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Sample records for kraft mill wastewater

  1. Anaerobic digestion of alkaline bleaching wastewater from a kraft pulp and paper mill using UASB technique.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Madeleine; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Bastviken, David; Svensson, Bo H; Karlsson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of alkaline kraft elemental chlorine-free bleaching wastewater in two mesophilic, lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors resulted in significantly higher biogas production (250±50 vs. 120±30 NmL g [Formula: see text]) and reduction of filtered total organic carbon (fTOC) (60±5 vs. 43±6%) for wastewater from processing of hardwood (HW) compared with softwood (SW). In all cases, the gas production was likely underestimated due to poor gas separation in the reactors. Despite changes in wastewater characteristics, a stable anaerobic process was maintained with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) between 7 and 14 h. Lowering the HRT (from 13.5 to 8.5 h) did not significantly affect the process, and the stable performance at 8.5 h leaves room for further decreases in HRT. The results show that this type of wastewater is suitable for a full-scale implementation, but the difference in methane potential between SW and HW is important to consider both regarding process dimensioning and biogas yield optimization. PMID:25441833

  2. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions. PMID:25837566

  3. Effect of organic load and nutrient ratio on the operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor for kraft mill wastewater treatment and the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pozo, G; Villamar, C A; Martínez, M; Vidal, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of organic load rate (OLR) and nutrient ratio on operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) for kraft mill wastewater treatment, analyzing the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. The MBBR operating strategy was to increase OLR from 0.25 ± 0.05 to 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) between phases I and IV. The BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1 and 100:1:0.2) was evaluated as an operation strategy for phases IV to V. A stable MBBR operation was found when the OLR was increased during 225 days in five phases. The maximum absolute fluorescence against the proportion of cells accumulating PHA was obtained for an OLR of 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and a BOD(5):N:P relationship of 100:1:0.2. The increase of PHA biosynthesis is due to the increased OLR and is not attributable to the increased cell concentration, which is maintained constant in stationary status during bioreactor biosynthesis. PMID:22699342

  4. ANALYTICAL SYSTEM FOR MEASURING MALODOROUS COMPOUNDS FROM KRAFT MILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Automated chromatographs equipped with flame photometric detectors were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of low- and high-molecular-weight sulfur compounds in kraft mill effluents. One chromatograph equipped with a Teflon column packed with Teflon and coate...

  5. Corrosion testing in flash tanks of kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.J.; Stead, N.J.

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion observed in the first flash tanks in kraft pulp mills with modified cooking practices was characterized. Coupons of carbon steel (CS), several stainless steels (SS), and Ti were exposed at two mills. At one mill, identical sets of coupons were exposed in the No. 1 and No. 2 flash tank. At the other mill, three identical sets of coupons were placed in flash tank No. 1. The results of the exposures showed that both CS and Ti suffered high rates of general corrosion, while the SS suffered varying degrees of localized attack. The ranking of the corrosion resistance in the flash tank was the same that would be expected in a reducing acid environment. Attack by organic acids was concluded to be the most likely cause of corrosion of the flash tanks.

  6. Investigating the relationship between toxicity and organic sum-parameters in kraft mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Raptis, Catherine E; Juraske, Ronnie; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Elaborate toxicity diagnostics, such as toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effects-directed analysis (EDA) have helped in identifying the causative agents of effluent wastewater toxicity. However, simpler means of relating ecotoxicological effects to effluent composition could be useful for effluent management practices when there is no scope for more complex procedures. The aim of this work was to investigate and isolate the relationship between biological responses and commonly measured organic sum-parameters, such as chemical- and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD, respectively) in kraft mill effluents. In a top-down approach, the whole effluent toxicity (WET) of effluent samples was first determined from Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays. The theoretical toxicity that could be attributed to the metal content was then estimated, via a combination of equilibrium chemical speciation- and metal toxicity modelling. By assuming concentration addition, the metal toxicity was subtracted from the WET, isolating the toxicity thought to be caused by the organics. Strong and significant correlations between the 'corrected' toxicity and organic sum-parameters were found for both species. The growth of P. subcapitata was negatively associated with increasing COD concentrations, whereas reproduction of C. dubia was negatively associated with increasing BOD concentrations. The linear relationships, along with robust estimations of their uncertainty bounds, can provide valuable, albeit rough, guidance for kraft mill effluent management practices. PMID:25213683

  7. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES IN KRAFT PULP MILL AND CRUSHED STONE INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial personnel responsible for se...

  8. Chronic effects of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus kraft mill effluents and phytosterols on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    López, D; Chamorro, S; Silva, J; Bay-Schmith, E; Vidal, G

    2011-12-01

    Two kraft pulp mill effluents were compared in terms of their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. One resulted from pulping Pinus radiata and the other came from a parallel processing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus (mixed kraft pulp mill effluent). The concentration of phytosterols found in the mixed kraft pulp mill effluent was higher than in the effluent from Pinus radiata, with values of 0.1082 and 0.02 μg/L, respectively. The phytosterols per se are responsible for 12.9% and 8.1% of the deviation from the natural shape, while the kraft pulp mill effluents account for 25.6%-27.8% of shape deviation. The role of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol is discussed in relation to endocrine disruption. PMID:21979137

  9. Process integration study Kraft and Magnefite pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The James River Camas mill produces 500,000 tons/year of paper from an integrated operation comprising both Kraft and Magnefite pulping, bleaching, recovery and paper machines. In addition to liquor recovery boilers the mill burns hog fuel and gas to supplement steam requirements. Electrical power demands on the site are met by a combination of on site back pressure turbines and purchased power. The mill was studied by the pinch analysis method and revealed scope to reduce thermal energy requirements by 12% on the Nos. 15, 16 and 20 paper machines and 7% in the cross pinch heat transfer in the existing mill configuration. These savings are equivalent to approximately 73 MBtu/hr in process steam, or 6.2% of total energy use. Pinch techniques reveal additional potential to save between 11--16 MBtu/hr in steam by appropriate process change, principally to black liquor concentrator and evaporator configuration. More significantly, about 36 MBtu/hr steam savings could be achieved by vapor compression heat pumping at the expense of about 1.3 MW electrical power. This amounts to 2.5% of total energy use. To realize these savings appropriate heat recovery networks are required downstream of the modified process equipment. Further scope was identified but not quantified on the remaining paper machines both to make heat savings and to integrate gas turbine power generation. Projects were identified to save up to 38 MBtu/hr of steam by process integration (i.e. 2.7% of total energy use). With appropriate process changes to concentrator configuration this saving can be increased by 9 MBtu/hr. Alternatively, vapor compression heat pumping can achieve 16 MBtu/hr in additional steam savings (1.8% of total energy use). 30 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  11. Comparative bacterial degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin from pulp paper wastewater and its metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhishek, Amar; Dwivedi, Ashish; Tandan, Neeraj; Kumar, Urwashi

    2015-05-01

    Continuous discharge of lignin containing colored wastewater from pulp paper mill into the environment has resulted in building up their high level in various aquatic systems. In this study, the chemical texture of kraft lignin in terms of pollution parameters (COD, TOC, BOD, etc.) was quite different and approximately twofold higher as compared to model lignin at same optical density (OD 3.7 at 465 nm) and lignin content (2000 mg/L). For comparative bacterial degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin two bacteria Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and mixed condition. Bacterial mixed culture was found to decolorize 87 and 70 % model and kraft lignin (2000 mg/L), respectively; whereas, axenic culture Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens decolorized 64, 60 % model and 50, 55 % kraft lignin, respectively, at optimized condition (34 °C, pH 8.2, 140 rpm). In addition, the mixed bacterial culture also showed the removal of 76, 61 % TOC; 80, 67 % COD and 87, 65 % lignin from model and kraft lignin, respectively. High pollution parameters (like TOC, COD, BOD, sulphate) and toxic chemicals slow down the degradation of kraft lignin as compared to model lignin. The comparative GC-MS analysis has suggested that the interspecies collaboration, i.e., each bacterial strain in culture medium has cumulative enhancing effect on growth, and degradation of lignin rather than inhibition. Furthermore, toxicity evaluation on human keratinocyte cell line after bacterial treatment has supported the degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin.

  12. Kraft mill sludge to improve vegetal production in Chilean Andisol.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, F; Mora, M L; Diez, M C

    2007-01-01

    The effect of kraft mill sludge addition (25 to 75 ton/ha) to soil derived from volcanic ashes (Andisol) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv. Puken) biomass production, and in the nutrient absorption by the plants was evaluated. Respiration activity and seed germination tests were carried out on the soil/sludge mixtures, in order to evaluate possible toxic effects due to the sludge addition to the soil. Soil without sludge was used as a control treatment. The plants were grown in a greenhouse (25 degrees C, 14 h-photoperiod) during 120 days, then the plants were collected and dried at 65 degrees C for 72 h for the determination of biomass production (root and aerial) and analyzed for mineral content (Ca, Mg, K and P). The mixtures of soil/sludge showed no toxicity. Seed germination and respiration activity increased with the increment of the sludge. The accumulated CO2 in the soil without sludge was 41.66 mg CO2/100; this value shows a low microbial activity. The biomass increased with the increment of sludge addition to the soil and five times more biomass was obtained when 75 ton/ha sludge was added to the soil. The nutrient absorption efficiency was also improved with the sludge addition. PMID:17486832

  13. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  14. Technical assistance document for monitoring total reduced sulfur (TRS) from kraft pulp mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T.

    1985-12-01

    This document supports enforcement personnel in determining whether a total reduced sulfur (TRS) continuous emission monitoring (CEM) system is operating properly after initial compliance, in order to assure continuous compliance of Kraft pulp mills with TRS standards. The Kraft process, the applicable NSPS (Subpart BB), common TRS CEM Systems, performance specification tests, and QA/QC are covered. Evaluation forms covering all aspects of the TRS CEM system are provided.

  15. Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

  16. Metabolic effects of kraft mill effluents on the eel Anguilla anguilla L

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M.A.; Pires, F.; Hall, A. )

    1990-08-01

    Yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) with an average weight of 60 g were used in this experiment. The fish were caught in June/July at the Aveiro Lagoon on the Portuguese West Coast, transported to the Department of Biology, Aveiro University, and kept in aerated aquaria for 1 week before the experiment started. The eels were then exposed for 1 and 3 weeks to 75 and 50% of the kraft pulp mill effluent. The eels exposed to the kraft pulp mill effluent developed an increase in red blood cell number per cubic millimeter and several biochemical changes, such as an increase in plasma lactate and sodium and a decrease in plasma pyruvate and potassium. Histological examination of the experimental eels exposed to the 50% kraft pulp mill effluent revealed deep alteration of the tissue structure, such as disruption of the skin and edematous hypertrophy of covering epithelial cells in secondary gill lamellae. The kidney had damage of the renal tubules. The liver developed necrosis supported by a significant decrease in GOT and GPT activity. The spleen had an increase in blood content as well as in pigment centers. Previous results indicated the kraft pulp mill effluent causes tissue damage and consequent metabolic changes in the eel Anguilla anguilla L.

  17. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Vitro Androgenic Activity of Kraft Mill Effluent is Associated with Masculinization of Female Fish. Lambright, CS 1 , Parks, LG 1, Orlando, E 2, Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Ankley, G 3, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville ...

  18. An Analytical System Designed to Measure Multiple Malodorous Compounds Related to Kraft Mill Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, J. D.; And Others

    Reported upon in this research study is the development of two automated chromatographs equipped with flame photometric detectors for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of both low- and high-molecular weight sulfur compounds in kraft mill effluents. In addition the study sought to determine the relationship between total gaseous sulfur and…

  19. Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

    2008-08-01

    Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

  20. Alumina-supported noble metal catalysts for destructive oxidation of organic pollutants in effluent from a softwood kraft pulp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Chuang, K.T.

    1998-08-01

    The effectiveness of alumina-supported noble metal catalysts for the destructive oxidation of organic pollutants in effluent from a softwood kraft pulp mill was evaluated in a slurry reactor at 463 K and an oxygen pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effects of catalyst preparation procedures, such as metal loading, calcination, or reduction treatment on the catalytic activities, were also tested. Alumina-supported palladium catalysts were found to be more effective than supported manganese, iron, or platinum catalysts. The rate of oxidation over Pd/alumina catalyst was significantly higher than that of the uncatalyzed reaction. Adding Ce on the alumina support was found to promote the activity of alumina-supported Pt catalyst but inhibit the activity of alumina-supported Pd catalyst. The reaction mechanisms for the catalytic wet oxidation process and the roles of Ce on catalytic activity for destructive oxidation of organic pollutants in wastewater are discussed.

  1. Removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluent by aerobic biological treatment with steroidal metabolite detection.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Soledad; Vergara, Juan P; Jarpa, Mayra; Hernandez, Victor; Becerra, Jose; Vidal, Gladys

    2016-10-14

    Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluents treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with steroidal metabolite detection. The MBBR was operated for 145 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 2 days. Stigmasterol and steroidal metabolites were detected by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector during MBBR operation. The results show that the MBBR removed 87.4% of biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 61.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 24.5% of phenol and 31.5% of lignin, expressed in average values. The MBBR system successfully removed 100% of the stigmasterol contained in the influent (33 µg L(-1)) after 5 weeks of operation. In that case, the organic load rate was 0.343 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Furthermore, different steroidal compounds (e.g., testosterone propionate, stigmast-4-en-3-one, 5α-pregnan-12-one-20α-hydroxy, 5α-pregnane-3,11,20-trione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstane-11,17-dione were detected in the Kraft mill effluent as potential products of phytosterol biotransformation. PMID:27399163

  2. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

    2002-05-15

    This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

  3. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITO FISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT -CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fen...

  4. IN VITRO CONFIRMATION OF ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT WHICH IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZED FEMALE MOSQUITOFISH FORP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent response. This effect can be introduced in the laboratory with exposure to either paper mill effluent (PME) or to androgenic drugs. Hence, it has been h...

  5. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITOFISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT-CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp mill effluent (PME) from the Fe...

  6. Recycling of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by using electrodialysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Fracaro, A. T.; Henry, M. P.; Pfromm, P.; Tsai, S.-P.

    1999-01-15

    Conservation of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by recycling the bleach plant effluent directly without treatment will cause accumulation of inorganic ''non-process elements'' (NPEs) and serious operational problems. In this work, an electrodialysis process is being developed for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached kraft pulp mills. In this process, electrodialysis functions as a selective kidney to remove inorganic NPEs from bleach plant effluents, before they reach the recovery cycle. Acidic bleach plant effluents from several mills using bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The total dissolved solids were mostly inorganic NPEs. Sodium was the predominant cation and chloride was present at significant levels in all these effluents. In laboratory electrodialysis experiments, selective removal of chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently. Rejection of organic compounds was up to 98%. Electrodialysis was shown to be resistant to membrane fouling and scaling, in a 100-hour laboratory experiment. Based on a model mill with 1,000 ton/day pulp production, the economic analysis suggests that the energy cost of electrodialysis is less than $200/day, and the capital cost of the stack is about $500,000.

  7. Assessment of opacimeter calibration on kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Joa˜o. F. P.

    This paper describes the methodology and specific techniques for calibrating automatic on-line industrial emission analysers, specifically equipments that measure total suspended dust installed in pulp mills within the scope of Portuguese Regulation No. 286/93 on air quality. The calibration of opacimeters is a multi-parameter relationship instead of the bidimensional calibration which is used in industrial practice. For a stationary source from a pulp mill such as the recovery boiler stack, which is subjected to significant variations, the effects of parameters such as the humidity and gas temperature, deviations of isokinetism, size range of particles and characteristic transmittance of equipment are analysed. The multivariable analysis of a considerable set of data leads to an estimate of about 98% of equipment transmittance over the other parameters with a level of significance greater than 0.99 which is a validation of the bidimensional practical calibrations.

  8. Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

    2010-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

  9. Long-term effects of bleached kraft mill effluents on red and white blood cell status, ion balance, and vertebral structure in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Haerdig, J.A.; Andersson, T.; Bengtsson, B.E.; Foerlin, L.L.; Larsson, A.

    1988-02-01

    In a laboratory investigation fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) were exposed for 5-9 months to wastewater from pine and birch lines from a bleached kraft pulp plant. This long-term exposure to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) affected the hematology, the ion balance, and the vertebral structure. Decreased values for hematocrit and hemoglobin and a reduced red blood cell count, as well as increased levels of methemoglobin, indicated disturbances in the red blood cell status. The white blood cell picture was not significantly affected by the BKME exposure. Decreased levels of potassium and chloride ions in the blood plasma in some of the exposed fish suggest an impaired ability to maintain ion homeostasis. Elevated frequencies of vertebral deformations in fish exposed to BKME confirm previous observations of vertebral damage in feral fourhorn sculpin caught in the receiving body of water of the same bleached kraft pulp industry. Many of the parameters analyzed in this investigation may be used as health indicators in future laboratory and field studies on fish exposed to BKME.

  10. Effects of Kraft Mill effluent on the sexuality of fishes: An environmental early warning

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.P.; Bortone, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Arrhenoid or masculinized female fish species of the live-bearing family, Poeciliidae, have been observed for over thirteen years in specific southern streams which receive waste effluents from pulping mills. The complex mixture of organic compounds in kraft mill effluent (KME) has inhibited specific identification of causal agent(s). However, microbially degraded phytosterols (e.g. sitosterol or stigmastanol) in experimental exposures induce the same intersexual states that characterize affected female poeciliids sampled from KME streams. KME-polluted streams often exhibit a drastic reduction of fish species diversity and degrees of physiological stress, all of which suggests reduced reproduction in surviving forms. A potential ontogenetic or developmental response is demonstrated in American eels captured in one of these streams as well. The authors examine available information, including laboratory and experimental field exposures, and suggest directions for additional research as well as the need for environmental concern.

  11. Characterization of kraft pulp mill particulate emissions—A summary of existing measurements and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, John E.; Blosser, Russell O.

    Particulate matter emission sources at a kraft pulp mill include kraft recovery furnaces, lime kilns, smelt dissolving tanks and power boilers. Chemical and physical characteristics of these paniculate emissions are reviewed. Measurements of particle size distributions for these sources made with cascade impactors and microscopic counting techniques both before and after paniculate control devices such as multiple cyclones, wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitalors are discussed. In general, particles with equivalent diameters less than 3 jim comprise the bulk of the controlled paniculate emissions from all sources. Sodium sulfate is the dominant paniculate emission from kraft recovery furnaces, smelt dissolving tanks and lime kilns. Results from a field investigation of the relationship between human observations of near-stack plume opacity and measured in-stack paniculate concentrations and opacities are summarized. Trained cenified panels of observers were used in the investigation to estimate plume opacities from two kraft recovery furnaces, a combination wood/coal-fired boiler, and a combination wood/oil-fired boiler at four different pulp mill locations. Plume opacities were varied from near-zero to 45 % by adjustment of the paniculate control equipment operation. The effects of different background viewing conditions, observer positions, observer experience levels, and plume characteristics are enumerated. It is concluded that there can be substantial variations between measured in-stack opacities and human perceptions of near-stack plume opacities. The degree of agreement between the human judgements and measured in-stack opacities is significantly affected by the background viewing conditions. It is further shown that even with a panel of six or seven trained observers with similar visual acuity, there can be significant departures of individual opacity readings from the panel mean opacity. Although this investigation deals with questions of human

  12. Characteristics and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Karahan Özgün, Özlem; Pala Özkök, İlke; Kutay, Can; Orhon, Derin

    2016-05-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) are mostly characterized by their high-organic content and complex organic compounds in addition to the phenolic compounds. European olive oil manufacturers have to cope up with the same wastewater treatment problem and the applied conventional treatment technologies for OMW were not proved to be very successful in each case. Olive mills are mostly small and medium-sized installations and OMW is generated during the three-four-month-long manufacturing season. The problem is not only the complex wastewater to be treated but also the scattered positioning of the olive mills, the seasonal wastewater generation and the size of the manufacturing facilities. The aim of the study is to identify the organic content of OMW and to assess the biological and chemical treatability of OMWs, in order to assist the development of integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes for best appropriate techniques implementation. The experimental studies show that separation of the particulate fraction improved the biodegradability or reduced the refractory and inhibitory effects of particulate organics. PMID:26507588

  13. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  14. Membrane treatment of the bleaching plant (EPO) filtrate of a kraft pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Rafael; Silva, Claudio Mudado; Passos Rezende, Ana Augusta; Nilsson, Leif; Manfredi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of membrane technology to treat oxygen and peroxide-reinforced extraction stage (EPO) filtrate from a kraft pulp mill bleach plant. Three different types of tubular membranes were tested in a pilot plant: (i) tight ultrafiltration (UF); (ii) open UF followed by nanofiltration (UF+NF); and (iii) nanofiltration (NF). According to the separation performance, considering the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal, permeate flux, operational simplicity and cost, the results indicated that the best option for treatment of (EPO) filtrates was the tight UF membrane. This membrane obtained a COD removal of 79% with a colour reduction of 86%. The effect of (EPO) filtrate UF treatment on the mill effluent treatment plant was evaluated. Compared with the actual mill effluent, the results indicated that if the UF permeate was recycled in the bleaching area, the COD reduction efficiency increased by 7%, the final effluent colour decreased by 8%, the biological sludge production decreased by 18%, and the energy consumption decreased by 40%. In the tertiary treatment plant, the coagulant dosage decreased by 40%, and the tertiary sludge production decreased by 46%. PMID:25225931

  15. Recovery of kraft lignin from pulping wastewater via emulsion liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Zing-Yi; Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin

    2015-01-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) is a renewable source of many valuable intermediate biochemical products currently derived from petroleum. An excessive of lignin comes from pulping wastewater caused an adverse pollution problems hence affecting human and aquatic life. A comprehensive study pertaining to emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) extraction of lignin from pulping wastewater was presented. ELM formulation contains Aliquat 336 as carrier, kerosene as diluent, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) as stripping agent and Span 80 as surfactant. The emulsion stability was investigated at different surfactant concentrations, homogenizer speed and emulsification time. Modifier (2-ethyl-1-hexanol) was added to avoid segregation of third phase while improving the emulsion stability. At optimum conditions, 95% and 56% of lignin were extracted and recovered, respectively at 10 min of extraction time, 0.007 M of Aliquat 336, 0.1 M of NaHCO3 and 1:5 of treat ratio. Additional of modifier was contributed to highest recovery up to 98%. The ELM process was found to be equally feasible and quite effective in the recovery of KL from real pulping wastewater. Therefore, ELM process provides a promising alternative technology to recover KL from pulping wastewater while solving the environmental problems simultaneously. PMID:26101101

  16. Production of cellulase from kraft paper mill sludge by Trichoderma reesei rut C-30.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kang, Li; Lee, Yoon Y

    2010-05-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material generated from pulping and papermaking operations. Because of high glucan content and its well-dispersed structure, paper mill sludges are well suited for bioconversion into value-added products. It also has high ash content originated from inorganic additives used in papermaking, which causes hindrance to bioconversion. In this study, paper mill sludges from Kraft process were de-ashed by a centrifugal cleaner and successive treatment by sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, and used as a substrate for cellulase production. The treated sludge was the only carbon source for cellulase production, and predominantly inorganic nutrients were used as the nitrogen source for this bioprocess. The cellulase enzyme produced from the de-ashed sludge exhibited cellulase activity of 8 filter paper unit (FPU)/mL, close to that obtainable from pure cellulosic substrates. The yield of cellulase enzyme was 307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed sludge. Specific activity was 8.0 FPU/mg protein. In activity tests conducted against the corn stover and alpha-cellulose, the xylanse activity was found to be higher than that of a commercial cellulase. Relatively high xylan content in the sludge appears to have induced high xylanase production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed using partially de-ashed sludge as the feedstock for ethanol production using Sacharomyces cerevisiae and the cellulase produced in-house from the sludge. With 6% (w/v) glucan feed, ethanol yield of 72% of theoretical maximum and 24.4 g/L ethanol concentration were achieved. These results were identical to those of the SSF using commercial cellulases. PMID:19997787

  17. Evaluation of dioxin mobility and spoils leaching in a surface coal mine reclaimed with bleached kraft pulp and paper mill biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.P.; Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C.; Proctor, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    A surface coal mine in southeastern Ohio has been reclaimed with approximately 15 to 25 cm thickness of biosolids from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant. Soil, vegetation, rodents, earthworms, insects, fish, frogs, sediment, and algae samples were collected and analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Water samples from lakes receiving drainage from unreclaimed and biosolids reclaimed areas were collected and analyzed for various parameters, including pH and metals. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in the pulp and paper mill biosolids did not bioaccumulate in rodents, insects, or earthworms or translocate into plants living in the reclaimed area. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in biosolids did not sufficiently migrate to a drainage lake to result in significant concentrations in fish, frogs, algae, or vegetation. The biosolids reclamation resulted in dramatic decreases in spoils leaching of acid, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc. This work supports the thesis that surface mine reclamation with pulp and paper mill biosolids is safe and effective. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Aerobic degradation of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J; Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Acero, J L; Cercas, V

    1997-02-01

    The degradation of olive mill wastewater by aerobic microorganisms has been investigated in a batch reactor, by conducting experiments where the initial concentration of organic matter, quantified by the chemical oxygen demand, and the initial biomass were varied. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand, biomass and the total contents of phenolic and aromatic compounds were followed through each experiment. According to the Contois model, a kinetic expression for the substrate utilization rate is derived, and its biokinetic constants are evaluated. This final predicted equation agrees well with all the experimental data. PMID:9077005

  19. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

  20. Mitigation of olive mill wastewater toxicity.

    PubMed

    Greco, Guido; Colarieti, M Letizia; Toscano, Giuseppe; Iamarino, Giuseppina; Rao, Maria A; Gianfreda, Liliana

    2006-09-01

    The toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) is commonly attributed to monomeric phenols. OMW were treated in an aerated, stirred reactor containing agricultural soil, where the oxidative polymerization of phenols took place. In 24 h, OMW monomeric phenols decreased by >90%. This resulted in a corresponding reduction in phytotoxicity, as measured by germination tests with tomato and English cress seeds, and in microbial toxicity, as measured by lag phase duration in Bacillus cereus batch growth. Soil germination capability after irrigation with OMW was assessed in long-term pot experiments. The relative germination percentage of tomato was higher when the soil was irrigated with treated OMW rather than with untreated ones, although it was lower than the control (e.g., soil irrigated with distilled water). At longer incubation times, a complete recovery of the soil germination capability was achieved with treated, but not with untreated, OMW. PMID:16939339

  1. Multivariate statistical analysis of a high rate biofilm process treating kraft mill bleach plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Goode, C; LeRoy, J; Allen, D G

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on a multivariate analysis of the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) wastewater treatment system at a Canadian pulp mill. The modelling approach involved a data overview by principal component analysis (PCA) followed by partial least squares (PLS) modelling with the objective of explaining and predicting changes in the BOD output of the reactor. Over two years of data with 87 process measurements were used to build the models. Variables were collected from the MBBR control scheme as well as upstream in the bleach plant and in digestion. To account for process dynamics, a variable lagging approach was used for variables with significant temporal correlations. It was found that wood type pulped at the mill was a significant variable governing reactor performance. Other important variables included flow parameters, faults in the temperature or pH control of the reactor, and some potential indirect indicators of biomass activity (residual nitrogen and pH out). The most predictive model was found to have an RMSEP value of 606 kgBOD/d, representing a 14.5% average error. This was a good fit, given the measurement error of the BOD test. Overall, the statistical approach was effective in describing and predicting MBBR treatment performance. PMID:17486834

  2. Responses of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) to 20 years of process and waste treatment changes at a bleached kraft pulp mill, and to mill shutdown.

    PubMed

    Bowron, L K; Munkittrick, K R; McMaster, M E; Tetreault, G; Hewitt, L M

    2009-11-01

    The impacts of pulp mill effluents on white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) have been studied at Jackfish Bay, ON, Canada since the late 1980s. The site receives effluent from a large bleached kraft pulp mill which is the only source of chemical contamination in the area. Many laboratory studies have looked at the toxicological consequences of pulping process changes, but the benefit of these changes have not been looked at in wild fish. Jackfish Bay white sucker showed impacts on sexual maturity, gonad size, secondary sexual characteristics and circulating steroids hormone levels in the early years of the studies, and impacts were evaluated after installation of secondary treatment (1989), major pulping process changes (1995) and after the mill ceased pulp production and effluent release (2006). The addition of secondary treatment resulted in minor improvements in wild fish health, and the conversion to elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching at the mill was associated with more recovery in liver and gonad size. While some impacts persist at the exposure site, reproductive parameters showed further improvement during the mill shutdown period demonstrating that biologically active chemicals are still being discharged from modernized mills. PMID:19783055

  3. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  5. Selected resin acids in effluent and receiving waters derived from a bleached and unbleached kraft pulp and paper mill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, B.P.; Booth, M.M.; Delfino, J.J.; Holm, S.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    Water samples were collected on three dates at 24 sites influenced by effluent from Georgia-Pacific's Palatka Pulp and Paper Mill Operation, a bleached and unbleached kraft mill near Palatka, Florida, USA. The sampling sites were located within the mill retention ponds, Rice Creek, and the St. John's River. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids, all of which are potentially toxic by-products of pulp production. Isopimaric acid concentrations greater than 12 mg/L were measured at the mill's effluent outfall but were less than 20 ??g/L at the end of Rice Creek. This result indicates that the waters of Rice Creek provide dilution or conditions conducive for degradation or sorption of these compounds. Large differences in resin acid concentrations were observed between sampling events. In two sampling events, the maximum observed concentrations were less than 2 mg/L for each analyte. In a third sampling event, all of the compounds were detected at concentrations greater than 10 mg/L. Data from the three sample dates showed that resin acid concentrations were below 20 ??g/L before the confluence of Rice Creek and the St. John's River in all cases.

  6. Spectroscopic characteristics of ultrafiltration fractions of fulvic and humic acids isolated from an eucalyptus bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the chemical heterogeneity of fulvic and humic acids previously isolated from a bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent, a sequential ultrafiltration (UF) scheme through four polyethersulphone membranes was applied. The unfractionated fulvic and humic acids and their fractions were characterized by UV-VIS, synchronous fluorescence (with Deltalambda=60 nm) and FTIR spectroscopies. The FTIR spectra were compared with those of lignin isolated from Eucalyptus globulus wood and from the black liquor of a Kraft pulping process. The results highlighted that fulvic acids fractions of low molecular sizes contain more lignin derived phenolic units, while those of higher molecular size exhibit a higher content of carbohydrate structures. However, the shift observed in the UV-VIS absorbance and fluorescence intensity towards higher wavelength, suggests a higher degree of conjugation of pi-bonds in the fractions of highest molecular sizes. In what concerns the humic acids size fractions, the FTIR spectra did not exhibit major differences but, as observed for the fulvic acids' fractions, UV-VIS and synchronous fluorescence spectra also suggest a higher degree of conjugation of pi-bonds in the fractions with the highest molecular sizes. It was also observed that the fulvic and humic acids fractions of the same molecular size, operationally defined by the UF process, exhibit major differences in their spectroscopic features. PMID:12946888

  7. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Ruessler, D.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Holm, S.E.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of efffluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17??-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  8. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory. PMID:21644165

  9. Post-treatment of anaerobic effluent by ozone and ozone/UV of a kraft cellulose pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, T R; Pires, E C

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents represent a challenge when treatment technologies are considered, not only to reduce organic matter, but also to reduce the toxicological effects. Although anaerobic treatment has shown promising results, as well as advantages when compared with an aerobic system, this process alone is not sufficient to reduce recalcitrant compounds. Thus, an advanced oxidation process was applied. This experiment was performed to determine the effect of ozone and ozone/UV treating a horizontal anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor effluent from a kraft cellulose pulp mill for 306 days with an organic volumetric load of 2.33 kgCOD/m³/day. The removal of organic compounds was measured by the following parameters: adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX), total phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon and absorbance values in the UV-visible spectral region. Moreover, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity tests were conducted before and after treatment with ozone and ozone/UV. At an applied ozone dosage of 0.76 mgO₃/mgCOD and an applied UV dosage of 3.427 Wh/m(3), the organochlorine compounds measured as AOX reached removal efficiencies of 40%. Although the combination of ozone/UV showed better results in colour (79%) and total phenols (32%) compared with only ozone, the chronic toxicity and the genotoxicity that had already been removed in the anaerobic process were slightly increased. PMID:25714637

  10. Detoxification and discoloration of Moroccan olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, F; Assobhei, O; Mountadar, M

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to assess the electrocoagulation treatment of olive mill wastewater using an aluminum electrode. We have examined the effect of the following parameters on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), polyphenols and dark color removal efficiency: Electrolysis time, Current density, Chloride concentration and Initial pH. The olive mill wastewater (OMW)--diluted 5 times--used in this study had 20.000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand, 3.6 mS/cm conductivity and acidic pH (4.2). It also contains considerable quantities of polyphenols (260 mg/L). The evolution of the physico-chemical parameters during the treatment by electrocoagulation showed that under the following conditions: electrolysis time 15 min, NaCl concentration 2g/L, initial pH 4.2 and current density 250 A/m(2), the discoloration of the olive mill wastewater, the reduction of the chemical oxygen demand and the reduction of polyphenols exceeded 70%, the electrodes consumption was 0.085 kg Al/kg COD(removed) and the specific energy consumed was 2.63 kWh/ kg COD(removed). Under these optimal experimental conditions, olive mill wastewater became non-toxic for Bacillus cereus. PMID:19880250

  11. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future. PMID:25519075

  12. Milt characteristics, reproductive performance, and larval survival and development of white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent

    SciTech Connect

    McMaster, M.E.; Portt, C.B.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Dixon, D.G. )

    1992-02-01

    White sucker from a Lake Superior bay which receives bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) show increased hepatic mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity, reduced plasma sex steroid levels, decreased egg and gonad size, a decrease in the occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics, and an increased age to maturation. This study evaluated the reproductive performance of that white sucker population relative to a similar reference population. Spawning male white sucker from the BKME site had reduced spermatozoan motility but no significant differences in milt volume, spermatocrit levels, or seminal plasma constituents. BKME male and female fish had equal or greater fertilization potential compared to both male and female fish at the reference site. There was no difference either in the hatchability of the eggs or in larval size at hatch. BKME larvae did show reduced growth rates by 24 days posthatch but showed equal rates of yolk utilization. No difference in larval MFO activity was detected between sites at 21 days posthatch, indicating no parental transfer of induction to the progeny.

  13. EFFECTS OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT (KME) ON SEXUALITY OF FISHES: AN ENVIRONMENTAL WARNING SYSTEM?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arrhenoid or masculinized female fish species of the live-bearing family, Poeciliidae, have been observed for over thirteen years in specific southern streams which receive waste effluents from pulping mills. The complex mixture of organic compounds in KME has inhibited specific ...

  14. Pulp mill wastewater sediment reveals novel methanogenic and cellulolytic populations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyu; Wang, Wei; Du, Miaofen; Li, Chunfang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    Pulp mill wastewater generated from wheat straw is characterized as high alkalinity and very high COD pollution load. A naturally developed microbial community in a pulp mill wastewater storage pool that had been disused were investigated in this study. Owing to natural evaporation and a huge amount of lignocellulose's deposition, the wastewater sediment contains high concentrations of organic matters and sodium ions, but low concentrations of chloride and carbonate. The microbiota inhabiting especially anaerobic community, including methanogenic arhcaea and cellulolytic species, was studied. All archaeal sequences fall into 2 clusters of family Halobacteriaceae and methanogenic archaeon in the phylum Euryarchaeota. In the methanogenic community, phylogenetic analysis of methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) genes targeted to novel species in genus Methanoculleus or novel genus of order Methanomicrobiales. The predominance of Methanomicrobiales suggests that methanogenesis in this system might be driven by the hydrogenotrophic pathway. As the important primary fermenter for methane production, the cellulolytic community of enzyme GHF48 was found to be dominated by narrower breadth of novel clostridial cellulase genes. Novel anoxic functional members in such extreme sediment provide the possibility of enhancing the efficiency of anoxic treatment of saline and alkaline wastewaters, as well as benefiting to the biomass transformation and biofuel production processes. PMID:23228889

  15. Assessment of status of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) populations exposed to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Miller, David H; Tietge, Joseph E; McMaster, Mark E; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Xia, Xiangsheng; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-07-01

    Credible ecological risk assessments often need to include analysis of population-level impacts. In the present study, a predictive model was developed to investigate population dynamics for white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to pulp mill effluent at a well-studied site in Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior, Canada. The model uniquely combines a Leslie population projection matrix and the logistic equation to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker exposed to pulp mill effluent to alterations in population growth rate. Application of this density-dependent population projection model requires construction of a life table for the organism of interest, a measure of carrying capacity, and an estimation of the effect of stressors on vital rates. A white sucker population existing at carrying capacity and subsequently exposed to pulp mill effluent equivalent to a documented exposure experienced during the period 1988 to 1994 in Jackfish Bay would be expected to exhibit a 34% to 51% annual decrease in recruitment during the first 5 yr of exposure and approach a population size of 71% of carrying capacity. The Jackfish Bay study site contains monitoring data for biochemical endpoints in white sucker, including circulating sex steroid concentrations, that could be combined with population modeling to utilize the model demonstrated at the Jackfish Bay study site for investigation of other white sucker populations at sites that are less data-rich. PMID:23504660

  16. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  17. Waste to resource: Converting paper mill wastewater to bioplastic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Marang, Leonie; Tamis, Jelmer; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Dijkman, Henk; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2012-11-01

    In this study we investigated the feasibility of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by microbial enrichments on paper mill wastewater. The complete process includes (1) paper mill wastewater acidogenic fermentation in a simple batch process, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community in a selector operated in sequencing batch mode with feast-famine regime, (3) Cellular PHA content maximization of the enrichment in an accumulator in fed-batch mode. The selective pressure required to establish a PHA-producing microbial enrichment, as derived from our previous research on synthetic medium, was validated using an agro-industrial waste stream in this study. The microbial enrichment obtained could accumulate maximum up to 77% PHA of cell dry weight within 5 h, which is currently the best result obtained on real agro-industrial waste streams, especially in terms of biomass specific efficiency. Biomass in this enrichment included both Plasticicumulans acidivorans, which was the main PHA producer, and a flanking population, which exhibited limited PHA-producing capacity. The fraction of P. acidivorans in the biomass was largely dependent on the fraction of volatile fatty acids in the total soluble COD in the wastewater after acidification. Based on this observation, one simple equation was proposed for predicting the PHA storage capacity of the enrichment. Moreover, some crucial bottlenecks that may impede the successful scaling-up of the process are discussed. PMID:22921584

  18. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry. PMID:26434308

  19. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y

    2016-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26562687

  20. WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 2. SIX MILL ENGINEERING REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of wastewater and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described ...

  1. Isolation and identification of ligands for the goldfish testis androgen receptor in chemical recovery condensates from a Canadian bleached kraft pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Scott, Philip D; Milestone, Craig B; Smith, D Scott; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Hewitt, L Mark

    2011-12-01

    This study builds on a series of investigations characterizing substances in kraft mill chemical recovery condensates that depress sex steroids in fish. Here, incubations of goldfish testis androgen receptors (AR) with condensate extracts were used to investigate the potential role of androgens in hormone depressions. Condensates contained variable levels of AR ligands, with the highest amounts in nonpolar extracts of filtered solids prior to solid phase extraction (SPE). High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation recovered the majority of activity in one fraction, with ligands detected in three additional fractions. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of the most active fraction confirmed the two most abundant components as the diterpenes manool and geranyl linalool. Manool exhibited a relative affinity for the AR that was 300 fold less than testosterone and accounted for 26% of total filtered solids activity. Geranyl linalool exhibited no affinity for the AR. Three additional diterpenoid families were tentatively identified as principal components of the three other androgenic HPLC fractions. Compared to condensates, final effluent had 3000 fold less androgenic activity, with <1% attributable to manool. Putative androgens previously associated with mill effluents (androstenedione and androstadienedione) and progesterone were not detected; however, additional condensate diterpenes suspected as androgens were identified in final effluent. This study is the first to confirm nonsteroidal cyclic diterpenes as androgenic at pulp mills. A major in-mill source of these substances was identified, and the role of androgens in mill effluents affecting fish reproduction was reinforced. PMID:22040000

  2. Exposure to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent disrupts the pituitary-gonadal axis of white sucker at multiple sites

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Munkittrick, K.R.; McMaster, M.E.; Portt, C.B.; Chang, J.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated reproductive problems in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKME) at Jackfish Bay on Lake Superior. These fish exhibit delayed sexual maturity, reduced gonadal size, reduced secondary sexual characteristics, and circulating steroid levels depressed relative to those of reference populations. The present studies were designed to evaluate sites in the pituitary-gonadal axis of prespawning white sucker affected by BKME exposure. At the time of entry to the spawning stream, plasma levels of immunoreactive gonadotropin (GtH)-II (LH-type GtH) in male and female white sucker were 30- and 50-fold lower, respectively, than the levels in fish from a reference site. A single intraperitoneal injection of D-Arg6, Pro9N-Et sGnRH (sGnRH-A, 0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma GtH levels in male and female fish at both sites, although the magnitude of the response was greatly reduced in BKME-exposed fish. Fish at the BKME site did not ovulate in response to sGnRH-A, while 10 of 10 fish from the reference site ovulated within 6 hr. Plasma 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) levels were depressed in BKME-exposed fish and unlike fish at the reference site, failed to increase in response to sGnRH-A. Testosterone levels in both sexes and 11-ketostestosterone levels in males were elevated in fish from the reference site but were not further increased by GnRH treatment. In contrast, BKME-exposed fish exhibit a transitory increase in testosterone levels in response to the GnRH analog. In vitro incubations of ovarian follicles obtained from fish at the BKME site revealed depressed basal secretion of testosterone and 17,20 beta-P and reduced responsiveness to the GtH analog human chorionic gonadotropin and to forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase.

  3. Comparison of different wastewater treatments for removal of selected endocrine-disruptors from paper mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Balabanič, Damjan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd; Blanco, Angeles

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern about chemical pollutants that have the ability to mimic hormones, the so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). One of the main reasons for concern is the possible effect of EDCs on human health. EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, and one of the most significant sources is industrial wastewater. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment performance of different wastewater treatment procedures (biological treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation processes) for the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and seven selected EDCs (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, bisphenol A and nonylphenol) from wastewaters from a mill producing 100 % recycled paper. Two pilot plants were running in parallel and the following treatments were compared: (i) anaerobic biological treatment followed by aerobic biological treatment, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO), and (ii) anaerobic biological treatment followed by membrane bioreactor and RO. Moreover, at lab-scale, four different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton reaction, photo-Fenton reaction, photocatalysis with TiO(2), and ozonation) were applied. The results indicated that the concentrations of selected EDCs from paper mill wastewaters were effectively reduced (100 %) by both combinations of pilot plants and photo-Fenton oxidation (98 %), while Fenton process, photocatalysis with TiO(2) and ozonation were less effective (70 % to 90 %, respectively). PMID:22571523

  4. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) mills; and the production of pulp and paper at combined unbleached kraft and semi-chemical mills, wherein the spent semi-chemical cooking liquor is burned within the unbleached kraft chemical recovery system....

  5. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) mills; and the production of pulp and paper at combined unbleached kraft and semi-chemical mills, wherein the spent semi-chemical cooking liquor is burned within the unbleached kraft chemical recovery system....

  6. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) mills; and the production of pulp and paper at combined unbleached kraft and semi-chemical mills, wherein the spent semi-chemical cooking liquor is burned within the unbleached kraft chemical recovery system....

  7. Valorization of treated olive mill wastewater in fertigation practice.

    PubMed

    Mseddi, Salma; Chaari, Leila; Belaid, Chokri; Chakchouk, Ikram; Kallel, Monem

    2016-08-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) brings about a major environmental problem in Tunisia as well as in the other Mediterranean countries. Its strong organic load and its toxicity due to the presence of complex phenolic compounds have dire effects when applied to soil. To overcome this difficulty, the OMW pretreatment was investigated in the present work using the Fenton oxidation reaction with zero-valent iron. Then, this pretreated wastewater was valorized in fertigation practice. The effects of the addition of different concentrations of both treated and raw OMW on soil and cropping system were investigated. The treatment by Fenton oxidation with zero-valent iron could reduce 50 % of COD and decrease 53 % of phenolic compounds. OMW application had a temporary effect on the soil pH and EC. The results showed that the evolution of soil pH and EC was related to the organic matter of the soil which depends on the spread concentrations of raw or treated OMW. After 15-day incubation period, the soil pH and EC tended to stabilize and return to the control level. Moreover, this stabilization is faster in treated OMW than that in raw OMW especially for concentrations as high as 3 and 4 %. Plants cultivated with treated OMW showed an increase in their germination. The results pointed an improvement in the stem length of plants which is almost similar to that of the control for both pea and tomato, especially for high concentrations of 3 and 4 %. PMID:25794584

  8. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers. PMID:24368272

  9. Electrodialysis field test for selective chloride removal from the chemical recovery cycle of a kraft pulp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, H.J.; Pfromm, P.H.

    1998-12-01

    Chloride accumulation is a serious issue in the kraft pulping process. Chloride can be selectively removed from dissolved electrostatic precipitator dust (ESP dust) in the kraft chemical recovery cycle by electrodialysis with monovalent-selective anion-exchange membranes. In a pilot-scale field test, this process was investigated (total run time, 750 h). The test was performed at about 3.5% of full scale. The process showed outstanding performance and no significant membrane fouling. In feed-and-bleed operation, chloride removal levels of 94% and 61% were tested. The energy consumption for electrodialysis is low (120 kWh per metric ton of chloride removed at a 63% chloride removal level). The process performed very well even with no feed pretreatment, polarity reversal, or membrane cleaning.

  10. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unbleached kraft mills; the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft-neutral sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) mills; and the production of pulp and paper at combined unbleached kraft and semi-chemical mills, wherein the spent semi-chemical cooking liquor is burned within the unbleached...

  11. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  12. Assessment of electrochemical and chemical coagulation as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from exploratory experiments to test the technical feasibility of electrolytic treatment and coagulation followed by flocculation and sedimentation as post-treatment for the effluent of an UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached Kraft pulp mill. The electrolytic treatment provided up to 67% removal of the remaining COD and 98% of color removal. To achieve these efficiencies the energy consumption ranged from 14 Wh x l(-1) to 20 Wh x l(-1). The coagulation-flocculation treatment followed by settling required 350-400 mg x l(-1) of aluminium sulfate. The addition of a high molecular weight cationic polymer enhanced both COD and color removal. Both post-treatment processes are technically feasible. PMID:16180426

  13. Biomass selection for optimal anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, I; Yazbak, A; Haj, J; Saliba, A; Basheer, S

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to identify the most efficient biomass out of five different types of biomass sources for anaerobic treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW). This study was first focused on examining the selected biomass in anaerobic batch systems with sodium acetate solutions (control study). Then, the different types of biomass were tested with raw OMW (water-diluted) and with pretreated OMW by coagulation-flocculation using Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACl) combined with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). Two types of biomass from wastewater treatment systems of a citrus juice producing company "PriGat" and from a citric acid manufacturing factory "Gadot", were found to be the most efficient sources of microorganisms to anaerobically treat both sodium acetate solution and OMW. Both types of biomass were examined under different concentration ranges (1-40 g l(-1)) of OMW in order to detect the maximal COD tolerance for the microorganisms. The results show that 70-85% of COD removal was reached using Gadot biomass after 8-10 days when the initial concentration of OMW was up to 5 g l(-1), while a similar removal efficiency was achieved using OMW of initial COD concentration of 10 g l(-1) in 2-4 days of contact time with the PriGat biomass. The physico-chemical pretreatment of OMW was found to enhance the anaerobic activity for the treatment of OMW with initial concentration of 20 g l(-1) using PriGat biomass. This finding is attributed to reducing the concentrations of polyphenols and other toxicants originally present in OMW upon the applied pretreatment process. PMID:15747599

  14. WASTEWATER RECYCLE AND REUSE POTENTIAL FOR INDIRECT DISCHARGE TEXTILE FINISHING MILLS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives detailed information on a variety of wastewater recycle/reuse technologies that allow textile finishing mills to reduce the volume of waste-water and the amount of pollutants discharged to publicly owned treatment works. (NOTE: Dyebath reconstitution is described...

  15. Inoculation of paperboard mill sludge versus mixed culture bacteria for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Danial, Amal

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of paperboard mill sludge (PMS) versus mixed culture bacteria (MCB) as inoculum for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater (PMW) was investigated. The experiments were conducted at different initial cultivation pHs, inoculums to substrate ratios (ISRs gVS/gCOD), and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The peak hydrogen yield (HY) of 5.29 ± 0.16 and 1.22 ± 0.11 mmol/gCODinitial was occurred at pH = 5 for MCB and PMS, respectively. At pH of 5, the HY and COD removal achieved the highest values of 2.26 ± 0.14 mmol/gCODinitial and 86 ± 1.6% at ISR = 6 for MCB, and 2.38 ± 0.25 mmol/gCODinitial and 60.4 ± 2.5% at ISRs = 3 for PMS. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 93.75 ± 8.9 mmol/day at HRT = 9.6 h from continuous upflow anaerobic reactor inoculated with MCB. Meanwhile, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments indicated a dominance of a novel hydrogen-producing bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for PMS microbial community. On the other hand, Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter hormaechei were the predominant species for MCB. PMID:26498965

  16. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p<0.05) in terms of SCOD parameter, but not for raw OMW (p>0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (p<0.05). Anaerobic

  17. Evaluation of tertiary treatment by fungi, enzymatic and photo-Fenton oxidation on the removal of phenols from a kraft pulp mill effluent: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine; Marques, Ana Gabriela; Rodrigues, Dina; Silva, Lurdes; Duarte, Armando Costa; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Freitas, Ana Cristina

    2011-04-01

    Pulp and paper mills generate pollutants associated to their effluents depending upon the type of process, type of the wood materials, process technology applied, management practices, internal recirculation of the effluent for recovery, the amount of water used in the industrial process and type of secondary treatment. This study is the first that reports a simultaneous evaluation of the effects of tertiary treatments by fungi (Rhizopus oryzae and Pleurotus sajor caju), by enzyme (laccase) and by an oxidation process (photo-Fenton) on individual phenols (vanillin, guaiacol, phloroglucinol, vanillic acid and syringic acid) of a Eucalyptus globulus bleached kraft pulp and paper mill final effluent after secondary treatment (BKPME). The tertiary treatments were applied on BKPME samples and in BKPME samples supplemented with extra concentration of each phenol. Tertiary treatments by Rhizopus oryzae and photo-Fenton oxidation were able of complete removal (100%) of phenols on BKPME samples whereas P. sajor caju and laccase were able of 60-85% removal. On BKPME samples with added concentration of each phenol, photo-Fenton was the only treatment capable of total phenols removal (100%), which suggests a great potential for its application. PMID:20683764

  18. Bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in feral fish collected from a bleach-kraft paper mill receiving stream

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, J.D. ); Campbell, D.M.; Lowe, E. )

    1993-11-01

    Bleach-kraft mill (BKM) processes may result in the formation and release of a number of chlorinated organic compounds, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by TCDD is of concern due to the chemical's toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and persistence in the environment. Sediment samples and tissues from three species of fish an done invertebrate were collected downstream from a BKM facility and were analyzed for TCDD. Concentrations of TCDD were greatest in the bowfin, particularly in the ovary of a gravid female. There appeared to be no correlation between either trophic position of habitat classification (i.e., epibenthic or pelagic) and TCDD tissue concentrations. Sediments collected near the mill outfall contained elevated levels of TCDD as great as 52.8 ppt. Sediment-based BAFs and lipid- and carbon-normalized bioavailability indexes (BI) were calculated for the fish livers and gonads, and blue crab hepatopancreas. BAF*s varied by a factor of 27, depending on species and organ, whereas BIs had an approximate seven-fold variation. It appears that organic carbon- and lipid-normalization factors may be more accurate predictors of the extent of bioaccumulation in resident biota from TCDD-contaminated sediments than either BAF*s or BCFs. As there is currently only a limited understanding of species variability in absorption and deposition of TCDD, a more accurate estimation of TCDD levels in feral fish tissues may not be possible.

  19. Electro-coagulation treatment efficiency of graphite, iron and aluminum electrodes using alum and wood ash electrolytes on a Kraft pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Orori, O B; Etiégni, L; Senelwa, K; Mwamburi, M M; Balozi, K B; Barisa, G K; Omutange, E S

    2010-01-01

    Specific power consumption and reduction of BOD, COD, TS, pH, and chemical elements were used to determine the treatment efficiency of Fe, graphite and Al electrodes with alum and wood ash as supporting electrolytes on the effluent from a Kraft pulp and paper mill in Kenya. Five sampling points were selected along mill's effluent treatment system: primary settling tank (SP1), first aerated lagoon (SP2), second aerated lagoon (SP3), stabilization pond (SP4), and at discharge point (SP5). Operating costs were also compared between treatments. Graphite electrodes combined with alum showed the lowest power consumption (0.5 to 3.9 mWh/m³), followed by Al and Fe. All the electrodes reduced color from a maximum of 3,200°H to the minimum local standard of 15°H. However Al electrode with alum was the most effective method for BOD and COD reduction by over 60% and 58.8% respectively and generated less sludge at all sampling points. The cost of treatment was lowest with graphite electrode (US$0.006 to 0.0008 per m³ of effluent), but highest with Al electrodes combined with wood ash (US$31.74 to 8.34 per m³). Further study is required for the effectiveness of increasing the concentration of wood ash leachate at higher concentration and current density. PMID:20935369

  20. Effect of Olive Mill Wastewater Spreading on Soil Properties.

    PubMed

    Vella, Filomena M; Galli, Emanuela; Calandrelli, Roberto; Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna

    2016-07-01

    The effect of untreated olive mill wastewater (OMW) spreading on chemical and biological soil properties of two different fields located in Campania (Italy) was investigated. Fields were irrigated since 2003 with quantities of about 30 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1), a volume lower than the maximum limit of 80 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) established by Italian law. Results showed that the addition of OMW, even if repeated for many years, had little impact on pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, concentrations of main cations and polyphenolic content of both soil plots; moreover, microbial respiration was low during the winter time, but an increase was evident in the second sampling carried out in warm season. This study suggests that OMW, without pre-treatments, can be annually used for crops and tree irrigation. As a consequence, OMW should be a readily and inexpensive source of nutrients that could replace chemical fertilizers which are extensively employed in agricultural practices of Mediterranean countries. PMID:27209544

  1. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  2. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Tafesh, Ahmed; Najami, Naim; Jadoun, Jeries; Halahlih, Fares; Riepl, Herbert; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW). Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%), verbascoside (7.4%), and tyrosol (2.6%). The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria. PMID:21647315

  3. Anaerobic digestion challenge of raw olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, M A; Gonçalves, M R; Marques, I P

    2011-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) was digested in its original composition (100% v/v) in an anaerobic hybrid. High concentrations (54-55 kg COD m(-3)), acid pH (5.0) and lack of alkalinity and nitrogen are some OMW adverse characteristics. Loads of 8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) provided 3.7-3.8 m3 biogas m(-3) d(-1) (63-64% CH4) and 81-82% COD removal. An effluent with basic pH (8.1) and high alkalinity was obtained. A good performance was also observed with weekly load shocks (2.7-4.1, 8.4-10.4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1)) by introducing piggery effluent and OMW alternately. Biogas of 3.0-3.4 m3 m(-3) d(-1) (63-69% CH4) was reached. Developed biomass (350 days) was neither affected by raw OMW nor by organic shocks. Through the effluents complementarity concept, a stable process able of degrading the original OMW alone was obtained. Unlike what is referred, OMW is an energy resource through anaerobiosis without additional expenses to correct it or decrease its concentration/toxicity. PMID:21983408

  4. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  5. Lipase production by Aspergillus ibericus using olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Oliveira, Felisbela; Dantas, Danielle; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Belo, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) characteristics make it a suitable resource to be used as a microbial culture media to produce value-added compounds, such as enzymes. In this work, the ability of the novel species Aspergillus ibericus to discolor OMW and produce lipase was studied. An initial screening on plates containing an OMW-based agar medium and an emulsified olive oil/rhodamine-B agar medium was employed to select the strain A. ibericus MUM 03.49. Then, experiments in conical flasks with liquid OMW-based media showed that the fungus could growth on undiluted OMW, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 97 ± 2 g/L, and to produce up to 2,927 ± 54 U/L of lipase. When pure OMW was used in the media, the maximum COD and color reduction achieved were 45 and 97 %, respectively. When OMW diluted to 10 % was used, A. ibericus was able to reduce phenolic and aromatic compounds by 37 and 39 %, respectively. Additionally, lipase production was found to be promoted by the addition of mineral nutrients. When the fermentations were scaled up to a 2-L bioreactor, A. ibericus produced up to 8,319 ± 33 U/L of lipase, and the maximum COD and color reduction were 57 and 24 %, respectively. PMID:22791217

  6. Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.

    PubMed

    El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

  7. Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions in olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Halahlih, Fares; Najami, Naim; Brunner, Doris; Faulstich, Martin; Tafesh, Ahmed

    2012-10-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains a substantial amount of valuable antioxidant phenols that can be recovered for industrial application as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The present study was aimed at extracting different phenolic OMW fractions, and determining their antioxidant potential. Five different OMW fractions were obtained using fractionation techniques, their antioxidant potential determined by DPPH, ORAC and a β-carotene bleaching test. The total phenol level ranged between 115 and 170 mg/l. The phenolic compounds present in individual fractions were identified using the HPLC-PAD method, where the main compounds were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The five OMW fractions showed different antioxidant levels depending on the test used. DPPH test showed that the fraction of alkyl aromatic alcohols (AAAs) was the best with EC(50) of 20 mg/l and the pure hydroxytyrosol with 2 mg/l. ORAC test showed that AAA and semi hydrolysed total phenol (s-TP) fractions were significantly better than Trolox when compared to 20 mg/l of Trolox. PMID:23442678

  8. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS. PMID:27453288

  9. Olive mill wastewater treatment in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bermek, Hakan; Catal, Tunc; Akan, S Süha; Ulutaş, Mehmet Sefa; Kumru, Mert; Özgüven, Mine; Liu, Hong; Özçelik, Beraat; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill wastewaters create significant environmental issues in olive-processing countries. One of the most hazardous groups of pollutants in these wastewaters is phenolic compounds. Here, olive mill wastewater was used as substrate and treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Olive mill wastewater yielded a maximum voltage of 381 mV on an external resistance of 1 kΩ. Notable decreases in the contents of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected. Chemical oxygen demand removal rates were 65 % while removal of total phenolics by the process was lower (49 %). Microbial community analysis during the olive mill wastewater treating MFC has shown that both exoelectrogenic and phenol-degrading microorganisms have been enriched during the operation. Brevundimonas-, Sphingomonas- and Novosphingobium-related phylotypes were enriched on the anode biofilm, while Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes dominated the cathode biofilm. As one of the novel studies, it has been demonstrated that recalcitrant olive mill wastewaters could be treated and utilized for power generation in microbial fuel cells. PMID:24165748

  10. Wet Oxidation: A Promising Option for the Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, A.

    2012-05-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) is used to degrade persistent organic or inorganic impurities present in industrial wastewater. The process utilizes severe oxidation conditions (i.e., high temperature and pressures) to achieve the efficient degradation of pollutants. To obtain high degradation at lower operation conditions, catalytic WO process is being suggested. The wastewater generated from a pulp and paper mill contains several recalcitrant compounds like lignin, hemi-cellulose, phenols, sulfides etc. Therefore, pulp and paper mill effluent have low biodegradability and are not amenable for conventional biological process. With the implementation of stringent regulations, pulp and paper mill operators need a cleaner disposal route for the wastewater. In this mini-review, the results obtained from the recently published studies on WO treatment for pulp and paper mill effluent are compiled and presented. Finally, the recommendations for the future work are also given.

  11. A comparison of kraft, PS, kraft-AQ and kraft-NaBH4 pulps of Brutia pine.

    PubMed

    Copur, Y; Tozluoglu, A

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of adding PS, AQ and NaBH(4) into kraft pulping with special attention given to NaBH(4). Kraft, kraft-AQ, PS, and kraft-NaBH(4) pulps were produced under the same cooking conditions and the pulps produced were compared in terms of pulp and paper properties. Kraft method was modified by adding 0.1% AQ, 4% PS and 2% and 4% NaBH(4) and the resultant pulps displayed an increase in pulp yield and reduction in both kappa number and screening rejects. On the other hand, there observed an increase in both pulp yield and kappa number when the kraft was modified to PS method. The benefits of NaBH(4) addition into kraft pulping was a significant reduction in kappa number and screening rejects and a significant increase in pulp yield. The most notable outcome of NaBH(4) was 66.6% increase in pulp brightness when 4% NaBH(4) was added into kraft pulping. Of unrefined pulps, unrefined kraft pulp displayed the highest strength of pulp, which is described as tear index at a constant tensile index. Of refined pulps, kraft-AQ showed the highest pulp strength when refined to 6000 and 12,000 revs in PFI mill. PMID:17531474

  12. Calibration and validation of a modified ASM1 using long-term simulation of a full-scale pulp mill wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, Jukka; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2010-04-14

    A mathematical model modified from the well established Activated Sludge Model no. 1 was used for modelling a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in a bleached kraft pulp mill. Effluents from the pulp and paper industry are typically nutrient deficient, which was considered in the model. The wastewater characterization and model calibration were based on respirometric batch experiments with sludge and wastewater sampled from the WWTP. The model performance was validated in a long-term simulation using routinely measured process data from the WWTP as the model inputs. The simulation results proved useful in evaluating nutrient dosage strategies at the WWTP and in troubleshooting poor treatment plant performance. However, in order to achieve a completely accurate description of nitrogen removal, more complex phenomena would have to be included in the model. Even though the simulated period was long compared to the brief measurement campaign used in the model calibration, the model was able to describe the treatment plant's behaviour. The calibrated model can be expected to stay valid for a long time, which allows the use of deterministic modelling in practical applications at pulp and paper WWTPs. PMID:20480830

  13. A bleached-kraft mill effluent fraction causing induction of a fish mixed-function oxygenase enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Burnison, B.K.; Hodson, P.V.; Nuttley, D.J.; Efler, S.

    1996-09-01

    Pulp mill effluents contain a myriad of chemicals that have the potential to cause deleterious effects on aquatic biota in receiving waters. Some of these chemicals evoke an acute lethal response of exposed biota while others evoke sublethal responses. One such sublethal response is the induction of mixed-function oxygenases (MFO) in fish, specifically the CYP1A1 enzyme ethoxy-resorufin-o-deethylase (EROD). Compounds causing MFO induction include congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The authors followed the partitioning of the inducing chemicals in pulp mill effluent fractions by Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE), or bioassay-driven chemical analysis. This procedure was eventually modified to a more direct technique involving centrifugation, filtration, cleanup procedures, and C{sub 18} solid-phase adsorption. The extracts from the fractionation of two pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment were tested for EROD-inducing activity in a 4-d rainbow trout bioassay. The methanol extracts of particulates/colloids showed significant inducing capacity in Mill A effluent but not in Mill B effluent. The C{sub 18} methanol extracts induced activity from both effluents, with extracts from Mill A causing the greatest response. The particulate/colloidal extract (Mill A) was used as the source material for chemicals which caused EROD induction. The fraction was purified by solid-phase extraction techniques and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The majority of the EROD activity was found in the moderately nonpolar region of the chromatogram (K{sub ow} = 4.6 to 5.1).

  14. Removal of colour from a kraft pulp and paper mill effluent in Kenya using a combination of electrochemical method and phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Etiégni, L; Oricho, O D; Ofosu-Asiedu, K; Senelwa, K A; Surtan, K G; Omutange, E S

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to remove colour from a kraft mill's treated effluent in Kenya and determine the suitability of phosphate rock to replace wood ash during the electrochemical process. The electrochemical method alone, electrochemical combined with alum (ELCAL), wood ash leachate (ELCAS) and phosphate rock (ELPHOS) solutions at a rate of 165 to 1000 g/m3 were tested. Effluent characteristics were determined after complete removal of colour. Same reduction rates of TS (85%) and TSS (89%) were recorded by ELCAS and ELPHOS. However, ELPHOS removed more COD (86 to 91%) and more BOD (85 to 92%) than ELCAS. Furthermore, the pH of ELPHOS treated solution was 9.3, within the Kenya Local Government's allowable limit. Power reduction with ELCAS and ELPHOS varied between 53 to 73% and 49 to 69% respectively but the difference was not statistically significant. Overnight aeration further improved the quality of ELCAS and ELPHOS treated effluent, reducing BOD and COD values to 0 mg/l. ELPHOS cost ($0.29/m3) was nevertheless three times higher than that of ELCAS ($0.10/m3), mainly because of free wood ash. ELPHOS did not also increase effluent phosphorus. It was therefore recommended that various ways be explored in making ELPHOS more economical to replace ELCAS. PMID:17486830

  15. Experimental exposure of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to bleached kraft mill effluent: hepatic CYP1A induction is correlated with DNA adducts but not with organochlorine residues.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Y; Kruzynski, G M; Addison, R F

    2001-06-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were exposed for 28 days to 0-16% treated effluent from an elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleached kraft pulp mill. Fresh effluent was diluted with river water drawn from upstream of the effluent diffuser. Fish were tested for biochemical responses to identify if the effluent would cause significant effects at concentrations spanning those present in the Fraser River, BC, Canada during winter conditions. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was increased significantly at all effluent concentrations and hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) protein was increased in all but 2% effluent. Hepatic DNA adduct concentrations were increased significantly at 8 and 16% effluent. These data indicate that there is a significant increase in all three responses at concentrations similar to those found in the receiving waters (4%) and that a dose-response relationship exists between BKME concentration and the responses measured. Carcasses contained low (< 0.2 pg g(-1)) concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were at higher concentrations, accounting for 77% of the total contaminant burden, expressed as TEQ, but contaminants do not appear to have bioaccumulated in this study. It is likely that the PCB concentrations were due to contaminated commercial fish feed. Bile did not contain detectable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as measured by synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. PMID:11254946

  16. Olive mill wastewater treatment by anodic oxidation with parallel plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco; Cerisola, Giacomo

    2006-03-01

    Olive mill wastewater is characterized by very high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and contains high concentrations of polyphenols that inhibit the activity of micro-organisms during biological oxidations. In this paper, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation of a real olive-mill wastewater was studied by performing galvanostatic electrolysis using parallel plate electrodes. A mixed titanium and ruthenium oxide (Ti/TiRuO2) was used as anode and stainless steel as cathode. The effect of chloride concentration and applied current on the removal of COD, aromatic content and colour was investigated. The experimental results showed that an effective electrochemical oxidation was achieved in which the wastewater was decolourised and the COD and aromatic content completely eliminated. In particular, the mineralisation took place by indirect oxidation, mediated by active chlorine, and the COD removal rate was enhanced by the addition of 5 g L(-1) of NaCl to the wastewater and by increasing the applied current. PMID:16510168

  17. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  18. Refractory organic pollutants and toxicity in pulp and paper mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Lehto, Petra C; Knuutinen, Juha S; Ahkola, Heidi S J; Herve, Sirpa H

    2015-05-01

    This review describes medium and high molecular weight organic material found in wastewaters from pulp and paper industry. The aim is to review the versatile pollutants and the analysis methods for their determination. Among other pollutants, biocides, extractives, and lignin-derived compounds are major contributors to harmful effects, such as toxicity, of industrial wastewaters. Toxicity of wastewaters from pulp and paper mills is briefly evaluated including the methods for toxicity analyses. Traditionally, wastewater purification includes mechanical treatment followed by chemical and/or biological treatment processes. A variety of methods are available for the purification of industrial wastewaters, including aerobic and anaerobic processes. However, some fractions of organic material, such as lignin and its derivatives, are difficult to degrade. Therefore, novel chemical methods, including electrochemical and oxidation processes, have been developed for separate use or in combination with biological treatment processes. PMID:25647495

  19. Size fractionation of wood extractives, lignin and trace elements in pulp and paper mill wastewater before and after biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, Tiina; Rämö, Jaakko; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2009-07-01

    Integrated kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterized before (influent) and after (effluent) the activated sludge process by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22 microm) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3 kDa) into different size fractions. Wood extractives, lignin, suspended solids and certain trace elements were determined in each fraction. Forty four percent of the resin and fatty acids in the influent (12.8 mg/L) occurred in particles (>0.45 microm), 20% as colloids (0.45 microm-3 kDa) and 36% in the <3 kDa fraction. The corresponding values for sterols (1.5 mg/L) were 5, 46 and 49%. In the effluent, resin and fatty acids (1.45 mg/L) and sterols (0.26 mg/L) were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, as well as a small proportion in particles. beta-sitosterol was present in particles in the effluent (88+/-50 microg/L). Lignin in the influent was mainly in the colloidal and <3 kDa fractions, whereas in the effluent it was mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. Thus the decrease of lignin in the biological treatment was concentrated on the colloidal fraction. In the influent, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, whereas a significant proportion of Fe and Al were found also in the particle and colloidal fractions. In the effluent, Fe and Al were mainly present in the colloidal fraction; in contrast, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. The results indicated that the release of certain compounds and elements into the environment could be significantly decreased or even prevented simply by employing microfiltration as a final treatment step or by enhancing particle removal in the secondary clarifier. PMID:19524281

  20. Membrane-filtered olive mill wastewater: Quality assessment of the dried phenolic-rich fraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW a...

  1. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  2. Centrifugation as a pre-treatment in olive mill wastewater processing (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW), generated during production of olive oil, is an untapped source of nutritious compounds. Thus, processors want to separate OMWW into a high-value, concentrated product stream and near-pure water. However, the amount and characteristics of the produced OMWW depend on t...

  3. PERIPHYTON AND SEDIMENT BIOASSESSMENT AS INDICATORS OF THE EFFECT OF A COASTAL PULP MILL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two year study was conducted near Port St. Joe, Florida, in a coastal transportation canal and bay receiving combined municipal and pulp mill wastewater. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of periphyton analysis techniques and sediment toxicity as ind...

  4. Treatments of oil-refinery and steel-mill wastewaters by mesocosm constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Hu, C C

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two types of industrial wastewater, oil-refining and steel-milling, were selected for investigating their feasibility of treatment by mesocosm constructed wetland systems. The secondly treated effluents from the wastewater treatment plants were directly discharged into the systems controlled at different flow rates. Three wetland mesocosms were installed in the two industries: mesocosms A and B were in the oil refinery, and mesocosm C was in the steel mill. The substratum media used in wetland systems were sand (mesocosm A) and gravel (mesocosms B and C), while the vegetation types selected were reeds (mesocosms A and B) and mixed species of reeds and cattails (mesocosm C). The flow regimes were controlled as free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) for the sand- and gravel-beds, respectively. According to the experimental results, we found that the system treating oil-refining wastewater performed better than that treating steel-milling wastewater learned by comparing the removal efficiencies of COD, total N and total P. In addition, it was found that for oil-refining wastewater treatments, the SSF wetland system (mesocosm B) performed better than FWS (mesocosm A) wetland system when comparing both of their removal of pollutants and growth of vegetation. Besides, the effluents from these two industrial wetland treatment systems might be reclaimed and reused for boiler water, cooling, cleaning and miscellaneous purposes in industries. Further treatments are required if the constructed wetland effluents are thought about being reused for processing in industries. PMID:16042254

  5. Does wastewater from olive mills induce toxicity and water repellency in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peikert, B.; Bandow, N.; Schaumann, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater is the effluent generated by the olive oil extraction process. It is the main waste product of this industry mainly being produced in the Mediterranean Basin. Because proper treatment options are rare it is often disposed into the environment, e.g. fields or wadies. Due to its high concentration of fatty acids and phytotoxic phenolic compounds and its high chemical and biological oxygen demand, olive oil mill wastewater becomes a serious environmental problem. In this screening study we investigated long-term effects of olive oil mill wastewater application on soil properties in several locations in the West Bank and Israel. We determined wettability via water drop penetration time and the contact angle as well as general soil properties including pH, EC, carbon content, and we conducted thermogravimetrical analyses in order to characterize the impact of the waste water on the quality of soil organic matter. Our results show that application of olive oil mill wastewater has various effects. We determined contact angles between 110 and 120° and water drop penetration times up to 1367 s indicating significant reduction in wettability. Furthermore, soil carbon and nitrogen content and water extractable organic matter increased as well as electric conductivity, which could be pointed out as a fertilizing effect. In contrast soil pH was significantly reduced. Conducting thermal analyses we observed an increase in the labile and refractory carbon fraction. Probably first one is responsible for induced water repellency. As a consequence the reduced wettability negatively affects soil quality. It would therefore be promising to minimize the hydrophobizing impacts without losing fertilizing effects of the olive oil mill wastewater.

  6. Phytoremediation of parboiled rice mill wastewater using water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Majumdar, Madhurina; Gangopadhyay, Amitava; Chakraborty, Sankar; Chaterjee, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology applied for treatment of wastewater. It is a suitable option notably in developing countries as it is simple, sustainable and cost effective. In the present lab-based batch study the free floating aquatic plant water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) is used for treatment of parboiled rice mill wastewater having low pH, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, and phosphate. In raw rice mill wastewater (undiluted) growth of water lettuce is found to be inhibited. Later on, two different dilution approaches (raw and facultative pond effluent 1:1; raw and tap water 1:1) are applied in order to effectively use this technology. In all cases a control (without plant) is maintained to compare the performance with the Aquatic Plant based Treatment (APT) system. In the APT system results reveal that removal of soluble COD (SCOD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and soluble phosphorus (sol. P) are upto 65%, 98%, 70%, and 65% respectively. The study highlights the efficacy of water lettuce in removing organics and nutrients from parboiled rice mill wastewater. PMID:25192197

  7. Impact of paper mill wastewater on soil properties and crop yield through lysimeter studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Ladwani, K; Ladwani, K; Deshbhratar, P B; Ramteke, D S

    2013-01-01

    Paper and pulp industries produce large quantities of wastewater which can have adverse effects on the receiving water systems. In the present study lysimeters were used and filled with different soils replicating natural soil horizons and provided with a leachate collection system. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soil in each lysimeter and the quality of wastewater before leaching were assessed. Treated wastewater was evaluated for crop irrigation, and was categorized according to the irrigation water class 'Increasing Problem to Severe Problem' with respect to salinity and specific ion toxicity. Sandy loam soils showed 96% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal while clay loam soils removed 99% of COD, and the colour removal in both the cases was found to be 100%. Application of wastewater resulted in an increase of pH value, ranging from 6.2-7.6; the electrical conductivity (ECe) of saturated extracts was found to be 0.6-1.7 dS m(-1), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ranged from 7.8-11.1% in soils. Similarly, an increase in the organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content of soils was observed when irrigated with wastewater. Wastewater irrigation showed increased grain and straw yield of jowar, wheat and moong. These results permit successful utilization of pulp and paper mill wastewater for crop production without damaging the soils. PMID:23837309

  8. Olive mill wastewater microconstituents composition according to olive variety and extraction process.

    PubMed

    Aggoun, Moufida; Arhab, Rabah; Cornu, Agnès; Portelli, Josiane; Barkat, Malika; Graulet, Benoît

    2016-10-15

    Olive oil production yields a considerable amount of wastewater, a powerful pollutant that is currently discarded but could be considered as a potential source of valuable natural products due to its content in phenolic compounds and other natural antioxidants. The aim of this work was to explore the variability in olive mill wastewater composition from Algerian olive oil mills considering extraction processes (traditional discontinuous press vs 3-phases centrifugal system) and olive varieties (Azerraj, Sigoise, Chemlal). Whereas pH, dry or organic matter content didn't vary, there was a significant difference in ash content according to extraction process and olive variety. Carotenoid content was 2.2-fold higher with 3-phases than with press systems whereas tocopherol content was not significantly different. Among the phenolic compounds quantified, tyrosol was usually the most abundant whereas oleuropein concentrations were highly variable. Differences in phenolic compound concentrations were more pronounced between olive varieties than between processes. PMID:27173536

  9. Spatial and temporal effects of olive mill wastewaters to stream macroinvertebrates and aquatic ecosystems status.

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos T; Giannakou, Urania; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2011-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the major and most challenging organic pollutants in olive oil production countries. However, the knowledge about the in-situ effects of olive mill wastewaters to lotic ecosystems and their benthic organisms is very limited. To resolve this, eight sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the outflow of several olive mills to assess the spatial and temporal effects of OMW to stream macroinvertebrates and to ecological status of stream ecosystems. Biotic (macroinvertebrates) and abiotic (physicochemical, hydromorphological) data were monitored for two years thus following the biennial cycle of olive growth and production and hydrological variation (drought-wet years). The results of this study revealed the spatial and temporal structural deterioration of the aquatic community due to OMW pollution with consequent reduction of the river capacity for reducing the effects of polluting substances through internal mechanisms of self-purification. OMW, even highly diluted, had dramatic impacts on the aquatic fauna and to the ecological status of the receiving stream ecosystems. The organic load of the wastewater expressed as BOD(5), COD and TSS, substrate contamination (sewage bacteria) and distance from the mill outlet, were the most important factors affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages while the typology (i.e. slope, altitude) and hydrology of the stream site (i.e. mountainous-lowland) and the intensity and volume of the wastewater were the most important determinants of self-purification processes. As OMW are usually being discharged in small size streams that are not considered in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, there is a need for including such systems into monitoring and assessment schemes as they may significantly contribute to the pollution load of the river basin. Furthermore, guidelines to manage these wastes through technologies that minimise their environmental impact and lead to a sustainable use

  10. A review on the use of membrane technology and fouling control for olive mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Javier Miguel Ochando

    2016-09-01

    Olive mill effluents (OME) by-produced have significantly increased in the last decades as a result of the boost of the olive oil agro-industrial sector and due to the conversion into continuous operation centrifugation technologies. In these effluents, the presence of phytotoxic recalcitrant pollutants makes them resistant to biological degradation and thus inhibits the efficiency of biological and conventional processes. Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for OME have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory and cost-effective results. Olive oil industries in its current status, typically small mills dispersed, cannot afford such high treatment costs. Furthermore, conventional treatments are not able to abate the significant dissolved monovalent and divalent ions concentration present in OME. Within this framework, membrane technology offers high efficiency and moderate investment and maintenance expenses. Wastewater treatment by membrane technologies is growing in the recent years. This trend is owed to the fact of the availability of new membrane materials, membrane designs, membrane module concepts and general know-how, which have promoted credibility among investors. However, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time and leads to premature substitution of the membrane modules, and this is a problem of cost efficiency since wastewater treatment must imply low operating costs. Appropriate fouling inhibition methods should assure this result, thus making membrane processes for wastewater stream treatment both technically and economically feasible. In this paper, the treatment of the effluents by-produced in olive mills, generally called olive mill wastewaters, will be addressed. Within this context, the state of the art of the different pretreatments and integral membrane processes proposed up to today will be gathered and discussed, with an insight in the problem of fouling. PMID:26472261

  11. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  12. Green Technology for the Removal of Chloro-Organics from Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya; Kumar, Vivek

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) for the removal of chloro-organic compounds from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The surface area of the HSSF-CW unit was 5.25 m² and was planted with Colocasia esculenta. The wastewater was characterized for different chloro-organic compounds, that is, adsorbable organic halides (AOX), chlorophenolics, and chlorinated resin and fatty acids (cRFAs). Under a hydraulic retention time of 5.9 days, the average AOX, chlorophenolics, and cRFA removal from wastewater was 87, 87, and 93%, respectively. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil material. The mass balance studies show that a significant fraction of chlorophenolics and cRFA was degraded in the constructed wetland system. Modeling studies were carried out to estimate the first-order area-based removal rate constants (k) for chemical oxygen demand removal. The HSSF-CW was found to be an effective treatment technology for the remediation of pulp and paper mill wastewater. PMID:26163503

  13. A review on palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater treatment using coagulation-ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Z. D.; Joseph, C. G.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated from the palm oil industry is highly polluted and requires urgent attention for treatment due to its high organic content. Biogas plant containing anaerobic digester is capable to treat the high organic content of the POME while generating valuable biogas at the same time. This green energy from POME is environmental-friendly but the wastewater produced is still highly polluted and blackish in colour. Therefore a novel concept of combining coagulation with ozonation treatment is proposed to treat pollution of this nature. Several parameters should be taken under consideration in order to ensure the effectiveness of the hybrid treatment including ozone dosage, ozone contact time, pH of the water or wastewater, coagulant dosage, and mixing and settling time. This review paper will elucidate the importance of hybrid coagulation-ozonation treatment in producing a clear treated wastewater which is known as the main challenge in palm oil industry

  14. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by chemical processes: effect of acid cracking pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Hande Gursoy-Haksevenler, B; Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acid cracking (pH 2.0; T 70 °C) and filtration as a pretreatment step on the chemical treatability of olive mill wastewater (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 150,000 m/L; total organic carbon (TOC) 36,000 mg/L; oil-grease 8,200 mg/L; total phenols 3,800 mg/L) was investigated. FeCl3 coagulation, Ca(OH)2 precipitation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes and the Fenton's reagent were applied as chemical treatment methods. Removal performances were examined in terms of COD, TOC, oil-grease, total phenols, colour, suspended solids and acute toxicity with the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri. Significant oil-grease (95%) and suspended solids (96%) accompanied with 58% COD, 43% TOC, 39% total phenols and 80% colour removals were obtained by acid cracking-filtration pretreatment. Among the investigated chemical treatment processes, electrocoagulation and the Fenton's reagent were found more effective after pretreatment, especially in terms of total phenols removal. Total phenols removal increased from 39 to 72% when pretreatment was applied, while no significant additional (≈10-15%) COD and TOC removals were obtained when acid cracking was coupled with chemical treatment. The acute toxicity of the original olive mill wastewater sample increased considerably after pretreatment from 75 to 89% (measured for the 10-fold diluted wastewater sample). An operating cost analysis was also performed for the selected chemical treatment processes. PMID:24718336

  15. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  16. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  17. Chemical pretreatment of olive oil mill wastewater using a metal-organic framework catalyst.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Salvatore; Giordano, Girolamo; Granato, Teresa; Katovic, Andrea; Siciliano, Alessio; Tripicchio, Francesco

    2005-10-19

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OOMW) are not suited for direct biological treatment because of their nonbiodegradable and phytotoxic compound (such as polyphenols) content. Advanced technologies for treatment of OOMW consider mainly the use of solid catalysts in processes that can be operated at room conditions. A system based on combined actions of catalytic oxidations and microbial technologies was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process is one of the new emerging oxidation processes particularly attractive for the pretreatment of highly polluted OOMW containing polyphenols that are not suited for classical treatments. In this work, the biodegradability of OOMW was evaluated before and after treating the wastewater samples by the WHPCO process using a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a catalyst. This material, containing Cu and prepared with benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (BTC), is a robust metal-organic polymer with a microporous structure that is reminiscent of the topology of zeolite frameworks. PMID:16218680

  18. Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xiao, Ya-Zhong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the lignin-degrading capacity of attached-growth white-rot fungi. Five white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Trametes versicolor and S22, grown on a porous plastic media, were individually used to treat black liquor from a pulp and paper mill. Over 71% of lignin and 48% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed from the wastewater. Several factors, including pH, concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and trace elements in wastewater, all had significant effects on the degradation of lignin and the removal of COD. Three white-rot fungi, P. chrysosporium, P. ostreatus and S22, showed high capacity for lignin degradation at pH 9.0-11.0. The addition of 1 g l-1 glucose and 0.2 g l-1 ammonium tartrate was beneficial for the degradation of lignin by the white-rot fungi studied. PMID:15792583

  19. Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.

    PubMed

    Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

    2012-03-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. PMID:22226593

  20. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of monochloroacetic acid in wastewater using Ni-Fe bimetal prepared by ball milling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Xu, Fuyuan; Zhao, Jianzhuang; Jia, Linfang; Wu, Kunming

    2015-09-01

    Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is a chemically stable and biologically toxic pollutant. It is often generated during the production of the pesticide dimethoate. Conventional wastewater treatment processes have difficulty degrading it. In this work, the dechlorination effects of Ni-Fe bimetal prepared using ball milling (BM) technology for the high concentrations of MCA in wastewater were examined. The MCA in aqueous solution was found to be degraded efficiently by the Ni-Fe bimetal. However, S-(methoxycarbonyl) methyl O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate (SMOPD) in wastewater, a by-product of the dimethoate production process, significantly inhibited the reductive dechlorination activity of Ni-Fe bimetal. Increasing the reaction temperature in the MCA wastewater enhanced the reduction activity of the Ni-Fe bimetal effectively. Oxygen was found to be unfavorable to dechlorination. Sealing the reaction to prevent oxidation was found to render the degradation process more efficient. The process retained over 88% efficiency after 10 treatment cycles with 50 g/L of Ni-Fe bimetal under field conditions. PMID:25976331

  1. Removal of phenolics in olive mill wastewaters using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, M S; Dokianakis, S N; Kornaros, M E; Aggelis, G G; Lyberatos, G

    2002-11-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) present a major environmental problem. The large amounts generated, combined with the high phenols and chemical oxygen demand concentrations, are the main difficulties in finding a solution for the management of these wastewaters, which are dangerous for the environment. The phenols, which are contained in the OMW have a structure similar to lignin, which makes them difficult to biodegrade. Lignin can be degraded only by a few microorganisms, such as "white-rot" basidiomycete, which produce manganese (MnPs) and lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and laccases that are responsible for the oxidisation of lignin compounds. The capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade phenols of OMW in different conditions such as in sterilized and thermally processed (at 100 degrees C) wastewater, with and without dilution, is investigated in this work. According to the experimental results P. ostreatus removed phenols from the culture medium, under all different conditions that were examined. The degradation of phenols reached up to 78.3% for the sterilized and 50% diluted OMW, 66.7% and 64.7% for the thermally processed OMW, with and without dilution, respectively. The effect of pre-treatment of OMW on the performance of anaerobic digestion is also assessed, as methanogenic bacteria are seriously affected by the presence of phenol compounds. The pre-treated wastewater was shown to be more amenable to a subsequent anaerobic digestion. PMID:12448515

  2. Optimization and performance evaluation for nutrient removal from palm oil mill effluent wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Raheek I.; Wong, Z. H.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater was produced in huge amounts in Malaysia, and if it discharged into the environment, it causes a serious problem regarding its high content of nutrients. This study was devoted to POME wastewater treatment with microalgae. The main objective was to find the optimum conditions (retention time, and pH) in the microalgae treatment of POME wastewater considering retention time as a most important parameter in algae treatment, since after the optimum conditions there is a diverse effect of time and pH and so, the process becomes costly. According to our knowledge, there is no existing study optimized the retention time and pH with % removal of nutrients (ammonia nitrogen NH3-N, and orthophosphorous PO43-) for microalgae treatment of POME wastewater. In order to achieve with optimization, a central composite rotatable design with a second order polynomial model was used, regression coefficients and goodness of fit results in removal percentages of nutrients (NH3-N, and PO43-) were estimated.WinQSB technique was used to optimize the surface response objective functionfor the developed model. Also experiments were done to validate the model results.The optimum conditions were found to be 18 day retention time for ammonia nitrogen, and pH of 9.22, while for orthophosphorous, 15 days were indicated as the optimum retention time with a pH value of 9.2.

  3. Treatment of cane sugar mill wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Nacheva, P Mijaylova; Chávez, G Moeller; Chacón, J Matías; Chuil, A Canul

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a mesophilic UASB reactor was studied for the treatment of sugar cane mill wastewater previously pre-treated for solid separation. The experimental work was carried out in a reactor with 80 L total volume. Four organic loads were applied and the process performance was evaluated during two months for each experimental stage. Removal efficiencies higher than 90% were obtained with organic loads up to 16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Stable process performance and high biogas production were obtained. The COD removal rate increased substantially with the load increase to 24 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). However, the obtained removal was of only 78-82%, which can be attributed to the accumulation of volatile organic acids. The kinetic coefficients were obtained using first order model for the substrate removal rate and Monod's equation for bacteria specific growth rate. The UASB reactor is a good option for the biological treatment of pre-treated sugar cane mill wastewaters. The discharge requirements for COD concentration can be accomplished if the reactor is operated at a low organic load of 4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). At higher loads, an additional biological treatment stage is needed. PMID:19717923

  4. Comparative study of MBR and activated sludge in the treatment of paper mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lerner, M; Stahl, N; Galil, N I

    2007-01-01

    The study was based on a full scale activated sludge plant (AS) compared to a parallel operated pilot membrane bioreactor (MBR) with flat sheets membranes. Both systems received their influent from an anaerobic bioreactor treating paper mill wastewater. MBR produced an effluent of much better quality than AS in terms of suspended solids, containing 1 mg/L or less in 80% of the monitoring time, while the AS effluent contained 12 mg/L. This could save the necessity of further treatment by filtration in the case of MBR. Other effluent quality parameters, such as organic matter (COD and BOD), phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen, did not indicate substantial differences between AS and MBR. Calcium carbonate scaling and formation of a bacterial layer on the membrane caused severe flux reduction. The membrane blockage because of scaling and biofouling proved to be very serious, therefore, it required proper and more complicated maintenance than the AS system. This study leads to the conclusion that in the case of paper mill wastewater, after anaerobic biotreatment, if there is no need for excellent effluent quality in terms of suspended solids, the replacement of the AS by the MBR would not be strongly justified, mainly because of maintenance cost. PMID:17486831

  5. Removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater through constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetland for the removal of AOX (adsorbable organic halides) and chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The dimensions of HSSF constructed wetland were 3.5 m in length, 1.5 m in width, and 0.28 m in depth, with surface area of 5.25 m2. The HSSF constructed wetland unit was planted with an ornamental plant species, Canna indica. Under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.9 days, the average AOX removal was 89.1%, and 67% to 100% removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater was achieved. The complete removal of 2,3-dichlorophenol, 3,4-dichlorophenol, 2,3,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 3,6-dichlorocatechol, and 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol was observed. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil. The evapotranspiration rate varied from 6.7 to 12.7 mm day(-1) during the experimental period. The mass balance of chlorophenolics was also studied in constructed wetland system. PMID:23409454

  6. Innovative method for recovery and valorization of hydroxytyrosol from olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, A; Venturini, S; Ena, A; Faraloni, C

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional properties of olive oil can be attributed to its oleic acid and phenolic compounds content, acting as natural oxidants to prevent human diseases. In particular, hydroxytyrosol has an anti-inflammatory action similar to omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil. The olive oil production was conducted by two extraction procedures: first, a two-phase extraction giving extra-virgin olive oil and humid pomace, second, a three-phase working process of humid pomace, obtaining another minimum quantity of extra-virgin olive oil, 'dry' pomace devoid of polyphenols, and mill wastewaters rich in anti-oxidant compounds. The aim of this processing was to employ water to extract the highest concentration of polyphenols from humid pomace and convey them in oil mill wastewaters for extraction. Processed olives were 37,200 kg, pomace deprived of polyphenols was equal to 20,400 kg and processing was performed with 500 kg of olives per hour. This method offers advantages of using cheap equipment and technical simplicity. PMID:27386985

  7. Review on recent developments on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Mohammadreza; Khodaparast, Zahra

    2015-04-01

    Economic benefits of the pulp and paper industry have led it to be one of the most important industrial sections in the world. Nevertheless, in recent years, pulp and paper mills are facing challenges with the energy efficiency mechanisms and management of the resulting pollutants, considering the environmental feedbacks and ongoing legal requirements. This study reviews and discusses the recent developments of affordable methods dealing with pulp and paper mill wastewaters. To this end, the current state of the various processes used for pulp and paper production from virgin or recovered fibers has been briefly reviewed. Also, the relevant contaminants have been investigated, considering the used raw materials and applied techniques as the subject for further discussion about the relevant suitable wastewater treatment methods. The results of the present study indicated that adopting the integrated methods, alongside a combination of biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion) and physicochemical (e.g., novel Fenton reactions) treatment methods, can be environmentally and economically preferable to minimize environmental contaminants and energy recycling. PMID:24953005

  8. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero

    2016-08-01

    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules. PMID:27399282

  9. Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent as wastewater treatment and hydrogen production using electrode aluminum.

    PubMed

    Nasution, M Ansori; Yaakob, Z; Ali, Ehsan; Tasirin, S M; Abdullah, S R S

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluting wastewater generated from the palm oil milling process. Palm oil mill effluent was used as an electrolyte without any additive or pretreatment to perform electrocoagulation (EC) using electricity (direct current) ranging from 2 to 4 volts in the presence of aluminum electrodes with a reactor volume of 20 L. The production of hydrogen gas, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity as a result of electrocoagulation of POME were determined. The results show that EC can reduce the COD and turbidity of POME by 57 and 62%, respectively, in addition to the 42% hydrogen production. Hydrogen production was also helpful to remove the lighter suspended solids toward the surface. The production of Al(OH)XHO at the aluminum electrode (anode) was responsible for the flocculation-coagulation process of suspended solids followed by sedimentation under gravity. The production of hydrogen gas from POME during EC was also compared with hydrogen gas production by electrolysis of tap water at pH 4 and tap water without pH adjustment under the same conditions. The main advantage of this study is to produce hydrogen gas while treating POME with EC to reduce COD and turbidity effectively. PMID:21712603

  10. Phanerochaete flavido-alba Laccase Induction and Modification of Manganese Peroxidase Isoenzyme Pattern in Decolorized Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, J.; de la Rubia, T.; Hamman, O. Ben; Martínez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Lignin-degrading enzymes were partially purified from supernatant solutions obtained from Phanerochaete flavido-alba-decolorized olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW). The dominant enzymes, manganese peroxidases, exhibited different isoform patterns in decolorized OMW-containing cultures than in residue-free samples. Laccase induction was also detected in OMW-containing cultures but not in control cultures. PMID:9647858

  11. Strength loss in kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarne, Jose

    Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast

  12. Ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A kinetic study of the degradation by ozone of eight phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills has been performed by using a competition kinetic method. The selected phenolic acids are: caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic, veratric, p-hydroxy-benzoic, and protocatechuic. The influence of the operating variables (temperature, pH, and ozone partial pressure in the gas stream) is established, and the stoichiometric ratios for the individual direct reactions between ozone and each acid are determined. Once the reaction rate constants are evaluated, they are correlated as a function of temperature and pH into kinetic expressions which are provided for every phenolic acid. The global process occurs in the fast and pseudo-first-order kinetic regime of absorption, a condition required by the competition model to be used.

  13. Fixation of ammonium-N and nitrate-N with olive oil mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Aguilar, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates whether ammonium and nitrate ions become linked with diluted olive oil mill wastewaters (OOMW). From a laboratory experiment it was concluded that the ammonium ion linked with OOMW in the presence of carbonates or hydroxides and OOMW could block up to a third of the present ammonium-N ion. On the other hand, OOMW are capable of joining with the nitrate ion, in a sulphuric diluted medium at room temperature, retaining up to 80% of nitrate-N. These complexes could be useful for recycling OOMW as new OOMW-N fertilizers. In soils treated with OOMW-N fertilizers, the nitrate-N emissions were reduced by 90% for two months. So, inorganic-N fertilizers mixed with OOMW could produce new organic fertilizers with a higher efficiency index for N. PMID:20450113

  14. Sequential treatment of olive oil mill wastewater with adsorption and biological and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Sam, Mesut; Farizoğlu, Burhanettin; Çabuk, Ahmet

    2013-05-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), a recalcitrant pollutant, has features including high phenolic content and dark color; thereby, several chemical or physical treatments or biological processes were not able to remediate it. In this study, the treatment efficiencies of three treatments, including adsorption, biological application, and photo-Fenton oxidation were sequentially evaluated for OMWW. Adsorption, biological treatment, and photo-Fenton caused decreasing phenolic contents of 48.69 %, 59.40 %, and 95 %, respectively. However, after three sequential treatments were performed, higher reduction percentages in phenolic (total 99 %) and organic contents (90 %) were observed. Although the studied fungus has not induced significant color reduction, photo-Fenton oxidation was considered to be an attractive solution, especially for color reduction. Besides, toxicity of OMWW treatment was significantly reduced. PMID:23054778

  15. Toxicity and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters in batch anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, M. Universite de Provence, Marseille )

    1992-11-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were studied in batch anaerobic digestion experiments. Anaerobic digestion of OMW or the supernatant of its centrifugation, the methane production was achieved at up to 5-15% (V/V) dilution corresponding to only 5-20 g/L COD. The washed suspended solids of OMW were toxic at up to 80 g/L COD; however, the kinetic of biodegradability of OMW or the supernatant was faster than for suspended solids, which are constituted mealy of cellulose and lignin. The darkly colored polyphenols induce the problem of biodegradation of OMW, whereas the long chain fatty acids (LCFA), tannins and simple phenolic compounds are responsible for its toxicity for methanogenic bacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Parameters and kinetics of olive mill wastewater dephenolization by immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells.

    PubMed

    Bozkoyunlu, Gaye; Takaç, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) with total phenol (TP) concentration range of 300-1200 mg/L was treated with alginate-immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells in batch system. The effects of pellet properties (diameter, alginate concentration and cell loading (CL)) and operational parameters (initial TP concentration, agitation rate and reusability of pellets) on dephenolization of OMW were studied. Up to 87% dephenolization was obtained after 120 h biodegradations. The utilization number of pellets increased with the addition of calcium ions into the biodegradation medium. The overall effectiveness factors calculated for different conditions showed that diffusional limitations arising from pellet size and pellet composition could be neglected. Mass transfer limitations appeared to be more effective at high substrate concentrations and low agitation rates. The parameters of logistic model for growth kinetics of R. glutinis in OMW were estimated at different initial phenol concentrations of OMW by curve-fitting of experimental data with the model. PMID:25244135

  17. Olive oil mill wastewaters pollution abatement by physical treatments and biodegradation with Phanerochaetae chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Mebirouk, M; Sbai, L; Lopez, M; Gonzalez, J

    2006-12-01

    This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW) by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, suspended and immobilised cultures. When P chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after removal of polyphenols by adsorption on wood sawdust, which allows for removal of 39% of polyphenols. The use of High lignin peroxides (Lip) producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. In fact, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and polyphenols contents are significantly reduced. In addition, a significant effluent decolorization is obvious. PMID:17285940

  18. Strategy for olive mill wastewater treatment and reuse with a sewage plant in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Boukchina, R; Choi, E; Kim, S; Yu, Y B; Cheung, Y J

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of OMW (olive mill wastewater) with sewage and sewage sludge, which could supplement nutrients and microbes required for OMW treatment and reduce its possible toxicity. The amount of OMW added to an aeration tank was based on the loading difference between the designed and actual COD loads, while the amount added to anaerobic digestion for energy recovery was determined by CH4 production. The COD removal efficiencies were 70-85% for both systems. Compost of OMW with dried sewage sludge also showed a similar temperature profile without OMW addition. This strongly suggested that OMW can be treated at a sewage plant without pretreatment and the treated effluent can be reused in irrigation for an arid region. PMID:17564372

  19. Olive oil mill wastewaters: phenolic content characterization during degradation by Coriolopsis gallica.

    PubMed

    Daâssi, Dalel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesus; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Woodward, Steve; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Mechichi, Tahar; Nasri, Moncef; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) pose a serious environmental concern owing to high polyphenol content. Decolorization and degradation of phenolic compounds (PC) by Coriolopsis gallica was demonstrated in our laboratory as a potential biotreatment of OMW in solid and liquid media. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to analyze the evolution of the main phenolic compounds during the C. gallica biodegradation process. Amongst total the compounds characterized in methanolic extracts of OMW, 12 were unknown, 15 were from different polyphenolic families, and 27 were other non-phenolic compounds. The evolution of PC content during the degradation process indicated that, despite the complexity of the OMW phenolic fraction, C. gallica was able to grow on OMW-based media using PC as sources of carbon and energy, particularly acids, alcohols, lignans and flavones. Complete dephenolization of OMW was obtained. PMID:25065791

  20. Co-treatment of olive-mill and urban wastewaters by experimental stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Jail, A; Boukhoubza, F; Nejmeddine, A; Sayadi, S; Hassani, L

    2010-04-15

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a source of environmental problems in Morocco due to its significantly high organic load, its phytotoxic properties and its relatively low biodegradability. An effective option for its disposal is its agricultural use after co-treatment with urban wastewater (UWW). The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of this co-treatment, using experimental waste stabilization ponds, in removing OMW phytotoxicity. We examined the influence of the organic load, at the entry of the treatment system, on the evolution of some physicochemical (chemical oxygen demand and polyphenols) and microbiological (fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci) parameters. The results showed a removal of the organic, phenolic and microbial load throughout the treatment which differed from one system to another according to the OMW load applied to each system. The results concerning the germination assays of Zea mays and Solanum lycopersicum suggested that the co-treatment of OMW with UWW would decrease the phytotoxicity of this waste. PMID:20018449

  1. On the Recent Use of Membrane Technology for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR) and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD), osmotic distillation (OD) and forward osmosis (FO). Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided. PMID:26426062

  2. On the Recent Use of Membrane Technology for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification

    PubMed Central

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR) and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD), osmotic distillation (OD) and forward osmosis (FO). Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided. PMID:26426062

  3. Impacts of operating conditions on nanofiltration of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ochando Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martínez Férez, Antonio

    2015-09-15

    In the present paper, a thin-film composite polymeric nanofiltration (NF) membrane is examined for the tertiary treatment of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater, in substitution of the reverse osmosis membrane used in previous work by the Authors. Overcoming the deleterious fouling phenomena persistently encountered in membrane processes managing wastewater streams was indeed pursued. Setting the adequate parameters of the operating variables - that is, operating at ambient temperature upon a net pressure equal to 13 bar (Pc), tangential crossflow in the order of 2.55 m s(-1) to attain enough turbulence over the membrane, and above the point of zero charge (pH > 5.8) of the membrane - ensured high steady-state permeate productivity (59.6 L h(-1) m(-2)), also economically sustainable in time owed to minimization of the fouling-build up rate (0.91 h(-1)). Moreover, these conditions also provided high feed recovery (90%) and significant rejection efficiencies for the electroconductivity (58.1%) and organic matter (76.1%). This led to a purified permeate stream exiting the NF membrane operation exhibiting average EC and COD values equal to 1.4 mS cm(-1) and 45 mg L(-1). This permits complying with the water quality parameters established by different regulations for discharge public waterways and irrigation purposes. PMID:26186549

  4. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by glycogen accumulating organisms treating a paper mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Simon; Werker, Alan; Welander, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A process for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by activated sludge treating a paper mill wastewater was investigated. The applied strategy was to select for glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) by alternating anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Acidogenic fermentation was used as pretreatment to convert various organic compounds to volatile fatty acids which are preferable substrates for PHA production. Enrichment resulted in a culture dominated by GAOs related to Defluviicoccus vanus (56%) and Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis (22%). Optimization of PHA accumulation by the enriched GAO culture was performed through batch experiments. Accumulation of PHA under anaerobic conditions was limited by the intracellular glycogen stored. Under aerobic conditions significant glycogen production (to 25% of sludge dry weight) was observed alongside PHA accumulation (to 22% of sludge dry weight). By applying a subsequent anaerobic period after an initial aerobic, the produced glycogen could be utilized for further PHA accumulation and by this strategy PHA content was increased to 42% of sludge dry weight. The PHA yield over the entire process was 0.10 kg per kg of influent COD treated which is similar to what has been achieved with a process applying feast/famine enrichment strategy with the same wastewater. PMID:18701781

  5. A comparative study among different photochemical oxidation processes to enhance the biodegradability of paper mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Tarek S; Ghaly, Montaser Y; El-Seesy, Ibrahim E; Souaya, Eglal R; Nasr, Rabab A

    2011-01-15

    Advanced oxidation processes including UV, UV/H(2)O(2), Fenton reaction (Fe(II)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton process (Fe(II)/H(2)O(2)/UV) for the treatment of paper mill wastewater will be investigated. A comparison among these techniques is undertaken with respect to the decrease of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) and the evolution of chloride ions. Optimum operating conditions for each process under study revealed the effect of the initial amounts of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide. Of the tested processes, photo-Fenton process was found to be the fastest one with respect to COD and TSS reduction of the wastewater within 45 min reaction time under low amounts of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide of 0.5 and 1.5mg/L, respectively, and amounted to 79.6% and 96.6% COD and TSS removal. The initial biodegradability of the organic matter present in the effluent, estimated as the BOD(5)/COD, was low 0.21. When the effluent was submitted to the different types of AOPs used in this study, the biodegradability increases significantly. Within 45 min of reaction time, the photo-Fenton process appears as the most efficient process in the enhancement of the biodegradability of the organic matter in the effluent and the BOD(5)/COD ratio increased from 0.21 to 0.7. PMID:20926185

  6. Decolorization and COD reduction of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill using thermolysis and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2008-05-01

    The decolorization and reduction of COD of dyeing wastewater from a cotton textile mill was conducted using catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) accompanied with/without coagulation. Thermolysis in presence of a homogeneous copper sulphate catalyst was found to be the most effective in comparison to other catalysts (FeCl(3), FeSO(4), CuO, ZnO and PAC) used. A maximum reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of dyeing wastewater of 66.85% and 71.4%, respectively, was observed with a catalyst concentration of 5 kg/m(3) at pH 8. Commercial alum was found most effective coagulant among various coagulants (aluminum potassium sulphate, PAC, FeCl(3) and FeSO(4)) tested during coagulation operations, resulting in 58.57% COD and 74% color reduction at pH 4 and coagulant dose of 5 kg/m(3). Coagulation of the clear fluid (supernatant) obtained after treatment by thermolysis at the conditions previously used resulted in an overall reduction of 89.91% COD and 94.4% color at pH 4 and a coagulant dose of 2 kg/m(3). The application of thermolysis followed by coagulation, thus, is the most effective treatment method in removing nearly 90% COD and 95% color at a lower dose of coagulant (2 kg/m(3)). The sludge thus produced would contain lower inorganic mass coagulant and, therefore, less amount of inorganic sludge. PMID:17931773

  7. Microalgal biomass production by using ultra- and nanofiltration membrane fractions of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cicci, A; Stoller, M; Bravi, M

    2013-09-01

    Olive milling produces huge amounts of wastewater (OMWW) characterized by an extremely high organic load. Its polyphenols content is a hindrance to conventional biological treatment and to using it as growing medium for common microbial biomasses. The practice to dump it on soil is in conflict with the latest EU directives about waste management. OMWW can be effectively and efficiently treated by means of membrane technology to a fraction of the initial volume, but membrane processing concentrates still require treatment. Reversing the overall cost balance of membrane processing and subsequent treatment requires valorizing the concentrates through their reuse, as well as ensuring long-term service of the membrane system through effective wastewater pretreatment and sustainable, fouling-controlling, membrane operation conduite. Aim of this work is to reuse and valorize the ultra- and nanofiltration membrane concentrates as media for biomass production of microalgae and cyanobacteria. Scenedesmus dimorphus and Arthrospira platensis, usable as a food, feed, nutraceutical component or feedstock for biofuels, were selected for this investigation. Microalgal growth was experimentally determined and related to the composition of the concentrate-based media and to the irradiance distribution within the photobioreactor volume to decouple light limitation and medium chemical composition effects. PMID:23770485

  8. Treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mill industry by electrochemical methods in membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Chanworrawoot, Kanjana; Hunsom, Mali

    2012-12-30

    The treatment of wastewater from a pulp and paper mill plant using electrochemical methods was performed at a laboratory bench-scale at ambient temperature (~30 °C). The effects of wastewater dilution (10- to 100-fold), circulating water flow rate (0-3.95 l/min), current density (1.90-3.80 mA/cm(2)) and sodium chloride concentration (0-3.75 g/l) were ascertained. The results demonstrated that this methods can facilitate the disappearance of the oxidative coupling unit of lignin as well as other organic and inorganic compounds, measured in terms of the removal of color, total biological- and total chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD), and the total suspended and dissolved solids (TSS and TSD). In addition, the electrochemical method was more effective at reducing the pollutant levels, produced a smaller quantity of low-density sludge and had a low operating cost per unit quantity of COD. After optimization, the electrochemical method operating in a batch mode enhanced the removal of color, BOD and COD at around 98%, 98% and 97%, respectively, whilst in a continuous mode at the steady state condition (8 h after the start-up time) the color, BOD and COD levels were reduced by around 91%, 83% and 86%, respectively. PMID:23062272

  9. Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we investigated an integrated technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of olive mill wastewaters (OMW), allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. The method involves an electrochemical pre-treatment step of the wastewater using the electro-Fenton reaction followed by an anaerobic bio-treatment. The electro-Fenton process removed 65.8% of the total polyphenolic compounds and subsequently decreased the OMW toxicity from 100% to 66.9%, which resulted in improving the performance of the anaerobic digestion. A continuous lab-scale methanogenic reactor was operated at a loading rate of 10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)l(-1) d(-1) without any apparent toxicity. Furthermore, in the combined process, a high overall reduction in COD, suspended solids, polyphenols and lipid content was achieved by the two successive stages. This result opens promising perspectives since its conception as a fast and cheap pre-treatment prior to conventional anaerobic post-treatment. The use of electro-coagulation as post-treatment technology completely detoxified the anaerobic effluent and removed its toxic compounds. PMID:16678883

  10. Dephenolization, dearomatization and detoxification of olive mill wastewater with sonication combined with additives and radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Oztekin, Rukiye

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the effects of some additives [manganese (III) oxide (Mn3O4), Cu(+2), Fe(0) and potassium iodate (KIO3)] and some radical scavengers [sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), perfluorohexane (C6F14) and t-butyl alcohol (C4H10O)] on the sonication of olive mill effluent wastewater (OMW) were investigated since the wastewaters of this industry are removed with low efficiencies. The maximum total phenol and total aromatic amines (TAAs) removal efficiencies were 88% and 79%, respectively, at 60°C with only 150 min sonication. The maximum phenol removal was found as 98% with 19 mg L(-1) perfluorohexane and 5 mg L(-1) Fe(0) while the maximum TAAs removal was 99% with 16 mg L(-1) KIO3. Catechol, tyrosol, quercetin, caffeic acid, 4-methyl catechol, 2-phenylphenol (2-PHE) and 3-phenyl phenol (3-PHE) were detected as phenol intermediates while trimethlyaniline, aniline, o-toluidine, o-anisidine, dimethylaniline, ethylbenzene and durene were identified as TAAs in the OMW. The maximum acute toxicity removals were 96% and 99% in Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna, respectively. Total phenol, TAAs and the toxicity in an OMW were removed efficiently and cost-effectively through sonication. PMID:24315030

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Pseudomonas sp. using synthetic and olive mill wastewater under limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Kourmentza, C; Ntaikou, I; Lyberatos, G; Kornaros, M

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the ability of bacteria isolated from an enriched mixed culture to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and examining the effect of nitrogen and dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation on PHAs production, by using both synthetic and olive mill wastewater (OMW). PHAs production was performed through batch experiments using both the enriched culture and the isolated strains (belonging to the genus of Pseudomonas) aiming to compare PHAs accumulation capacity, yields and rates. The use of enriched culture and synthetic wastewater under nitrogen limitation resulted in the highest PHA accumulation, i.e. 64.4%gPHAs/g of cell dry mass (CDM). However, when OMW was used, PHAs accumulation significantly decreased, i.e. 8.8%gPHAs/g CDM. The same trend was followed by the isolated strains, nevertheless, their ability to synthesize PHAs was lower. Although, dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation generally slowed down PHAs biosynthesis, in certain strains PHAs production was positively affected. PMID:25542172

  12. Effect of aerobic pretreatment with Aspergillus terreus on the anaerobic digestion of olive-mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Borja, R; Alba, J; Garrido, S E; Martínez, L; García, M P; Monteoliva, M; Ramos-Cormenzana, A

    1995-10-01

    A kinetic study was carried out on the anaerobic digestion of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) and OMW that was previously fermented with Aspergillus terreus. The bioreactors used were batch fed and contained saponite as support for the mediating bacteria. The anaerobic digestion process followed first-order kinetics, from which the kinetic constant A was calculated using a non-linear regression. This kinetic parameter was influenced by the pretreatment carried out, and was 3.7 times higher for pretreated OMW than for untreated OMW. The anaerobic processing of pretreated OMW seemingly involved no inhibition phenomena as the biotoxicity and the total phenolic compound content (analysed by HPLC) were reduced by 71.2% and 77.9% respectively as a result of the pretreatment. Finally, the yield coefficient of methane production was 0.345 litres of methane (at standard temperature and pressure)/g of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 23% higher than that provided by untreated wastewater. PMID:7576261

  13. Membrane-Filtered Olive Mill Wastewater: Quality Assessment of the Dried Phenolic-Rich Fraction.

    PubMed

    Sedej, Ivana; Milczarek, Rebecca; Wang, Selina C; Sheng, Runqi; de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Roberto; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary

    2016-04-01

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also to extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW and compare the techniques in terms of the dried product quality and feasibility of the process. The OMWW from 2 (3-phase and 2-phase) California mills was subjected to a 2-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream that could be recycled into the milling process. Spray-, freeze-, and infrared-drying were applied to obtain solid material from the RO-R. Drying of the RO-R was made possible only with addition of 10% maltodextrin as a carrier. The total soluble phenolics in dried RO-R were in the range 0.15 to 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for 2-phase RO-R, and 1.38 to 2.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for the 3-phase RO-R. Spray-dried RO-R from 3-phase OMWW showed remarkable antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid were quantified in all dried RO-R, whereas 3-hydroxytyrosol was found in 3-phase dried RO-R. This combination of separation and drying technologies helps to add value and shelf-stability to an olive oil by-product and increase environmental sustainability of its production. PMID:26989993

  14. Land spreading of olive mill wastewater: effects on soil microbial activity and potential phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Ibrahim; Laor, Yael; Raviv, Michael; Medina, Shlomit

    2007-01-01

    Extremely high organic load and the toxic nature of olive mill wastewater (OMW) prevent their direct discharge into domestic wastewater treatment systems. In addition to the various treatment schemes designed for such wastewater, controlled land spreading of untreated OMW has been suggested as an alternative mean of disposal. A field study was conducted between October 2004 and September 2005 to assess possible effects of OMW on soil microbial activity and potential phytotoxicity. The experiment was carried out in an organic orchard located on a Vertisol-type soil (Jezre'el Valley, Israel) and included two application levels of OMW (36 and 72m(3)ha(-1)). Total microbial counts, and to less extent the hydrolytic activity and soil respiration were increased following the high OMW application level. A bench-scale lab experiment showed that the rate of OMW mineralization was mainly dependent on the general status of soil activity and was not related to previous acclimatization of the soil microflora to OMW. Soil phytotoxicity (% germination and root elongation) was assessed in soil extracts of samples collected before and after each OMW application, using germinating cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds. We found direct short-term effect of OMW application on soil phytotoxicity. However, the soil was partly or completely recovered between successive applications. No further phytotoxicity was observed in treated soils as compared with control soil, 3 months after OMW application. Such short-term phytotoxicity was not in correlation with measured EC and total polyphenols in the soil extracts. Overall, the results of this study further support a safe controlled OMW spreading on lands that are not associated with sensitive aquifers. PMID:16814841

  15. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system. PMID:25408073

  16. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. PMID:25463585

  17. Color and chlorinated organics removal from pulp mills wastewater using activated petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Shawwa, A R; Smith, D W; Sego, D C

    2001-03-01

    Delayed petroleum coke, a waste by-product from the oil sand industry, was utilized in the production of activated carbon. The activated carbon was then evaluated for color and chlorinated organics reduction from pulp mill wastewater. The activation of the petroleum coke was evaluated using a fixed bed reactor involving carbonization and activation steps at temperature of 850 degrees C and using steam as the activation medium. The activation results showed that the maximum surface area of the activated coke was achieved at an activation period of 4 h. The maximum surface area occurred at burnoff and water efficiency of 48.5 and 54.3%, respectively. Increasing the activation period to 6 h resulted in a decrease in the surface area. Methylene blue adsorption results indicated that the activation process was successful. Methylene blue adsorbed per 100 g of applied activated coke was 10 times higher than that adsorbed by raw petroleum coke. Adsorption equilibrium results of the bleached wastewater and the activated coke showed that significant color, COD, DOC and AOX removal (> 90%) was achieved when the activated coke dose exceeded 15,000 mg/L. Adsorption isotherms, in terms of COD, DOC, UV and color were developed based on the batch equilibrium data. Based on these isotherms, the amount of activated coke required to achieve certain removal of color and AOX can be predicted. The utilization of the petroleum coke for the production of activated carbon can provide an excellent disposal option for the oil sand industry at the same time would provide a cheap and valuable activated carbon. PMID:11228973

  18. Treatment of composite wastewater of a cotton textile mill by thermolysis and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, B; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2008-03-01

    Catalytic thermal treatment (thermolysis) accompanied with coagulation was used for the removal of COD and color of composite wastewater from a cotton textile mill. CuSO4, FeSO4, FeCl3, CuO, ZnO and PAC were used as catalytic agents during thermolysis. Homogeneous copper sulphate at a mass loading of 6 kg/m3 was found to be the most active. Similarly during coagulation aluminum potassium sulphate [KAl(SO4)(2).16H2O] at a coagulant concentration of 5 kg/m3 was found to be the best among the other coagulants tested, namely, commercial alum, FeSO4, FeCl3 and PAC. During thermolysis, a reduction in COD and color of composite wastewater of about 77.9 and 92.85%, respectively, was observed at pH 12. Coagulation of fresh composite waste using aluminum potassium sulphate resulted in 88.62% COD reduction and 95.4% color reduction at pH 8. Coagulation of the supernatant obtained after treatment by catalytic thermolysis resulted in overall reduction of 97.3% COD and close to 100% color reductions at pH 8 at a lesser coagulant concentration of 3 kg/m3. The results reveal that the application of coagulation after thermolysis is most effective in removing nearly 100% of COD and color at a lower dose of coagulant. The sludge thus produced would contain lower inorganic mass coagulant and can be used as a solid fuel with high calorific value of about 16 MJ/kg, close to that of Indian coal. PMID:17646051

  19. Olive mill wastewater stabilization in open-air ponds: impact on clay-sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Kharroubi, Adel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the natural biodegradation of the stored olive mill wastewater (OMW) in ponds and the infiltration as well as the impact on soil of the effluent in the evaporation pond used for the storage over the past eight years. For this, two approaches were considered. First, a laboratory-scale column was used for the infiltration of OMW through soil (clay and sand) to predict the effect of the clayey soil in reducing OMW pollution. Second, the ponds including the effluent annually stored and having this clayey structure were investigated. At the laboratory-scale, a modification of OMW contents was noticed, with the elimination of 95% of total suspended solids (TSS), 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40% of total organic carbon (TOC), 50% of total P, 50% of phenols and 40% of minerals (K+, Mg++ and Na+). The experimented soil was able to restrain the considerable effects of OMW pollution. In the ponds, the granulometric characteristics, the physico-chemical and the biological parameters of the soil profile from the contaminated pond were compared to those of a control soil, located near the contaminated pond. Property modifications of the contaminated soil were noted, especially pH, electrical conductivity, COD and microflora. These changes can be explained by the infiltration of OMW constituents, which were noticed in the soil layers, especially phenolic compounds that have a negative effect on the ground water. PMID:18337092

  20. Hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater for bio-oil production in subcritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hadhoum, Loubna; Balistrou, Mourad; Burnens, Gaëtan; Loubar, Khaled; Tazerout, Mohand

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater (OMWW). Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (240-300°C), water contents (58-88wt.%) and reaction times (15-45min). Results show that the highest bio-oil yield was about 58wt.%, resulting in a higher heating value of 38MJ/kg. This was conducted at the following optimal conditions: water content 88wt.%, a temperature of 280°C, and 30min as reaction time. To put bio-oil into wide application, the various physical and chemical characteristics were determined. A detailed chemical composition analysis of bio-oil was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID). The dominant compounds were identified by using NIST library. Analyses show that the bio-oil contains mainly oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, fatty acid methyl ester, fatty acid ethyl ester, amino acid derived compounds and phenolic compounds. PMID:27344243

  1. Verbascoside, isoverbascoside, and their derivatives recovered from olive mill wastewater as possible food antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Angela; Pati, Sandra; Minervini, Fiorenza; D'Antuono, Isabella; Linsalata, Vito; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2012-02-22

    Olive oil processing industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich byproducts, which could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. This work is focused on the recovery and structural characterization of antioxidant compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMWW), a polluting byproduct of the olive oil production process. Phenolics were extracted from the waste material using a membrane technology coupled to low-pressure gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20. The LH-20 fraction was, in turn, characterized for its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analyses. Verbascoside, isoverbascoside, β-hydroxyverbascoside, β-hydroxyisoverbascoside, and various oxidized phenolics were identified. Uptake of verbascoside, purified from the LH-20 fraction, by HT-29 cells, an established model system for studying drug transport properties, was also assayed. Finally, the antioxidant activities of the LH-20 fraction and verbascoside were characterized by two different techniques. Individual verbascoside was more active as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and as a chemopreventive agent protecting low-density lipoproteins from oxidative damage than the LH-20 fraction. PMID:22268549

  2. Strategies for dephenolization of raw olive mill wastewater by means of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Giardina, Paola; Marzocchella, Antonio; Sannia, Giovanni; Salatino, Piero

    2012-05-01

    The reduction of polyphenols content in olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major issue in olive oil manufacturing. Although researchers have pointed out the potential of white-rot fungus in dephenolizing OMW, the results available in the literature mainly concern pretreated (sterilized) OMW. This paper deals with the reduction of polyphenols content in untreated OMW by means of a white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus. Dephenolization was performed both in an airlift bioreactor and in aerated flasks. The process was carried out under controlled non-sterile conditions, with different operating configurations (batch, continuous, biomass recycling) representative of potential industrial operations. Total organic carbon, polyphenols concentration, phenol oxidase activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, oxygen consumption rate, and pH were measured during every run. Tests were carried out with or without added nutrients (potato starch and potato dextrose) and laccases inducers (i.e., CuSO₄). OMW endogenous microorganisms were competing with P. ostreatus for oxygen during simultaneous fermentation. Dephenolization of raw OMW by P. ostreatus under single batch was as large as 70%. Dephenolization was still extensive even when biomass was recycled up to six times. OMW pre-aeration had to be provided under continuous operation to avoid oxygen consumption by endogenous microorganisms that might spoil the process. The role of laccases in the dephenolization process has been discussed. Dephenolization under batch conditions with biomass recycling and added nutrients proved to be the most effective configuration for OMW polyphenols reduction in industrial plants (42-68% for five cycles). PMID:22179541

  3. Control of household mycoflora in fermented sausages using phenolic fractions from olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Martuscelli, Maria; Scarpone, Emidio; Paparella, Antonello

    2015-08-17

    Biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMWWP) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. Antagonism against Penicillium expansum DSMZ 1282, Penicillium verrucosum DSMZ 12639, Penicillium nalgiovense MS01, Aspergillus ochraceus DSMZ 63304, Cladosporium cladosporioides MS12, and Eurotium amstelodami MS10 was evident at 1.25% OMWWP in vitro, whereas in situ application of 2.5% OMWWP strongly reduced undesired household fungal species such as C. cladosporioides, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium commune, and Eurotium amstelodami, while a moderate antagonistic activity towards P. nalgiovense and Penicillium chrysogenum was observed at the same concentration. OMWWP at the concentrations used in this study demonstrated species-dependent antifungal activity by inhibiting both fungal growth and spore germination. Therefore, OMWWP can be regarded as a potential alternative to synthetic antifungal compounds to preserve the product from both oxidation and undesired fungi, without changing the sensory characteristics. PMID:25996624

  4. Microencapsulation by Membrane Emulsification of Biophenols Recovered from Olive Mill Wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Emma; Poerio, Teresa; Bazzarelli, Fabio; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-01-01

    Biophenols are highly prized for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs) are rich in biophenols. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the recovery and valorization of these compounds. Applications for the encapsulation have increased in the food industry as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, among others. Advancements in micro-fabrication methods are needed to design new functional particles with target properties in terms of size, size distribution, and functional activity. This paper describes the use of the membrane emulsification method for the fine-tuning of microparticle production with biofunctional activity. In particular, in this pioneering work, membrane emulsification has been used as an advanced method for biophenols encapsulation. Catechol has been used as a biophenol model, while a biophenols mixture recovered from OMWWs were used as a real matrix. Water-in-oil emulsions with droplet sizes approximately 2.3 times the membrane pore diameter, a distribution span of 0.33, and high encapsulation efficiency (98% ± 1% and 92% ± 3%, for catechol and biophenols, respectively) were produced. The release of biophenols was also investigated. PMID:27171115

  5. Purification of olive mill wastewater phenols through membrane filtration and resin adsorption/desorption.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Vavouraki, Aikaterini I; Kornaros, Michael E; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2015-03-21

    Olive tree cultivation has a long history in the Mediterranean countries, and even today consists an important cultural, economic, and environmental aspect of the area. The production of olive oil through 3-phase extraction systems, leads to the co-production of large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW), with toxic compounds that inhibit its biodegradation. Membrane filtration has been used for the exploitation of this byproduct, through the isolation of valuable phenolic compounds. In the current work, a fraction of the waste occurring from a membrane process was used. More specifically the reverse osmosis concentrate, after a nanofiltration, containing the low-molecular-weight compounds, was further treated with resin adsorption/desorption. The non ionic XAD4, XAD16, and XAD7HP resins were implemented, for the recovery of phenols and their separation from carbohydrates. The recovered phenolic compounds were concentrated through vacuum evaporation reaching a final concentration of 378 g/L in gallic acid equivalents containing 84.8 g/L hydroxytyrosol. PMID:25497019

  6. Olive-mill wastewaters: a promising substrate for microbial lipase production.

    PubMed

    D'Annibale, Alessandro; Sermanni, Giovanni Giovannozzi; Federici, Federico; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the valorization of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) by its use as a possible growth medium for the microbial production of extra-cellular lipase. To this end, strains of Geotrichum candidum (NRRL Y-552 and Y-553), Rhizopus arrhizus (NRRL 2286 and ISRIM 383), Rhizopus oryzae (NRRL 6431), Aspergillus oryzae (NRRL 1988 and 495), Aspergillus niger (NRRL 334), Candida cylindracea (NRRL Y-17506) and Penicillium citrinum (NRRL 1841 and 3754, ISRIM 118) were screened. All strains were able to grow on the undiluted OMW, producing extra-cellular lipase activity. C. cylindracea NRRL Y-17506 showed the highest lipase activity on all the typologies of OMW used. Its lipase production on OMW was markedly affected by the type of nitrogen source and was induced by the addition of olive oil. The highest activity (9.23 IU ml(-1)) of the yeast was obtained on OMW supplemented with NH(4)Cl (2.4 g l(-1)) and olive oil (3.0 g l(-1)). PMID:16236495

  7. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. PMID:26222602

  8. Comparative examination of the olive mill wastewater biodegradation process by various wood-rot macrofungi.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  9. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    PubMed Central

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  10. Effect of olive mill wastewater application on soil water repellency mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantis, V.; Gazani, E.

    2009-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product of olive oil production and it is generated in large quantities in the Mediterranean region. Waste disposal is a growing problem and therefore there is an increasing interest in sustainable (economical and environmental) reuse of this material. In this study OMW was applied in water drops on a water repellent sandy soil and the time until complete penetration was recorded. For this reason different dilutions of OMW were used while comparison was made with the standard procedure of the water drop penetration time (WDPT) using de-ionised water. The results of this study showed that with increasing OMW concentration the lower the water penetration time was. Analyzing the OMW samples using Capillary Gas Chromatography revealed increased concentrations of low molecular fatty acids (mainly acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric). Direct application of OMW on the field combined with the rapid infiltration into the soil matrix, is an interesting option to mitigate soil water repellency and deplete hydrophobic compounds.

  11. Characterization of the harmful effect of olive mill wastewater on spearmint.

    PubMed

    El Hassani, F Z; Zinedine, A; Amraoui, M Bendriss; Errachidi, F; Alaoui, S Mdaghri; Aissam, H; Merzouki, M; Benlemlih, M

    2009-10-30

    In this study, changes in viability, biomass production, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) were investigated. Spearmint cuttings were sensitive to OMW and, after 6h of incubation in raw or diluted OMW, their viability was null. The short contact of raw OMW with mint cuttings caused an irreversible damage in rhizogenesis and shoots development. Roots were more sensitive to phytotoxicity than shoots. In a field essay, spearmint showed a good capability to recover when OMW was spread at 8 l m(-2) at the vegetative phase of growth (45 days after plantation). At this dose, a slight increase of mostly of the mint essential oil constituents was obtained. When the dose applied was 16 l m(-2), phytotoxicity was manifested by a high reduction of biomass and essential oil yield. The essential oil composition was also affected and a disappearance of many of mint essential oil constituents was observed with an increase of 59% for carvone, the major compound of spearmint essential oil. As far as we know, this is the first report on the effect of field application of OMW on an aromatic plant essential oil yield and composition. PMID:19482423

  12. Toxicity effects of olive-mill wastewater on growth, photosynthesis and pollen morphology of spinach plants.

    PubMed

    Asfi, Maria; Ouzounidou, Georgia; Panajiotidis, Sampson; Therios, Ioannis; Moustakas, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Olive mill-wastewater (OMW), a by-product of the olive oil extraction process, represents a significant environmental problem in Mediterranean areas. We studied the impact of OMW dilutions (1:10 and 1:20) on growth, photosynthesis, proline and sugar accumulation as well as on pollen morphology of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants, to evaluate the application of OMW dilutions as pretreatment technique, prior to land disposal. Biomass, height, total chlorophyll and leaf area of spinach declined progressively with decreasing OMW dilution. Since fatty acids and phenolic compounds (present in the OMW) are considered precursors in the polymerization of sporopollenin, we suggest that under OMW treatment spinach plants seem to 'direct' the excess of these substances in the production and formation of increased pollen grains. Proline did not accumulate under OMW stress, but decreased possible due to transport to pollens in response to increased demand to over-production of pollens. Both OMW dilutions resulted in a decreased efficiency of PSII functioning and an increased excitation pressure (1-q(p)). It is concluded that, higher than 1:20 OMW dilutions should be used, and/or additional treatment should be applied before use of the OMW in the environment. PMID:22455663

  13. Olive mill wastewater treatment using a simple zeolite-based low-cost method.

    PubMed

    Aly, Anwar A; Hasan, Yousef N Y; Al-Farraj, Abdullah S

    2014-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW), a liquid by-product of the olive oil industry, represents a severe environmental problem owing to its high pollution load. In this study, successive columns containing different types of natural materials were investigated for their OMW treatment efficiency. Passing OMW through three columns of gravel, fine sand, and a mixture of acidified cotton and zeolite (weight:weight ratio of cotton:clinoptilolite of 2:1), followed by treatment with activated charcoal (AC) and lime, was the best treatment in terms of the quality of water obtained. This treatment decreased concentrations of [Formula: see text] , B, K, P, and total fat in OMW by mean percentages of 78.0, 92.4, 66.6, 48.3, and 93.3%, respectively. Furthermore, it decreased OMW turbidity and electric conductivity (EC) by 96.8 and 48.4%, respectively. Most contaminants were removed from the OMW in the cotton/clinoptilolite column owing to the high sorption affinity of clinoptilolite on its active sites. The AC was efficient for organic particle removal; meanwhile, lime was used to raise the pH of the treated OMW (TOMW) from 2.9 to 5.1. This simple method enables us to obtain environmentally friendly TOMW that can be safely used for irrigation. PMID:25113228

  14. Impacts of operating conditions on reverse osmosis performance of pretreated olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Hodaifa, G; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2012-10-01

    Management of the effluent from the olive oil industry is of capital importance nowadays, especially in the Mediterranean countries. Most of the scarce existing studies concerning olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment by means of membrane processes not only do fix their aims simply on achieving irrigation standards, but lack suitable pretreatments against deleterious fouling issues. With the target of achieving the parametric requirements for public waterways discharge or even for reuse in the production process, a bench-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of a thin-film composite reverse osmosis (RO) membrane (polyamide/polysulfone) for the purification of OMW. Previously, OMW was pretreated by means of chemical oxidation based on Fenton's reagent, flocculation-sedimentation and biosorption through olive stones. Impacts of the main operating parameters on permeate flux and pollutants rejection of the RO process, as well as fouling on the membrane surface, were examined for removing the significant ionic concentration and remaining organic matter load of the pretreated OMW. Combining operating parameters adequately in a semibatch operating regime ensured high and sustainable permeate flux, yielding over 99.4% and 98.5% removal efficiencies for the chemical oxygen demand and ionic content respectively, as well as complete rejection of phenols, iron and suspended solids. PMID:22771149

  15. Olive oil mill wastewater purification by combination of coagulation- flocculation and biological treatments.

    PubMed

    Jaouani, A; Vanthournhout, M; Penninckx, M J

    2005-06-01

    In order to define an efficient pre-treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) to overcome major obstacles to biological treatment, various organic and mineral coagulants have been tested. In particular, the application of quicklime until a pH around 12 - 12.4 was reached, allowed the reduction of almost 37% of the initial COD, and approximately 88% and 71% of the colour and phenolic content of the waste. Hence, further biological treatments with an adapted aerobic consortium (AC) and a white rot fungus (WRF) strain were improved. The WRF Coriolopsis polyzona was more efficient than AC to reduce colour and polyphenols when the waste was prior diluted or pre-treated; however, it was less effective in COD removal. The combined treatment: lime - AC of OOMW having initial COD of 102 g l(-1) led to the elimination of about 77, 91 and 63%, of the COD, phenols and colour, respectively. Interestingly, the opposite combination AC - lime permitted better COD, phenols and colour reduction to respectively, 21, 11 and 11% of the initial values. This latter condition is technically recommended since only one step separation was needed and no pH correction was necessary before undergoing aerobic treatment. Moreover, the process would produce a sludge potentially rich in organic matter, and consequently, useful as an agricultural amendment or/and as an additive in animal nutrition. PMID:16035656

  16. Sugar and volatile fatty acids dynamic during anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, L R; Gomes, A C; Lopes, A; Albuquerque, A; Simões, R M

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production has been the main route used to exploit olive mill wastewater (OMW), after pretreatment and/or in combination with other effluents, but more recently the production of chemicals and biopolymers by biotechnological routes has deserved increasing attention by the scientific community. The present paper aims to explore the potential of fresh OMW as a source of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas. The time profile of VFAs production and the corresponding sugar consumption was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, in batch anaerobic assays. The experimental results have revealed the very high potential of the OMW for the production of VFAs, mainly due to the high sugar concentration in the effluent (37.8 g/L) and its complete conversion into VFAs, in a time period of 2-3 days. The most abundant VFAs were acetic (48-50%), n-butanoic (12-27%), iso-pentanoic (12-14%) and propanoic (5-13%). The ratio of VFA containing even and odd carbon chains increased with the reduction in the initial chemical oxygen demand concentration of the samples used in the experiments. The conversion of the VFAs to biogas was inhibited at concentrations of 3.5 g/L of VFAs. PMID:26496487

  17. Effects of olive mill wastewater on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Tsiknia, Myrto; Tzanakakis, Vasileios A; Oikonomidis, Dimitris; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the cycling of C and N following application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at various rates (0, 42, 84, and 168 m(3)/ha). OMW stimulated respiration rate throughout the study period, but an increase in soil organic matter was observed only at the highest rate. Soil phenol content decreased rapidly within 2 weeks following application but neither phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity nor laccase gene copies could explain this response. Soil NH4 (+)-N content increased in response to OMW application rate, while an opposite trend observed for NO3 (-)-N, which attributed to immobilization. This decrease was in accordance with amoA gene copies of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers in the first days following OMW application. Afterwards, although amoA gene copies and potential nitrification rates recovered to values similar to or higher than those in the non-treated soils, NO3 (-)-N content did not change among the treatments. A corresponding increase in denitrifying gene copies (nirK, nirS, nosZ) during that period indicates that denitrification, stimulated by OMW application rate, was responsible for this effect; a hypothesis consistent with the decrease in total Kjeldahl nitrogen content late in the season. The findings suggest that land application of OMW is a promising practice for OMW management, even at rates approaching the soil water holding capacity. PMID:24092011

  18. Assesing the effect of an olive mill wastewater evaporation pond in Sousse, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S'habou, Rakia; Zairi, Moncef; Kallel, Amjed; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2009-08-01

    Olive oil is a typical and valuable agro-industrial product in Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia, olive mill wastewaters (OMW) reach an amount of about 1,000,000 t year-1 and constitute a serious organic pollution risk because of the high chemical oxygen demand values and the presence of phytotoxic and antibacterial polyphenols. OMW have been generally stored in pond sites to be eliminated by natural evaporation or valorised by spreading on cultivated soils or by composting. Many researches on the interactions of OMW with soils at laboratory scale (columns) have been reported, but less attention have been paid to the effect of OMW on soils at field scale. The aim of this work is to investigate an area used for >15 years as an uncontrolled OMW pond site. The transformations of soil properties and groundwater occurring during OMW storage were characterised by the pH, phenolic contents, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content and organic contents. The soil samples were taken from two borings and compared to those of a control one located near the pond site. Groundwater samples were taken on the accessible and nearest water wells to the evaporation ponds. The permeable silty and sandy layers in the site support the infiltration of OMW near the evaporation ponds. This infiltration has reached a depth of 6 m at a distance of almost 50 m laterally. The results show that the OMW infiltration in the subsoil has affected the pH, EC, organic content, phenolic compounds and the moisture.

  19. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. PMID:25916917

  20. Microencapsulation by Membrane Emulsification of Biophenols Recovered from Olive Mill Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, Emma; Poerio, Teresa; Bazzarelli, Fabio; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-01-01

    Biophenols are highly prized for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs) are rich in biophenols. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the recovery and valorization of these compounds. Applications for the encapsulation have increased in the food industry as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, among others. Advancements in micro-fabrication methods are needed to design new functional particles with target properties in terms of size, size distribution, and functional activity. This paper describes the use of the membrane emulsification method for the fine-tuning of microparticle production with biofunctional activity. In particular, in this pioneering work, membrane emulsification has been used as an advanced method for biophenols encapsulation. Catechol has been used as a biophenol model, while a biophenols mixture recovered from OMWWs were used as a real matrix. Water-in-oil emulsions with droplet sizes approximately 2.3 times the membrane pore diameter, a distribution span of 0.33, and high encapsulation efficiency (98% ± 1% and 92% ± 3%, for catechol and biophenols, respectively) were produced. The release of biophenols was also investigated. PMID:27171115

  1. Structural Characterization and Biological Activities of Polysaccharides from Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nadour, Malika; Laroche, Celine; Pierre, Guillaume; Delattre, Cedric; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Michaud, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW), the main waste product of olive oil extraction process, was investigated as a source of polysaccharides. The yield of alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) was 20.5 % based on the dry matter of OMWW. Extraction with water gave water soluble (WSF) and insoluble (WIF) fractions from AIR with yields of 13.3 % (w/w) and 3.7 % (w/w) based on the dry matter, respectively. Chemical composition and monosaccharide analysis indicated that glucose was the main monosaccharide of these extracts in addition to galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid. Prebiotic and antioxidant activities of polysaccharidic fractions from OMWW were evaluated. Results gave evidence for their scavenging capacity toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) (IC50 value of 89.43 μg/mL) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50 value of 158.70 μg/mL), resistance toward artificial human gastric juice, and ability to be fermented by Lactobacilli strains. PMID:26189104

  2. Microbial community structure associated with the high loading anaerobic codigestion of olive mill and abattoir wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, Hana; Omri, Ilhem; Chouari, Rakia; Khelifi, Eltaief; Keskes, Sajiaa; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-02-01

    The effect of increasing the organic loading rates (OLRs) on the performance of the anaerobic codigestion of olive mill (OMW) and abattoir wastewaters (AW) was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The structure of the microbial community was also monitored. Increasing OLR to 9g of chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) affected significantly the biogas yield and microbial diversity at 35°C. However, at 55°C digester remained stable until OLR of 12g of CODL(-1)d(-1) with higher COD removal (80%) and biogas yield (0.52Lg(-1) COD removed). Significant differences in the bacterial communities were detected between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The dominant phyla detected in the digester at both phases were the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes and Spirochaete. However, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and the candidate division BRC1 were only detected at thermophilic conditions. The Methanobacteriales and the Thermoplasmales were found as a high predominant archaeal member in the anaerobic sludge. PMID:26687494

  3. Pilot-scale treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by physicochemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, M Yalili; Yonar, T; Kestioğlu, K

    2013-01-01

    The pilot-scale treatability of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) by physicochemical methods, ultrafiltration and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. Physicochemical methods (acid cracking, oil separation and coagulation-flocculation) showed high efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85%), oil and grease (O&G) (> 97%), suspended solids (SS) (> 99%) and phenol (92%) removal from the OOMW. Ultrafiltration followed by physicochemical methods is effective in reducing the SS, O&G. The final permeate quality is found to be excellent with over 90% improvements in the COD and phenol parameters. AOPs (ozonation at a high pH, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, and O3/H2O2/UV) increased the removal efficiency and the O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs studied in this paper was found to give the best results (> 99% removal for COD, > 99% removal for phenol and > 99% removal for total organic carbon). Pilot-scale treatment plant has been continuously operated on site for three years (3 months olive oil production campaign period of each year). The capital and operating costs of the applied treatment alternatives were also determined at the end of these seasons. The results obtained in this study have been patented for 7 years by the Turkish Patent Institute. PMID:24191487

  4. Reuse of microbially treated olive mill wastewater as fertiliser for wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    PubMed

    Fausto Cereti, Carlo; Rossini, Francesco; Federici, Federico; Quaratino, Daniele; Vassilev, Nikolay; Fenice, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    Free cells of Aspergillus niger were grown on olive mill wastewater (OMW) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) in an air-lift bioreactor in batch and repeated-batch processes. The fungus grew well and reduced the chemical oxygen demand of the waste by 35% and 64% in the batch and repeated-batch (fourth batch) processes, respectively. Total sugar content was consistently reduced (ca. 60%) in both processes while reduction of total phenols was minimal. RP was solubilised and maximum soluble P was 0.63 and 0.75 gl(-1) in the batch and repeated-batch (third batch), respectively. Several types of OMW+/-RP, microbially-treated or not, were tested in a greenhouse for their fertilising ability on a soil-wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) model system. Beneficial effects were highest using OMW treated by the repeated-batch process. The treated plants showed an increase in seed biomass, spike number, and kernel weight. Harvest index was highest (0.49+/-0.04) after treatment with OMW from the repeated-batch process. PMID:14592741

  5. Combined treatment of olive mill wastewater by Fenton's reagent and anaerobic biological process.

    PubMed

    Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; García, Juan; Dominguez, Joaquín R; De Heredia, J Beltrán; Peres, José A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the application of Fenton's reagent process combined with anaerobic digestion to treat an olive mill wastewater (OMW). Firstly, OMW was pre-treated by chemical oxidation in a batch reactor with Fenton's reagent, using a fixed H2O2/COD ratio of 0.20, pH = 3.5 and a H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15:1. This advanced oxidation treatment allowed reaching reductions of 17.6 and 82.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total polyphenols (TP), respectively. Secondly, OMW treatment by anaerobic digestion was performed using previously adapted microorganisms immobilized in Sepiolite. These biological tests were carried out varying the substrate concentration supplied to the reactor and COD conversions from 52 to 74% were obtained. Afterwards, Fenton's reagent followed by anaerobic digestion was applied to OMW treatment. This combined process presented a significant improvement on organic load removal, reaching COD degradations from 64 to 88%. Beyond the pollutant load removal, it was also monitored the yield of methane generated throughout anaerobic experiments. The methane produced ranged from 281 cm(3) to 322 cm(3) of CH4/g COD removed. Additionally, a methane generation kinetic study was performed using the Monod Model. The application of this model allowed observing a kinetic constant increase of the combined process (kFN = 0.036 h(-1)) when compared to the single anaerobic process (kF = 0.017 h(-1)). PMID:25560262

  6. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  7. Study on preparation of water hyacinth-based activated carbon for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Boonpoke, Anusorn

    2015-09-01

    Mulberry pulp and paper mills produce high chemical- and organic matter containing waste water in Thailand. Many of the mills are not equipped with wastewater treatment unit; their untreated effluent is directly discharged into recipient water resources. The effluent constituents are well recognized as acute and chronic pollutants that are hazardous to the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the utilization of an activated carbon from a low-cost material and to examine its adsorption performance using batch and fixed-bed adsorption. Water hyacinth was used as a raw material for activated carbon production via a chemical activation method. The results showed that water hyacinth-based activated carbon (WHAC) provided a high surface area of 912-1,066 m2g(-1) and exhibited micropore structure. Based on the Freundlich fit, the maximum adsorption capacity of COD and color was 4.52 mgg(-1) and 13.57 Pt-Cog(-1), respectively. The fixed bed adsorption provided maximum removal efficiency of 91.70 and 92.62% for COD and color, respectively. A continuous adsorption data agreed well with the Thomas kinetic model. In summary, water hyacinth can be used as a low-cost material for activated carbon production with high removal efficiency of COD and color for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. PMID:26521558

  8. Pollution prevention for the kraft pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The document is an annotated bibliography of publications related to pollution prevention in the Kraft segment of the pulp and paper industry. It is organized by process area as follows: chip preparation, chemical pulping, pulp washing, bleaching, chemical recovery, recausticizing, power generation, wastewater treatment, papermaking, and general plant. The document contains 269 citations.

  9. Agronomic application of olive mill wastewater: Effects on maize production and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Belaqziz, Majdouline; El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Lakhal, El Khadir; Agrafioti, Evita; Galanakis, Charis M

    2016-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of direct amendment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the fertility of soil, described as poor in the area of Marrakech (semi-arid region) in Morocco. The treated plots were amended with untreated OMW generated by a traditional extraction process at the amount of 10 L/m(2)/year during two consecutive years. Results of these two years treatments with crude OMW at relatively high dose reveal an important increase in soil physicochemical characteristics, namely electric conductivity (EC), Na(+,) K(+), phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter and soluble phenolic compounds. EC of treated soil was enhanced from 0.34 to 2.91 mS/cm as compared to the control soil. After spreading OMW in soil, the amounts of its nutritive elements increased by 81% for nitrogen, 66% for phosphorus and 88% for potassium. The accumulation of phenolic compounds and the increase of total peroxidase activity in plants provide evidence of their protective role against the physiological stress induced by OMW. However, this enrichment in mineral and nutritive elements decreased three months after OMW application, revealing OMW biodegradation in the studied calcareous soil. In parallel, an increase in the contents of the soluble phenolic compounds on the upper layer of soil was denoted and maize plants growth was efficiently raised. Significant amelioration was obtained notably in terms of fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaves area, spikes fresh and dry weight, 100 seeds weight and straw yield (37, 54, 27, 24, 14 and 9% respectively). Along with the correct choice of convenient soils notably calcareous ones and tolerant crops such as maize, this method could constitute an efficient approach for avoiding problems attributed to the uncontrolled disposal of these effluents and an effective strategy to regenerate degraded soils and represents an economical alternative that provides a local fertilizer. PMID:26899012

  10. Sorption interactions of organic compounds with soils affected by agricultural olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2015-11-01

    The organic compound-soil interactions may be strongly influenced by changes in soil organic matter (OM) which affects the environmental fate of multiple organic pollutants. The soil OM changes may be caused by land disposal of various OM-containing wastes. One unique type of OM-rich waste is olive mill-related wastewater (OMW) characterized by high levels of OM, the presence of fatty aliphatics and polyphenolic aromatics. The systematic data on effects of the land-applied OMW on organic compound-soil interactions is lacking. Therefore, aqueous sorption of simazine and diuron, two herbicides, was examined in batch experiments onto three soils, including untreated and OMW-affected samples. Typically, the organic compound-soil interactions increased following the prior land application of OMW. This increase is associated with the changes in sorption mechanisms and cannot be attributed solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content. A novel observation is that the OMW application changes the soil-sorbent matrix in such a way that the solute uptake may become cooperative or the existing ability of a soil sorbent to cooperatively sorb organic molecules from water may become characterized by a larger affinity. The remarkable finding of this study was that in some cases a cooperative uptake of organic molecules by soils makes itself evident in distinct sigmoidal sorption isotherms rarely observed in soil sorption of non-ionized organic compounds; the cooperative herbicide-soil interactions may be characterized by the Hill model coefficients. However, no single trend was found for the effect of applied OMW on the mechanisms of organic compound-soil interactions. PMID:26183941

  11. Effect of combined physico-chemical processes on the phytotoxicity of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Roberto; Canterino, Marisa; Di Somma, Ilaria; Lo Giudice, Roberto; Marotta, Raffaele; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino

    2008-03-01

    A pool of laboratory experiments is planned with the aim of evaluating the possibility to reduce the phytotoxicity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with combined physico-chemical processes (centrifugation-ozonation, centrifugation-solar photolysis, centrifugation-solar modified photoFenton, centrifugation-solar modified photoFenton-ozonation). A moderate COD removal of an OMW is reached by using ozonation or solar modified photoFenton separately or solar modified photoFenton/O(3) combined process even for prolonged treatment times. The O(3)-treated OMWs are still toxic towards algal growth (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and only for dilutions equal to or higher than 1:160 a stimulation of algal growth is observed. The sole ozonation does not reduce significantly the phytotoxicity of tested OMW measured through the GI calculation of Raphanus sativus L., Cucumis sativus L. and Lactuca sativa L. A marked reduction of OMW inhibition, higher than 50%, is evidenced for 1:8 dilution OMW samples ozonated for 2h. The long-term storage of OMW associated with solar irradiation without or with Fe(III) ions under continuous aeration is less efficient than ozonation, and the combined action of the two former treatments does not significantly contribute to enhance both COD removal and germination index. Better results are obtained on seed germination and root elongation of plantlets of the three selected species, which germinated on OMW-free solidified medium and were then transferred on a solidified culture medium containing O(3)-treated OMW diluted 1:2 and 1:4. The operating costs are estimated for the solar modified photoFenton-ozonation process. PMID:18006039

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis from paper mill wastewater treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Jarpa, Mayra; Pozo, Guillermo; Baeza, Rocío; Martínez, Miguel; Vidal, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis in paper mill wastewater treated by a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was evaluated. A MBBR was operated during 300 d. The increasing effect of the Organic Load Rate (OLR) from 0.13 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d to 2.99 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d and the influence of two relationship of BOD(5:) N: P (100: 5: 1 and 100: 1: 0.3) on the PHA biosynthesis were evaluated. With an OLR of 0.13 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d, the maximum organic matter removal measure as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD(5)) was 98.7% for a BOD(5:) N: P relationship of 100: 5: 1. Meanwhile for BOD(5): N: P relationship of 100: 1: 0.3, the maximum efficiency was 87.2% (OLR: 2.99 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d). The behaviour of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and total phenolic compound removal efficiencies were below 65.0% and 41.0%, respectively. PHA biosynthesis was measured as a percentage of cells that accumulate PHA, where the maximum percentage was 85.1% and 78.7% when MBBR was operated under a BOD(5): N: P relationship of 100: 5: 1 and 100: 1: 0.3, respectively. Finally, the PHA yields in this study were estimated to range between 0.11 to 0.72 mg PHA/mg VSS and 0.06 to 0.15 mg PHA/mg COD. PMID:22871002

  13. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment. PMID:22766882

  14. Assessment of Coriolopsis gallica-treated olive mill wastewater phytotoxicity on tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Daâssi, Dalel; Sellami, Sahar; Frikha, Fakher; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) after being treated by the white-rot fungus Coriolopsis gallica. For this, the effect of irrigation with treated OMW (TOMW) and untreated OMW (UOMW) on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 3 weeks was studied. The control plants were irrigated with distilled water. Agronomic tests were performed in pot experiments in a greenhouse using the randomized complete block (RCB) experimental design. The relative leaf height (RLH), as a morphological parameter, and the content of total phenols in the roots and total chlorophyll [Cha + Chb] and reducing sugars in the leaves, as physiological parameters, were selected as responses of the experimental design. The results obtained showed that [Cha + Chb] in the leaves of tomato growth under TOMW was enhanced by 36.3 and 19.4 % compared to the plant growth under UOMW and to the controls, respectively. Also, reducing sugar concentrations were closed to those of the control plants, ranging from 0.424 to 0.678 g/L for the different dilutions tested. However, the plants irrigated with UOMW showed lower reducing sugar concentrations ranging from 0.042 to 0.297g/L. The optimum RLH (0.537) was observed in the plants irrigated with TOMW diluted at (1:4), this value being higher than that observed in the controls (0.438). Our study proved that the irrigation with TOMW significantly improved tomato growth and photosynthesis activity over those irrigated with UOMW. Optimization of TOMW as a fertilizer was obtained for a dilution of 1:4. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that OMW treated by C. gallica holds potential to be used as a fertilizer for tomato plants. Graphical Abstract ᅟ Please provide a caption for the graphical abstract.The graphical abstract is improved and sent as attachment Please replace it. PMID:27113734

  15. Dephenolization and detoxification of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) by purified biotic and abiotic oxidative catalysts.

    PubMed

    Iamarino, G; Rao, M A; Gianfreda, L

    2009-01-01

    The capability of two oxidative catalysts, a laccase from Rhus vernicifera and birnessite, a manganese oxide, in the dephenolization and detoxification of two olive-mill wastewater (OMW) samples, C1 and C2, differing for complexity and composition, was evaluated. OMW phenolic extracts (EC1 and EC2) and mono-substrate solutions of phenols mostly present in OMW samples were also tested. Birnessite was more effective than laccase in removing the phenolic content from mono-substrate solutions (more than 70% of each initial phenolic concentration) and of either OMW samples or EC1 and EC2 extracts. For instance, 60% of the total phenolic content of EC1 was removed after 48-h treatment with 5 mg mL(-1) birnessite and the efficiency was lower as greater was the complexity of the OMW sample (only 17% removal from EC2 over the same time span). Phytotoxicity tests with Lepidium sativum and Lycopersicon esculentum seeds and antibacterial toxicity tests with Bacillus megaterium were performed on crude OMW samples and their extract and exhausted fractions before and after the catalytic treatment. Results demonstrated that (a) monomeric phenols were certainly but not exclusively responsible of OMW phytotoxicity, whereas their removal led to a quite complete elimination of the toxicity toward bacterial growth; (b) other components not removable by the oxidative catalysts very likely contribute to OMW phytotoxicity; and (c) the choice of the vegetal species to use in toxicity tests might be crucial for correct and easily interpretable results. Overall the results provided useful information on the possible use of oxidative catalysts for the efficient treatment of complex aqueous wastes such as those deriving from olive industry. PMID:18990422

  16. Exploitation of olive mill wastewater and liquid cow manure for biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Dareioti, Margarita A.; Dokianakis, Spyros N.; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Zafiri, Constantina; Kornaros, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Co-digestion of organic waste streams is an innovative technology for the reduction of methane/greenhouse gas emissions. Different organic substrates are combined to generate a homogeneous mixture as input to the anaerobic reactor in order to increase process performance, realize a more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. In this study, the potential of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of a mixture containing olive mill wastewater (OMW) and liquid cow manure (LCM) using a two-stage process has been evaluated by using two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) under mesophilic conditions (35 {sup o}C) in order to separately monitor and control the processes of acidogenesis and methanogenesis. The overall process was studied with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 19 days. The digester was continuously fed with an influent composed (v/v) of 20% OMW and 80% LCM. The average removal of dissolved and total COD was 63.2% and 50%, respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal was 34.2% for the examined mixture of feedstocks operating the system at an overall OLR of 3.63 g CODL{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1}. Methane production rate at the steady state reached 0.91 L CH{sub 4}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}d{sup -1} or 250.9 L CH{sub 4} at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP) per kg COD fed to the system.

  17. Polymer incompatibility as a potential tool for polyphenol recovery from olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Fuad; Kunz, Benno; Weissbrodt, Jenny

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were designed and preformed in consideration of polymer type (proteins, i.e. caseinate and ovalbumin, and polysaccharides, i.e. alginate and methylcellulose), charge character and polysaccharide concentrations, intended to understand how the polymer properties determine both phase separation and polyphenol partitioning from olive mill wastewater (OMW). The highest yield of polyphenols (YBP=92.9%) was achieved in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) using an ovalbumin-methylcellulose system (OMCS) in comparison to ATPS with caseinate-alginate system (CAS; YBP=85.8%) or caseinate methylcellulose system (CMCS; YBP=74%). The performance of CMCS for the ATPS partitioning of polyphenols in OMW was found to depend on the addition of salt (sodium chloride). The use of centrifugation as assistive technology appears to be necessary for the polyphenol partitioning in ATPS using OMCS. In contrast to these polymer systems, CAS caused a rapid ATPS without resorting to centrifugation and salt, mainly because of strong electrostatic repulsion between alginate and caseinate. In this regard, CAS in phase-separated OMW obtained a partition coefficient of protein (KP1) of 0.04, a tie-line length (TLL) of 10.47% (w/w) and a phase volume ratio (VR) of 0.7. Thus, ATPS based on CAS represent an efficient and environmentally friendly concept in recovery of polyphenols from OMW. The spray drying of the caseinate-polyphenol-rich phase from CAS could become a dry intermediate product with potential use in the food and non-food industry. PMID:24629933

  18. Biosynthesis of single-cell biomass from olive mill wastewater by newly isolated yeasts.

    PubMed

    Arous, Fatma; Azabou, Samia; Jaouani, Atef; Zouari-Mechichi, Hela; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of newly isolated yeast strains Schwanniomyces etchellsii M2 and Candida pararugosa BM24 to produce yeast biomass on olive mill wastewater (OMW). Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 75 % (v/v) OMW, after 96 h of incubation at 30 °C and 5 % (v/v) inoculum size. The optimal carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio was in the range of 8:1 to10:1, and ammonium chloride was selected as the most suitable nitrogen source. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass production of 15.11 and 21.68 g L(-1) was achieved for Schwanniomyces etchellsii M2 and Candida pararugosa BM24, respectively. Proteins were the major constituents of yeast cells (35.9-39.4 % dry weight), lipids were 2.8-5 % dry weight, and ash ranged from 4.8 to 9.5 % dry weight. Besides biomass production, yeast strains were also able to reduce toxicity and polluting parameter levels of the spent OMW-based medium. The practical results presented show that pH rose from initial value of 5.5 to 7.24-7.45 after fermentation. Approximately 23.1-41.4 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 15.4-19.2 % of the phenolic compounds were removed. The removal of phenolic compounds was associated with their biodegradation and their partial adsorption on yeast cells. PMID:26662789

  19. Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment. PMID:25723133

  20. Comparison of natural (olive mill wastewater) and synthetic surfactant for soil water repellency mitigation in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Pagorogon, Lorvi; Gazani, Eleutheria; Gkiougkis, Ioannis; Pliakas, Fotios

    2010-05-01

    This study explores, for the first time, the potential effectiveness of olive mill wastewater (OMW) as an alternative to industrial surfactants in decreasing soil water repellency. The OMW was characterized by high concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, mainly butyric, propionic and acetic, which contributed approximately to 1/3 of the organic load. It was applied diluted (1:1 with freshwater) in an agricultural field in NE Greece affected by water repellency, at a rate of ~ 4.3 L/m2. For comparison, a commercial soil surfactant was used according to the instructions of the manufacturer (0.8 mL/m2). The use of commercial surfactant was very efficient in decreasing water repellency immediately after application. The number of wettable samples (WDPT < 5 s) increased to ~ 50% (compared to 13% for the control soil) seven (7) days after treatment application. Diluted olive mill wastewater (50%) did not show any improvement in soil wettability immediately after application, but gradually was comparable effective to the surfactant treatment. The number of wettable samples showed a continuous increase from 13 to 25 and 54% after 7, 22 and 37 days from OMW application. In conclusion, OMW was found to be effective in decreasing soil water repellency. This suggests the potential of OMW as a natural surfactant. Its longer-term effects, however, have yet to be established. It is demonstrated that the short-chain fatty acids present in OMW play a critical role towards its surface-active properties. Keywords: Olive mill wastewater; short-chain fatty acids; biosurfactant; natural surfactant; water repellency mitigation.

  1. Use of Pichia fermentans and Candida sp. strains for the biological treatment of stored olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taccari, Manuela; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-12-01

    Of 105 isolates screened for growth on plates containing olive mill wastewater (OMW), five were selected and identified as Pichia fermentans (Y1, Y4) and Candida sp. (Y2, Y11, and Y18). On the basis of their ability to use phenol at 716 mg l(-1), strains Y2 (15% reduction) and Y4 (18% reduction) were then used to detoxify stored OMW under various operational conditions. Yeast treatment of OMW increased the pH and, in the best conditions (aeration and no glucose addition), the COD decreased (47%) and phytotoxicity was also decreased (56%) probably due to the changes in the composition of phenolic compounds. PMID:21785989

  2. Odor control in evaporation ponds treating olive mill wastewater through the use of Ca(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Lagoudianaki, E; Manios, T; Geniatakis, M; Frantzeskaki, N; Manios, V

    2003-01-01

    Different amounts of Ca(OH)2 were added in 2 L beakers containing 1 L of olive mill wastewater (OMW). The mixture was stirred for 45 min and left to settle. Wastewater analysis was used in order to determine the effect of the different amounts of calcium hydroxide in the treating process, three days after the application. The Odor Detection Threshold was used for determining the effect of the treatment in the odors produced in the beakers, three and 30 days after. Both sets of measurements indicated an important reduction in wastewater pollutants and odor emission when 10 g/L of Ca(OH)2 were added. In order to evaluate these results in more realistic conditions. 10 L plastic containers were filled with 6 L of OMW, relevant amounts of Ca(OH)2 were added, the mixture was stirred manually and left to settle in the open. Again, 10 g/L of calcium hydroxide produced the best results in odor reduction and wastewater treatment. PMID:14533921

  3. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. PMID:26311084

  4. Recovery of antioxidants from olive mill wastewaters: a viable solution that promotes their overall sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Politi, Maria; Foteinis, Spyros; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2013-10-15

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are rich in water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that show remarkable antioxidant properties. In this work, the recovery yield of compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, as well as total phenols (TPh) from real OMW was investigated. Antioxidants were recovered by means of liquid-liquid solvent extraction. For this purpose, a laboratory-scale pilot unit was established and the effect of various organic solvents, namely ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and a mixture of chloroform/isopropyl alcohol, on process efficiency was investigated. It was found that the performance of the three extraction systems decreased in the order: ethyl acetate > chloroform/isopropanol > diethyl ether, in terms of their antioxidant recovery yield. It was estimated that treatment of 1 m(3) OMW with ethyl acetate could provide 0.247 kg hydroxytyrosol, 0.062 kg tyrosol and 3.44 kg of TPh. Furthermore, the environmental footprint of the whole liquid-liquid extraction system was estimated by means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to provide the best available and most sustainable extraction technique. From an environmental perspective, it was found that ethyl acetate and diethyl ether had similar environmental impacts. Specifically, for the production of 1 g hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol or TPh, 13.3, 53.1 or 0.949 kg CO2 equivalent would be released to the atmosphere, respectively. On the other hand, the chloroform/isopropyl alcohol mixture had detrimental effects onto ecosystems, human health and fossil fuels resources. In total, ethyl acetate yields low environmental impacts and high antioxidant recovery yield and thus it can be considered as the best solution, both from the environmental and technical point of view. Three alternative scenarios to improve the recovery performance and boost the sustainability of the ethyl acetate extraction system were also investigated and their total environmental impacts were estimated. It was found that

  5. Efficacy of olive mill wastewater for protecting Bacillus thuringiensis formulation from UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Wafa; Sellami, Sameh; Sellami, Maissa; Tounsi, Slim

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of 10 low-cost UV-absorbers in protecting Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki BLB1 toxins against inactivation by UV-A and UV-B irradiation was evaluated in this study. Among them, two by-products, molasses and olive mill wastewater (OMW) were selected for further studies. They were tested at different concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% using the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a common UV protectant. Interestingly, addition of PABA and OMW to BLB1 formulations was found to be most effective in protecting BLB1 spores at 90.8 and 76.4% respectively and in preserving delta-endotoxin concentration at a level of 81.7 and 72.2%, respectively when used at a concentration of 0.2%. The lowest preserved spores (46.3%) and delta-endotoxin level (12.4%) was found using molasses. In contrast, spore count and delta-endotoxin concentration were completely reduced after an exposure of unprotected Bt strain BLB1 to UV radiations up to 96h. SDS-PAGE analysis of protected and unprotected samples revealed that delta-endotoxin bands (130, 65-70kDa) were conserved until 96h of UV exposure in presence of PABA or OMW compared with their disappearance in presence of molasses after 72h of exposure and their dramatically decline from 8h of exposure in unprotected mixture. A complete loss of larvicidal toxicity against Ephestia kuehniella was found after 24h of exposure in absence of any UV-absorber. Addition of OMW or PABA offered the highest levels of insecticidal activity with 63.2 and 74.7% of residual toxicity, respectively. Whereas, molasses addition, as UV protectant retained only 26.3% of residual activity after 96h of exposure. Therefore, addition of OMW by-product to Bt formulation may be a suitable alternative to others synthetic chemical compounds. OMW may also provided added value, be environmentally friendly and less hazardous, when used at low concentration. PMID:25093915

  6. Syntrophic co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia for degradation of kraft lignin discharged from rayon grade pulp industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2015-07-01

    In order to search the degradability of kraft lignin, the potential bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis (GU193980) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193981) were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and co-culture conditions. Results revealed that mixed culture showed better decolorization efficiency (80%) and reduction of pollution parameters (COD 73% and BOD 62%) than axenic culture. This indicated syntrophic growth of these two bacteria rather than any antagonistic effect. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of kraft lignin has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control, suggesting that decrease in color intensity might be largely attributed to the degradation of lignin by isolated bacteria. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized kraft lignin for environmental safety. All these observations have revealed that the developed bacterial co-culture was capable for the effective degradation and decolorization of lignin containing rayon grade pulp mill wastewater for environmental safety. PMID:26141897

  7. Hemicellulose isolation, characterization, and the production of xylo-oligosaccharides from the wastewater of a viscose fiber mill.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Li, Bin; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui; Wang, Haisong

    2016-05-01

    Viscose fiber mills generate a lot of wastewater enriched with hemicelluloses. The structure of the hemicellulose in the wastewater was characterized and the hemicellulose was isolated to produce xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). It was confirmed that the hemicellulose was mainly 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan with a small amount of glucomannan and xyloglucan. The 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan was completely de-acetylated and linear with a few 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid attached. After purified by the acid precipitation and washing, the hemicellulose was pretreated by dilute acid, and then subjected to xylanase hydrolysis. After the dilute H2SO4 pretreatment at pH 2.6 and 150°C for 30min and the followed xylanase hydrolysis (65IU/g xylan), the total XOS yield was improved from 0.215 to 0.578g/g xylan. The percentage of XOS in the final sugar product was 68.9%. These results demonstrated the potential economical and environmental benefits of the process to utilize the byproducts from viscose fiber mills. PMID:26877018

  8. Ozonation and ultrafiltration for the treatment of olive mill wastewaters: effect of key operating conditions and integration schemes.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Ferreira, Ana M; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    With the objective of reaching suitable techniques for olive mill wastewater treatment, ozonation and ultrafiltration were studied individually and combined. A continuous reactor was run for the treatment of a phenolic mixture mimicking an actual olive mill wastewater (OMW) by ozonation. The effect of the main operating parameters was analysed (pH, liquid flow rate and ozone inlet concentration). The increase of pH and ozone dose improved ozonation efficiency. As expected, the highest residence time led to higher steady-state degradation (35 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement). Even if the rise on ozone inlet gas concentration was able to remove COD in a higher extent, it should be taken into consideration that with the lowest oxidant load (15 g O3/m(3)), the maximum steady-state biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio was reached which would reduce the process costs. These operating conditions (pH 9, 1 mL/min of liquid flow rate and 15 g O3/m(3)) were applied to an actual OMW leading to 80 % of phenolic content abatement and 12 % of COD removal at the steady state. Regarding ultrafiltration, it was concluded that the best total phenolic content (TPh) and COD abatement results (55 and 15 %) are attained for pH 9 and using a transmembrane pressure drop of 1 bar. Among the integration schemes that were tested, ultrafiltration followed by ozonation was able to reach 93 and 20 % of TPh and COD depletion, respectively. Moreover, this sequence led to an effluent with a BOD5/COD ratio of about 0.55 which means that it likely can be posteriorly refined in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. PMID:26013744

  9. Augmentation of biodegradability of olive mill wastewater by electrochemical pre-treatment: effect on phytotoxicity and operating cost.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, F; Belaoufi, A; Mountadar, M; Assobhei, O

    2011-06-15

    In order to exploit the fertilizer value of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW), a novel method has been developed for its treatment. OMW effluents were pre-treated first by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode and then by a biological process using a selected strain of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. The effect of treatments was assessed through COD removal, reduction of total phenols, and decrease of phytotoxicity using durum wheat (Triticum durum) seeds. This sequential treatment scheme was capable of reducing concentration of organics, phenolics and phytotoxicity. The goal of this investigation was achieved, the phytotoxicity was completely removed and the germination index was 106% of OMW after sequential treatment. It can be concluded that the sequential process of OMW treatment might serve for the production of a fertilizer which is able to improve the growth of plants. These results are encouraging in the context of developing a low-budget technology for the effective management of OMW. PMID:21435785

  10. Characterisation of Paenibacillus jamilae strains that produce exopolysaccharide during growth on and detoxification of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Margarita; Quesada, Maria Teresa; Del Aguila, Víctor Guerra; Morillo, José Antonio; Rivadeneyra, Maria Angustias; Ramos-Cormenzana, Alberto; Monteoliva-Sánchez, Mercedes

    2008-09-01

    A total of 10 bacterial strains were isolated from a compost of corn treated with olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and selected by their capacity to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS). Morphological, physiological, biochemical and nutritional tests were used for a phenotypic study. A numerical analysis showed that all strains were 90% similar to each other. A DNA-DNA hybridization assay confirmed that all the strains belonged to Paenibacillus jamilae species. All the characterized strains were able to produce EPS growing on OMW batch cultures. The strain which was able to produce the highest EPS yield was chosen to perform an assay for testing its putative detoxifying activity, and it showed to reduce more than half the toxic capacity of the OMW. The results presented in this study, indicated the possible perspectives for using these bacterial strains to produce EPS and contribute to the bioremediation of the waste waters that are produced in the olive oil elaboration process. PMID:18054485

  11. Paenibacillus jamilae sp. nov., an exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium able to grow in olive-mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, M; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M; Suárez, A; Guerra, V; Lizama, C; Bennasar, A; Ramos-Cormenzana, A

    2001-09-01

    Endospore-forming strains were isolated from corn-compost treated with olive-mill wastewater ('alpechin'). The strains were taxonomically studied and proposed as a novel Paenibacillus species. These organisms (strains B.3T, B.7 and B.9) were particularly distinguishable from other aerobic spore-forming species by their ability to grow optimally in 100% (v/v) olive-mill wastewater at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0 and concomitant production of an interesting exopolysaccharide. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone, the major fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 and the cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 40.7 mol%. Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA with different reference species from the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Aneurinibacillus, Alicyclobacillus, Halobacillus, Virgibacillus, Amphibacillus, Coprobacillus and Gracilibacillus indicated that the isolated strains were highly related to the genus Paenibacillus. Strain B.3T formed an evolutionary lineage distinct from other species within the evolutionary radiation encompassing the genus Paenibacillus. Strain B.3T was a close relative of Paenibacillus polymyxa, but DNA-DNA relatedness data with this species was very low (relative binding ratio < 16%). Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as on the phylogenetic position determined by 16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is concluded that these strains should be designated a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus jamilae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B.3T (= CECT 5266T = DSM 13815T). PMID:11594596

  12. Box-Behnken Design Application to Study Leaching of Pyrolusite from Manganese Mining Residue Using Olive Mill Wastewater as Reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; El Kacemi, K.; El Ass, K.; Kitane, S.; El Bouzidi, S.

    2015-05-01

    The leaching capacity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) for pyrolusite mine tailings (MnO2) was evaluated using the Box-Behnken experimental design of response surface methodology. The selected test parameters include the concentration of sulfuric acid, the OMW dosage chemical oxygen demand (COD), the solid/liquid ratio S/ L, and particle size. It was determined that the MnO2 dissolution increased with an increase in the sulfuric acid concentration and the OMW dosage, and with a decrease in the solid/liquid ratio. The particle size does not have significant influence on the manganese recovery. A quadratic polynomial model has been developed to predict the amount of manganese extraction from pyrolusite for other operating conditions that were not directly tested. The leaching ability was evaluated based on manganese recovery (Mn%) and the removal capability of chemical oxygen demand (COD%). The predicted values for the responses agreed well with experimental values; R 2 (correlation coefficient) values for Mn% and COD% were 0.9602 and 0.9687, respectively. Within the design space, the optimum conditions for the lixiviation of MnO2 in terms of manganese recovery and COD removal were established and include [H2SO4] of 3 mol L-1, OMW in range of 23 g L-1 to 25 g L-1 COD, and pulp density in range of 90 g L-1 to 100 g L-1. Under these conditions, the response values generated by the model are Mn% ˜49% and COD% >40%. These values show good agreement with those obtained in the validation test. This study has demonstrated that it is possible to use the olive mill wastewater as a reductant agent to recover manganese from a pyrolusite mining residue.

  13. Chemical attributes of soil fertilized with cassava mill wastewater and cultivated with sunflower.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Mara Suyane Marques; Rolim, Mário Monteiro; Duarte, Anamaria de Sousa; de Silva, Ênio Farias de França; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Regis; Dantas, Daniel da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m(3) ha(-1)); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers. PMID:25610900

  14. Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Mara Suyane Marques; Monteiro Rolim, Mário; Duarte, Anamaria de Sousa; de Silva, Ênio Farias de França; Maria Regis Pedrosa, Elvira; Dantas, Daniel da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m3 ha−1); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers. PMID:25610900

  15. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status. PMID:24372356

  16. Polyphenolic compounds progress during olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure co-composting, and humic substances building (Southeastern Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Rigane, Hafedh; Chtourou, Mohamed; Ben Mahmoud, Imen; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, olive mill wastes pose a major environmental problem owing to their important production and their high polyphenolic compounds and organic acids concentrations. In this work, the evolution of polyphenolic compounds was studied during co-composting of olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure, based on qualitative (G-50 sephadex) and quantitative (Folin-Ciocalteu), as well as high pressure liquid chromatography analyses. Results showed a significant polyphenolic content decrease of 99% and a noticeable transformation of low to high molecular weight fraction during the compost maturation period. During this step, polyphenols disappearance suggested their assimilation by thermophilic bacteria as a carbon and energy source, and contributed to humic substances synthesis. Polyphenolic compounds, identified initially by high pressure liquid chromatography, disappeared by composting and only traces of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids were detected in the compost. In the soil, the produced compost application improved the chemical and physico-chemical soil properties, mainly fertilising elements such as calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Consequently, a higher potato production was harvested in comparison with manure amendment. PMID:25502693

  17. A focus on pressure-driven membrane technology in olive mill wastewater reclamation: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2012-01-01

    Direct disposal of the heavily polluted effluent from olive oil industry (olive mill wastewater, OMW) to the environment or to domestic wastewater treatment plants is actually prohibited in most countries, and conventional treatments are ineffective. Membranes are currently one of the most versatile technologies for environmental quality control. Notwithstanding, studies on OMW reclamation by membranes are still scarce, and fouling inhibition and prediction to improve large-scale membrane performance still remain unresolved. Consequently, adequately targeted pretreatment for the specific binomium membrane-feed, as well as optimized operating conditions for the proper membranes, is today's challenge to ensure threshold flux values. Several membrane materials, configurations and pore sizes have been elucidated, and also different pretreatments including sedimentation, centrifugation, biosorption, sieving, filtration and microfiltration, various types of flocculation as well as advance oxidation processes have been applied so far. Recovery of potential-value compounds, such as a variety of polyphenols highlighting oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, has been attempted too. All this research should constitute the starting point to proceed with OMW purification beyond recycling for irrigation or depuration for sewer discharge, with the aim of complying with standards to reuse the effluent in the olive oil production process, together with cost-effective recovery of added-value compounds. PMID:23109564

  18. Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Belaid, Chokri; Khadraoui, Moncef; Mseddii, Salma; Kallel, Monem; Elleuch, Boubaker; Fauvarque, Jean Frangois

    2013-01-01

    Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts: (1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes. This investigation deals with these two aspects, an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under platinized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination. The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution. Indeed, 87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation. Moreover, 55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced. On the other hand, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW. It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Grignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW. Among the monitoring analytical tools applied, cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR a re among th e techniques that are introduced for thefirst time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance. PMID:23586318

  19. Effects of olive mill wastewater physico-chemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germinability.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A C; Maucieri, C; Ioppolo, A; Milani, M; Cavallaro, V

    2014-04-01

    Direct spreading on agricultural lands may represent an environmentally friendly disposal method and a possible use of water and nutrients from olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). However, the agronomic use of OMWs is limited, among others by polyphenols, which exert phytotoxic effects. Activated charcoal (AC) has been recognized as a very effective agent for polyphenol abatement, as it enables an irreversible process of phenol adsorption. Addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has also been described as a cheap and effective method in polyphenols abatement. However, the effects of Ca(OH)2 addition to OMW on seed germination are unclear. In this paper, the effects of AC and/or Ca(OH)2 on OMW polyphenols abatement, and Lolium multiflorum seed germination have been investigated. The highest polyphenols removal, approximately 95%, was observed when 80 g L(-1) of AC was added to OMWs (the maximum dose in this investigation). The addition of Ca(OH)2 not only improved the effectiveness of the AC treatment but also resulted in a significant rise in Lolium seed germination at the highest AC doses (60 and 80 g L(-1)). Considering the high salinity (7300 μS cm(-1)) of these wastewaters, low quantities of Ca(OH)2 may also exert a protective effect on soil structure counteracting the sodium-induced dispersion through the binding action of calcium cation on clays and organic matter. PMID:24289894

  20. Treatment of olive-mill wastewater from a two-phase process by chemical oxidation on an industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Nieto, L M; Hodaifa, G; Vives, S R; Casares, J A G; Driss, S B; Grueso, R

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a solution for reducing the environmental effect of wastewaters generated by the olive-oil industry. Olive-oil companies produce variable quantities of wastewaters, which require treatment for disposal or reuse. Today, regulations are becoming increasingly strict regarding the parameters measured in these effluents. In Spain, the resolution by the president of the Hydrographical Confederation of the Guadalquivir on water use 2004 set parameter limits as follows: pH = 6.0-9.0, total suspended solid = 500 mg/L; and COD and BOD(5) (20)=1,500 mg O(2)/L. For the year 2006, maximum values for COD and BOD(5) (20) were fixed at 1,000 mg O(2)/L. To solve this problem, a study has been made to derive irrigation water from the above-mentioned effluents through chemical oxidation based on the Fenton's process. This would be first step towards using a closed-circuit system in olive-oil mills to treat and reuse effluents. PMID:19474497

  1. Toxicity of solid residues resulting from wastewater treatment with nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Verónica; Lopes, Isabel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are widely recommended for wastewater treatments due to their unique properties. Several studies report the different advantages of nanotechnology in the remediation of wastewaters, but limited research has been directed toward the fate and potential impacts of the solid residues (SRs) produced after the application of such technologies. The present work aimed at investigating the ecotoxicity of SRs resulting from the treatment of three effluents (OOMW, kraft pulp mill, and mining drainage) with two NMs (TiO2 and Fe2O3). The invertebrate Chironomus riparius was selected as test organism and exposed to the residues. The effect on percentage of survival and growth was assessed. Results showed that the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(0.5M) and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) from OOMW and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) from kraft pulp mill effluent exhibited lethal toxicity to C. riparius. Only the exposure to SRs resulting from the treatment with nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) applied to the kraft pulp mill effluent significantly affected the growth rate based on the head capsule width. In terms of growth rate, based on the body length, it decreased significantly after exposure to the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2 (1.0gL(-1)) and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) of kraft paper mill effluent and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) of OOMW. According to our study the SRs can promote negative effects on C. riparius. However, the effects are dependent on the type of effluent treated as well as on the organic and inorganic compounds attached to the NMs. PMID:26057932

  2. Involvement of microbial populations during the composting of olive mill wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Abid, N; Chamkha, M; Godon, J J; Sayadi, S

    2007-07-01

    Olive mill waste water sludge obtained by the electro-Fenton oxidation of olive mill waste water was composted in a bench scale reactor. The evolution of microbial species within the composter was investigated using a respirometric test and by means of both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism, PCR SSCP). During the period of high respiration rate (7-24 days), cultivation method showed that thermophilic bacteria as well as actinomycetes dominated over eumycetes. During the composting process, the PCR-SSCP method showed a higher diversity of the bacterial community than the eukaryotic one. After 60 days of composting, the compost exhibited a microbial stability and a clear absence of phytotoxicity. PMID:17674648

  3. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  5. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. PMID:23178773

  6. Olive mill wastewater evaporation management using PCA method Case study of natural degradation in stabilization ponds (Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2010-04-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) evaporation ponds management was investigated in five serial evaporation open-air multiponds of 50 ha located in Sfax (Tunisia). Physico-chemical parameters and microbial flora evolution were considered. Empirical models describing the OMW characteristic changes with the operation time were established and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) described the correlation between physico-chemical and biological parameters. COD, BOD, total solids, polyphenols and electrical conductivity exhibited first-order models. Four groups exhibited high correlations. The first included temperature, density, COD, TSS, TS, BOD, VS, TOC, TKN, polyphenols and minerals. The second group was made up of yeasts and moulds. The third group was established with phenolic compounds, total sugars, fats, total phosphorous, NH(4)(+) and pH. The fourth group was constituted by exclusively aerobic bacteria. Bacterial-growth toxic effect was exhibited by high organic load, ash content and polyphenols, whereas moulds and yeasts were more adapted to OMW. During the storage, all the third group parameter values decreased and were inversely related to the others. In the last pond, COD, BOD, TS and TSS rates were reduced by 40%, 50%, 50% and 75% respectively. The evaporation and the biological activity were the main processes acting, predicting the OMW behavior during evaporation in air-open ponds. PMID:20036054

  7. Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.

    PubMed

    Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2014-02-01

    The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8). PMID:23979847

  8. Roles of Lignin Peroxidase and Manganese Peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the Decolorization of Olive Mill Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, S.; Ellouz, R.

    1995-01-01

    The relative contributions of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) to the decolorization of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated. A relatively low level (25%) of OMW decolorization was found with P. chrysosporium which was grown in a medium with a high Mn(II) concentration and in which a high level of MnP (0.65 (mu)M) was produced. In contrast, a high degree of OMW decolorization (more than 70%) was observed with P. chrysosporium which was grown in a medium with a low Mn(II) concentration but which resulted in a high level of LiP activity (0.3 (mu)M). In this culture medium, increasing the Mn(II) concentration resulted in decreased levels of OMW decolorization and LiP activity. Decolorization by reconstituted cultures of P. chrysosporium was found to be more enhanced by the addition of isolated LiP than by the addition of isolated MnP. The highest OMW decolorization levels were obtained at low initial chemical oxygen demands combined with high levels of extracellular LiP. These data, plus the positive effect of veratryl alcohol on OMW decolorization and LiP activity, indicate that culture conditions which yield high levels of LiP activity lead to high levels of OMW decolorization. PMID:16534959

  9. Integration of traditional systems and advanced oxidation process technologies for the industrial treatment of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Silva, Nuno; Martins, Rui C; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2016-10-01

    A complete industrial treatment system (involving the integration of coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes) to depurate real wastewaters coming from two-phase olive oil production mills has been studied. The experimental results indicated that at the end of this combined strategy, involving a primary physical separation stage followed by Fenton's chemical oxidation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is reduced up to 90% and total polyphenols' concentration is decreased up to 92%. The treated stream biodegradability (BOD5/COD) reached 0.52 and the Total Suspended Solids (TSSs) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDSs) decreased up to 95% and 69%, respectively. Fenton's procedure was optimized bearing in mind the pH adjustment step, different procedures for hydrogen peroxide addition and the use of coagulants instead of the chemical precipitation (by raising pH) to promote iron sludge settling. Our results demonstrated that pH (3.0 ± 0.1) control during the oxidation reaction improves the oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the final NaOH addition is essential to a better sludge formation and consequent precipitation of the residual iron removing also some organic matter. PMID:26878594

  10. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity. PMID:26561741

  11. Biological treatment of two-phase olive mill wastewater (TPOMW, alpeorujo): polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production by Azotobacter strains.

    PubMed

    Cerrone, Federico; Sánchez-Peinado, Maria del Mar; Juárez-Jimenez, Belén; González-López, Jesús; Pozo, Clementina

    2010-03-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum H23 (CECT 4435), Azotobacter vinelandii UWD, and Azotobacter vinelandii (ATCC 12837), members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, were used to evaluate their capacity to grow and accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using two-phase olive mill wastewater (TPOMW, alpeorujo) diluted at different concentrations as the sole carbon source. The PHAs amounts (g/l) increased clearly when the TPOMW samples were previously digested under anaerobic conditions. The MNR analysis demonstrated that the bacterial strains formed only homopolymers containing beta-hydroxybutyrate, either when grown in diluted TPOMW medium or diluted anaerobically digested TPOMW medium. COD values of the diluted anaerobically digested waste were measured before and after the aerobic PHA-storing phase, and a clear reduction (72%) was recorded after 72 h of incubation. The results obtained in this study suggest the perspectives for using these bacterial strains to produce PHAs from TPOMW, and in parallel, contribute efficiently to the bioremediation of this waste. This fact seems essential if bioplastics are to become competitive products. PMID:20372033

  12. Comparative study of olive oil mill wastewater treatment using free and immobilized Coriolopsis polyzona and Pycnoporus coccineus.

    PubMed

    Neifar, Mohamed; Jaouani, Atef; Martínez, María Jesús; Penninckx, Michel J

    2012-10-01

    The efficiency of the two white-rot fungi Pycnoporus coccineus and Coriolopsis polyzona in the Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) treatment was investigated. Both fungi were active in the decolourisation and COD removal of OOMW at 50 g/L COD, but only the first fungus remains effective on the crude effluent (COD=100 g/L). Moreover P. coccineus was less affected by oxygen supplementation and exhibited a high tolerance to agitation in comparison to C. polyzona. However, it required a nitrogen supplementation to obtain faster and higher COD removal. To overcome the negative effect of agitation on fungi growth and efficiency, immobilisation of C. polyzona and P. coccineus in polyurethane foam was applied. The immobilized system showed better COD decreases during three consecutive batches without remarkable loss of performances. The results obtained in this study suggested that immobilized C. polyzona and especially immobilized P. coccineus might be applicable to a large scale for the removal colour and COD of OOMW. PMID:23124741

  13. Dose and frequency dependent effects of olive mill wastewater treatment on the chemical and microbial properties of soil.

    PubMed

    Magdich, Salwa; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Jarboui, Raja; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2013-11-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic by-product of olive oil production. While its high organic load and polyphenol concentrations are associated with troublesome environmental effects, its rich mineral and organic matter contents represent valuable nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the valorization of this waste biomass as a potential soil conditioner and fertilizer in agriculture. OMW was assayed at three doses 50, 100, and 200 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1)) over three successive years in olive fields. The effects of the effluent on the physico-chemical and microbial properties of soil-layers were assessed. The findings revealed that the pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, total nitrogen, sodium, and potassium soil contents increased in proportion with OMW concentration and frequency of application. While no variations were observed in phosphorus content, slow increases were recorded in calcium and magnesium soil contents. Compared to their control soil counterparts, aerobic bacteria and fungi increased in proportion with OMW spreading rates. The models expressing the correlation between progress parameters and OMW doses were fitted into a second degree polynomial model. Principal component analysis showed a strong correlation between soil mineral elements and microorganisms. These parameters were not related to phosphorus and pH. PMID:23880238

  14. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  15. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  16. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    PubMed

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents. PMID:18418753

  17. Determination of labile copper, cobalt, and chromium in textile mill wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Essling, A.M.; Kiely, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Copper, chromium, and cobalt species present in filtered wastewater effluent were separated by cation exchange and reverse phase chromatography. Three sample fractions were obtained: one containing metal cations (i.e., trivalent Cr, divalent Cu, and divalent Co), one containing organic species (including metallized dyes), and one containing other unretained species. The metal content of each fraction was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The sum of the corrected data was compared to the metal content of a filtered effluent aliquot digested totally with fuming sulfuric acid. Other aliquots of the filtered effluent were spiked with the metals of interest and digested to confirm chemical yield and accuracy. Method detection limits were consistently below 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu, 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Co, and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cr. Spike recoveries for undifferentiated Cu and Cr were statistically indistinguishable from unity; although Co spike recoveries were slightly low ({approximately}95%), its chemical yield was 98%. Copper retention on the sodium sulfonate cation exchange resin was closely correlated with the [EDTA]/[Cu] ratio, suggesting that metals retained upon the cation exchange column were assignable to labile metal species; however, mass balances for all three elements, though reasonable ({approximately}90%), were significantly different from unity. Mechanical factors may have contributed to the material loss, but other data suggest that some metal species reacted irreversibly with the reverse phase column. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Decolourisation of palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater using Poly-Diallyldimethyl Ammonium Chloride (polyDADMAC) and other chemical coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahrim, A. Y.; Dexter, Z. D.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent was expected as a future source of renewable biogas. Nevertheless,colours in palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater (POMBPW) causes negative perception among the public and the wastewater is difficult to be treated biologically. In this study, the performance of various chemical coagulants i.e., calcium lactate, magnesium hydroxide, ferric chloride, aluminium chlorohydrate i.e. CK-800, CK-1000, and polyDADMAC, forPOMBPW colour removal were investigated. PolyDADMAC (1,000 mg/L) shows best colour removal (∼48%). The main coagulation process with polyDADMACcould be due to charge neutralization-bridging mechanism. The zeta potential analysis supports the finding where the value became positive as the dosage increases. The addition of polyDADMAC has increased the conductivity of the treated wastewater up to 9.22%; however, the final pH is maintained (8.0-8.3). It can be deduced that polyDADMAC has potential to treat POMBPW at low dosage.

  19. Synergetic effect between photocatalytic degradation and adsorption processes on the removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Baransi, Katie; Dubowski, Yael; Sabbah, Isam

    2012-03-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of two phenolic compounds, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, was performed with a suspended mixture of TiO(2) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) (at pH=3.4 and 8). Adsorption, direct photolysis and photocatalytic degradation were studied under different pH and UV light sources (sunlight vs. 365nm UV lamps). The potential for reusing this catalyst mixture in sequential photocatalytic runs was examined as well. Quantum yields for the direct photolysis of caffeic acid under solar and artificial 365nm light were calculated (for the first time) as 0.005 and 0.011, respectively. A higher removal rate of contaminants by either adsorption or photocatalysis was obtained at a low pH (pH 4). Furthermore, the addition of PAC increased the removal efficiency of the phenolic compounds. Fast removal of the pollutants from the solution over three sequential runs was achieved only when both TiO(2) and PAC were present. This suggests that at medium phenolic concentrations, the presence of PAC as a co-sorbent reduces surface poisoning of the TiO(2) catalyst and hence improves photocatalysis degradation of phenolic pollutants. The adsorption equilibrium of caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid on TiO(2), PAC and the combined mixture of TiO(2) and PAC follows the Langmuir isotherm model. Experiments with PAC TiO(2) mixture and olive mill wastewater (anaerobically treated and diluted by a factor of 10) showed higher removal of polyphenols than of chemical oxygen demand (COD). 87% removal of total polyphenols, compared to 58% of COD, was achieved after 24h of exposure to 365nm irradiation (7.6W/m(2)) in the presence of a suspended mixture of TiO(2) and PAC, indicating "self-selectivity" of polyphenols. PMID:22153960

  20. Olive oil mill wastewaters before and after treatment: a critical review from the ecotoxicological point of view.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-03-01

    The olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic and polluting effluent which may degrade the soil and water quality, with critical negative impacts on ecosystems functions and services provided. The main purpose of this review paper is presenting the state of the art of OMW treatments focusing on their efficiency to reduce OMW toxicity, and emphasizing the role of ecotoxicological tests on the evaluation of such efficiency before the up-scale of treatment methodologies being considered. In the majority of research works, the reduction of OMW toxicity is related to the degradation of phenolic compounds (considered as the main responsible for the toxic effects of OMW on seed germination, on bacteria, and on different species of soil and aquatic invertebrates) or the decrease of chemical oxygen demand content, which is not scientifically sound. Batteries of ecotoxicological tests are not applied before and after OMW treatments as they should be, thus leading to knowledge gaps in terms of accurate and real assessment of OMW toxicity. Although the toxicity of OMW is usually high, the evaluation of effects on sub-lethal endpoints, on individual and multispecies test systems, are currently lacking, and the real impacts yielded by its dilution, in freshwater trophic chains of receiving systems can not be assessed. As far as the terrestrial compartment is considered, ecotoxicological data available include tests only with plants and the evaluation of soil microbial parameters, reflecting concerns with the impacts on crops when using OMW for irrigation purposes. The evaluation of its ecotoxicity to other edaphic species were not performed giving rise to a completely lack of knowledge about the consequences of such practice on other soil functions. OMW production is a great environmental problem in Mediterranean countries; hence, engineers, chemists and ecotoxicologists should face this problem together to find an ecologically friend solution. PMID:22042608

  1. Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in

  2. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1 °C), intermediate (90±1 °C) and high temperature (120±1 °C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200 µmol L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80 °C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120 °C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase). PMID:25624137

  3. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  4. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  5. Optimization of the coagulation-flocculation process for pulp mill wastewater treatment using a combination of uniform design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Pulp mill wastewater was treated using the coagulation-flocculation process with aluminum chloride as the coagulant and a modified natural polymer, starch-g-PAM-g-PDMC [polyacrylamide and poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride], as the flocculant. A novel approach with a combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and uniform design (UD) was employed to evaluate the effects and interactions of three main influential factors, coagulant dosage, flocculant dosage and pH, on the treatment efficiency in terms of the supernatant turbidity and lignin removals as well as the water recovery. The optimal conditions obtained from the compromise of the three desirable responses, supernatant turbidity removal, lignin removal and water recovery efficiency, were as follows: coagulant dosage of 871 mg/L, flocculant dosage of 22.3 mg/L and pH 8.35. Confirmation experiments demonstrated that such a combination of the UD and RSM is a powerful and useful approach for optimizing the coagulation-flocculation process for the pulp mill wastewater treatment. PMID:21920576

  6. Physical and oxidative stability of functional olive oil-in-water emulsions formulated using olive mill wastewater biophenols and whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Róisín; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated by analysing the creaming rate, mean particle size distribution and mean droplet size, viscosity and rheological properties, while chemical stability was assessed through the measurement of primary and secondary oxidation products. The rheological behaviour and creaming stability of the emulsions were dramatically improved by using xanthan gum, whereas the concentration of WPI and the addition of encapsulated OMW phenolics did not result in a significant improvement of physical stability. The formation of oxidation products was higher when higher concentrations of encapsulated polyphenols were used, indicating a possible binding with the WPI added in the system as a natural emulsifier. This paper might help in solving the issue of using the olive mill wastewater from olive processing in formulating functional food products with high antioxidant activity and improved health properties. PMID:26692051

  7. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood. PMID:26706725

  8. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products. PMID:27138726

  9. [Treatment of olive mill wastewater by a process combining an intensive treatment (Jet-Loop reactor) followed by an extensive treatment (stabilization ponds)].

    PubMed

    Jail, A; Boukhoubza, F; Nejmeddine, A; Duarte, J C; Sayadi, S; Hassani, L

    2010-04-14

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is generally recognized as an environmentally troublesome by-product of the olive oil industry as its disposal without any treatment is known to cause serious environmental problems. However, this effluent has a high fertilizing power and constitutes, with urban wastewater, an important low-cost source. Biological treatment of OMW, with a process combining an aerobic reactor, 'Jet-Loop', and waste stabilization ponds, was investigated for possible agricultural reuse. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the contribution and the complementarity of the two systems in the total OMW treatment. Bio-treatment was performed using a 100-litre Jet-Loop reactor working volume achieving a chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds maximum removal rate of 72% and 68%, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. Co-treatment of OMW and domestic wastewater in waste stabilization ponds, with a hydraulic retention time of 22 days, reached a global removal rate of 66% for COD while no trace of phenolic compounds was detected on this level during the entire treatment period. Dynamics of faecal coliforms in stabilization ponds showed a total removal rate of 99.9% (3 logarithmic units (Log.U)). Preliminary results of agronomic tests on the ray-grass have evaluated the fertilizing effect of the final effluent resulting from the co-treatment. PMID:20480828

  10. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp Mills Under Unsafe Sampling Conditions E Appendix..., App. E Appendix E to Part 63—Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment... pollutants (HAP) concentrations from an open biological treatment unit. It is assumed that inlet and...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp Mills Under Unsafe Sampling Conditions E Appendix..., App. E Appendix E to Part 63—Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment... pollutants (HAP) concentrations from an open biological treatment unit. It is assumed that inlet and...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp Mills Under Unsafe Sampling Conditions E Appendix..., App. E Appendix E to Part 63—Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment... pollutants (HAP) concentrations from an open biological treatment unit. It is assumed that inlet and...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp Mills Under Unsafe Sampling Conditions E Appendix..., App. E Appendix E to Part 63—Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment... pollutants (HAP) concentrations from an open biological treatment unit. It is assumed that inlet and...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp Mills Under Unsafe Sampling Conditions E Appendix E to Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., App. E Appendix E to Part 63—Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological...

  15. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of OMW. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46–51% in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials. PMID:24790964

  16. Submerged and solid-state production of laccase and Mn-peroxidase by Panus tigrinus on olive mill wastewater-based media.

    PubMed

    Fenice, Massimiliano; Giovannozzi Sermanni, Giovanni; Federici, Federico; D'Annibale, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The possible use of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) as a growth medium for the production of extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot fungus Panus tigrinus (P. tigrinus) CBS 577.79 was studied using a properly formulated OMW-based medium (2-fold diluted OMW supplemented with 0.5% sucrose and 0.1% yeast extract) either in a stirred-tank or an air-lift reactor. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was also performed in a rotary drum reactor using maize stalks moistened with the OMW-based medium. Highest levels of laccase and manganese peroxidase activity were obtained in the stirred-tank reactor (4600+/-98 U l(-1) on day 13) and in the air-lift reactor (410+/-22 on day 7), respectively. Based on total enzyme activities, SSF appears to be more suitable than LSF but the latter exhibits better volumetric productivities. PMID:12413788

  17. Performance Modeling and Cost Analysis of a Pilot-Scale Reverse Osmosis Process for the Final Purification of Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h−1 m−2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h−2 m−2 bar−1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day−1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m−3 total costs for the RO process were estimated. PMID:24957058

  18. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by photooxidation with ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanocomposite and its reuse capability.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Oztekin, Rukiye

    2016-04-01

    Zirconium dioxide (zirconia, ZrO2)-doped TiO2 (TiO2/ZrO2) nanocomposite was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of pollutant parameters [COD components (CODtotal, CODdissolved and CODinert)], polyphenols (catechol, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) and total polyaromatic amines [aniline, 4-nitroaniline, o-toluidine and o-anisidine] from the olive mill effluent wastewaters at different operational conditions such as at different mass ratios of ZrO2 (50, 25, 14, 10 and 5 wt%) in the TiO2/ZrO2 nanocomposite, at different TiO2/ZrO2 photocatalyst concentrations (1, 4, 15 and 50 mg/L) and pH values (4.0-7.0-10.0) under 300 W UV irradiations, respectively. Under the optimized conditions (pH = 4.6, 15 mg/L ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite with a ZrO2 mass ratio of 14 wt%, 300 W UV light, after 60 min photooxidation time, at 21°C), the maximum CODdissolved, total phenol and total aromatic amines photooxidation yields were 99%, 89% and 95%, respectively. High pollutant removal (89%) yields after sequential five times utilization of ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite show that this catalyst can be effectively used commercially in the treatment of olive mill effluent. PMID:26560364

  19. Changes in the nature of dissolved organics during pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment: a multivariate statistical study combining data from three analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Plant, Emma L; Smernik, Ronald J; van Leeuwen, John; Greenwood, Paul; Macdonald, Lynne M

    2014-03-01

    The paper-making process can produce large amounts of wastewater (WW) with high particulate and dissolved organic loads. Generally, in developed countries, stringent international regulations for environmental protection require pulp and paper mill WW to be treated to reduce the organic load prior to discharge into the receiving environment. This can be achieved by primary and secondary treatments involving both chemical and biological processes. These processes result in complex changes in the nature of the organic material, as some components are mineralised and others are transformed. In this study, changes in the nature of organics through different stages of secondary treatment of pulp and paper mill WW were followed using three advanced characterisation techniques: solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Each technique provided a different perspective on the changes that occurred. To compare the different chemical perspectives in terms of the degree of similarity/difference between samples, we employed non-metric multidimensional scaling. Results indicate that NMR and HPSEC provided strongly correlated perspectives, with 86 % of the discrimination between the organic samples common to both techniques. Conversely, py-GCMS was found to provide a unique, and thus complementary, perspective. PMID:24306723

  20. Bioremediation of agro-based pulp mill effluent by microbial consortium comprising autochthonous bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Prakash Singh, Yogendra; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale agro-based pulp and paper mills are characterized as highly polluting industries. These mills use Kraft pulping process for paper manufacturing due to which toxic lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Lack of infrastructure, technical manpower, and research and development facilities restricts these mills to recover these chemicals. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem, four bacteria were isolated from the premises of agro-based pulp and paper mill which were identified as species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pannonibacter, and Ochrobacterum. These bacteria were found capable of reducing COD up to 85%-86.5% in case of back water and 65-66% in case of back water : black liquor (60:40), respectively, after acclimatization under optimized conditions (pH 6.8, temperature 35°C, and shaking 200 rpm) when the wastewater was supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus as trace elements. PMID:22448126

  1. Bioremediation of Agro-Based Pulp Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Virendra; Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Prakash Singh, Yogendra; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale agro-based pulp and paper mills are characterized as highly polluting industries. These mills use Kraft pulping process for paper manufacturing due to which toxic lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Lack of infrastructure, technical manpower, and research and development facilities restricts these mills to recover these chemicals. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem, four bacteria were isolated from the premises of agro-based pulp and paper mill which were identified as species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pannonibacter, and Ochrobacterum. These bacteria were found capable of reducing COD up to 85%–86.5% in case of back water and 65-66% in case of back water : black liquor (60 : 40), respectively, after acclimatization under optimized conditions (pH 6.8, temperature 35°C, and shaking 200 rpm) when the wastewater was supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus as trace elements. PMID:22448126

  2. The combination of coagulation, acid cracking and Fenton-like processes for olive oil mill wastewater treatment: phytotoxicity reduction and biodegradability augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmadreza; Mehdipour, Fayyaz; Eslami, Akbar; Maleksari, Hajar Sharifi; Ghanbari, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) is one of the most important industrial wastewaters in the world due to high organic load and phenolic compounds. In this study, an integration of three processes including coagulation, acid cracking and Fenton-like was evaluated to treat OOMW. The performance of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride was studied as coagulants. Among coagulants, ferric chloride showed the best results in comparison with the others. Coagulation process with FeCl3 removed 91.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 91.3% phenol, 98.9% total suspended solids and 99.2% turbidity at condition of pH = 6 and 3,000 mg/L coagulant dosage. Acid cracking process following the coagulation process with ferric chloride could slightly degrade organic compounds and provided suitable condition for the next process. Fenton-like process with zero valent iron (ZVI) was applied after coagulation and acid cracking. The optimal removal efficiency was achieved by Fenton-like process which was accomplished in condition of 7 g/L ZVI, 1,000 mg/L H2O2 and 180 min reaction time. The biodegradability of final effluent of this integration was improved significantly and biochemical oxygen demand5/COD value increased from 0.14 to 0.83. The results of germination tests revealed that phytotoxicity of the final effluent decreased. PMID:25860714

  3. Raw and fungal-treated olive-mill wastewater effects on selected parameters of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth--the role of proline.

    PubMed

    Ouzounidou, Georgia; Ntougias, Spyridon; Asfi, Maria; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2012-01-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major agricultural waste stream for which disposal is associated with significant environmental repercussions. No data are available on the effects of biotreated OMW and of the protective role of exogenously provided proline on plant physiology. In the present study, OMW was administered, either raw or previously treated by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, with or without proline amendment, to lettuce plants growing in sterilized sand. Biotreated OMW and proline addition resulted in significant moderation of OMW adverse effects on plant biomass production and ascorbic acid content, while their synergistic action alleviated the severe negative impact on net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fo) invoked by the effluent. Moreover, biotreated OMW supplemented with proline, moderated the decrease in chlorophylls exerted by raw OMW, but it did not contribute at restoring carotenoids content. Restoration of plant transpiration was complete when biotreated OMW was used (with or without proline); proline alone mitigated the negative impact of OMW on photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm and Fv'/Fm'). It seems that key photosynthetic parameters could be exploited as suitable evaluators of wastewater-induced plant toxicity, while plant fertigation with biotreated and/or supplemented OMW could be an interesting prospect in valorizing this effluent. PMID:22560036

  4. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW. PMID:26805521

  5. Biological modification of loblolly pine chips with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora prior to kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, Laura L.

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to selectively degrade lignin in loblolly pine chips and the effect on kraft pulps was investigated. The effect of fungal treatment was assessed by comparing changes in untreated wood chips with chips incubated for two and four weeks. The kraft pulping step included two different cooking times and two levels of chemical dosage as the variables, 16 and 22% for the effective alkali and 60 and 90 min at 170°C. The other cooking variables were kept constant for all the experiments and were: sulfidity, 22%; liquor/wood ratio 4:1; time to Tmax 90 min.; Tmax 170°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the colonization introduced significant chemical and physical changes. Pore size distribution analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in the average pore size as fungal treatment progressed. Significant reduction in the extractives content (23%) was found in the first 2 weeks, after which the reduction leveled off. Lignin losses reached 2% in the first 2 weeks of incubation, followed by an 11% loss after 4 weeks of treatment. Lignin phenolic hydroxyl groups increased 14% after 4 weeks of incubation. Fungal treatment caused 4 and 6% carbohydrate loss in 2 and 4 weeks-treated chips, respectively. The selectivity of the fungal treatment was emphasized in the subsequent kraft pulping. The best response regarding improved delignification was found in kraft pulps processed at the mildest pulping conditions without affecting pulp viscosity. Benefits of fungal treatment regarding freeness of kraft pulps were evidenced after 4 weeks of incubation with a maximum of 35% freeness reduction in kraft pulps refined at 12,000 rev in a PFI mill. Strength properties of kraft pulps of fungal treated chips were superior to those of the control. This method involves chemical and physical modification of wood chips using fungi. The approach improved chip impregnation, which in turn, led to more uniform

  6. Bacterial degradation of synthetic and kraft lignin by axenic and mixed culture and their metabolic products.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2013-11-01

    Pulp paper mill effluent has high pollution load due to presence of lignin and its derivatives as major colouring and polluting constituents. In this study, two lignin degrading bacteria IITRL1 and IITRSU7 were isolated and identified as Citrobacter freundii (FJ581026) and Citrobacter sp. (FJ581023), respectively. In degradation study by axenic and mixed culture, mixed bacterial culture was found more effective compared to axenic culture as it decolourized 85 and 62% of synthetic and kraft lignin whereas in axenic conditions, bacterium IITRL1 and IITRSU7 decolourized 61 and 64% synthetic and 49 and 54% kraft lignin, respectively. Further, the mixed bacterial culture also showed the removal of 71, 58% TOC; 78, 53% AOX; 70, 58% COD and 74, 58% lignin from synthetic and kraft lignin, respectively. The ligninolytic enzyme was characterized as manganese peroxidase by SDS-PAGE yielding a single band of 43 KDa. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples showed reduction as well as shifting of peaks compared to control indicating the degradation as well as transformation of compounds. Further, in GC-MS analysis of synthetic and kraft lignin degraded samples, hexadecanoic acid was found as recalcitrant compounds while 2,4,6-trichloro-phenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-phenol and pentachloro-phenol were detected as new metabolites. PMID:24555327

  7. Odor Generation in the Kraft Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnofski, Michael A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the chemical compounds responsible for the odor generated in the Kraft process of pulping wood chips; this subject can be used as a relevant topic in introductory chemistry, especially environmental chemistry. (MLH)

  8. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  9. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    PubMed

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. PMID:25157746

  10. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.; Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  11. Dephenolization of stored olive-mill wastewater, using four different adsorbing matrices to attain a low-cost feedstock for hydrogen photo-production.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Giulia; Pintucci, Cristina; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2013-06-01

    This investigation deals with the conversion of olive-mill wastewater (OMW) into several feedstocks suitable for hydrogen photo-production. The goal was reached by means of two sequential steps: (i) a pre-treatment process of stored-OMW for the removal of polyphenols, which made it possible to obtain several effluents, and (ii) a photo-fermentative process for hydrogen production by means of Rhodopseudomonas palustris sp. Four different adsorbent matrices (Azolla, granular active carbon, resin, and zeolite) were used to dephenolize stored-OMW. The four liquid fractions attained by using the above process created the same number of effluents, and these were diluted with water and then used for hydrogen photo-production. The maximum hydrogen production rate (14.31 mL/L/h) was attained with the photo-fermenter containing 25% of the effluent, which came from the pre-treatment of stored-OMW using granular active carbon. Using the carbon effluent as feedstock, the greatest light conversion efficiency of 2.29% was achieved. PMID:23612177

  12. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    PubMed

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index. PMID:22647243

  13. Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). PMID:17629620

  14. Effect of olive mill wastewater phenol compounds on reactive carbonyl species and Maillard reaction end-products in ultrahigh-temperature-treated milk.

    PubMed

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Fiore, Alberto; Colantuono, Antonio; Kokkinidou, Smaro; Peterson, Devin G; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-10-15

    Thermal processing and Maillard reaction (MR) affect the nutritional and sensorial qualities of milk. In this paper an olive mill wastewater phenolic powder (OMW) was tested as a functional ingredient for inhibiting MR development in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. OMW was added to milk at 0.1 and 0.05% w/v before UHT treatment, and the concentration of MR products was monitored to verify the effect of OMW phenols in controlling the MR. Results revealed that OMW is able to trap the reactive carbonyl species such as hydroxycarbonyls and dicarbonyls, which in turn led to the increase of Maillard-derived off-flavor development. The effect of OMW on the formation of Amadori products and N-ε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML) showed that oxidative cleavage, C2-C6 cyclization, and the consequent reactive carbonyl species formation were also inhibited by OMW. Data indicated that OMW is a functional ingredient able to control the MR and to improve the nutritional and sensorial attributes of milk. PMID:25280240

  15. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi--Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine white-rot strains belonging to 38 species of Basidiomycota were evaluated for olive-mill wastewater (OMW) degradation. Almost all fungi caused high total phenolics (>60%) and color (⩽ 70%) reduction, while COD and phytotoxicity decreased to a lesser extent. Culture extracts from selected Agrocybe cylindracea, Inonotus andersonii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor strains showed non-altered physicochemical and enzymatic activity profiles when applied to raw OMW in the presence or absence of commercial catalase, indicating no interaction of the latter with fungal enzymes and no competition for H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide's addition resulted in drastic OMW's decolorization, with no effect on phenolic content, suggesting that oxidation affects colored components, but not necessarily phenolics. When fungal extracts were heat-treated, no phenolics decrease was observed demonstrating thus their enzymatic rather than physicochemical oxidation. Laccases added to OMW were reversibly inhibited by the effluent's high phenolic load, while peroxidases were stable and active during the entire process. PMID:25879179

  16. Olive-oil mill wastewater transport under unsaturated and saturated laboratory conditions using the geoelectrical resistivity tomography method and the FEFLOW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seferou, P.; Soupios, P.; Kourgialas, N. N.; Dokou, Z.; Karatzas, G. P.; Candasayar, E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Dimitriou, V.; Sarris, A.; Sauter, M.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated approach for monitoring the vertical transport of a solute into the subsurface by using a geophysical method and a simulation model is proposed and evaluated. A medium-scale (1 m3) laboratory tank experiment was constructed to represent a real subsurface system, where an olive-oil mill wastewater (OOMW) spill might occur. High-resolution cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed to monitor the OOMW transport. Time-lapse ERT images defined the spatial geometry of the interface between the contaminated and uncontaminated soil into the unsaturated and saturated zones. Knowing the subsurface characteristics, the finite element flow and transport model FEFLOW was used for simulating the contaminant movement, utilizing the ERT results as a surrogate for concentration measurements for the calibration process. A statistical analysis of the ERT measurements and the corresponding transport model results for various time steps showed a good agreement between them. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the most important parameters of the simulation model (unsaturated flow, saturated flow and transport) was performed. This laboratory-scale study emphasizes that the combined use of geophysical and transport-modeling approaches can be useful for small-scale field applications where contaminant concentration measurements are scarce, provided that its transferability from laboratory to field conditions is investigated thoroughly.

  17. Physicochemical analysis and adequation of olive oil mill wastewater after advanced oxidation process for reclamation by pressure-driven membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Hodaifa, Gassan; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2015-01-15

    Physicochemical characterization of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) was studied after a primary and secondary treatment was implemented in an olive oil factory in Jaén (Spain), comprising natural precipitation, Fenton-like reaction, flocculation-sedimentation and olive stone filtration in series. The application of membrane technology in improving the quality of the secondary-treated OMW (OMW/ST) was examined, to reduce the hazardous electroconductivity (EC) values (2-3 mS cm(-1)). Particle size distribution on OMW/ST shows supra-micron colloids and suspended solids as well as sub-micron particles with a mean size below 1.5 μm remaining in considerable concentration. The high organic pollutants percentage (31.7%) registered with an average diameter below 3 kDa is sensibly relevant for membrane fouling. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria growth warns of possible membrane biofouling formation. The saturation index indicates to work upon recovery factor below 90%. Finally, operating at a pressure equal to 15 bar ensured low fouling and high flux production on the selected NF membrane (69.9 L h(-1)m(-2)) and significant rejection efficiencies (55.5% and 88.5% for EC and COD). This permits obtaining an effluent with good quality according to the recommendations of the Food and Agricultural Association (FAO) with the goal of reusing the regenerated water for irrigation. PMID:25017639

  18. Optimization of anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater and liquid poultry manure in batch condition and semi-continuous jet-loop reactor.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Louhichi, Assawer; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with liquid poultry manure (LPM) was investigated in a jet-loop reactor (JLR) as a new approach for upgrading the efficiency of bioprocess. Optimum proportion of LPM was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. Methane yields were compared by applying one way ANOVA method followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a 0.05 significance level. Results demonstrated that the addition of LPM at proportion of 10% and 30% (v/v) improved methane yield of OMW digestion but differences between these mixtures and raw OMW are not significant. JLR results confirmed that the proportion 30% LPM gives the optimum condition for excellent stability of digester. Methane production was significantly high until an organic loading rate of 9.5 gCOD/L reactor/day. Overall; this study indicates the technical feasibility and effectiveness of using JLR as one-stage anaerobic system for the co-digestion of OMW and LPM. PMID:25682225

  19. Effect of the organic loading rate on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in a multi-stage process aimed at the valorization of olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Campanari, Sabrina; e Silva, Francisca A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Villano, Marianna; Majone, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Mixed microbial culture polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production has been investigated by using olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) as no-cost feedstock in a multi-stage process, also involving phenols removal and recovery. The selection of PHA-storing microorganisms occurred in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), fed with dephenolized and fermented OMW and operated at different organic loading rates (OLR), ranging from 2.40 to 8.40gCOD/Ld. The optimal operating condition was observed at an OLR of 4.70gCOD/Ld, which showed the highest values of storage rate and yield (339±48mgCOD/gCODh and 0.56±0.05 COD/COD, respectively). The OLR applied to the SBR largely affected the performance of the PHA-accumulating reactor, which was fed through multiple pulsed additions of pretreated OMW. From an overall mass balance, involving all the stages of the process, an abatement of about 85% of the OMW initial COD (chemical oxygen demand) was estimated whereas the conversion of the influent COD into PHA was about 10% (or 22% by taking into account only the COD contained in the pretreated OMW, which is directly fed to the PHA production stages). Overall, polymer volumetric productivity (calculated from the combination of both the SBR and the accumulation reactor) accounted for 1.50gPHA/Ld. PMID:24950311

  20. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Po-Hung; Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Shih-Min; Tzeng, Chewn-Jeng

    2009-09-15

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes. PMID:19304380

  1. ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of In Vitro Androgenic Activity in Feedlot Effluent. Lambright, CS 1 , Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville FL

    Recent studies have shown the presence of androgenic activity in water...

  2. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Nitric Acid Plants, Final Rule, 77 FR 48433 (August 14, 2012); New Source Performance Standards for New... Incineration Units, Final rule, 76 FR 15704 (March 21, 2011); Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Reviews; Final rules, 77...

  3. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. 102.

    Female mosquito fish (Gambusia...

  4. 78 FR 38877 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711; telephone number: (919) 541-3158... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., 2013, rather than July 8, 2013. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 60 Environmental...

  5. Effect of Olive mill wastewater spreading on soil wettability and acidity under different season in a semi humid area: A field study in Bait Reema - West Bank - Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamimi, Nesreen; Marei Sawalha, Amer; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is generated seasonally in large amounts during the olive oil production in Palestine, and it is often disposal of in uncontrolled manner into the open environment. OMW has a high amount of phototoxic compounds, high salinity and acidity and therefore is challenging when disposed on soil. The objective of this study was to study the persistence and degree of water repellency during different season of OMW application in soil samples (0-5 cm deep), and to elucidate how extent this phenomenon is associated with soil acidity, to analyze the relationships between soil water repellency and environmental factors including, temperature and moisture and to describe the seasonal variation in the phenol concentration of the soil. In order to understand how climatic conditions at the time of OMW disposal affect the development of soil water repelleny in field, soil acidity and phenol content in soil, we conducted a field study in Bait Reema village in the West Bank - Palestine. The study site is characterized by 1.5 m thick brown rendzina and has an annual average rainfall of 550 mm. On an extensively used olive orchard field, we implemented 16 plots (2.5 x 3.5 m). OMW application (14 L / m2) was conducted either in winter, spring or summer on two replicate plots distributed randomly among the 16 plots. To test the effect of soil moisture on the persistence of OMW effects, we implemented an OMW application in summer on two additional plots, but kept those plots moist before and after OMW application until start of the rain season. For each of the treatment variants, we implemented two control plots which were treated in the same way as their counterparts, but with tap water. Soil samples (0-5 cm) were collected after 2 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months , 9 months, 12 months , and 18 months. pH was determined and analyzed in aqueous soil extracts (1:5), the total phenol content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, soil water

  6. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS.

    PubMed

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher. PMID:26711812

  7. Investigation of olive mill wastewater (OMW) ozonation efficiency with the use of a battery of selected ecotoxicity and human toxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Siorou, Sofia; Vgenis, Theodoros T; Dareioti, Margarita A; Vidali, Maria-Sophia; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Kornaros, Michael; Vlastos, Dimitris; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The effects of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on a battery of biological assays, before and during the ozonation process, were investigated in order to assess ozone's efficiency in removing phenolic compounds from OMW and decreasing the concomitant OMW toxicity. Specifically, ozonated-OMW held for 0, 60, 120, 300, 420, 540min in a glass bubble reactor, showed a drastic reduction of OMW total phenols (almost 50%) after 300min of ozonation with a concomitant decrease of OMW toxicity. In particular, the acute toxicity test primarily performed in the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (Thamnotoxkit F™ screening toxicity test) showed a significant attenuation of OMW-induced toxic effects, after ozonation for a period of 120 and in a lesser extent 300min, while further treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of ozonated-OMW toxic effects. Furthermore, ozonated-OMW-treated mussel hemocytes showed a significant attenuation of the ability of OMW to cause cytotoxic (obtained by the use of NRRT assay) effects already after an ozonation period of 120 and to a lesser extent 300min. In accordance with the latter, OMW-mediated oxidative (enhanced levels of superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation by-products) and genotoxic (induction of DNA damage) effects were diminished after OMW ozonation for the aforementioned periods of time. The latter was also revealed by the use of cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes exposed to different concentrations of both raw- and ozonated-OMW for 60, 120 and 300min. Those findings revealed for a first time the existence of a critical time point during the OMW ozonation process that could be fundamentally used for evaluating OMW ozonation as a pretreatment method of OMW. PMID:25957716

  8. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    PubMed

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). PMID:22537889

  9. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF KRAFT BLEACHING EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of color and organic contaminants by adsorption on activated carbon from the effluent of a kraft pulp bleaching plant was investigated in a pilot plant. The caustic bleach effluent, which contains 80% of the color from pulp bleaching, was decolorized successfully when...

  10. Decolorization of kraft bleaching effluent by advanced oxidation processes using copper (II) as electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Yeber, María C; Oñate, Katherine P; Vidal, Gladys

    2007-04-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), TiO2/UV/O2 and TiO2/UV/Cu (II), were used to remove color from a Kraft bleaching effluent. The optimal decoloration rate was determined by multivariate analysis, obtaining a mathematical model to evaluate the effect among variables. TiO2 and Cu (II) concentrations and the reaction times were optimized. The experimental design resulted in a quadratic matrix of 30 experiments. Additionally, the pH influence on the color removal was determined by multivariate analysis. Results indicate that color removal was 94% at acidic pH (3.0) in the presence of Cu (11) as an electron acceptor. Under this condition, the biodegradation of the effluent increased from 0.3 to 0.6. Moreover, 70% of COD (chemical oxygen demand) was removed, and the ecotoxicity, measured by Daphnia magna, was reduced. Photocatalytic oxidation to remove the color contained in the Kraft mill bleaching effluent was effective under the following conditions: short reaction time, acidic pH values, and without the addition of oxygen due to the presence of Cu (II) in the effluent. Moreover, residual Cu (II) was a minimum (0.05.mg L(-1)) and was not toxic to the next biological stage. The experimental design methodology indicated that a quadratic polynomial model may be used to representthe efficiencyfor degradation of the Kraft bleach pulp effluent by a photocatalytic process. PMID:17438808

  11. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1987-09-01

    The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

  12. Model pollution prevention plan for the kraft segment of the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The document provides a generic process-by-process assessment of pollution prevention opportunities for the Kraft segment of the pulp and paper industry. The process areas covered are: wood yard operations, pulping and chemical recovery, pulp bleaching, pulp drying and papermaking, and wastewater treatment. These process areas are further broken down by specific process (e.g., oxygen delignification as one specific process under the pulping and chemical recovery area). For each specific process there is a description, a cost estimate, a discussion of applicability, and estimate of environmental benefits, and a list of references.

  13. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Panagi, A; Ioannou, L A; Frontistis, Z; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the application of a solar-driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton) combined with previous coagulation/flocculation, for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at a pilot scale. Pre-treatment by coagulation/flocculation using FeSO4·7H2O (6.67 g L(-1)) as the coagulant, and an anionic polyelectrolyte (FLOCAN 23, 0.287 g L(-1)) as the flocculant, was performed to remove the solid content of the OMW. The solar Fenton experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant, in the presence of varying doses of H2O2 and Fe(2+). The optimization of the oxidation process, using reagents at low concentrations ([Fe(2+)] = 0.08 g L(-1); [H2O2] = 1 g L(-1)), led to a high COD removal (87%), while the polyphenolic fraction, which is responsible for the biorecalcitrant and/or toxic properties of OMW, was eliminated. A kinetic study using a modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was performed in order to determine the reaction rate constants. This work evidences also the potential use of the solar Fenton process at the inherent pH of the OMW, yielding only a slightly lower COD removal (81%) compared to that obtained under acidic conditions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial OMW toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba), and the water flea Daphnia magna. The OMW treated samples displayed a varying toxicity profile for each type of organism and plant examined in this study, a fact that can potentially be attributed to the varying oxidation products formed during the process applied. Finally, the overall cost of solar Fenton oxidation for the treatment of 50 m(3) of OMW per day was estimated to be 2.11 € m(-3). PMID:24815102

  14. Elimination of the calcium cycle: direct electrolytic causticizing of Kraft smelt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.; Winnick, J.

    1999-01-19

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic Kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments include (A) the determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (B) the electrolysis of a sodium carbonate only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (C) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole % Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 20 mole % Na{sub 2}S. The experiments show, that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole % of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  15. Elimination of the Calcium Cycle: Direct Electrolytic Causticizing of Kraft Smelt, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    P. Pfromm, J. Winnick

    1999-01-31

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments included (a) determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (b) the electrolysis of a sodium-carbonate-only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (c) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole% Na2-CO3 and 20 mole% Na2-S. The experiments show that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole% of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  16. Economic evaluation of kraft black liquor freeze concentration for the pulp and paper industry: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, T.C.

    1986-09-01

    The system was conceptually incorporated into several paper mill liquor concentration systems. Three fundamental scenarios were considered: a small, sulphite mill expansion comparing freeze concentration to evaporators and vapor recompression; a ''greenfield'' mill which evaluated the use of a freeze concentration process to achieve varying degrees of liquor concentration before achieving final concentration using traditional evaporation; and a kraft mill expansion which explored the use of freeze concentration to achieve a mill capacity expansion using a freeze concentrator in tandem with an existing evaporator set. The performance of these various scenarios were evaluated using a heat balance analysis and the comparative net present value of each arrangement was determined using a traditional evaporator system as a reference. Results indicate that generally the freeze concentration process is not economically attractive relative to traditional evaporator systems at the present time. At a fuel cost of $28.77/barrel, the freeze concentration process becomes attractive. However, this study was performed considering a fuel oil cost of $23.63 per barrel and the world fuel oil price has declined markedly since then.

  17. PAPERMILL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MICROSTRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An original treatment system was designed, constructed, and operated for removal of suspended solids, turbidity, color, and BOD from the wastewaters of two paper mills which produce technical and other fine papers. The treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation follo...

  18. Evaluation of a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with partial recirculation of effluent used to treat wastewaters from pulp and paper plants.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Pires, E C

    2007-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a UASB reactor treating diluted black liquor from a Kraft pulp mill, which simulates an unbleached Kraft plant wastewater, under different operational conditions, including partial recycling of the effluent. The reactor's performance was evaluated from the standpoint of COD, pH, volatile acid concentration, alkalinity, concentration of methane in the biogas, and microbiological examinations of the sludge. Without recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 36 to 30h did not significantly affect the average COD removal efficiency. The parameter displaying the greatest variation was the average concentration of effluent volatile acids, which increased by 16%. With recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 30 to 24h increased the average COD removal efficiency from 75% to 78%. In this case, the average effluent alkalinity also showed an increase. The use of partial recirculation of the effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal under the operational conditions tested in this work, but it was possible to operate the reactor with lower hydraulic retention time without disintegration of the granules. PMID:17008096

  19. Utilization of geothermal energy in a pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hotson, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Tasman Pulp and Paper Company Ltd.`s Mill at Kawerau, New Zealand, has been utilizing geothermal energy for more than 30 years. The mill produces approximately 200,000 tonnes of kraft pulp and 400,000 tonnes of newsprint per annum. Geothermal energy produces 26% of the process steam requirements and 6% of the mill`s electrical load. The management of the mill`s energy sources is complex and ever changing, which has resulted in unique control strategies being developed over the years to improve efficiencies in the operation of the plant. Complete utilization of the geothermal resource has been the aim of the company and has led to pioneering plant and process developments.

  20. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. PMID:27107340

  1. Effect of Cellulases and Xylanases on Refining Process and Kraft Pulp Properties

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz Buzała, Kamila; Kalinowska, Halina; Derkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities) or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp’s susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time), increased water retention value (WRV) and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced. These changes of pulp parameters caused deterioration of paper strength properties. The treatment with the xylanase, which partially hydrolyzed xylan, small amounts of which are associated with cellulose fibers, only slightly loosened the structure of fibers. These subtle changes positively affected the susceptibility of the pulp to refining (refining energy was significantly reduced) and improved the static strength properties of paper. Thus, the treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases may lead to substantial savings of refining energy without negative effects on paper characteristics. PMID:27557079

  2. Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

  3. Membrane treatment of alkaline bleaching effluents from elementary chlorine free kraft softwood cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Edgard; Bórquez, Rodrigo; Zaror, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the sequential use of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to fractionate alkaline extraction bleaching effluents from kraft cellulose production. The aim was to unveil the way key pollutants are distributed when subjected to sequential UF/NF/RO membrane separation processes. Alkaline bleaching effluents were obtained from a local pinewood-based mill, featuring elementary chlorine free bleaching to produce high-brightness cellulose. The experimental system was based on a laboratory-scale membrane system, DSS LabStak® M20 Alfa Laval, using Alfa Laval UF and NF/RO membranes, operated at a constant transmembrane pressure (6 bar for UF membranes and 32 bar for NF/RO membranes), at 25°C. Results show that 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols, 82% adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and 98% colour were retained by UF membranes which have molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) above 10 kDa. In all, 16% of original COD, total phenols and AOX, and the remaining 2% colour were retained by UF membranes within the 1 to 10 kDa MWCO range. Chloride ions were significantly present in all UF permeates, and RO was required to obtain a high-quality permeate with a view to water reuse. It is concluded that UF/NF/RO membranes offer a feasible option for water and chemicals recovery from alkaline bleaching effluents in kraft pulp production. PMID:25253193

  4. Phosphorylation of Kraft fibers with phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Belosinschi, Dan; Brouillette, François; Belfkira, Ahmed; Chabot, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Phosphate esters, derived from two different long-chain aliphatic alcohols, were used as phosphorylating reagents for Kraft pulp fibers. High phosphorus contents and almost non-degraded fibers were obtained by following this pathway. The phosphorylation efficiency was influenced by the alkyl chain length of PEs since the phosphorus content in modified fibers was higher for the shorter chain reagent. Due to the heterogeneous reaction environment, the amount of grafted phosphorus was found to be almost three times higher at the surface than in the bulk of the fibers. Analyses also indicated that the phosphorus was bonded to fibers as a phosphate-like structure. Furthermore, the situation seemed to be different for the fiber surface where significant amounts of phosphorus were present in more complex structures like pyrophosphate or even oligo-phosphate. PMID:24721058

  5. Combined System of Activated Sludge and Ozonation for the Treatment of Kraft E1 Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Assalin, Marcia Regina; dos Santos Almeida, Edna; Durán, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of paper mill effluent for COD, TOC, total phenols and color removal was investigated using combined activated sludge-ozonation processes and single processes. The combined activated sludge-O3/pH 10 treatment was able to remove around 80% of COD, TOC and color from Kraft E1 effluent. For the total phenols, the efficiency removal was around 70%. The ozonation post treatment carried out at pH 8.3 also showed better results than the single process. The COD, TOC, color and total phenols removal efficiency obtained were 75.5, 59.1, 77 and 52.3%, respectively. The difference in the concentrations of free radical produced by activated sludge-O3/pH 10 and activated sludge-O3/pH 8.3 affected mainly the TOC and total phenol removal values. PMID:19440438

  6. Development of viscometers for kraft black liquor. Summary report, Phase 2 and 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Crisalle, O.D.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the on-line prototype viscometers for kraft black liquors carried out at the Pilot Plant facilities of the University of Florida. The original plan called for the evaluation of five prototype on-line viscometers along with laboratory bench versions. At a later stage in the project an additional experimental prototype under development at Southwest Research Institute was added. The viscometers are evaluated for accuracy and repeatability under varying process conditions, such as black liquor species, solids content, temperature, flow rate, and contaminants, as well as for maintenance and reliability. This document reports extensive results of the evaluations and recommendations for design modifications and for the installation of the instruments in industrial pulping mills for further field evaluations in Phase 3 of the project. The report also documents relevant details of the final design of the pilot flow loop used to support the experiments.

  7. Industrial wastewater re-use: closure of water cycle in the main water consuming industries--the example of paper mills.

    PubMed

    Mauchauffee, S; Denieul, M-P; Coste, M

    2012-01-01

    Paper mill, chemistry, textile and food processing industries are high water consumers. Within the framework of the European project Aquafit4Use, the possibility to close the on-site water loop is studied. The aim is to find new technologies or innovative treatment trains to produce water that is 'fit for use' in the industrial process; an example of a paper mill is given. Laboratory-scale tests on nine technologies were carried out to determine the best suitable treatment train: anaerobic process (already on site) --> aerobic process (already on site) --> Flexible Fibre Filter Module --> softening --> nanofiltration --> evapoconcentration or ozonation on nanofiltration (NF) concentrate. This treatment train is currently compared on site at pilot scale to another treatment train including some modifications on the existing on-site biological treatment: anaerobic process --> softening --> membrane bioreactor --> nanofiltration --> evapoconcentration or ozonation of NF concentrate. PMID:23393966

  8. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  9. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  10. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  11. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  12. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  13. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  14. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Aquila, M. E.; Bogliolo, L.; Russo, R.; Martino, N. A.; Filioli Uranio, M.; Ariu, F.; Amati, F.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Linsalata, V.; Ferruzzi, M. G.; Cardinali, A.; Minervini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. PMID:24719893

  15. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  16. Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient. PMID:21214003

  17. The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Takougang, Innocent; Barbazan, Phillipe; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Noumi, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon & Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources. PMID:18441407

  18. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  19. ANTIMONY REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY FOR MINING INDUSTRY WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assessed the current state-of-the-art of antimony removal technology for mining industry wastewaters. Through literature review and personal interviews, it was found that most mines and mills reporting significant quantities of antimony in their raw wastewater had app...

  20. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the

  1. Critical factors of coating performance in Kraft pulping digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Verstak, A.A.; Baranovski, V.E.; Calkins, M.

    1999-07-01

    Not only the coating material corrosion resistance, but also the coating-substrate interface crack resistance and coating permeation to liquor and its vapor are found to be critical factors affecting the coating performance in Kraft pulping digesters. The behavior of electric-arc and HVOF sprayed coatings is discussed.

  2. THERMOPLASTIC STARCH-KRAFT LIGNIN-GLYCEROL BLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-kraft lignin-glycerol blends were extruded in a twin-screw extruder to produce non-brittle films. One week after extrusion, films with a mid-range composition of 52% starch, 20% lignin, and 28% glycerol showed a tensile strength at break of 2.8 MPa, Young's modulus of 48 MPa, and elongation ...

  3. Comparative study of lignin characteristics from wheat straw obtained by soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment and effect on the following enzymatic hydrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haitao; Xie, Yimin; Zheng, Xing; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Meng, Xianzhi; Wu, Weibing; Ragauskas, Arthur; Yao, Lan

    2016-05-01

    To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol (β-β') substructures, while minor content of spirodienone (β-1'), dibenzodioxocin (5-5') and α,β-diaryl ether linkages were detected as well. After pretreatment, most lignin inter-units and lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages were degraded and dissolved in black liquor, with minor amount left in residual pretreated biomass. In addition, through quantitative (13)C and 2D-HSQC NMR spectral analysis, lignin and LCC were found to be more degraded after kraft pretreatment than soda-AQ pretreatment. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that more cellulose in wheat straw was converted to glucose after kraft pretreatment, indicating that LCC linkages were important in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. PMID:26897415

  4. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A survey of present levels of radiocesium in Swedish pulp mill liquors and the implications for wood radiocesium transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Ravila, A; Holm, E

    1998-10-27

    Assessments of the impact from radioactive fallout on the pulp industry and the accumulation processes for radionuclides in such industries, using wood and water as primary raw materials, have been conducted in previous studies. Hitherto, there is a general lack of data on present levels of radioactivity in pulp mill liquors apart from the few mills studied by Nilsson (1992); Ravila and Holm (1992); Manjón et al. (1996); Krosshavn et al. (1997). A survey was therefore initiated to describe and compare the present activity levels in pulp mill liquors from various mill locations in Sweden. The 137Cs activity in pulp mill liquors were compared with the mill location and the deposition pattern of the Chernobyl fallout and nuclear weapons fallout. The large input of wood (approx. 2500 m3 day-1) to an average Nordic Kraft mill and the relatively long-term retention time for radiocesium in the Kraft mill recovery cycle enables representative sampling of substances directly related to the activity concentration in wood. PMID:9851069

  6. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution. PMID:25965499

  7. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  8. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory. 430.30 Section 430.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Unbleached Kraft Subcategory §...

  9. Field-inspection notebook for monitoring total reduced sulfur (TRS) from kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T.

    1984-12-01

    Field-performance audit procedures were developed for three of the most common total reduced sulfur (TRS) continuous-emission-monitoring systems (CEMS). These procedures were designed to assist state/federal field inspectors in the evaluation of TRS-CEMS. Contained in the notebook are checklists and data-entry tables covering preparation for the inspection, preliminary review of records, preliminary on-site meeting with source personnel, and general guidelines for inspection of any type TRS-CEMS. Specific audit procedures for three of the most common models of TRS CEMS: Sampling Technology Inc. Model 100 TRS CEM System; Barton Titrator TRS System; and Bendix Gas Chromatograph TRS System are provided as sectional inserts. In auditing these monitors the inspector should follow the specific procedure rather than the general guidelines given in the body of the field notebook. Conscientious use of this notebook will aid the inspector in conducting a thorough audit of the TRS CEMS and provide a comprehensive original record of all phases of the inspection.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERS IN MOSQUITOFISH AS POTENTIAL BIOINDICATION OF EXPOSURE TO KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the specific chemicals or factors actually responsible for induction of arrhenoidy among mosquitofish have not yet been identified, it is known that a wide variety of potential compounds occur as by-products from the processing of wood pump. urpose of study was to invest...

  11. Land application of pulp and paper mill effluents -- A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, A.A.; Edwards, E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews the literature on land application of pulp and paper mill effluents with emphasis on secondary treated effluents from kraft bleach pulp mills. It discusses the current status of effluent land application in the industry and the need for further studies. The literature review showed that considerable research had been undertaken, including full-scale land application of effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies dealt almost exclusively with crop productivity aspects. Soil salinity and sodicity problems, as well as application rates were extensively studied. However, relatively little attention has been given to the behavior of toxic organic compounds from pulp mill effluents in the soil environment and the long-term environmental impact of the effluent disposal practices is not fully understood.

  12. Photobleaching of lignin derived compounds from pulp mill effluents upon irradiation: the key role of receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Otero, Marta; Guilherme, Isabela; Santos, Eduarda B H

    2013-11-01

    Lignin derived macromolecular compounds are the main constituents responsible for the hazardous effects of discharged effluents from the pulp and paper industry in receiving waters. It was shown by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopies that a selective photodegradation of these structures occurred upon irradiation of fulvic acids (FA) from a kraft pulp mill effluent. Though photodegradation was not remarkably affected by the presence of the natural photosensitizer nitrate, it was inhibited under the presence of chloride. These results indicate that the fate of macromolecular organic matter from kraft pulp mill effluents may be different depending on the type of receiving waters, having a higher persistence when effluents are discharged in estuarine or marine waters than when they are discharged in fresh water. PMID:23915540

  13. Dr. Christopher Kraft looks over packaged 'parasol' in bldg 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Dr. Christopher C. Kraft J. (left), JSC Director, and George A Post, JSC Crew Systems Division, look over the packaged 'parasol' during fabrication and checkout of the umbrella-like mechanical device in the Technical Services shop in bldg 10 at JSC. The 'parasol' is designed to fit into the T027 experiment photometer canister. The canopy portion of the 'parasol' measures 24 feet by 22 feet. The 'parasol' is one of several sunscreen possibilities being considered for use in shading the overheated Skylab 1 Orbital Workshop.

  14. Synergistic air port corrosion in kraft recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2001-08-01

    Localized hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of air-ports in Kraft recovery boilers. Depending on the basicity of the molten salt, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minima at the transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.

  15. METALS REMOVALS AND PARTITIONING IN CONVENTIONAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metals removal and partitioning to primary and secondary sludge during treatment of domestic wastewater by conventional sewage treatment processes was studied. Raw wastewater entering the Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, was fed to a 0.1 l/s (1.6 gpm) pilot tr...

  16. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current

  17. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

  18. Bioenergy from anaerobically treated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Breweries and other processing plants including dairy cooperatives, sugar plants, grain mills, gasohol plants, etc., produce wastewater containing complex organic matter, either in solution or as volatile suspended solids, which can be treated anaerobically to effectively reduce the pollutants by 85-95% and generate a CH4 containing gas. An example anaerobic plant to serve a 10 to the power of 6-bbl brewery is discussed.

  19. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  20. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  1. Smart Vapor Barrier: CertainTeed Dryright-vs-Kraft-Faced Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    This fact sheet CertainTeed compares the hygrothermal performances of DryRight™ fiberglass batts and kraft-faced fiberglass batts in a south facing wall assembly with a moisture storage cladding material.

  2. Characterization of cassava starch based foam blended with plant proteins, kraft fiber, and palm oil.

    PubMed

    Kaisangsri, Nattapon; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-09-22

    Cassava starch foam (CSF) trays blended with zein, gluten, soy protein, kraft fiber, and palm oil at various concentrations: 0, 5, 10 and 15% by weight of starch, were characterized. The addition of zein and gluten into CSF resulted in consolidated and homogeneous structural foams compared to its controls. Moreover, the flexural and compressive strength increased with increasing kraft, zein and gluten. CSF containing 15% kraft gave the highest flexural and compressive strength. However, the addition of palm oil into CSF gave the lowest flexural strength and compressive strength. The observed water absorption and water solubility index of CSFs blended with 15% zein and 15% gluten protein was lowest. Although kraft, zein and gluten could improve mechanical properties, water absorption and water solubility were greater than the expanded polystyrene foam (EPS). The CSF trays in this study might be an alternative for packing low water content foods. PMID:24906730

  3. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    PubMed

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills. PMID:16987647

  4. Modification of high-lignin kraft pulps with laccase. Part 2. Xylanase-enhanced strength benefits.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Richard P; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2005-01-01

    The effects of xylanase pretreatment of high lignin content softwood (SW) kraft pulp on subsequent pulp treatment with laccase in combination with gallic acid were investigated. Although xylanase pretreatment was ineffective in enhancing the laccase-facilitated biografting of gallic acid to kraft fibers, it was beneficial for subsequent treatment with laccase exclusively. Treating pulp fibers with xylanase followed by laccase provided a collective 25% and 46% increase in dry and wet tensile strength properties, respectively. PMID:16080715

  5. Solvated liquid-lignin fractions from a Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Velez, Julian; Thies, Mark C

    2013-11-01

    A softwood Kraft black liquor was acidified with carbon dioxide at 115°C and 6.2 bar over a pH range of 13.6-9.5, resulting in the precipitation of liquefied-lignin fractions as a separate phase. Seven such "liquid-lignin" fractions were produced, with each fraction being phase-separated within a narrow pH band of 0.5 units. The fractions were found to be highly hydrated phases, containing 32.3-48.2 wt.% water; as a result, their measured melting points were quite low, 90.7-110.5°C. In contrast, no melting point was detected up to 375°C for any of the lignin fractions after drying. Significant reductions in metals content were observed for the lignin fractions compared to the original black-liquor feed. PMID:24054066

  6. Green Diesel from Kraft Lignin in Three Steps.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Joakim; Dahlstrand, Christian; Orebom, Alexander; Meuzelaar, Gerrit; Sawadjoon, Supaporn; Galkin, Maxim V; Agback, Peter; Wimby, Martin; Corresa, Elena; Mathieu, Yannick; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Eriksson, Sören; Corma, Avelino; Samec, Joseph S M

    2016-06-22

    Precipitated kraft lignin from black liquor was converted into green diesel in three steps. A mild Ni-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis using 2-propanol generated a lignin residue in which the ethers, carbonyls, and olefins were reduced. An organocatalyzed esterification of the lignin residue with an in situ prepared tall oil fatty acid anhydride gave an esterified lignin residue that was soluble in light gas oil. The esterified lignin residue was coprocessed with light gas oil in a continous hydrotreater to produce a green diesel. This approach will enable the development of new techniques to process commercial lignin in existing oil refinery infrastructures to standardized transportation fuels in the future. PMID:27246391

  7. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION FROM SPILLAGE AT ORE SMELTERS AND MILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smelter and mill wastewater outfalls, receiving water, biota, slag heaps, tailings ponds, streams, and coal-burning fly ash dumps were sampled as part of this effort to determine the effect of effluent or residual spillage on aquatic systems. Up to 17% lead, 0.1% cadmium and 5 pp...

  10. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  11. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Biosolids recycling at a pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, P.F.; Montgomery, K.L.; Page, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc. has traditionally been involved in recycling biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants. The biosolids, or primarily organic residuals that result from the treatment of wastewater, have long been used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, fertilizer, organic lime material and also for other soil fertility practices. It has long been known that residuals from certain industrial wastewater processes are very high in nutrients and organic matter which can also be successfully used in agricultural activities. One of these industrial biosolids with well-documented agricultural value is the organic residual from the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills. Most pulp and paper producers in the US recognize the value of pulp and paper biosolids as a material that can fertilize their own tree stands or can be used in normal agricultural practices. In 1995, Bio Gro entered into a contract with a two large pulp and paper mills in Maine for the management of its pulp and paper biosolids. Bio Gro was responsible for implementing the beneficial use options for a mixture of primary and secondary biosolids from the wastewater treatment process which was combined with combustion ash from the facility`s power generation facilities. The contract included the layout of spreading areas, mixing of the residuals and spreading the material on the sites. This paper will explain the process that Bio Gro employed to manage the pulp and paper biosolids generated at the mill.

  13. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  14. Augusta Newsprint: Paper Mill Pursues Five Projects Following Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    Augusta Newsprint undertook a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment of its Augusta, Georgia, plant in 2001. The assessment helped the company decide to implement five energy efficiency projects. Four of the five projects will save the company 11,000 MWh of electrical energy (about$369,000) each year. The remaining project will produce more than$300,000 annually, from sale of the byproduct turpentine. The largest annual savings,$881,000, will come from eliminating Kraft pulp by using better process control. All of the projects could be applied to other paper mills and most of the projects could be applied in other industries.

  15. Paper Mill Pursues Five Projects Following Plant-Wide Assessment (Augusta Newsprint)

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    Augusta Newsprint undertook a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment of its Augusta, Georgia, plant in 2001. The assessment helped the company decide to implement five energy efficiency projects. Four of the five projects will save the company 11,000 MWh of electrical energy (about $369,000) each year. The remaining project will produce more than $300,000 annually, from sale of the byproduct turpentine. The largest annual savings, $881,000, will come from eliminating Kraft pulp by using better process control. All of the projects could be applied to other paper mills and most of the projects could be applied in other industries.

  16. Mills at Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William

    1995-01-01

    Offers an insightful and perceptive portrait of the legendary sociologist C. Wright Mills by one of his former graduate students. Traces Mills's areas of interest from occupational characteristics to power groups leading to the publication of his seminal work, "The Power Elite." Discusses Mills's teaching styles and academic career. (MJP)

  17. Recaustization of kraft black liquor via bipolar electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koumoundouros, J.A.; Oshen, S.; Lynch, J.D.

    1990-05-01

    The US Department of Energy in conjunction with HPD Inc. supported a research program to perform a laboratory feasibility study with various black liquor samples for the recaustization of these samples via bipolar electrodialysis. The research was conducted at the HPD pilot plant facility in Plainfield, Illinois, beginning in April 1989. This report is a summary of the work completed thru November 1989. The program was designed to operate the electrodialyzer in order to obtain performance and engineering data such as current efficiency, power consumption per gram of NaOH produced, and assess fouling and/or membrane durability. Prior to the electrodialysis laboratory runs, the black liquor samples were pretreated in order to remove as much lignin as possible. The black liquor samples were air oxidized, acidified to pH = 9.0 and pH = 2.0 and later filtered via a Buchner funnel under vacuum. The filtrate was then utilized to become the feed to the electrodialysis stack. Initial test runs were performed with synthetic solutions of either sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate in order to determine acceptable operating current, power, current efficiencies, and fouling behavior. A second set of test were conducted with a series of four Southern Kraft black liquor samples. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the use of bipolar electrodialysis for producing a caustic stream and an acidified black liquor stream is feasible and was demonstrated. 9 refs., 27 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Helmholtz's early empiricism and the Erhaltung der Kraft.

    PubMed

    Jurkowitz, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Hermann Helmholtz has often been understood to have started research under the influence of Kant, and then to have made a transition to a later mature empiricist phase. Without claiming that in 1847 Helmholtz held the same positions that he later espoused, I suggest that already in his 1847 'Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft' one may find important aspects of his later empiricism. I highlight the ways in which, from early on, Helmholtz turned Kant to use in developing an empirical program of inquiry into possible basic natural causes. To that end, I indicate how, throughout his arguments, Helmholtz employed, sometimes explicitly, but often tacitly, an empiricist logic, one that ran contrary to any form of transcendental deduction, and even to all a priori knowledge. Instead of deriving aspects about the ultimate constituents of nature, Helmholtz aimed to define the proper project for physical natural science. The first part of the paper describes the context of discussion in which Helmholtz entered. The bulk of the paper then analyzes Helmholtz's arguments in order to make space between (1) Kantian, and other, deductions of characteristics that must be true of nature and (2) Helmholtz's delineation of empirically determinable characteristics of presumed ultimate elements of nature, ones that he meant to be specified and delimited through future experimental research. The paper highlights that throughout his discussion Helmholtz meant to define the proper project for physical natural science, a project rife with empiricist aspects. PMID:20503777

  19. Toxic by-products from the combustion of Kraft lignin.

    PubMed

    Font, Rafael; Esperanza, Mar; García, Angela Nuria

    2003-08-01

    Lignin samples, sub-product in the Kraft process of cellulose from eucalyptus wood, were burnt in a laboratory scale furnace at different residence temperatures and with distinct fuel-rich atmospheres. The yields of CO, CO(2), eight light hydrocarbons (methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, acetylene, butane, etc.) and 60 semi-volatile+volatile compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, indene, naphthalene, dibenzofuran, phenanthrene, chrysene, etc.) were determined, with nominal reactor temperatures between 800 and 1100 degrees C and residence times of the volatiles evolved and formed between 4 and 7 s. The collection of the gases and volatiles evolved was carried out with a Tedlar bag and by XAD-4 resin respectively, comparing the data obtained in both cases. The emission factor (mg/kg) of the CO was between 2500 and 90000, and under the poor-oxygen atmosphere, the emission factors of many by-toxic products were greater than 100 mg/kg. A pyrolysis run was also performed, obtaining emission factors between 30 and 3000 mg/kg, facilitating its identification. The behaviour of different compounds in the combustion runs was discussed considering three groups in accordance with their stability vs. oxygen, and two groups vs. temperature. PMID:12781238

  20. Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.

  1. Hot Corrosion at Air-Ports in Kraft Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Russell, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of airports in Kraft recovery boilers. The primary corrosion mechanism involves the migration of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide vapors through leaks in the furnace wall at the airports and their subsequent condensation. It has been reported that stainless steel is attacked much faster than carbon steel in composite tubes, and that carbon steel tubing, when used with a low-chromium refractory, does not exhibit this type of corrosion. For hot corrosion fluxing of metal oxides, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minimum at the basicity of transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.

  2. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  3. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  5. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  7. Male-biased sex ratios of fish embryos near a pulp mill: temporary recovery after a short-term shutdown.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, D G Joakim; Förlin, Lars

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that broods from the viviparous eelpout Zoarces viviparus were significantly male biased in 1998 in the vicinity of a large kraft pulp mill on the Swedish Baltic coast. One suggested hypothesis was that masculinizing compounds in the effluent were affecting gonadal differentiation of the embryos, resulting in skewed sex ratios. In this article, we present further evidence for a causal relationship between the exposure to the effluent and the male-biased sex ratios. Analyses of historical samples showed that the eelpout produced male-biased broods close to the mill in 1997 in addition to 1998. During 1999, the mill was shut down for 17 days, coinciding with the period when the gonads of the eelpout embryos differentiate. Subsequently, in the fall of 1999, the sex ratios were no longer male biased; however, the following year (2000), a significant male bias reappeared. Investigations at 13 sites for up to 4 years showed a relatively stable sex ratio around 50/50, with the exceptions by the mill and with few observations of deviating ratios at other sites. Several reports document endocrine disturbances in fish near pulp and paper mills, including the expression of male secondary sex characters in female fish. The repeatedly identified male bias at the investigated mill, the normalization after mill shutdown, and the reappearance the following year indicate that pulp mill effluents also can affect sex ratios of nearby fish. PMID:12153752

  8. Biomechanical pulping: A mill-scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Scott, G.M.; Swaney, R.E.; Shipley, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, fifty tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for two weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, the authors were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

  9. Depolymerization and decolorization of kraft lignin by bacterium Comamonas sp. B-9.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li-yuan; Chen, Yue-hui; Tang, Chong-jian; Yang, Zhi-hui; Zheng, Yu; Shi, Yan

    2014-02-01

    There is no commercial or industrial-scale process for the remediation of black liquor using microorganisms to date. One of the most important causes is that most microorganisms are not able to use lignin as their principal metabolic carbon or energy source. The bacterial strain Comamonas sp. B-9 has shown remarkable ability to degrade kraft lignin and decolorize black liquor using lignin as its principal metabolic carbon and energy source. This report looks at the depolymerization and decolorization of kraft lignin by Comamonas sp. B-9. The degradation, decolorization, and total carbon removal reached 45, 54, and 47.3%, respectively, after 7 days treatment. Comamonas sp. B-9 was capable of depolymerizing kraft lignin effectively as analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and decolorization via degrading benzene ring structures as shown using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. PMID:23948726

  10. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  11. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  12. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING INSOLUBLE STARCH XANTHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northern Regional Research Center developed an effective process to remove heavy metals from wastewaters of two nonferrous metal industries and insoluble starch xanthate (ISX). The study included bench-scale evaluation of wastewaters from two lead battery and one brass mill w...

  15. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  16. Anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents--status quo and new developments.

    PubMed

    Habets, Leo; Driessen, Willie

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents has found widespread application in the pulp and paper industry. Over 200 installations are treating a large variety of different pulp and paper mill effluents. Amongst various anaerobic systems the UASB and IC are the most applied anaerobic reactor systems. Anaerobic treatment is well feasible for effluents originated from recycle paper mills, mechanical pulping (peroxide bleached), semi-chemical pulping and sulphite and kraft evaporator condensates. The advantages of anaerobic pre-treatment are (1) net production of renewable energy (biogas), (2) minimized bio-solids production, (3) minimal footprint and (4) reduced emission of greenhouse gases. Via in-line application of anaerobic treatment in closed circuits (paper kidney technology) further savings on cost of fresh water intake and effluent discharge levies are generated. PMID:17486855

  17. EVALUATION AND APPLICATION OF SOX MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES FOR KRAFT RECOVERY FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the sulfuric acid (SO3/H2SO4) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from kraft recovery furnaces using an extractive sampling system. The Goksoyr and Ross controlled condensation technique was chosen. Equipment was designed and fa...

  18. ON-SITE PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM KRAFT BLACK LIQUOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot plant was designed and constructed to produce char via the St. Regis hydropyrolysis kraft chemical recovery process and to produce activated carbon from the char. This report includes discussion of laboratory and prepilot work, the pilot plant, and presents operating resu...

  19. Recovering ultraclean lignins of controlled molecular weight from Kraft black-liquor lignins.

    PubMed

    Klett, A S; Chappell, P V; Thies, M C

    2015-08-18

    By operating in a region of liquid-liquid equilibrium, hot acetic acid-water mixtures can be used to simultaneously clean, fractionate, and solvate Kraft black-liquor lignins. Lignin-rich liquid phases of controlled molecular weight with key metals contents reduced to <50 ppm are obtained without a washing step. PMID:26169767

  20. Effect of Residual Lignin Type and Amount on Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.; Paice, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O2 delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor. PMID:16349246

  1. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  2. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  3. Freeze crystallization technology for Kraft black liquor concentration. Third report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.E.; Rhodes, C.R.

    1985-04-01

    About 25% of the purchased energy in the pulp and paper industry is used to concentrate black liquor. The technical feasibility of using freeze concentration to supplement evaporation has been successfully demonstrated, and results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced 45%. After compiling a considerable data base on the characteristics of black liquor at low temperature and after developing a computer program to aid analysis, the process chosen was vacuum freezing-vapor absorption (VFVA). A pilot plant was built and operated; however, due to problems with crystallization of the absorbent and contamination, it was found that maintaining the conditions necessary for a continuous process was not practical at the present state of development. Therefore, indirect freezing was used for all subsequent work. This required the design and fabrication of a simple shuttle crystallizer to replace scraped surface units conventionally used. CSI also developed an integrated ice separation column that combined crystal growth, a concentration gradient, and washing all in one unit. Finally, extensive heat transfer coefficient data were collected so that a preliminary design could be completed for a 350 TPD industrial freeze concentration unit. An economic analysis was calculated in order to compare using evaporation and freeze concentration to process the increased liquor flow from a pulp mill expansion. A 200,000 lb/hr freezing unit used to preconcentrate the mill's entire stream up to 18.7% solids would save $10 to $16 per ton of pulp.

  4. 102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. BALL MILL FOUNDATION IN FOREGROUND, SLOPED CLASSIFIER BED AND CALCINE BIN ADJACENT, WITH CRUSHER IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. 9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 is in the center, with the Wheel and Pump House and Mill No. 2 to the left, and the Clothroom Building/Bleach House to the right. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  6. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  9. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  11. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  13. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA -2 Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based emissions factors (kg/mmBtu HHV) Kraft lime...

  14. FATE OF TOXIC AND NONCONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS WITHIN THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were undertaken to determine the fate of toxic and nonconventional pollutants present in the wastewaters discharged from the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. A sampling and analysis program was conducted at two deink mills and a groundwood fine paper mill. Each...

  15. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  16. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    A predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected in the field to alterations in population growth rate. Application of this density dependent population ...

  17. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Credible ecological risk assessments often need to include analysis of population-level impacts. In the present study, a predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) co...

  18. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  19. Response of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) to pulp and paper mill effluent in the Androscoggin River, Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Mower, Barry F; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Van Beneden, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    Adverse effects of pulp and paper mill effluent on fish populations have been well documented in many countries over the last two decades. Some of the initial studies were at mills with conventional chlorine bleaching and no secondary effluent treatment. Following installation of secondary treatment, changes in bleaching technology to elemental chlorine-free bleaching, and other process changes, adverse effects on fish were reduced or eliminated at some mills. Because no two mills are exactly alike, it is difficult to predict adverse impacts of any given mill on fish populations. In 1994, a study of female white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in the Androscoggin River, Maine, USA, showed induction of mixed function oxidase, reductions in gonad size and plasma estradiol, and an increase in plasma testosterone in fish downstream of discharges from three large bleached kraft pulp and paper mills, and host community municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). After all three mills switched to elemental chlorine-free bleaching in the late 1990s, studies from 2001 to 2003 found that the pattern of reproductive impacts on white sucker populations measured in 1994 was not repeated. In addition, population estimates of white sucker from 2002 to 2003 using mark-recapture techniques found that densities and biomass were well within the range of those of a reference population, and of those reported in the literature for unimpacted populations. Detailed studies immediately above and below each mill/sewage treatment plant showed no evidence of reproductive effects. However, a clear pattern of eutrophication was noted, which increased cumulatively downstream below each mill/STP. PMID:20872897

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp, dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose.

    PubMed

    Palme, Anna; Theliander, Hans; Brelid, Harald

    2016-01-20

    The behaviour of different cellulosic fibres during acid hydrolysis has been investigated and the levelling-off degree of polymerisation (LODP) has been determined. The study included a bleached kraft pulp (both never-dried and once-dried) and two dissolving pulps (once-dried). Additionally, cotton cellulose from new cotton sheets and sheets discarded after long-time use was studied. Experimental results from the investigation, together with results found in literature, imply that ultrastructural differences between different fibres affect their susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis. Drying of a bleached kraft pulp was found to enhance the rate of acid hydrolysis and also result in a decrease in LODP. This implies that the susceptibility of cellulosic fibres towards acid hydrolysis is affected by drying-induced stresses in the cellulose chains. In cotton cellulose, it was found that use and laundering gave a substantial loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP), but that the LODP was only marginally affected. PMID:26572472

  1. Development of a strategy for energy efficiency improvement in a Kraft process based on systems interactions analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos-Espejel, Enrique

    The objective of this thesis is to develop, validate, and apply a unified methodology for the energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process that addresses globally the interactions of the various process systems that affect its energy performance. An implementation strategy is the final result. An operating Kraft pulping mill situated in Eastern Canada with a production of 700 adt/d of high-grade bleached pulp was the case study. The Pulp and Paper industry is Canada's premier industry. It is characterized by large thermal energy and water consumption. Rising energy costs and more stringent environmental regulations have led the industry to refocus its efforts toward identifying ways to improve energy and water conservation. Energy and water aspects are usually analyzed independently, but in reality they are strongly interconnected. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated methodology, which considers energy and water aspects, as well as the optimal utilization and production of the utilities. The methodology consists of four successive stages. The first stage is the base case definition. The development of a focused, reliable and representative model of an operating process is a prerequisite to the optimization and fine tuning of its energy performance. A four-pronged procedure has been developed: data gathering, master diagram, utilities systems analysis, and simulation. The computer simulation has been focused on the energy and water systems. The second stage corresponds to the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking of the base case has the objectives of identifying the process inefficiencies and to establish guidelines for the development of effective enhancement measures. The studied process is evaluated by a comparison of its efficiency to the current practice of the industry and by the application of new energy and exergy content indicators. The minimum energy and water requirements of the process are also determined in this step. The third stage is

  2. Kinetics of liquid-solid reactions in naphthenic acid conversion and Kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling

    Two liquid-solid reactions, in which the morphology of the solid changes as the reactions proceeds, were examined. One is the NA conversion in oil by decarboxylation on metal oxides and carbonates, and the other is the Kraft pulping in which lignin removal by delignification reaction. In the study of the NA conversion, CaO was chosen as the catalyst for the kinetic study from the tested catalysts based on NA conversion. Two reaction mixtures, carrier oil plus commercial naphthenic acids and heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) from Athabasca bitumen, were applied in the kinetic study. The influence of TAN, temperature, and catalyst loading on the NA conversion and decarboxylation were studied systematically. The results showed that the removal rate of TAN and the decarboxylation of NA were both independent of the concentration of NA over the range studied, and significantly dependent on reaction temperature. The data from analyzing the spent catalyst demonstrated that calcium naphthenate was an intermediate of the decarboxylation reaction of NA, and the decomposition of calcium naphthenate was a rate-determining step. In the study on the delignification of the Kraft pulping, a new mechanism was proposed for the heterogeneous delignification reaction during the Kraft pulping process. In particular, the chemical reaction mechanism took into account the heterogeneous nature of Kraft pulping. Lignin reacted in parallel with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The mechanism consists of three key kinetic steps: (1) adsorption of hydroxide and hydrosulfide ions on lignin; (2) surface reaction on the solid surface to produce degraded lignin products; and (3) desorption of degradation products from the solid surface. The most important step for the delignification process is the surface reaction, rather than the reactions occurring in the liquid phase. A kinetic model has, thus, been developed based on the proposed mechanism. The derived kinetic model showed that the mechanism

  3. Kraft Pulp Bleaching and Delignification by Dikaryons and Monokaryons of Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, Katherine; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 10 dikaryotic and 20 monokaryotic strains of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to bleach and delignify hardwood and softwood kraft pulps was assessed. A dikaryon (52P) and two of its mating-compatible monokaryons (52J and 52D) derived via protoplasting were compared. All three regularly bleached hardwood kraft pulp more than 20 brightness points (International Standards Organization) in 5 days and softwood kraft pulp the same amount in 12 days. Delignification (kappa number reduction) by the dikaryon and the monokaryons was similar, but the growth of the monokaryons was slower. Insoluble dark pigments were commonly found in the mycelium, medium, and pulp of the dikaryon only. Laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase activities were secreted during bleaching by all three strains. Their laccase and MnP isozyme patterns were compared on native gels. No segregation of isozyme bands between the monokaryons was found. Hardwood kraft pulp appeared to adsorb several laccase isozyme bands. One MnP isozyme (pI, 3.2) was secreted in the presence of pulp by all three strains, but a second (pI, 4.9) was produced only by 52P. A lower level of soluble MnP activity in one monokaryon (52D) was associated with reduced bleaching ability and a lower level of methanol production. Since monokaryon 52J bleached pulp better than its parent dikaryon 52P, especially per unit of biomass, this genetically simpler monokaryon will be the preferred subject for further genetic manipulation and improvement of fungal pulp biological bleaching. Images PMID:16348851

  4. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol. PMID:25460986

  5. Production and Characterization of Trametes versicolor Mutants Unable To Bleach Hardwood Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases. PMID:16535150

  6. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. Simultaneous ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Among the several chemical processes conducted for the removal of organic matter present in wastewaters coming from some agro-industrial plants (wine distilleries, olive oil mills, etc), the oxidation by ozone has shown a great effectiveness in the destruction of specially refractory pollutants: it is demonstrated that the biodegradability of those wastewaters increases aflcer an ozonation pretreatment. Their great pollutant character is imputed to the presence of some organic compounds, like phenols and polyphenols, which are toxic and inhibit the latter biological treatments. In this research, a competitive kinetic procedure reported by Clurol and Nekouinaini is applied to determine the degradation rate constants by ozone of several phenolic acids which are present in the wastewaters from the olive oil obtaining process. The resulting kinetic expressions for the ozonation reactions are useful for the successful design and operation of ozone reactors in water and wastewaters treatment plants.

  8. Survey of receiving-water environmental impacts associated with discharges from pulp mills; 2: Gonad size, liver size, hepatic erod activity and plasma sex steroid levels in white sucker

    SciTech Connect

    Munkittrick, K.R.; Servos, M.R. . Great Lakes Lab. for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences); Van Der Kraak, G.J.; McMaster, M.E. . Dept. of Zoology); Portt, C.B. ); Heuvel, M.R. van den . Dept. of Biology)

    1994-07-01

    Fish collected from the receiving areas of 12 Canadian pulp mills were examined, including sites receiving effluent from kraft mills using chlorine as well as sulfite mills. Field collections included sampling of receiving water for chemistry and toxicity testing, and sampling of local fish for organ weights, hepatic MFO (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD) activity, plasma steroid levels, and levels of liver dioxins. The main objectives of this study were to determine whether the discharge of effluent from pulp mills to sites other than Jackfish Bay was associated with physiological or biochemical disruptions in wild fish, whether there was any correlation between waste treatment and the presence of biological responses in wild fish, and whether there was any association between the use of chlorine as a bleaching agent and these responses. Although white sucker collected near bleached-kraft mills exhibited the highest EROD induction and dioxin levels, elevated enzyme activity was observed in fish from sites that did not use chlorine, and depressions in plasma sex steroid levels was not correlated with the level of EROD activity. The absence of chlorine bleaching or the presence of secondary treatment did not eliminate responses in fish, including decreased circulating levels of sex steroids, decreased gonadal size, and increase liver size. This survey has shown that (a) induction of hepatic EROD enzymes and depressions of plasma sex steroid levels during gonadal growth are found downstream of several pulp mills; (b) these changes are seen at some mills without chlorine bleaching and at mills that have secondary treatment; (c) substantial dilutions of nontoxic effluent do not appear to remove these responses; (d) the dominant factor determining the presence or absence of responses appeared to be dilution level; and (e) lab toxicity tests on invertebrates, rainbow trout, and fat-head minnows could not predict the presence of these responses in wild fish.

  9. Expression profiling and gene ontology analysis in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver following exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Costigan, Shannon L; Werner, Julieta; Ouellet, Jacob D; Hill, Lauren G; Law, R David

    2012-10-15

    Many studies link pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) exposure to adverse effects in fish populations present in the mill receiving environments. These impacts are often characteristic of endocrine disruption and may include impaired reproduction, development and survival. While these physiological endpoints are well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms causing them are not yet understood. To investigate changes in gene transcription induced by exposure to a PPME at several stages of treatment, male and female fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed for 6 days to 25% (v/v) secondary (biologically) treated kraft effluent (TK) or 100% (v/v) combined mill outfall (CMO) from a mill producing both kraft pulp and newsprint. The gene expression changes in the livers of these fish were analyzed using a 22K oligonucleotide microarray. Exposure to TK or CMO resulted in significant changes in the expression levels of 105 and 238 targets in male FHMs and 296 and 133 targets in females, respectively. Targets were then functionally analyzed using gene ontology tools to identify the biological processes in fish hepatocytes that were affected by exposure to PPME after its secondary treatment. Proteolysis was affected in female FHMs exposed to both TK and CMO. In male FHMs, no processes were affected by TK exposure, while sterol, isoprenoid, steroid and cholesterol biosynthesis and electron transport were up-regulated by CMO exposure. The results presented in this study indicate that short-term exposure to PPMEs affects the expression of reproduction-related genes in the livers of both male and female FHMs, and that secondary treatment of PPMEs may not neutralize all of their metabolic effects in fish. Gene ontology analysis of microarray data may enable identification of biological processes altered by toxicant exposure and thus provide an additional tool for monitoring the impact of PPMEs on fish populations. PMID:22728206

  10. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  11. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-14

    The various hazards present in the many steps used in the production of products from pulp and paper mills were reviewed and discussed. The biological effects of 43 chemical, physical and dust hazards were detailed in the report. Dust hazards included exposures to wood dust, mold and bagasse dusts and fibrogenic dusts. Physical hazards included high heat and humidity, and noise. Raw materials and chemical intermediates discussed included calcium-oxide (1305788), magnesium-oxide (1309484), pulping liquors, sodium-hydroxide (1310732), sulfate, sulfites, sulfides, sulfur (7704349) and sulfuric-acid (7664939). Pulp bleaching agents were discussed along with papermaking additives, contaminants and/or byproducts, and pulping or combustion effluents. Sampling and analytical techniques for physical and chemical hazards were discussed. Engineering controls for hazards in pulp and paper mills were reviewed. OSHA regulations governing pulp and paper mills were evaluated.

  13. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. Alternative technologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from palm oil mills in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewmai, Roihatai; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2013-01-01

    Alternative methodologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude palm oil (CPO) production by a wet extraction mill in Thailand were developed. The production of 1 t of CPO from mills with biogas capture (four mills) and without biogas capture (two mills) in 2010 produced GHG emissions of 935 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), on average. Wastewater treatment plants with and without biogas capture produced GHG emissions of 64 and 47% of total GHG emission, respectively. The rest of the emissions mostly originated from the acquisition of fresh fruit bunches. The establishment of a biogas recovery system must be the first step in the reduction of GHG emissions. It could reduce GHG emissions by 373 kgCO2eq/t of CPO. The main source of GHG emission of 163 kgCO2eq/t of CPO from the mills with biogas capture was the open pond used for cooling of wastewater before it enters the biogas recovery system. The reduction of GHG emissions could be accomplished by (i) using a wastewater-dispersed unit for cooling, (ii) using a covered pond, (iii) enhancing the performance of the biogas recovery system, and (iv) changing the stabilization pond to an aerated lagoon. By using options i-iv, reductions of GHG emissions of 216, 208, 92.2, and 87.6 kgCO2eq/t of CPO, respectively, can be achieved. PMID:24074024

  16. 71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN LOWER CENTER; BARREN SOLUTION TANK AT MIDDLE RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES AT TOP OF VIEW RUN FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS ON LEFT TO PRIMARY THICKENERS ON RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. 2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE 2-1/1-STORY MAIN BLOCK, ERECTED IN 1855, HAS OVERTONES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL STYLE. Photographer: louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  19. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  20. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  1. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  2. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  3. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  4. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  5. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Agustin, Melissa B.; Sengpracha, Waya P.; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

  6. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  7. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Laccase-initiated cross-linking of lignocellulose fibres using a ultra-filtered lignin isolated from kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Elegir, G; Bussini, D; Antonsson, S; Lindström, M E; Zoia, L

    2007-12-01

    In this work, the effect of Trametes pubescens laccase (TpL) used in combination with a low-molecular-weight ultra-filtered lignin (UFL) to improve mechanical properties of kraft liner pulp and chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp was studied. UFL was isolated by ultra-filtration from the kraft cooking black liquor obtained from softwood pulping. This by-product from the pulp industry contains an oligomeric lignin with almost twice the amount of free phenolic moieties than residual kraft pulp lignin. The reactivity of TpL on UFL and kraft pulp was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. Laccase was shown to polymerise UFL and residual kraft pulp lignin in the fibres, seen by the increase in their average molecular weight and in the case of UFL as a decrease in the amount of phenolic hydroxyls. The laccase initiated cross-linking of lignin, mediated by UFL, which gives rise to more than a twofold increase in wet strength of kraft liner pulp handsheets without loosing other critical mechanical properties. Hence, this could be an interesting path to decrease mechano-sorptive creep that has been reported to lessen in extent as wet strength is given to papers. The laccase/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) mediator system showed a greater increase in wet tensile strength of the resulting pulp sheets than the laccase/UFL system. However, other mechanical properties such as dry tensile strength, compression strength and Scott Bond internal strength were negatively affected by the laccase/ABTS system. PMID:17955195

  9. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

  10. Combined biomass and black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration at pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E.D.; Kreutz, T.G.; Consonni, S.

    1999-07-01

    Kraft pulp and paper mills generate large quantities of black liquor and byproduct biomass suitable for gasification. These fuels are used today for onsite cogeneration of heat and power in boiler/steam turbine systems. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modeling of pulp-mill cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. Pressurized, oxygen-blown black liquor gasification, the most advanced of proposed commercial black liquor gasifier designs, is considered, together with three alternative biomass gasifier designs under commercial development (high-pressure air-blown, low-pressure air-blown, and low-pressure indirectly-heated). Heavy-duty industrial gas turbines of the 70-MW{sub e} and 25-MW {sub e} class are included in the analysis. Results indicate that gasification-based cogeneration with biomass-derived fuels would transform a typical pulp mill into significant power exporter and would also offer possibilities for net reductions in emissions of carbon dioxide relative to present practice.

  11. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V.

    1995-07-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  13. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  14. Wastewater treatment: lagoons. January 1977-February 1988 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of wastewaters in lagoons. The design, operation, equipment, and pretreatment processes are discussed. The treatment of wastewater from breweries, tanneries, paper mills, and other industrial operations are considered. Descriptions and evaluations of specific facilities are provided. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 18 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Correlation of Process Data and Electrocheical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Second Year at Spring Grove

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2004-04-27

    Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in the carbon steel continuous kraft digester at Spring Grove at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank for a second consecutive year of a corrosion study. The probes contained dual electrodes of 309LSi stainless steel overlay--representing a field repair material applied to a portion of the vessel--and dual electrodes of 312 stainless steel overlay. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of 23 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were again monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare EN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate EN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the corrosion conditions aggressive to mild steel persist within the digester, as post-test inspection of the vessel revealed localized corrosion of mild steel in locations previously free of attack. Further, there was evidence that the depth of localized attack of exposed steel had increased in some locations. Nevertheless, the stainless steel overlay in the digester was essentially immune to corrosion, as evidenced by retained surface relief and heat tint associated with the original deposition process. The 309LSi electrodes also appeared visually pristine, and post-exposure metallographic examination of the 309LSi electrode materials revealed no attack. The 312 electrode materials were similar in appearance, but exhibited very minor interdendritic attack over the exposed surface. The silver electrodes in the probes were consumed (to Ag{sub 2}S) to variable degree over the course of the exposure indicating a useful life of not more than a year in digester service in this vessel

  16. Bioluminescence inhibition assays for toxicity screening of wood extractives and biocides in paper mill process waters.

    PubMed

    Rigol, Anna; Latorre, Anna; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2004-02-01

    The risk associated with wood extractives, biocides, and other additives in pulp and paper mill effluents was evaluated by performing a characterization of process waters and effluents in terms of toxicity and chemical analysis. The individual toxicity of 10 resin acids, two unsaturated fatty acids, and three biocides was estimated by measuring the bioluminescence inhibition with a ToxAlert 100 system. Median effective concentration values (EC50) of 4.3 to 17.9, 1.2 to 1.5, and 0.022 to 0.50 mg/L were obtained, respectively. Mixtures of these three families of compounds showed antagonistic effects. Chemical analysis of process waters was performed by liquid chromatography- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biocides such as 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzotiazole (TCMTB) (EC50 = 0.022 mg/L) and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilpropionamide (DBNPA) (EC50 = 0.50 mg/L) were the most toxic compounds tested and were detected at concentrations of 16 and 59 microg/L, respectively, in a closed-circuit recycling paper mill. Process waters from kraft pulp mills, printing paper mills, and packing board paper mills showed the highest concentration of resin acids (up to 400 microg/L) and accounted for inhibition percentages up to 100%. Detergent degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) and the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) were also detected in the waters at levels of 0.6 to 10.6, 0.3 to 1.4, and 0.7 to 187 microg/L, respectively. However, once these waters were biologically treated, the concentration of detected organic compounds diminished and the toxicity decreased in most cases to values of inhibition lower than 20%. PMID:14982380

  17. Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

  18. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  19. Fate of Residual Lignin during Delignification of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.

    1998-01-01

    The fungus Trametes versicolor can delignify and brighten kraft pulps. To better understand the mechanism of this biological bleaching and the by-products formed, I traced the transformation of pulp lignin during treatment with the fungus. Hardwood and softwood kraft pulps containing 14C-labelled residual lignin were prepared by laboratory pulping of lignin-labelled aspen and spruce wood and then incubated with T. versicolor. After initially polymerizing the lignin, the fungus depolymerized it to alkali-extractable forms and then to soluble forms. Most of the labelled carbon accumulated in the water-soluble pool. The extractable and soluble products were oligomeric; single-ring aromatic products were not detected. The mineralization of the lignin carbon to CO2 varied between experiments, up to 22% in the most vigorous cultures. The activities of the known enzymes laccase and manganese peroxidase did not account for all of the lignin degradation that took place in the T. versicolor cultures. This fungus may produce additional enzymes that could be useful in enzyme bleaching systems. PMID:9603823

  20. Correlations for viscosity of kraft black liquors at low solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The kinematic viscosities of several kraft black liquors from a two-level, four-variables, factorial-designed experiments for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations from 10 to 50% and temperatures up to 80 C by glass capillary methods. The four pulping variables were cooking time, cooking temperature, sulfidity, and effective alkali. Relationships between temperature and kinematic viscosity have been developed by using free volume and absolute rate theories. The results from these two methods have been compared and discussed. A reduced variables method for dilute polymer solutions was used to correlate the viscosity with the combined effect of temperature and solids concentration. The viscosity of black liquor is an important parameter in the design and performance of kraft recovery systems. The energy efficiency will be increased by firing black liquors at higher solids concentrations. To evaporate the liquor most efficiently and to achieve higher concentrations, knowledge of viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and solids concentrations is essential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of various fundamentally based models for correlating viscosity data of black liquors as a function of temperature and concentration of nonvolatile components in the region in which the liquors behave a Newtonian fluids.

  1. Development of porosity upon chemical activation of kraft lignin with ZnCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Serrano, E.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J.

    1997-11-01

    Chemical activation of kraft lignin with ZnCl{sub 2} allows one to obtain high surface area activated carbons with a predominantly microporous structure. Most of porosity develops within the thermal range of 400--500 C, where an increase of temperature leads to increasing micropore volume values (up to {approx}1 cm{sup 3}/g) and a wider distribution of micropore size. An increasing mesoporosity is also observed. Increasing the impregnation ratio (ZnCl{sub 2}/lignin, wt) has a similar effect on the evolution of the porous structure. The mesopore distribution remains within the low-size range even at high impregnation ratios (up to 2.3). At 500 C and an impregnation ratio of 2.3, where the highest contribution of mesoporosity was observed, the mesopore volume reached a value of 0.59 cm{sup 3}/g. These conditions allowed one to obtain a BET surface area of 1,800 m{sup 2}/g, including the external or non-microporous surface of 200 m{sup 2}/g. The porous structure developed suggests a fairly homogeneous distribution of the activating agent favored by the softening and partial fusion which kraft lignin undergoes within the temperature range of 180--280 C.

  2. Acetylation of bleached Kraft pulp: effect of xylan content on properties of acetylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Karol; Reyes, Herna; Escobar, Danilo; Vega-Lara, Johana; Berg, Alex; Pereira, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Bleached Kraft pulp (BKP) from Eucalyptus globulus and cotton xylan blends (CXB) was acetylated. The effects of xylan content on cellulose acetylation and the properties of the acetylated material were studied. An increase in xylan content caused a slight decrease in the degree of substitution (2.98 to 2.68 for CXB; 2.93 to 2.84 for BKP). Thermal analysis showed that the melting temperature also decreases from 268.0 to 188.8 °C for CXB and from 221.4 to 212.8 °C for BKP. Moreover, the solubility decreased due to the partial dissolution of acetylated xylans. The presence of xylans during Kraft pulp acetylation does not have a significant negative effect on the physical properties of the acetylated material, but the decrease in melting temperature was beneficial for the application of acetylated polymer as a natural internal plasticizer. This is considered to be an important argument for BKP utilization in the cellulose acetate manufacturing process. PMID:25498729

  3. Prediction of wastewater quality using amperometric bioelectronic tongues.

    PubMed

    Czolkos, Ilja; Dock, Eva; Tønning, Erik; Christensen, Jakob; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe; Carlsson, Charlotte; Mojzíková, Renata; Skládal, Petr; Wollenberger, Ulla; Nørgaard, Lars; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Emnéus, Jenny

    2016-01-15

    Wastewater samples from a Swedish chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) mill collected at different purification stages in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed with an amperometric enzyme-based biosensor array in a flow-injection system. In order to resolve the complex composition of the wastewater, the array consists of several sensing elements which yield a multidimensional response. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to decompose the array's responses, and found that wastewater with different degrees of pollution can be differentiated. With the help of partial least squares regression (PLS-R), we could link the sensor responses to the Microtox® toxicity parameter, as well as to global organic pollution parameters (COD, BOD, and TOC). From investigating the influences of individual sensors in the array, it was found that the best models were in most cases obtained when all sensors in the array were included in the PLS-R model. We find that fast simultaneous determination of several global environmental parameters characterizing wastewaters is possible with this kind of biosensor array, in particular because of the link between the sensor responses and the biological effect onto the ecosystem into which the wastewater would be released. In conjunction with multivariate data analysis tools, there is strong potential to reduce the total time until a result is yielded from days to a few minutes. PMID:26342573

  4. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  5. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  6. Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

  7. Wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Casaday, J E

    1992-01-01

    Textile rental operators face tough wastewater cleanup challenges in many communities nationwide. Depending on the local POTW regulations and the textile rental company's customer base, wastewater pretreatment isn't always necessary. However, many plants must pretreat or risk being put out of business. In this article, eight manufacturers of wastewater treatment equipment explain their systems to help industry operators comply with POTW limits. PMID:10116442

  8. Cost-Based Optimization of a Papermaking Wastewater Regeneration Recycling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Feng, Xiao; Chu, Khim H.

    2010-11-01

    Wastewater can be regenerated for recycling in an industrial process to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. Such an environment friendly approach will also lead to cost savings that accrue due to reduced freshwater usage and wastewater discharge. However, the resulting cost savings are offset to varying degrees by the costs incurred for the regeneration of wastewater for recycling. Therefore, systematic procedures should be used to determine the true economic benefits for any water-using system involving wastewater regeneration recycling. In this paper, a total cost accounting procedure is employed to construct a comprehensive cost model for a paper mill. The resulting cost model is optimized by means of mathematical programming to determine the optimal regeneration flowrate and regeneration efficiency that will yield the minimum total cost.

  9. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... megagram (7.2 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that do not perform bleaching or 5.5 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (11.1 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that perform bleaching. (d) The pulping... do not perform bleaching, treat the pulping process condensates to remove 3.3 kilograms or more...

  10. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... megagram (7.2 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that do not perform bleaching or 5.5 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (11.1 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that perform bleaching. (d) The pulping... do not perform bleaching, treat the pulping process condensates to remove 3.3 kilograms or more...

  11. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... megagram (7.2 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that do not perform bleaching or 5.5 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (11.1 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that perform bleaching. (d) The pulping... do not perform bleaching, treat the pulping process condensates to remove 3.3 kilograms or more...

  12. 9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES WERE USED TO FORM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPE. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SPHERICAL SHAPES OR INGOT FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Important Questions about "Diploma Mills" and "Accreditation Mills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet discusses "diploma mills" and "accreditation mills," dubious providers of educational offerings or operations that offer certificates and degrees that are considered bogus. Because it is not always easy to identify these operations, questions are provided to help the potential student determine whether a provider is a diploma mill…

  14. 1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village area of LaGrange at 613 Arthur St. The saltbox house form is unusual in the LaGrange area and perhaps indicates the influence of Northern investors. - 613 Arthur Street (House), 613 Arthur Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  15. Environmental and cost life cycle assessment of disinfection options for municipal wastewater treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the data collection, analysis, and results for a base case wastewater treatment (WWT) plant reference model. The base case is modeled after the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati (MSDGC) Mill Creek Plant. The plant has an activated sludge s...

  16. The effects of pulp mill effluent on the sex steroid binding protein in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C catostomus).

    PubMed

    Pryce-Hobby, A C; McMaster, M E; Hewitt, L M; Van Der Kraak, G

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pulp mill effluent on the properties of the sex steroid binding protein (SBP) in the plasma of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (C. catostomus). SBPs which specifically bind estradiol and testosterone with high affinity (k(D) approximately 3 nM) and low capacity (B(max) approximately 73-81 nM) were identified in both species. Subsequent studies determined if the properties of the SBP in white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) at Terrace Bay, ON, and in longnose sucker exposed to BKME at Grande Prairie, AB. differed from appropriate reference fish. There were no effects of BKME exposure on the binding affinity (k(D)) of the SBP in either species, but there was a significant increase in the binding capacity (B(max)) of longnose sucker SBP exposed to BKME. The livers of nai;ve white sucker exposed to effluent at Terrace Bay or a bleached sulfite/groundwood mill in Edmundston, NB, rapidly accumulated compounds of differing hydrophobicity that bound to both the white sucker and goldfish (Carassius auratus) SBP. Conversely, there was reduced accumulation of SBP ligands in the bile of effluent-exposed fish. We have demonstrated that constituents present within pulp mill effluent bind to both the white sucker and goldfish SBP, and that native species residing downstream of pulp mill effluents may experience modifications in the properties of their SBP. PMID:12600684

  17. Methods for Facilitating Microbial Growth on Pulp Mill Waste Streams and Characterization of the Biodegradation Potential of Cultured Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L.; Ayoub, Ali S.; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  18. Methods for facilitating microbial growth on pulp mill waste streams and characterization of the biodegradation potential of cultured microbes.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Ayoub, Ali S; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  19. Effects of olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) on the frog larvae.

    PubMed

    Inceli, Ahmet Levent; Sengezer-Inceli, Meliha

    2012-08-01

    In this research, acute effect of the olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW) on the frog larvae has been studied. Larvae showed hyperactivity symptoms first and loss of balance and remained motionless due to toxicity of wastewater. Toxicity was observed between 2 and 159 min depending on the test concentrations. Upon removing the phenolic compounds from the OMWW, this effect was seen after 248 min. Potential effects of the OMWW in Lake Iznik were also researched. Salinity of the lake water changed from 0.2 ‰ to 0.0 ‰ respectively in the measurements done in May and December. PMID:22653307

  20. Mill recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Musto, R.L.

    1984-10-23

    A mill recirculation system that is operative for purposes of effecting the pulverization and firing of solid fuels, while yet possessing all of the desirable features of a direct fired system. The subject system includes pulverizer means classifier means and burner means as well as a preestablished fluid flow path by which the pulverizer means and the classifier means are interconnected in fluid flow relation with the burner means. In accord with the mode of operation of the subject mill recirculation system a stream of solid fuel is made to flow along the fluid flow path such that the solid fuel is pulverized in the pulverizer means, classified according to particle size in the classifier means and fired in the burner means. Further, a stream of a suitable gaseous medium is made to flow along the flow path such that the gaseous medium is operative to cause the solid fuel to be conveyed therewith through the pulverizer means while being dried thereby and to be conveyed therewith from the pulverizer means to the classifier means. At the classifier means a separation is had of the stream of the gaseous medium such that a portion of the gaseous medium is recirculated along with the oversize solid fuel particles bach to the pulverizer means, while the remainder of the gaseous medium is operative to convey the solid fuel particles that are of the desired size from the classifier means to the burner means for burning, i.e., firing, in the latter.

  1. Investigative and management techniques for cement kiln dust and pulp and paper mill process wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    Knowledge of the characteristics of industrial process wastes allows for some innovative and cost savings techniques for investigating and managing these wastes over conventional methods. This paper explores examples of some of these techniques employed on cement kiln dust (CKD) and pulp and paper mill process waste. Similar to Portland Cement, unleached CKD contains free lime and sources of reactive silica and/or alumina. Thus, it can set up in the presence of water. Properly moisture conditioned CKD has been successfully used in Michigan as a landfill liner and cover material on closures of old CKD piles and newly permitted fills. In addition to its pozzolanic properties, CKD contains high concentrations of soluble salts, generating a leachate with high total dissolved solids concentrations. Surface and downhole geophysical methods employing electromagnetic conductivity have proven effective in delineating the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater plumes. At one paper mill in Alabama where dewatered filter cake had been placed in a lined solid waste facility, liquids that had migrated to the surface due to excessive gas pressures caused unstable working conditions at the surface. Large, vertical french drains and a horizontal drainage blanket consisting of geogrid and sand constructed over the existing waste resulted in dewatering and a substantial increase in waste stability, allowing a vertical expansion to proceed. At a kraft mill in the southeastern US, a geotechnical investigation of a lime mud pond revealed that the stability of the unit would increase by construction of an overlying dike, thereby allowing a vertical expansion to proceed. Finally, laboratory testing and modeling of the behavior of paper mill sludges indicates that they can be used as a landfill cover with permeabilities equivalent to or better than compacted clay.

  2. A method for detecting MFO induction by Japanese pulp mill effluents with chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kamaya, Yasushi

    1995-12-31

    As a biomarker of physiological responses in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents, mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction has been investigated by many researchers. The induction and/or inhibition of MFOs is generally affected by various factors of fish such as species, maturity, sex, size and spawning status, and by other environmental variables. Therefore, the method demands technical skills to get a constant result. In addition, the test is costly and also time consuming. In this paper, the authors propose a MFOs induction method using chick embryo, instead of fish, for the assessment of pulp mill effluent. The merits of this method are as follows; inexpensive and commercially available test organisms, easy maintenance of the organisms, no feeding, high uniformity of the developing stage, sensitive responses to xenobiotics, low sample volume requirements, easy testing of various samples at one time and minimal training. P450 1A1 has been found in the microsome of chick embryo. Metabolic function of the P450 1A1 can be regarded basically the same as that of fish. Small amount of xenobiotics, about 100 {micro}l, were injected into the air chamber of 16-day-old chick embryos. Liver microsomes were isolated 48 h after administration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined by the direct fluorimetric method. Using the chick embryo method, the authors analyzed various chloro-organics, model bleached kraft pulp mill effluents, model black liquor and several total effluents of Japanese pulp mills. Methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-TCDD were used as positive controls. In this paper, the authors will report the details of the chick embryo method and also some results of the assessment using the method.

  3. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  4. TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

  5. Hydrophobic properties conferred to Kraft pulp by a laccase-catalysed treatment with lauryl gallate.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Céline; Tapin-Lingua, Sandra; Elegir, Graziano; Petit-Conil, Michel; Baumberger, Stéphanie

    2013-09-10

    Hydrophobic properties were conferred to a high-lignin-content Kraft pulp by a laccase-catalysed treatment in the presence of lauryl gallate (LG). The treatment resulted in a two-fold increase in contact angle and conferred water absorption resistance to the pulp. Kappa number was increased, indicating that some phenolic compounds were incorporated in the pulp. A control treatment with LG alone did not affect water absorption, demonstrating that laccase was essential to attain these new properties. The loss of hydrophobicity after an acetone Soxhlet extraction highlighted that adsorbed acetone-soluble compounds played a key role in the properties. GC-FID and HPSEC-UV analysis of the acetone extract indicated the formation of dodecanol and different phenolic oligomers. SEM images showed the treatment-induced changes in the fibre network. Additional experiments with various reaction times and reactant concentrations highlighted the role of LG oxidation products in the introduction of absorption resistance. PMID:23876480

  6. Caustic stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in continuous kraft digesters due to process loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Leinonen, H.

    1999-07-01

    Loads of the continuous kraft digester have been determined during the start-up of the digester house. Loading was caused by the pressure of the proof test, the start-up pressures of the digester and, finally, the normal working pressure. The apparent threshold stress level in the base metal was greater than that achieved during the normal continuous cooking process but the level in the weld of the impregnation zone were exceeded due to the superposition of the tensile residual stresses. This two-axial tension is considered as the precondition for stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which was confirmed by fractography studies. The results showed, that SCC in the impregnation zone is possible only in the welds during the normal continuous cooking process. During the refill and blow phase of the digester the measured loading stress changes corresponded to the stresses of the proof test and increased the risk for SCC. Some procedures to avoid or minimize SCC are discussed.

  7. Use of xylanase in the TCF bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Roncero, B.; Vidal, T.; Torres, A.L.; Colom, J.F.

    1996-10-01

    Environmental pressures are forcing the pulp and paper industry to develop new technologies that reduce or eliminate the presence of various contaminants in bleaching plant effluents. Oxygen delignification techniques, replacement of elemental chlorine with chlorine dioxide, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and new agents as well as the use of xylanase enzymes for biobleaching, reduce o eliminate the production of chlorinated organic substances. This paper compares the sequence XOZP with OZP in the bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. It has been studied the influence of enzymatic treatment on the consumption of bleaching agents: ozone and hydrogen peroxide. Chemical, physical, optical and refining properties of pulps, as well as COD and colour of effluent are also studied. The xylanase treatment is positive and it is possible to manufacture fully bleached pulps at high brightness and viscosity without using chlorine compounds at a low ozone and hydrogen peroxide consumption.

  8. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed. PMID:26722814

  9. Molecular Characteristics of Kraft-AQ Pulping Lignin Fractionated by Sequential Organic Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2010-01-01

    Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter). In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules. PMID:21152286

  10. Kraft lignin biodegradation by Novosphingobium sp. B-7 and analysis of the degradation process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuehui; Chai, Liyuan; Tang, Chongjian; Yang, Zhihui; Zheng, Yu; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Huan

    2012-11-01

    This study focused on the biodegradation of kraft lignin (KL) by Novosphingobium sp. B-7 using KL as sole carbon source. Results revealed that Novosphingobium sp. B-7 reduced the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 34.7% in KL mineral salt medium after 7days of incubation. Additionally, the maximum activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) of 3229.8Ul(-1) and laccase (Lac) of 1275Ul(-1) were observed at 4th and 5th day, respectively. GC-MS analysis indicated that after incubated with Novosphingobium sp. B-7, low molecular weight alcohols and lignin-related monomer compounds such as ethanediol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and vanillic acid were formed in the system, which strongly confirmed the degradation of KL by Novosphingobium sp. B-7. PMID:22921251

  11. Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors: Effects of temperature and solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The Newtonian (zero shear rate) viscosities of four different softwood kraft black liquors from a four variable-two level factorially designed experiment for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations up to 84% and temperatures up to 140 C (413.2 K). Methods of measurement and estimation of zero shear rate viscosities from viscosity-shear rate data have been described and compared. The combination of the absolute reaction rates and free-volume concepts were used to express the relationship between the Newtonian viscosity and temperature. Attempts were made to obtain a generalized correlation for Newtonian viscosity as a function of temperature and solids concentrations. The results of this model and results of the previous empirical correlation have been compared and discussed.

  12. Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals in coconut trees near Nanjangud, mysore district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, M. Sharif; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P. N.; Muthanna, Lata

    1991-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater from one of the paper mills near Nanjangud and the differential accumulation of heavy metals in parts of coconut trees growing in the area irrigated directly by the wastewaters of a paper mill were investigated. The total dissolved and suspended solids of wastewater were 1,136.9 mg/l and 2,185.4 mg/l, respectively. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) expands and COD is beyond the tolerance limit proposed by Indian standards. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cd in coconut water, root, and leaf are higher than the limits suggested by World Health Organization. Survival of coconut trees irrigated by polluted waters indicates tolerance to toxic heavy metals. Since coconut forms part of human food chain, accumulation of toxic heavy metals may lead to organic disorders.

  13. Oxidation of lignin in eucalyptus kraft pulp by manganese peroxidase from Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M T; Sierra-Alvarez, R; Lema, J M; Feijoo, G; Field, J A

    2001-05-01

    The white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown in previous studies to cause high levels of kraft pulp bleaching and delignification under culture conditions in which manganese peroxidase (MnP) occurs as the dominant oxidative enzyme. In this study, the MnP of Bjerkadera was isolated and tested in vitro with eucalyptus oxygen-delignified kraft pulp (ODKP) based on measuring the reduction in kappa number as an indicator of lignin oxidation. The MnP preparation applied at 60 U/g pulp for 6 h caused a significant decrease of 11-13% in the kappa number in the ODKP under optimal conditions compared to parallel-incubated controls lacking enzyme. The effects of MnP dosage, Mn2+ concentration, organic acid buffer selection, pH and H2O2 addition were evaluated. The optimal Mn2+ concentration range for lignin oxidation in ODKP was 100-500 microM. In the presence of low oxalate concentrations (0.3-2 mM) the Bjerkandera MnP also significantly reduced the kappa number of ODKP by 6% without any Mn. This observation is in agreement with the fact that purified Bjerkandera MnP has Mn-independent activities. Under incubation conditions with added Mn2+, buffers composed of metal-complexing organic acids provided two-fold better kappa number reductions compared to the inert acetic acid. The optimal H2O2 dosage was found to be 0.017 micromol/min ml when added as semi-continuous pulses (every 30 min) or 0.2 micromol/min ml when generated continuously by glucose oxidase. Excess H2O2 caused severe inactivation of MnP during the incubations. Factors that improved the turnover of the enzyme, such as Mn2+ and metal-chelating acids, stabilized MnP against rapid inactivation. PMID:11265791

  14. Effect of biological treatment on pulp mill effluent chemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, L.E.; Bousquet, T.E.; Cook, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the last 20 years, detailed characterizations of pulping and bleaching wastewaters have been performed identifying a large variety of chemical by-products. However, formation in the process does not translate into discharge into the environment. Pulp and paper mills in the US almost uniformly practice biological treatment. Although initially implemented for BOD removal, biological treatment is also responsible for removing or reducing many classes of compounds. This paper will briefly review the literature related to the characterization of process versus biologically treated wastewaters. Data on specific removal efficiencies for these compounds will be summarized and discussed. mechanisms of removal (such as biological degradation or transformation, sorption or volatilization) for selected compounds will be discussed. Examples of mass emission rates for volatiles, resin and fatty ,acids, plant sterols, mono-terpenes (and related compounds), chlorinated and non-chlorinated phenolics and other cellulose degradation products will be presented. Factors influencing the discharge rates such as pulping and bleaching practices, geographical location of the mills and wood species being pulped will be discussed.

  15. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice... (percent) Removed by a 5 plate 3 (percent) Removed by a 6 plate 3 (percent) Through a 6 sieve 3...

  16. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...) (percent) Chalky kernels 1,2 In long grain rice (percent) In medium or short grain rice (percent)...

  17. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni) growth and sexual maturation in pulp mill-contaminated and reference rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, M.M.; Bussieres, D.; Dodson, J.J. ); Hodson, P.V. )

    1995-02-01

    Induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and accumulation of chlorophenolic compounds typical of bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in fish sampled downstream of a pulp mill on the St. Maurice River, Quebec, Canada, provided evidence of chemical exposure to BKME. In comparison, fish sampled over the same distances and in similar habitats in a noncontaminated reference river, the Gatineau River, demonstrated low EROD activity and contamination levels. Accelerated growth of white suckers occurred between 2 and 10 years of age in both rivers at downstream stations relative to upstream stations, suggesting the existence of gradients of nutrient enrichment independent of BKME contamination. The impact of BKME exposure was expressed as reduced investment in reproduction, as revealed by greater length at maturity, reduced gonad size, and more variable fecundity. These effects were not obvious in simple upstream-downstream comparisons, but became evident when fish from the uncontaminated Gatineau River showed increased gonadal development and reduced age and size at maturity in response to enhanced growth rates.

  19. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, John E

    2007-08-01

    Comprehensive surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals were used to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO,) and nitrogen oxides (NO.) emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Over the 25-yr period, paper production increased by 50%, whereas total SO, emissions declined by 60% to 340,000 short tons (t) and total NO, emissions decreased approximately 15% to 230,000 t. The downward emission trends resulted from a combination of factors, including reductions in oil and coal use, steadily declining fuel sulfur content, lower pulp and paper production in recent years, increased use of flue gas desulfurization systems on boilers, growing use of combustion modifications and add-on control systems to reduce boiler and gas turbine NO, emissions, and improvements in kraft recovery furnace operations. PMID:17824280

  20. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  1. A new process for the management of olive oil mill waste water and recovery of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Agalias, Apostolis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos; Spanos, Ioannis; Manios, Thrasyvoulos

    2007-04-01

    The high polyphenol content of the wastewater is the major environmental problem caused by the olive mills. A pilot scale system for the treatment of the olive oil mills wastewater was developed aiming at the recovery of high added value-contained polyphenols and the reduction of the environmental problems. The treatment system consists of three main successive sections: The first one includes successive filtration stages aiming at the gradual reduction of the wastewater suspended solids up to a limit of 25 microm. The second section includes passing of the filtered wastewater through a series of adsorbent resins (XAD16 and XAD7HP) in order to achieve the de-odoring and decolorization of the wastewater and the removal/ recovery of the polyphenol and lactone content. The third section of the procedure includes the thermal evaporation and recovery of the organic solvents mixture, which has been used in the resin regeneration process, and finally the separation of the polyphenols and other organic substance contents using fast centrifuge partition chromatography. The final outcome of the whole procedure is (i) an odorless yellowish wastewater with a 99.99% reduced content in polyphenols and 98% reduced COD, (ii) an extract rich in polyphenols and lactones with high antioxidant activity and high added value, (iii) an extract containing the coloring substances of the olive fruit, and (iv) pure hydroxytyrosol. PMID:17348673

  2. Wastewater reuse in Italy.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Cirelli, G L; Indelicato, S

    2001-01-01

    In many parts of Italy, particularly in the South, it has become ever more difficult to meet the water demand. The recent years of drought and the constant increase of water demand for the civil sector have made irrigation supply more problematic. Wastewater reuse could represent a viable solution to meet water demand. The focus of this paper is on the regulation problems, hampering the development of wastewater reuse for irrigation, and on the potentials for reuse, particularly in Southern Italy. Planned exploitation of municipal wastewater could help meeting the irrigation water demand particularly in Southern Italy, where farmers have been practising uncontrolled wastewater reuse for a long time. In Northern and Central Italy, where available water resources generally meet water needs for different purposes, wastewater reuse could play an important role in controlling the pollution of water bodies. Despite the fact that Italian legislation is extremely strict and outdated, for several years in some regions, such as Sicily, wastewater reuse systems have been in operation; furthermore, several projects of wastewater reuse are currently in progress. PMID:11436802

  3. Modification of Kraft Lignin to Expose Diazobenzene Groups: Toward pH- and Light-Responsive Biobased Polymers.

    PubMed

    Duval, Antoine; Lange, Heiko; Lawoko, Martin; Crestini, Claudia

    2015-09-14

    A pH- and light-responsive polymer has been synthesized from softwood kraft lignin by a two-step strategy that aimed to incorporate diazobenzene groups. Initially, styrene oxide was reacted with the phenolic hydroxyl groups in lignin, to offer the attachment of benzene rings, thus creating unhindered reactive sites for further modifications. The use of advanced spectroscopic techniques ((1)H and (31)P NMR, UV and FTIR) demonstrated that the reaction was quantitative and selective toward the phenolic hydroxyl groups. In a second step, the newly incorporated benzene rings were reacted with a diazonium cation to form the target diazobenzene motif, whose formation was again thoroughly verified. As anticipated, the diazobenzene-containing kraft lignin derivatives showed a pH-dependent color change in solution and light-responsive properties resulting from the cis-trans photoisomerization of the diazobenzene group. PMID:26288366

  4. Electrocoagulation of industrial wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, C.W.

    1997-12-31

    A wide variety of contaminants (heavy metals, suspended solids, colloids, emulsified oils, organics, radionuclides) have been successfully removed from wastewater and groundwater using and electrocoagulation process. An innovative electrocoagulation system is described. This process involves a procedure which subjects dissolved and suspended wastewater contaminants to the simultaneous addition of metal ions in the presence of direct current. During the treatment process ionic and other charged particles in the wastewater are neutralized with oppositely charged ions generating the coagulation of contaminants. Several case studies are presented. The process is called CURE.

  5. Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

    2013-12-15

    Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 μg/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high. PMID:24211569

  6. Development of a combined piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor using a chemical protective coating for Kraft pulp digester process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza R.; Bennington, Chad P. J.; Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor for multiphase chemical reactors, primarily Kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures up to 175 °C, reaching a local maximum of 180 °C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The absolute piezoresistive pressure sensor consisted of a large square silicon diaphragm (1000 × 1000 µm2) and high resistance piezoresistors (10 000 Ω). A 4500 Ω buried piezoresistive wire was patterned on the silicon chip to form a piezoresistive temperature sensor which was used for pressure sensor compensation and temperature measurement. A 4 µm thick Parylene HT® coating, a chemically resistant epoxy and a silicone conformal coating were deposited to passivate the pressure sensor against the caustic environment in Kraft digesters. The sensors were characterized up to 2 MPa and 180 °C in an environment chamber. A maximum thermal error of ±0.72% full-scale output (FSO), an average sensitivity of 0.116 mV (V kPa)-1 and a power consumption of 0.3 mW were measured in the pressure sensor. The sensors' resistances were measured before and after test in a Kraft pulping cycle and showed no change in their values. SEM pictures and topographical surfaces were also analyzed before and after pulp liquor exposure and showed no observable changes.

  7. A potential resource for bioconversion of domestic wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Molla, A H; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Abd-Aziz, S; Hanafi, M M; Roychoudhury, P K; Alam, M Z

    2002-12-01

    Twenty seven filamentous fungal strains representing five genera; Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Myriodontium and Pleurotus were isolated from four sources; domestic wastewater sludge cake (SC) from IWK (Indah Water Konsortium) wastewater treatment plant, palm oil mill effluent compost from Sri Ulu palm Oil Processing Mill, compost of plant debris, and fungal fruiting bodies from a rotten wood stump. Thirty-three strains/isolates were tested for their ability to convert domestic wastewater sludge into compost by assessing biomass production and growth rate on sludge enriched media. The strains/isolates Aspergillus niger, SS-T2008, WW-P1003 and RW-P1 512 produced the highest dry biomass at higher sludge supplemented culture media from their respective group (Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Basidiomycetes, respectively). This implied these strains are better adapted for growth at higher sludge rich substances, and subsequently may be efficient in bioconversion/biodegradation of sludge. The fungi isolated from ecological closely related sources were more amendable to adaptation in a sludge rich culture media. PMID:12365494

  8. Modeling total reduced sulfur and sulfur dioxide emissions from a kraft recovery boiler using an artificial neural network, and, Investigating volatile organic compounds in an urban intermountain valley using a TD/GC/MS methodology and intrinsic tracer molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Christopher Louis

    2000-11-01

    Back-propagation neural networks were trained to predict total reduced sulfur (TRS) and SO2 emissions from kraft recovery boiler operational data. A 0.721 coefficient of correlation was achieved between actual and predicted sulfur emissions on test data withheld from network training. The artificial neural network (ANN) models found an inverse, linear relationship between TRS/SO2 emissions and percent opacity. A number of relationships among operating parameters and sulfur emissions were identified by the ANN models. These relationships were used to formulate strategies for reducing sulfur emissions. Disagreement between ANN model predictions on a subsequent data set revealed an additional scenario for sulfur release not present in the training data. ANN modeling was demonstrated to be an effective tool for analyzing process variables when balancing productivity and environmental concerns. Five receptor sites distributed in the Missoula Valley, Montana, were employed to investigate possible VOC (benzene, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, naphthalene, acetone, chloroform, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) sources. The most dominant source of VOCs was found to be vehicle emissions. Furthermore, anthropogenic sources of terpenoids overwhelmed biogenic emissions, on a local scale. Difficulties correlating wind direction and pollutant levels could be explained by wind direction variability, low wind speed and seasonally dependent meteorological factors. Significant evidence was compiled to support the use of p-cymene as a tracer molecule for pulp mill VOC emissions. Apportionment techniques using o-xylene and p-cymene as tracers for automobile and pulp mill emissions, respectively, were employed to estimate each source's VOC contribution. Motor vehicles were estimated to contribute between 56 and 100 percent of the aromatic pollutants in the Missoula Valley airshed, depending upon the sampling location. Pulp mill emissions

  9. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  10. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  11. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  12. 7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND MECHANIC SHED. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  13. 8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  14. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. PMID:25607676

  15. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  16. Noise exposure in oil mills

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. V. Prasanna; Dewangan, K. N.; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-01-01

    Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis

  17. Kraft lignin/silica-AgNPs as a functional material with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Rzemieniecki, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Malina, Dagmara; Norman, Małgorzata; Zdarta, Jakub; Majchrzak, Izabela; Dobrowolska, Anna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2015-10-01

    Advanced functional silica/lignin hybrid materials, modified with nanosilver, were obtained. The commercial silica Syloid 244 was used, modified with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to increase its chemical affinity to lignin. Similarly, kraft lignin was oxidized using a solution of sodium periodate to activate appropriate functional groups on its surface. Silver nanoparticles were grafted onto the resulting silica/lignin hybrids. The systems obtained were comprehensively tested using available techniques and methods, including transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. An evaluation was also made of the electrokinetic stability of the systems with and without silver nanoparticles. Conclusions were drawn concerning the chemical nature of the bonds between the precursors and the effectiveness of the method of binding nanosilver to the hybrid materials. The antimicrobial activity of the studied materials was tested against five species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of silver nanoparticles to the silica/lignin hybrids led to inhibition of the growth of the analyzed bacteria. The best results were obtained against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dangerous human pathogen. PMID:26204502

  18. Preparation of porous carbons from polymeric precursors modified with acrylated kraft lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.

    2016-04-01

    The presented studies concern the preparation of porous carbons from a BPA.DA-St polymer containing acrylated kraft lignin as a monomer. The porous polymeric precursor in the form of microspheres was synthesized in suspension polymerization process. Next samples of the polymer were impregnated with acetic acid or aqueous solution of acetates (potassium or ammonia), dried and carbonised in nitrogen atmosphere at 450°C. After carbonization microspherical shape of the materials was remained, that is desired feature for potential application in chromatography or SPE technique. Chemical and textural properties of the porous carbon adsorbents were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetry analyses with mass spectrometry of released gases (TG-MS) and nitrogen sorption experiments. The presented studies revealed the impregnation is useful method for development of porous structure of carbonaceous materials. The highest values of porous structure parameters were obtained when acetic acid and ammonium acetate were used as impregnating substances. On the surface of the materials oxygen functional groups are present that is important for specific interactions during sorption processes. The highest contents of functionalities were observed for carbon BPA.DA-St-LA-C-AcNH4.

  19. Use of cellulases and recombinant cellulose binding domains for refining TCF kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edith M; Chriac, A Iulia; Pastor, F I Javier; Diaz, Pilar; Vidal, Teresa; Torres, Antonio L

    2010-01-01

    The modular endoglucanase Cel9B from Paenibacillus barcinonensis is a highly efficient biocatalyst, which expedites pulp refining and reduces the associated energy costs as a result. In this work, we set out to identify the specific structural domain or domains responsible for the action of this enzyme on cellulose fibre surfaces with a view to facilitating the development of new cellulases for optimum biorefining. Using the recombinant enzymes GH9-CBD3c, Fn3-CBD3b, and CBD3b, which are truncated forms of Cel9B, allowed us to assess the individual effects of the catalytic, cellulose binding, and fibronectin-like domains of the enzyme on the refining of TCF kraft pulp from Eucalyptus globulus. Based on the physico-mechanical properties obtained, the truncated form containing the catalytic domain (GH9-CBD3c) has a strong effect on fibre morphology. Comparing its effect with that of the whole cellulase (Cel9B) revealed that the truncated enzyme contributes to increasing paper strength through improved tensile strength and burst strength and also that the truncated form is more effective than the whole enzyme in improving tear resistance. Therefore, the catalytic domain of Cel9B has biorefining action on pulp. Although cellulose binding domains (CBDs) are less efficient toward pulp refining, evidence obtained in this work suggests that CBD3b alters fibre surfaces and influences paper properties as a result. PMID:20730755

  20. Wet strength improvement of unbleached kraft pulp through laccase catalyzed oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lund, M; Felby, C

    2001-06-01

    Previous investigations have shown that laccase catalyzed oxidation of lignin containing wood fibers can enhance the strength of medium density fiberboards. In the present work it was investigated if laccase treatment had any impact on the tensile strength of a high yield unbleached kraft pulp. Treatment with laccase alone had only a very little effect on the wet strength of the pulp, whereas addition of lignin rich extractives increased the wet strength after the enzyme treatment significantly. A mediated oxidation gave a similar improvement of the wet tensile strength although no lignin was added to the fiber suspension. Furthermore, it was found that a heat treatment combined with a mediated oxidation gave a higher improvement in wet tensile strength than could be accounted for by the individual treatments. No change in dry tensile strength from the laccase treatment was observed. It is suggested that the observed improvement in wet tensile strength is related to polymerization of lignin on fibers in the hand sheet and/or coupling of phenoxy radicals on lignin associated to adjacent fibers. For the different mediators studied, a correlation was found between oxygen consumption upon mediated oxidation and generation of wet strength in the pulp. PMID:11397456