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Sample records for kriis tnis kanger

  1. Molecular evolution of troponin I and a role of its N-terminal extension in nematode locomotion.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Dawn E; Hwang, Hyundoo; Ono, Kanako; Lu, Hang; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-03-01

    The troponin complex, composed of troponin T (TnT), troponin I (TnI), and troponin C (TnC), is the major calcium-dependent regulator of muscle contraction, which is present widely in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Little is known about evolutionary aspects of troponin in the animal kingdom. Using a combination of data mining and functional analysis of TnI, we report evidence that an N-terminal extension of TnI is present in most of bilaterian animals as a functionally important domain. Troponin components have been reported in species in most of representative bilaterian phyla. Comparison of TnI sequences shows that the core domains are conserved in all examined TnIs, and that N- and C-terminal extensions are variable among isoforms and species. In particular, N-terminal extensions are present in all protostome TnIs and chordate cardiac TnIs but lost in a subset of chordate TnIs including vertebrate skeletal-muscle isoforms. Transgenic rescue experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle show that the N-terminal extension of TnI (UNC-27) is required for coordinated worm locomotion but not in sarcomere assembly and single muscle-contractility kinetics. These results suggest that N-terminal extensions of TnIs are retained from a TnI ancestor as a functional domain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26849746

  2. Development of the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Mercier, E.; Sannie, G.; Viesti, G.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Fabris, D.; Zenoni, A.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Fontana, A.; Boghen, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Moszynski, M.; Batsch, T.; Gierlik, M.; Woski, D.; Klamra, W.; Isaksson, P.; Le Tourneur, P.; Lhuissier, M.; Colonna, A.; Tintori, C.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.; Salvato, M.

    2007-08-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project is part of the 6th European Union Framework Program. It aims at developing a Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) to detect illicit materials, such as explosives and narcotics, in cargo containers. Fast neutron induced reactions produce specific gamma-rays used to determine the chemical composition of the inspected material. The associated particle technique is employed to precisely locate the interaction points of the neutrons. A new deuterium-tritium neutron generator has been developed, including a pixelized alpha particle detector. The TNIS also comprises high-efficiency fast neutron and gamma-ray detectors, a dedicated front-end electronics and an integrated software to entirely drive the system and automatically process the data. Most components have been integrated during last months at Institute Ruder Boskovic, in Zagreb, Croatia. An overview of the TNIS and of its preliminary performances is presented.

  3. Nerve-responsive troponin I slow promoter does not respond to unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. S.; Hodgson, V. R.; Hardeman, E. C.; Booth, F. W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the regulation of the troponin I slow (TnIs) promoter during skeletal muscle unloading-induced protein isoform transition, by using a transgenic mouse line harboring the -4,200 to +12 base pairs region of the human TnIs promoter. Eighteen female transgenic mice ( approximately 30 g body mass) were randomly divided into two groups: weight-bearing (WB) controls (n = 9) and hindlimb unloaded (HU; n = 9). The HU mice were tail suspended for 7 days. Body mass was unchanged in the WB group but was reduced (-6%; P < 0.05) after the HU treatment. Absolute soleus muscle mass (-25%) and soleus mass relative to body mass (-16%) were both lower (P < 0.05) in the HU group compared with the WB mice. Northern blot analyses indicate that 7 days of HU result in a 64% decrease (P < 0.05) in the abundance of endogenous TnIs mRNA (microg/mg muscle) in the mouse soleus. Furthermore, there is a trend for the abundance of the fast troponin I mRNA to be increased (+34%). Analysis of transgenic chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in the soleus muscle revealed no difference (P > 0.05) between WB and HU groups. We conclude that additional elements are necessary for the TnIs gene to respond to an unloading-induced, slow-to-fast isoform transition stimulus.

  4. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.; Salvato, M.; Moszynski, M.; Gierlik, M.; Klamra, W.; Le Tourneur, P.; Lhuissier, M.; Colonna, A.; Tintori, C.

    2007-10-01

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R&D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.

    2007-10-26

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. 2250-MHz High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier (HEMPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. Herbert; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Tnis paper will focus on developing an exotic switching technique that enhances the DC-to-RF conversion efficiency of microwave power amplifiers. For years, switching techniques implemented in the 10 kHz to 30 MHz region have resulted in DC-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 90-95-percent. Currently amplifier conversion efficiency, in the 2-3 GHz region approaches, 10-20-percent. Using a combination of analytical modeling and hardware testing, a High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier was built that demonstrated conversion efficiencies four to five times higher than current state of the art.

  7. RDA Requirements For Optimum Hybrid Focal Plane Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, S. B.; Emmons, R. B.; Hawkins, S. R.

    1982-06-01

    In analyzing the performance of direct-injected hybrid focal plane arrays, many factors must be consiaered in determining the minimum detector resistance-area product RDA neces-sary to obtain background-limited performance (BLIP) and good array uniformity. In photo-aioue arrays, a necessary but not sufficient condition is that noise due to the diode generation-recombination and diffusion currents are less than the background photon shot noise. Tnis places a minimum requirement on the magnitude of RoA, the zero bias resistance area product. In addition, there are generally much more stringent requirements on RDA uue to input MOSFET l/f noise and threshold variations which exceed the single detector RoA requirement for BLIP operation at a given background. In general, the input thresnolu variations require that the photodiodes be somewhat back-biased. This produces a substantially higner average RDA at the expense of higher detector l/f noise due to surface leakage. In tnis study we have investigated the detector impedance requirements in terms of tne injection efficiency, threshold nonuniformities, the input MOSFET excess (l/f) noise, and tne detector excess noise. For state-of-the-art parameters, it was determined tnat tne input MOSFET l/f noise always dominates the other elements in determining the required detector impeaance:k

  8. Simulation of a tagged neutron inspection system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzella, A.; Boghen, G.; Bonomi, G.; Fontana, A.; Formisano, P.; Pesente, S.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.; Zenoni, A.

    2006-05-01

    The illicit trafficking of explosive materials in cargo containers has become, in recent years, a serious problem. Currently used X-ray or γ-ray based systems provide only limited information about the elemental composition of the inspected cargo items. During the last years, a new neutron interrogation technique, named TNIS (Tagged Neutron Inspection System), has been developed, which should permit to determine the chemical composition of the suspect item by coincidence measurements between alpha particles and photons produced. A prototype of such a system for container inspection has been built, at the Institute Ruder Boskovic (IRB) in Zagreb, Croatia, for the European Union 6FP EURITRACK project. We present the results of a detailed simulation of the IRB prototype performed with the MCNP Monte Carlo program and a comparison with beam attenuation calculations performed with GEANT3/MICAP. Detector signals, rates and signal over background ratios have been calculated for 100 kg of TNT explosive located inside a cargo container filled with a metallic matrix of density 0.2 g/cm3. The case of an organic filling material is discussed too.

  9. Spectroscopic and ITC study of the conformational change upon Ca{sup 2+}-binding in TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide complex from Akazara scallop striated muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Ojima, Takao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2008-04-25

    Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) troponin C (TnC) of striated adductor muscle binds only one Ca{sup 2+} ion at the C-terminal EF-hand motif (Site IV), but it works as the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent regulator in adductor muscle contraction. In addition, the scallop troponin (Tn) has been thought to regulate muscle contraction via activating mechanisms that involve the region spanning from the TnC C-lobe (C-lobe) binding site to the inhibitory region of the TnI, and no alternative binding of the TnI C-terminal region to TnC because of no similarity between second TnC-binding regions of vertebrate and the scallop TnIs. To clarify the Ca{sup 2+}-regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction by scallop Tn, we have analyzed the Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties of the complex of TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide, and their interaction using isothermal titration microcalorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that single Ca{sup 2+}-binding to the Site IV leads to a structural transition not only in Site IV but also Site III through the structural network in the C-lobe of scallop TnC. We therefore assumed that the effect of Ca{sup 2+}-binding must lead to a change in the interaction mode between the C-lobe of TnC and the TnI peptide. The change should be the first event of the transmission of Ca{sup 2+} signal to TnI in Tn ternary complex.