed to investigate serum CK levels of children with CD. Newly diagnosed 126 children were included. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and CK levels were determined. Mean age was 8.7+/-4.4 years (11 mo to 18 y). Of patients, 77 (61.1%) had classic form, 49 (38.9%) had atypical form. Elevated levels of AST, ALT, and CK, respectively, were found in 65 (51.6%), 45 (35.7%), and 50 (39.7%) patients. Isolated HCK was detected in 9 (7.1%) patients. AST, ALT, and CK were all elevated in 29 (23.0%) children. Mean serum AST, ALT, and CK levels were found as 56.1+/-53.7 U/L (11 to 403), 44.7+/-44.0 U/L (7 to 290), and 258.0+/-686.5 U/L (36 to 5956), respectively. In 95 (75.4%) children, AST/ALT value was greater than 1, and in 19 (15.1%) it was greater than 2. We found positive correlations with the level of CK and AST, and ALT (P=0.01). CK level was inversely correlated with hemoglobin and cholesterol levels (P=0.013 and 0.007). In conclusion, this is the first study, which determined elevated serum levels of CK in CD and demonstrated that HCK is as common as HT in children with CD. We emphasize that HT seen in CD is not necessarily a sign of liver injury, but may also be due to myopathy. PMID:17667050

  1. Orbiter 'Enterprise' separates from NASA 747 carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph made from a chase plane captures the precise moment of separation of the Space Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' from the NASA 905 aircraft, a 747 carrier aircraft. With Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr., commander, and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot, controlling the Enterprise, the unpowered flight lasted two minutes and one second before coming to a landing on a hard surface runway, completing the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) series. The mission marked the first hard-surface landing in the ALT series, the second tail cone off flight and the fifth free-flight.

  2. Orbiter 'Enterprise' separates from the NASA 747 carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' is seen separating from the NASA 747 carrier aircraft during the second free flight of the Shuttle Apporach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 13, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly were the crew of the 'Enterprise.' The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  3. Orbiter 'Enterprise' separates from the NASA 747 carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' separates from the NASA 747 carrier aircraft during the third free flight of the Shuttle Apporach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 23, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. The vehicle with Astronauts Fred W. Haise, and C. Gordon Fullerton remained in unpowered flight for five minutes and 34 seconds before landing on the desert land of Edwards Air Force Base. The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  4. [How I EXPLORE ... AN APPARENT LIFE THREATENING EVENT OF THE INFANT].

    PubMed

    Zambelli, L; Battisti, O

    2016-04-01

    The ALTE (Apparent Life Threatening Event) of the infant is a frequent presenting complaint. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from an innocuous event (as a change in skin color) to something as tragic as a sudden infant death. In all circumstances, it is always a very worrying event for the parents and the family circle. Many etiologies can explain the ALTE, and their investigation can be complicated. In this paper, the etiologies and diagnostic tests will be briefly introduced, with a reminder of the sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:27295900

  5. Liposarcoma of the maxillary antrum: A case report.

    PubMed

    Priyal, G; Shakil, Moidin; Jose, Maji; Hussain, Akther

    2015-01-01

    Atypical Lipomatous Tumor/Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma. (ALT/WDL) is a soft tissue sarcoma of intermediate malignant behavior, which most frequently affects the retroperitoneum and lower extremities. Liposarcomas of head and neck are rare, representing only 2-8% of all sarcomas in this region. The majority of liposarcomas occur in middle-aged adults; however, very uncommonly cases have been reported in infancy and early childhood. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl diagnosed as ALT/WDL of the maxillary antrum. PMID:26881583

  6. Upper Limits of Normal for Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Xian-Feng; Li, Ling-Fei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common tool for the assessment of liver diseases. However, it is not clear whether the current normal ALT range really discriminate patients with or without liver diseases. The present study was to establish a new normal range of ALT and examine its ability to identify patients with hepatitis B or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese Han population. Methods 53037 adults were included in this study from January 1st 2008 to August 31st 2010. The 95th percentile of ALT in population with relative low risk factors for liver diseases was set as the new upper limits of normal ALT in gender-specific manner. Results The 95th percentile levels at low risk factors for liver diseases were achieved at 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women. The concordance statistics for detection were 0.873 (95%CI: 0.865–0.881) for HBV and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.927–0.937) for NAFLD in men while 0.857 (95%CI: 0.850–0.864) for HBV and 0.909 (95%CI: 0.903–0.915) for NAFLD in women. The median sensitivity of the current used ALT upper limit (40 U/L) was 6.6% for HBV and 29.7% for NAFLD and median specificity was 98.7% for men and 99.4% for women. Using our new-derived thresholds, the sensitivities ranged from 35.3% to 61.1% and the specificities were 94.8% for men and 94.6% for women. Conclusions Our results suggest that upper limits of ALT 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women in Chinese Han population. Re-consideration of normal limits of ALT should be recommended. Trial Registration ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OCS-11001173 PMID:22962588

  7. Comparison of sea surface wind speed fields by SEASAT radar altimeter, scatterometer and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer with an emphasis on the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mognard, N. M.; Campbell, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The SEASAT altimeter (ALT), scatterometer (SASS), and scanning microwave multichannel radiometer (SMMR) measured sea surface wind speed. During the satellite lifetime from June to October 1978, the Austral winter, the highest wind speeds were recorded in the Southern Ocean. Three-month, monthly, and three-day surface wind speed fields deduced from the three Seasat wind speed sensors are compared. The monthly and three-day fields show a pronounced mesoscale (1000 km) variability in wind speed. At all space and time scales analyzed, differences of 40% are found in the magnitude of the wind speed features, with the ALT consistently yielding the lowest wind speed and the SMMR the highest.

  8. Environmentally friendly synthesis of supportless Pt based nanoreactors in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Michael N.; Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile; Jugroot, Manish

    2014-09-01

    Using the amphiphilic alternating copolymer poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride), the hydrophobic salt PtCl2, is reduced into platinum nanoparticles that are less than 3 nm in an aqueous biocompatible environment. The nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The formation of unsupported nanoparticles embedded in the polymer nanotemplate take advantage of the confinement effect in reactions due to the dynamic formation of the poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) nanotube. This enhanced catalytic effect is demonstrated with the polymerization of pyrrole.

  9. Argininosuccinate synthetase as a plasma biomarker of liver injury after acetaminophen overdose in rodents and humans

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Archie; Sharpe, Matthew R.; Williams, C. David; Curry, Steven C.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Svetlov, Stanislav I.

    2014-01-01

    Context New biomarkers are needed in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Plasma argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is a promising candidate. Objective Characterize ASS in APAP hepatotoxicity. Methods ASS was measured in plasma from rodents and humans with APAP hepatotoxicity. Results In mice, ASS increased before injury, peaked before ALT, and decreased rapidly. Fischer rats had a greater increase in ASS relative to ALT. Patients with abnormal liver test results had very high ASS compared to controls. ASS appeared to increase early in some patients, and declined rapidly in all. Conclusions : ASS may be a useful biomarker of acute cell death in APAP hepatotoxicity. PMID:24597531

  10. Gevrey class regularity for the attractor of the laser equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Govind

    1999-11-01

    Constantin, Foais and Gibbon proved that the laser equations (Lorenz PDE) define a dynamical system in L2 with a Cicons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/> attractor. We extend this theorem to show that the attractor is contained in every Gevrey class, Gs, for 1ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/>. This demonstrates a remarkable smoothing mechanism for this hyperbolic system. We consider the consequences of this theorem for finite-dimensionality of the dynamics.

  11. Light deflection in gadolinium molybdate ferroelastic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniorowski, Piotr; Bornarel, Jean

    2000-02-01

    The deflection of a He-Ne light beam by polydomain gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystals has been studied with respect to incidence angle icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i on the sample at room temperature. The A and B deflected beams do not cross each other during the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i variation, in contrast to results and calculations previously published. The model using the Fresnel equation confirms this result. The model presented is more accurate for numerical calculation than that using the Huygens construction.

  12. Head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    Whatever is excisable, is reconstructable! “You excise, we will reconstruct” are the confident words of reconstructive surgeons today. Reconstruction with multiple flaps has become routine. Radial artery (FRAF), Antero lateral thigh (ALT) and Fibula osteo cutaneous flap (FFOCF) are three most popular free flaps which can reconstruct any defect with excellent asthetics and performance. Radial Artery provides thin, pliable innervated skin; ALT large amount of skin & bulk; and FFOCF strong 22 to 25 centimetres of bone and reliable skin paddle. Free flap survival has gone to 98% in most of the renouned institutes and is an established escalator in management of defects. PMID:24501464

  13. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhanwra, S; Singh, J; Khosla, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) was evaluated in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver necrosis was produced by administering single dose of paracetamol (2 g/kg, p.o.). The liver damage was evidenced by elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and by histopathological observations of liver sections. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced these elevated levels of AST, ALT and gamma-GT. Paracetamol induced liver necrosis was also found to be reduced as observed macroscopically and histologically. PMID:10919097

  14. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  15. Effects of Soil Property Uncertainty on Projected Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, D. R.; Atchley, A. L.; Coon, E.; Painter, S. L.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Liljedahl, A.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in future climate is often assumed to contribute the largest uncertainty to active layer thickness (ALT) projections. However, the impact of soil property uncertainty on these projections may be significant. In this research, we evaluate the contribution of soil property uncertainty on ALT projections at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska. The effect of variations in porosity, thermal conductivity, saturation, and water retention properties of peat and mineral soil are evaluated. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) is used to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface. We apply the Null-Space Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm to identify an ensemble of soil property combinations that produce simulated temperature profiles that are consistent with temperature measurements available from the site. ALT is simulated for the ensemble of soil property combinations for four climate scenarios. The uncertainty in ALT due to soil properties within and across climate scenarios is evaluated. This work was supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project LDRD201200068DR and by the The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science.

  16. Ethnicity, alcohol drinking and changes in transaminase activity among heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Connors, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis mortality differs by ethnicity in the United States. Some studies suggest alcohol sensitivity may contribute to this finding. This analysis evaluated if alcohol-associated changes in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) differed by ethnicity among heavy drinkers. METHODS: Subjects included 1691 subjects from Project MATCH, a multicenter alcohol use disorders treatment trial. Changes in AST and ALT over 15 months were modeled as functions of ethnicity, age, gender, time, study site and alcohol use. The main focus was on ethnic differences in changes in transaminase activity occurring with changes in alcohol use. RESULTS: At all levels of alcohol consumption AST was lower in non-Hispanic whites relative to African Americans and Mexican Americans. Changes in AST associated with changes in alcohol use did not vary by ethnicity. ALT significantly differed only between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Similar to AST, alcohol-associated ALT change did not differ by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with alcohol use disorders participating in a treatment trial, the effect of alcohol drinking on transaminase activity did not vary by ethnicity. However, in the general population, alcohol may still interact with other factors in mediating ethnic differences in cirrhosis mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17534015

  17. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  18. EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE) 2014 Draft

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the news

    alt="EPA's Blog - It all starts with Science" width="45" height="67" style="float: left; padding: 4px 4px 2px 3px; margin-bottom:10px;" >EPA's ...

  19. MEASURING GROWTH OF A PHENANTHRENE DEGRADING BACTERIAL INOCULUM IN SOIL WITH A QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured growth of a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, Arthrobacter, strain RP17, in Forbes soil, amended with 500 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>g g−1 phenanthrene using a quantitati...

  20. Overview of North American stored product research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major locations for stored product research in North America are in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Recent personnel changes and research areas are reviewed. One of the pressing research areas in the U.S. is reducing the need for fumigations in flour mills and evaluating alte...

  1. Quasi-elastic light scattering in betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Lewen, M.; Schaack, G.

    1999-12-01

    We report measurements of the temperature (40 Kicons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> T icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/>200 K) and polarization (z(yy)x,z(xz)x) dependence of the integrated intensities of quasi-elastically scattered laser light (icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 514.5 nm) in a wavenumber interval of 0+/-3 cm-1 around the Rayleigh line at the different phase transitions in single crystals of BCCD. Large anomalies (central peaks) are observed at the transitions into the ferroelectric, the various commensurate (c,c´), and the incommensurate phases. The widths of the anomalies on the temperature scale are large in the regions of quasi-harmonic modulation of the structure, but narrow and distinct in the region of square-wave modulation in the solitonic phase of BCCD, where also unusual shapes on the T-axis are observed. The scattering phenomena at low temperatures are interpreted hypothetically as due to fluctuations caused by the formation or rearrangement of domain walls (solitons) in the lattice near the transitions between commensurate phases and by the variation in soliton density. The cicons/Journals/Common/leftrightarrow" ALT="leftrightarrow" ALIGN="TOP"/>c´ transitions are of the order-disorder type.

  2. Effects of cafestol and kahweol from coffee grounds on serum lipids and serum liver enzymes in humans.

    PubMed

    Urgert, R; Schulz, A G; Katan, M B

    1995-01-01

    The diterpenes cafestol and kahweol are present in unfiltered coffee in oil droplets and floating fines. They elevate serum cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). We measured fines in coffee brews, and examined diterpene availability from spent grounds in healthy volunteers. Turkish or Scandinavian boiled coffee contained 2-5 g fines/L and French press coffee contained 1.5 g fines/L. An intake of 8 g fine grounds/d for 3 wk increased cholesterol by 0.65 mmol/L (95% CI 0.41-0.89 mmol/L) and ALT by 18 U/L (95% CI 4-32 U/L) relative to control subjects (n = 7/group). In a crossover study (n = 15), mean serum cholesterol was 4.9 mmol/L after consumption of both fine and coarse grounds for 10 d (P = 0.43). Serum ALT activities were 29 U/L on fine and 21 U/L on coarse grounds (P = 0.02). Floating fines could contribute substantially to the hyperlipidemic and ALT-elevating effect of unfiltered coffee. Diterpene measurements in coffee brews should include the contribution of fines. PMID:7825527

  3. A Framework Incorporating Community Preferences in Use Attainment and Related Water Quality Decision-Making (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Framework for Use Attainment 2011 Final Report "> The report is intended to assist water quality officials, wate...

  4. Connectivity of Streams and Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Review and Synthesis of the Scientific Evidence (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of Waters of the US Connectivity of Streams Final Report"> The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEP...

  5. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO THREE CHEMICALS ON THE BLOOD CHEMISTRY OF THE PINFISH (LAGODON RHOMBOIDES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injections of 3 ml/kg CCl4 caused significant elevations in the CC14 serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD-L). erum lipids and total protein were significantly lower, while serum glucose ...

  6. O-METHYL PHOSPHORAMIDATE MODIFICATIONS ON THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI ARE INVOLVED IN SERUM RESISTANCE, INFECTION, AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported cause of bacterial foodborne illness in North America. C. jejuni decorates its surface polysaccharides with a variety of variable phosphorylated structures, including O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modifications on the capsular polysaccharide. Alt...

  7. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity ...

  8. USE OF SEDIMENT CORES TO ESTABLISH REFERENCE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to assess the degree to which integrity of waterbodies have been degraded, comparisons are made to "reference" conditions. Finding systems with similar ecological components, but absent the specific stressors of concern, may often be difficult or even impossible. An alt...

  9. The Teaching Styles and Use of Adult Learning Theory among Nursing Professional Development Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    The American Nurses Association advocates for nursing professional development (NPD) specialists to have an earned graduate degree, as well as educational and clinical expertise. However, many NPD specialists have limited exposure to adult learning theory (ALT), and this lack of exposure may reduce organizational knowledge transfer (KT) and the…

  10. Student Reflections as Artifacts of Self-Regulatory Behaviors for Learning: A Tale of Two Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigenho, Christopher William

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of online and blended learning environments in both higher education and K-12, along with the development of innovative game based, narrative driven, problem-based learning (PBL) systems known as Alternate Reality Games (AltRG), has led to the need to understand student's abilities to self-regulate their learning behaviors…

  11. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system. PMID:18975131

  12. 76 FR 46896 - Designation of Six Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., Salem); DOB 1977; alt. DOB 1978; nationality Qatar (individual) 3. KHAWAR, Abdallah Ghanim Mahfuz Muslim (a.k.a. AL-KHAWAR, Abdullah Ghalib Mahfuz Muslim; a.k.a. AL-KHOWAR, Abdullah; a.k.a. KHAWAR, Abdullah Ghanem Mahfouz Muslim; a.k.a. KHOWAR, Abdullah); DOB 17 Aug 1981; nationality Qatar; Passport...

  13. Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Final report"> This EPA report provides an overview of the types of mechanisms underlying the lymphoh...

  14. Biofuels and the Environment: the First Triennial Report to Congress (2011 Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Biofuels and the Enviroment: First Triennial Report to C...

  15. Unravelling the in vivo regulation and metabolic role of the alternative oxidase pathway in C3 species under photoinhibitory conditions.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Schwahn, Kevin; Nikoloski, Zoran; Fernie, Alisdair R; Flexas, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) has been suggested to act as a sink for excess reducing power generated in the chloroplast under high-light (HL) stress and thus may reduce photoinhibition. The aim of this study was to compare different species to investigate the in vivo regulation and role of AOP under HL stress. The in vivo activities of AOP (νalt ) and the cytochrome oxidase pathway, chlorophyll fluorescence, metabolite profiles, alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount were determined in leaves of five C3 species under growth light and after HL treatment. Differences in respiration and metabolite levels were observed among species under growth light conditions. The HL response of νalt was highly species dependent, correlated with the AOP capacity and independent of AOX protein content. Nevertheless, significant correlations were observed between νalt , levels of key metabolites and photosynthetic parameters. The results show that the species-specific response of νalt is caused by the differential post-translational regulation of AOX. Significant correlations between respiration, metabolites and photosynthetic performance across species suggest that AOP may permit stress-related amino acid synthesis, whilst maintaining photosynthetic activity under HL stress. PMID:27321208

  16. KINETICS ON A SUPPORTED CATALYST AT SUPERCRITICAL NONDEACTIVATING CONDITIONS. (R824729)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Intrinsic kinetic parameters are reported for the Pt/alt="small gamma, Greek" border=0>-Al2O3 catalyzed geometric isomerization of 1-hexene (Pc=29.7 bar; T

  17. 75 FR 5522 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...-5805. II. Petition for Tolerance In the Federal Register of November 5, 2008 (73 FR 65851) (FRL- 8385-1... (increased alkaline phosphatase, ALT and decreased cholesterol, triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy... under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  18. 75 FR 53581 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of March 24, 2010 (75 FR... hypertrophy), liver effects (increased alkaline phosphatase, ALT and decreased cholesterol, triglycerides... Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted from...

  19. Cabin Pressure Monitors Notify Pilots to Save Lives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, San Diego-based Aviation Technology Inc. obtained an exclusive license for the technology behind the cabin pressure monitor invented at Kennedy Space Center and built its own version of the product. The Alt Alert is designed to save lives by alerting aircraft pilots and crews when cabin pressure becomes dangerously low.

  20. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the NOx ISA 2008 Report"> The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represent...

  1. Student Performance and Student Growth as Measures of Success: An Evaluator's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joe B.

    Measuring the academic achievement of students at the extremes of a grade level distribution accurately poses challenges that may be compounded if a single-level assessment is used for each grade level. Multiple level of achievement measures, such as the Achievement Level Tests (ALT), can help overcome these challenges by increasing the accuracy…

  2. 78 FR 148 - Additional Designations of Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13581

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... via facsimile through a 24-hour fax-on-demand service at (202) 622-0077. Background On July 24, 2011... Russia; Passport 60- 4145924 (Russia); alt. Passport 60-4145934 (Russia) (individual) 2. ANAPIYAEV... Kyrgyzstan (individual) 3. KASENOV, Adilet Zhakypovich; DOB 08 Jun 1983; POB Naryn, Kyrgyzstan;...

  3. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  4. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA is announcing the availability of the <...

  5. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the EPA Fish Consumption Final Report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific...

  6. EFFECTS OF PCBS SORBED TO ALGAL PASTE AND SEDIMENTS ON THE STRESS PROTEIN RESPONSE (HSP70 FAMILY) IN THE EASTERN OYSTER, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    This study examined the stress protein response (HSP70 family) of reproductively inactive oysters fed 0.7 g algal paste containing 0, 0.35 and 3.5 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>g polychlorinate...

  7. PCB UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) EXPOSED VIA A CONTAMINATED ALGAL DIET. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Reproductively active oysters were fed daily with 0.2 g algal paste containing 0, 0.1, and 1.0 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>g polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (1:1:1 mixture of Aroclor 1242, 1...

  8. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E R; Melo, A M; Xavier, H

    2000-03-01

    The hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine, showed abortive and teratogenic action and changes in the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea in rats. The long term administration of the extract and boldine did not cause histological modification during a period of 90 days. PMID:10685105

  9. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CATALYST DEACTIVATION. (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deactivation of 0.5 wt.% Pt/alt="small gamma, Greek" border=0>-Al2O3 catalysts during trichloroethylene (TCE)–steam reforming was studied with experiments at 700°C, H

  10. 78 FR 79078 - Designation of 2 individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001, “Blocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AYED''; a.k.a. ``ABU AYID''), Yemen; DOB 04 Aug 1972; POB al-Zahir, al-Bayda', Yemen; Passport 03902409 (Yemen) issued 13 Jun 2010 expires 13 Jun 2016; alt. Passport 01772281 (Yemen); Personal ID Card 1987853 (Yemen) (individual) . 2. AL-NU'AYMI, 'Abd al-Rahman bin 'Umayr (a.k.a. AL NAIMEH, Abdelrahman Imer...

  11. Creating Flexible E-Learning through the Use of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasseter, Marie; Rogers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    For five years, Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT), a unit within the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia (USG), has worked with faculty and staff to develop the eCore, an electronically delivered core curriculum for the University System of Georgia. The eCore contains courses leading to the completion of the first two years of…

  12. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the 2015 Preamble Report"> The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document o...

  13. Wildlife Scenario Builder and User's Guide (Version 1.0, Beta Test)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Wildlife Scenario Builder User's Manual" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> The Wildlife Scenario Builder (WSB) was developed to improve the quality of wildlif...

  14. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (...

  15. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Bristol Bay, Alaska Draft Assessment Report"> [UPDATE] In March 2014, EPA released a response to public comment...

  16. Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200 mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

  17. A 10-year retrospective study of free anterolateral thigh flap application in 872 head and neck tumour cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Zhao, X P; Yan, T L; Wang, M; Wang, L; Wu, H J; Shang, Z J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, reliability, and various applications of free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and to provide a 10-year retrospective review of the application of this flap in head and neck tumour patients. A retrospective study was performed of 872 patients who underwent immediate reconstruction of head and neck tumour-induced defects with ALT flaps between April 2005 and April 2014. The study sample consisted of 609 males and 263 females aged 18-79 years. The shapes and sizes of the flaps were designed individually to meet various demands of reconstruction in the head and neck region. The overall rate of successful reconstruction was 97.4%. The reasons for 57 cases of flap compromise were analyzed. The time to detection of flap crisis was often within the first 8h after surgery (64.9%). One- and two-vein anastomosis strategies in microsurgery were compared, and significant differences were observed in terms of the time to detection of flap compromise and the rate of successful flap salvage. In conclusion, the free ALT flap provides unique features for the reconstruction of oral and facial defects in a reliable and versatile approach. The ALT flap is a favourable and versatile 'workhorse' flap for head and neck reconstruction. PMID:26154948

  18. Characterization of the extrachromosomal function (ECF) sigma factors of Arcobacter butzleri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported cause of bacterial foodborne illness in North America. C. jejuni decorates its surface polysaccharides with a variety of variable phosphorylated structures, including O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modifications on the capsular polysaccharide. Alt...

  19. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  20. 78 FR 12420 - Identification of Additional Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...) (Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY). 30. CLOVE (f.k.a. SEMNAN) (5IM 595) Crude Oil Tanker Unknown...) (T2EU4) Crude/Oil Products Tanker Unknown flag; Former Vessel Flag Malta; alt. Former Vessel Flag Tuvalu... TANKER COMPANY). 2. CRYSTAL (f.k.a. ABADEH) (9HDQ9) Crude/Oil Products Tanker Tanzania flag;...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  2. Perceptual Learning in Flavor-Aversion Learning: Alternating and Blocked Exposure to a Compound of Flavors and to an Element of that Compound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Gabriel; Alonso, Gumersinda

    2004-01-01

    Rats received different schedules of pre-exposure to a compound flavor (AX) and to one element of that compound (X). In Group ALT, exposure consisted of alternating trials with AX and X; Group BLK received a block with all AX trials before a separate block with all X trials (or vice versa). Discrimination between AX and X was assessed then by…

  3. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills Central Appalachian Coalfields Final Report "> This report assesses the state of the sci...

  4. The Ground Temperature Effect on Cosmic-Ray Muons at Mid latitude City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A.; Alotaibi, R.; Almutayri, M.; Garawi, M.; Baig, M.

    2015-08-01

    The investigation of meteorological effects is of a great importance to the analysis of the cosmic ray variations. In this paper, we study the effect of the ground temperature on the cosmic ray recorded by KACST detector. This detector has monitored secondary cosmic ray muon since 2002 at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; (lat 24 43; long. 46 40; alt. 613 m; Rc ∼14 GV).

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF EMERGING SUB-POPULATIONS SUSCEPTIBLE TO ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH AIR PARTICULATE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall weight of evidence from panel, clinical, and toxicological studies has demonstrated the ability of ambient air particulate matter (PM) exposure to induce a variety of extra-pulmonary effects ranging from alterations in hematological parameters to cardiac function. Alt...

  6. CONCENTRATIONS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE AND PM2.5 PARTICLES IN THREE EUROPEAN CITIES. (R827354C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total number concentrations, number concentrations of ultrafine (0.01¯0.1 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>m) and accumulation (0.1¯0.5 Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Land-Applied Biosolids 2011 Final Report "> Millions of tons of treated sewage sludges or “biosolids” are applied annually to f...

  7. THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF KARST HYDROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="D. Field collecting stream samples.">

    Dr. Malcolm Field works for the National Center for Environmental Assessment, and may be the only EPA scientist actively working in ...

  8. Mammalian Polymerase Theta Promotes Alternative-NHEJ and Suppresses Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Gong, Fade; Nair, Nidhi; Miller, Kyle M.; Lazzerini-Denchi, Eros; Sfeir, Agnel

    2016-01-01

    The alternative nonhomologous end-joining (alt-NHEJ) machinery facilitates a number of genomic rearrangements, some of which can lead to cellular transformation. This error-prone repair pathway is triggered upon telomere de-protection to promote the formation of deleterious chromosome end-to-end fusions1,2,3. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we found that repair by alt-NHEJ yields non-TTAGGG nucleotide insertions at fusion breakpoints of dysfunctional telomeres. Investigating the enzymatic activity responsible for the random insertions enabled us to identify Polymerase theta (Polθ; encoded by PolQ) as a critical alt-NHEJ factor in mammalian cells. PolQ inhibition suppresses alt-NHEJ at dysfunctional telomeres, and hinders chromosomal translocations at non-telomeric loci. In addition, we found that PolQ loss results in increased rates of homology directed repair (HDR), evident by recombination of dysfunctional telomeres and accumulation of Rad51 at double stranded breaks. Lastly, we show that depletion of PolQ has a synergistic impact on cell survival in the absence of BRCA genes, suggesting that the inhibition of this mutagenic polymerase represents a valid therapeutic avenue for tumors carrying mutations in HDR genes. PMID:25642960

  9. An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbde) (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the PBDE Final Report "> This final report provides a comprehensive assessment of the exposure of Americans to this class of persistent ...

  10. Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO), fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-α than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer. PMID:21473769

  11. ALDOL REACTION VIA IN SITU OLEFIN MIGRATION IN WATER. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mingwen Wang and Chao-Jun Lialt="Corresponding Author Contact Information" border=0>

    Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, Ne...

  12. VERSATILE AEROSOL CONCENTRATION ENRICHMENT SYSTEM (VACES) FOR SIMULTANEOUS IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE AND COARSE AMBIENT PARTICLES. PART II: FIELD EVALUATION. (R827352C001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents results from a field evaluation of a mobile versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES), designed to enhance the ambient concentrations of ultrafine (less than 0.18 alt="small m...

  13. What is the role of the vasculature in the neural stem cell niche?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Review of article: Ramirez-Castillejo C, Sanchez-Sanchez F, Andreu-Agullo C et al.: Pigment epithelium-derived factor is a niche signal for neural stem cell renewal. Nat. Neurosci. 9(3), 331–339 (2006). Vascular cells are essential components of the cytoarchitecture of multiple stem cell niches, alt...

  14. A Review of the Impact of Climate Variability and Change on Aeroallergens and Their Associated Effects (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Aeroallergens Report"> This report is a survey of the current state of scientific knowledge of the potential...

  15. Incomplete transfer of accessory loci influencing SbMATE expression underlies genetic background effects for aluminum tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired root development caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause for grain yield reduction for crops cultivated on acid soils which are widespread worldwide. In sorghum, the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, is due to the function of SbMATE, which is an Al-activated root citrate transporte...

  16. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (External Review Draft) 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook"> Children are often more heavily exposed to environmental toxicants than adults. They consume more...

  17. Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition"> The mission of National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of EPA's ...

  18. Basins and Wepp Climate Assessment Tools (Cat): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tool: Case Study Final report"> This final report supports application of two recently developed...

  19. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...