Science.gov

Sample records for krishnan rajeshwar rob

  1. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  2. Wasps robbing food from ants: a frequent behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Louis; Hespenheide, Henry; Dejean, Alain

    2007-12-01

    Food robbing, or cleptobiosis, has been well documented throughout the animal kingdom. For insects, intrafamilial food robbing is known among ants, but social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae) taking food from ants has, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported. In this paper, we present two cases involving social wasps robbing food from ants associated with myrmecophytes. (1) Polybioides tabida F. (Ropalidiini) rob pieces of prey from Tetraponera aethiops Smith (Formicidae; Pseudomyrmecinae) specifically associated with Barteria fistulosa Mast. (Passifloraceae). (2) Charterginus spp. (Epiponini) rob food bodies from myrmecophytic Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) exploited by their Azteca mutualists (Formicidae; Dolichoderinae) or by opportunistic ants (that also attack cleptobiotic wasps). We note here that wasps gather food bodies (1) when ants are not yet active; (2) when ants are active, but avoiding any contact with them by flying off when attacked; and (3) through the coordinated efforts of two to five wasps, wherein one of them prevents the ants from leaving their nest, while the other wasps freely gather the food bodies. We suggest that these interactions are more common than previously thought.

  3. Sugary food robbing in ants: a case of temporal cleptobiosis.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Dejean, Alain; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2004-05-01

    This study reports new information on interactions between Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae) and Crematogaster limata parabiotica (Myrmicinae). Workers of these sympatric arboreal ant species forage on the same pioneer trees. Diurnally, Ectatomma preyed on Crematogaster workers that avoided overt aggression by respecting a 'safe distance'. At night, Crematogaster initiated raids within the Ectatomma nests that they apparently left with their abdomen empty, then remained near the nest entrances where they successfully intercepted 75.2% of the returning Ectatomma foragers (N = 322). Certain intercepted workers rapidly resumed their return trip. Others (39.1%) were stopped, explored and licked during a long time by the Crematogaster. Most of them were carrying between their mandibles a droplet of liquid food that was stolen. This relationship, that appears to be a typical case of interspecific cleptobiosis, whose expression varies during the daytime, demonstrates for the first time sugary-food robbing, instead of prey robbing, in ants. PMID:15255481

  4. Floral nectar guide patterns discourage nectar robbing by bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anne S; Brent, Joshua; Papaj, Daniel R; Dornhaus, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant's reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called "nectar robbing" because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees' (Bombus impatiens) propensity to rob or access nectar "legitimately." We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees' flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant. PMID:23418475

  5. Missile and aircraft field test data acquired with the rapid optical beam steering (ROBS) sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Bruce; Dunn, Murray; Herr, David W.; Hyman, Howard; Leslie, Daniel H.; Lovern, Michael G.

    1997-08-01

    The ROBS instrument has recently acquired unique imagery of a missile intercepting an airborne drone target. We present a summary of that mission. We also present imagery of three airborne targets collected while the ROBS instrument simultaneously tracked all three aircraft. The recent test data highlights the capability of the ROBS instrument for autonomous acquisition, tracking, and imaging of multiple targets under field test conditions. We also describe improvements to the optical system currently underway.

  6. Paired ROBs: A Cost-Effective Reorder Buffer Sharing Strategy for SMT Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubal, R.; Sahuquillo, J.; Petit, S.; López, P.

    An important design issue of SMT processors is to find proper sharing strategies of resources among threads. This paper proposes a ROB sharing strategy, called paired ROB, that considers the fact that task parallelism is not always available to fully utilize resources of multithreaded processors. To this aim, an evaluation methodology is proposed and used for the experiments, which analyzes performance under different degrees of parallelism. Results show that paired ROBs are a cost-effective strategy that provides better performance than private ROBs for low task parallelism, whereas it incurs slight performance losses for high task parallelism.

  7. Spatio-temporal variation of nectar robbing in Salvia gesneriflora and its effects on nectar production and legitimate visitors.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, E; Rosas-Guerrero, V

    2016-01-01

    Nectar robbing occurs when floral visitors remove floral nectar through floral damage and usually without providing pollination in return. Even though nectar robbing may have negative, neutral or even positive effects on plant fitness, few studies have investigated temporal and spatial variation in robbing rate and their consequences, particularly in the tropics. In this study, robbing levels were estimated during 3 years in four populations of Salvia gesneriflora, a hummingbird-pollinated shrub endemic to central Mexico that is mainly robbed by birds, carpenter bees and bumblebees. The effect of robbing on nectar availability, flower longevity and on visitation rate by floral visitors was also evaluated. Our results indicate great variation in robbing levels across years and populations and a positive relationship between robbing level and flower abundance per population. Moreover, our results show that nectar availability is about eight times higher in unrobbed flowers than in robbed flowers, and that nectar robbers prefer younger flowers, although lifespan of robbed and unrobbed flowers did not differ statistically. Primary and secondary nectar robbers showed a higher visitation rate compared to legitimate visitors, and neither legitimate nor illegitimate floral visitors seem to discriminate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. These results suggest that robbers may respond to food availability and that no floral visitors apparently could differentiate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. Finally, results show that nectar robbers prefer the youngest flowers, which suggests that strong competition for access to nectar between pollinators and robbers might occur, mainly at the first stages of the flowers. PMID:25677960

  8. Floral Nectar Guide Patterns Discourage Nectar Robbing by Bumble Bees

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Anne S.; Brent, Joshua; Papaj, Daniel R.; Dornhaus, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant’s reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called “nectar robbing” because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees’ (Bombus impatiens) propensity to rob or access nectar “legitimately.” We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees’ flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant. PMID:23418475

  9. Realized tolerance to nectar robbing: compensation to floral enemies in Ipomopsis aggregata

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Rebecca E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Although the ecological and evolutionary consequences of foliar herbivory are well understood, how plants cope with floral damage is less well explored. Here the concept of tolerance, typically studied within the context of plant defence to foliar herbivores and pathogens, is extended to floral damage. Variation in tolerance to floral damage is examined, together with some of the mechanisms involved. Methods The study was conducted on Ipomopsis aggregata, which experiences floral damage and nectar removal by nectar-robbing bees. High levels of robbing can reduce seeds sired and produced by up to 50 %, an indirect effect mediated through pollinator avoidance of robbed plants. Using an experimental common garden with groups of I. aggregata, realized tolerance to robbing was measured. Realized tolerance included both genetic and environmental components of tolerance. It was hypothesized that both resource acquisition and storage traits, and traits involved in pollination would mitigate the negative effects of robbers. Key Results Groups of I. aggregata varied in their ability to tolerate nectar robbing. Realized tolerance was observed only through a component of male plant reproduction (pollen donation) and not through components of female plant reproduction. Some groups fully compensated for robbing while others under- or overcompensated. Evidence was found only for a pollination-related trait, flower production, associated with realized tolerance. Plants that produced more flowers and that had a higher inducibility of flower production following robbing were more able to compensate through male function. Conclusions Variation in realized tolerance to nectar robbing was found in I. aggregata, but only through an estimate of male reproduction, and traits associated with pollination may confer realized tolerance to robbing. By linking concepts and techniques from studies of plant–pollinator and plant–herbivore interactions, this work provides

  10. Impact of Striped-Squirrel Nectar-Robbing Behaviour on Gender Fitness in Alpinia roxburghii Sweet (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobao; Mohandass, Dharmalingam; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Hughes, Alice C; Roubik, David W

    2015-01-01

    Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness. PMID:26689684

  11. Impact of Striped-Squirrel Nectar-Robbing Behaviour on Gender Fitness in Alpinia roxburghii Sweet (Zingiberaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaobao; Mohandass, Dharmalingam; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Hughes, Alice C.; Roubik, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness. PMID:26689684

  12. Nectar robbing, forager efficiency and seed set: Bumblebees foraging on the self incompatible plant Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Jane C.; Allen, John A.; Goulson, Dave

    2000-07-01

    In southern England, Linaria vulgaris (common yellow toadflax) suffers from high rates of nectar robbery by bumblebees. In a wild population of L. vulgaris we found that 96 % of open flowers were robbed. Five species of bumblebee were observed foraging on these flowers, although short-tongued species ( Bombus lapidarius, B. lucorum and B. terrestris) robbed nectar whilst longer-tongued ones behaved as legitimate pollinators ( B. hortorum and B. pascuorum). Nectar rewards were highly variable; on average there was less nectar in robbed than in unrobbed flowers, but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of flowers containing no nectar was significantly higher for robbed flowers compared with unrobbed flowers. Secondary robbers and legitimate pollinators had similar handling times on flowers and, assuming they select flowers at random to forage on, received approximately the same nectar profit per minute, largely because most flowers had been robbed. There was no significant difference in the number of seeds in pods of robbed flowers and in pods of flowers that were artificially protected against robbing. However, more of the robbed flowers set at least some seed than the unrobbed flowers, possibly as a consequence of the experimental manipulation. We suggest that nectar robbing has little effect on plant fecundity because legitimate foragers are present in the population, and that seed predation and seed abortion after fertilization may be more important factors in limiting seed production in this species.

  13. Nectar Robbing Positively Influences the Reproductive Success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Chandan; Tandon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae) in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis) and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica) showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99%) by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree) and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout) than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout). The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population. PMID:25036554

  14. Building a Career in America's Community Colleges: Essays by Rob Jenkins from "The Chronicle of Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Errico, Deanna, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume collects essays Rob Jenkins originally wrote for "The Two-Year Track" column in "The Chronicle of Higher Education". Drawing on his own experience, Rob has, for many years, been dispensing much-appreciated advice from the frontline--to those considering a community college career as well as those who desire to move up the ranks. This…

  15. 78 FR 46598 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Rob Jaggers Camping Area Business Plan and Expanded Amenity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... comment. Before including your address, phone number, email address, or other personal identifying... Expanded Amenity Fee Schedule. The Rob Jaggers Camping Area is located in the Fort Stanton/Snowy River... services at the Rob Jaggers Camping Area located at the Fort Stanton/Snowy River National Conservation...

  16. Neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW) system in cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells: NPW and NPB inhibit proliferative activity of ROB cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-12-01

    Neuropeptides B (NPB) and W (NPW) have been identified as endogenous ligands of two G-protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 (NPBWR1, formerly known as GPR7) and neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 (NPBWR2, formerly known as GPR8). In rodents where NPBWR2 is absent, its counterpart is named the similar to neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 (similar to NPBWR2, formerly GPR8-like). Both NPB and NPW play a role in the control of feeding, neuroendocrine axis functions, memory and learning processes as well as in pain regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of NPB, NPW, NPBWR1 and the similar to NPBWR2 genes in cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells and the effects of both peptides on proliferative activity and osteocalcin secretion by ROB cells. Classic RT-PCR technique revealed the presence of ppNPB mRNA, ppNPW mRNA, and NPBWR1 mRNA, but not similar to NPBWR2 mRNA in ROB cells. QPCR revealed gradual (days 7, 14 and 21 of culture) increase of the ppNPB gene expression, while expression of ppNPW gene was the highest at day 14 and was comparable to that seen in freshly isolated cells. In ROB cells, expression of NPBWR1 gene was notable at day 7 of culture, lower at day 21, and negligible at day 14. Neither NPB nor NPW changed osteocalcin secretion by cultured osteoblast-like cells while both neuropeptides inhibited their proliferative activity. Results of the present study suggest that the systems of NPW, NPB and NPBWR1 directly regulate proliferative activity of cultured rat calvaria osteoblast-like cells. The physiological significance of this osteoblastic system remains unclear, and requires further investigation. PMID:19885618

  17. Robbing Peter to pay Paul: smarter re-allocation of dollars bring relief!

    PubMed

    Ledlow, Gerald R; Cwiek, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic tension facing health care organizations today is that of lower third-party payments and higher costs. The ever-present financial squeeze results in daily stressors for health care executives attempting to provide services with diminishing resources. How can one continue to "rob Peter to pay Paul," to make ends meet and stretch every dollar? PMID:12355621

  18. RobOKoD: microbial strain design for (over)production of target compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Natalie J.; Millard, Pierre; Swainston, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable production of target compounds such as biofuels and high-value chemicals for pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and chemical industries is becoming an increasing priority given their current dependency upon diminishing petrochemical resources. Designing these strains is difficult, with current methods focusing primarily on knocking-out genes, dismissing other vital steps of strain design including the overexpression and dampening of genes. The design predictions from current methods also do not translate well-into successful strains in the laboratory. Here, we introduce RobOKoD (Robust, Overexpression, Knockout and Dampening), a method for predicting strain designs for overproduction of targets. The method uses flux variability analysis to profile each reaction within the system under differing production percentages of target-compound and biomass. Using these profiles, reactions are identified as potential knockout, overexpression, or dampening targets. The identified reactions are ranked according to their suitability, providing flexibility in strain design for users. The software was tested by designing a butanol-producing Escherichia coli strain, and was compared against the popular OptKnock and RobustKnock methods. RobOKoD shows favorable design predictions, when predictions from these methods are compared to a successful butanol-producing experimentally-validated strain. Overall RobOKoD provides users with rankings of predicted beneficial genetic interventions with which to support optimized strain design. PMID:25853130

  19. Performance of ROB's near real-time ionospheric product during normal and disturbed space weather periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions

  20. Quantum accelerometer: Distinguishing inertial Bob from his accelerated twin Rob by a local measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dragan, Andrzej; Fuentes, Ivette; Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-15

    A single quantum system, such as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, can be used to determine absolute acceleration by local measurements on a quantum field. To show this, we consider two kinematically indistinguishable scenarios: an inertial observer, Bob, measuring the field of a uniformly accelerated cavity, and his noninertial twin, Rob, accelerating and making measurements in a stationary cavity. We find that these scenarios can be distinguished in the nonrelativistic regime only by measurements on highly excited massive fields, allowing one to detect the noninertialness of the reference frame.

  1. Quantum accelerometer: Distinguishing inertial Bob from his accelerated twin Rob by a local measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Andrzej; Fuentes, Ivette; Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-01

    A single quantum system, such as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, can be used to determine absolute acceleration by local measurements on a quantum field. To show this, we consider two kinematically indistinguishable scenarios: an inertial observer, Bob, measuring the field of a uniformly accelerated cavity, and his noninertial twin, Rob, accelerating and making measurements in a stationary cavity. We find that these scenarios can be distinguished in the nonrelativistic regime only by measurements on highly excited massive fields, allowing one to detect the noninertialness of the reference frame.

  2. MarRA, SoxSR, and Rob encode a signal dependent regulatory network in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kirti; Saini, Supreet

    2016-05-24

    When exposed to low concentrations of toxic chemicals, bacteria modulate the expression of a number of cellular processes. Typically, these processes include those related to porin production, dismutases, and metabolic fluxes. In Escherichia coli (E. coli), the expression of these systems is largely controlled by three homologous transcriptional regulators: MarA, SoxS, and Rob. Each of the three regulators responds to distinct chemical signals (salicylate for MarA; paraquat for SoxS; and bipyridyl for Rob) and controls the expression of an overlapping set of downstream targets. In addition, the three systems autoregulate their own expression, and cross-regulate each other's expression. Specifically, MarA is known to activate SoxS expression, and Rob is known to activate MarA expression. In addition, a number of conflicting regulatory interactions are known to exist between the three loci. Thus, the three systems encode a complex regulatory topology with multiple feedback loops, the precise nature of whose interactions or their significance in cellular physiology is not well understood currently. In this work, we focus on understanding the details of this crosstalk between the Mar-Sox-Rob systems in E. coli, and the resulting control and dynamics of the expression of cellular processes by studying gene expression at the population level and at single-cell resolution in wild type and mutants. Our results indicate that the regulatory architecture between MarA, SoxS, and Rob is dependent on the signal (inducer) present in the environment. The regulators, in response to an inducer, form a Feed Forward Loop (FFL), which leads to faster and stronger induction of target genes in the cell, consequently resulting in better cellular growth. Through the FFL, the cell is able to integrate qualitatively different signals in the network, and consequently, control cellular physiology. In addition, we present two intriguing dynamic features of the Mar-Sox-Rob regulon. First, in the

  3. Managing hydrological measurements for small and intermediate projects: RObsDat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusser, Dominik E.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological measurements need good management for the data not to be lost. Multiple, often overlapping files from various loggers with heterogeneous formats need to be merged. Data needs to be validated and cleaned and subsequently converted to the format for the hydrological target application. Preferably, all these steps should be easily tracable. RObsDat is an R package designed to support such data management. It comes with a command line user interface to support hydrologists to enter and adjust their data in a database following the Observations Data Model (ODM) standard by QUASHI. RObsDat helps in the setup of the database within one of the free database engines MySQL, PostgreSQL or SQLite. It imports the controlled water vocabulary from the QUASHI web service and provides a smart interface between the hydrologist and the database: Already existing data entries are detected and duplicates avoided. The data import function converts different data table designes to make import simple. Cleaning and modifications of data are handled with a simple version control system. Variable and location names are treated in a user friendly way, accepting and processing multiple versions. A new development is the use of spacetime objects for subsequent processing.

  4. Using Classroom Observations to Measure Teacher Effectiveness: Q&A with Rob Ramsdell. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this webinar, Mr. Rob Ramsdell, Vice President, Cambridge Education, discussed the use of classroom observations as one measure of teacher effectiveness in a comprehensive educator support system. Mr. Ramsdell presented research-based recommendations for improving the quality and rigor of classroom observations. This Q&A addressed the…

  5. Rethinking the Boundaries and Burdens of Parental Authority over Education: A Response to Rob Reich's Case Study of Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    Rob Reich's claim that fruitful discussions about the balance among state, parental, and children's educational interests would benefit by contemplating the widespread phenomenon of homeschooling is a welcome suggestion. His policy recommendations, however, place an unjustified burden on parents to show the adequacy of homeschooling arrangements…

  6. Analytic Calculation of Noise Power Robbing, NPR, and Polarization Isolation Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Robert; Woolner, Peter; Ekelman, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Three Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) R transponders (services) required analysis and measurements to develop an accurate link budget. These are a) Search and Rescue transponder which suffers from power robbing due to thermal uplink noise, b) the Data Collection Platform Report which suffers from degradation due to NPR (Noise Power Ratio), and c) GOES Rebroadcast transponder which uses a dual circular downlink L band for which there was no depolarization data. The first two services required development of extended link budget to analytically calculate the impact of these degradations which are shown to have a significant impact on the link budget. The third service required measurements of atmospheric L band CP depolarization as there were no known previous measurements and results are reported her

  7. TEM-1 AND ROB-1 PRESENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE STRAINS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  8. Behavioural differences between male and female carpenter bees in nectar robbing and its effect on reproductive success in Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, J-M; Yang, C-F; Gituru, W R

    2011-01-01

    Male and female nectar robbers may show significantly different behaviour on host plants and thus have different impacts on reproductive fitness of the plants. A 4-year study in natural populations of Glechoma longituba has shown that male carpenter bees (Xylocopa sinensis) are responsible for most of the nectar robbing from these flowers, while female bees account for little nectar robbing, demonstrating distinct behavioural differentiation between male and female bees in visiting flowers. The smaller male bee spends less time visiting a single flower than the larger female bee, consequently, the male bee is capable of visiting more flowers per unit time and has a higher foraging efficiency. Moreover, the robbing behaviour of female carpenter bees is more destructive and affects flower structures (ovules and nectaries) and floral life-span more than that of the male bee. According to the energy trade-off hypothesis, the net energy gain for male bees during nectar robbing greatly surpasses energy payout (17.72 versus 2.43 J), while the female bee net energy gain is barely adequate to meet energy payout per unit time (3.78 versus 2.39 J). The differences in net energy gain for male and female bees per unit time in nectar robbing are the likely cause of observed behavioural differences between the sexes. The differences in food resource preference between male and female bees constitute an optimal resource allocation pattern that enables the visitors to utilise floral resources more efficiently. PMID:21134084

  9. The consequences of direct versus indirect species interactions to selection on traits: pollination and nectar robbing in Ipomopsis aggregata.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Rebecca E

    2006-03-01

    Organisms experience a complex suite of species interactions. Although the ecological consequences of direct versus indirect species interactions have received attention, their evolutionary implications are not well understood. I examined selection on floral traits through direct versus indirect pathways of species interactions using the plant Ipomopsis aggregata and its pollinators and nectar robber. Using path analysis and structural equation modeling, I tested competing hypotheses comparing the relative importance of direct (pollinator-mediated) versus indirect (robber-mediated) interactions to trait selection through female plant function in 2 years. The hypothesis that provided the best fit to the observed data included robbing and pollination, suggesting that both interactors are important in driving selection on some traits; however, the direction and intensity of selection through robbing versus pollination varied between years. I then increased my scope of inference by assessing traits and species interactions across more years. I found that the potential for temporal variation in the direction and intensity of selection was pronounced. Taken together, results suggest that assessing the broader context in which organisms evolve, including both direct and indirect interactions and across multiple years, can provide increased mechanistic understanding of the diversity of ways that animals shape floral and plant evolution. PMID:16673341

  10. AraC/XylS family stress response regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Weingart, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses. PMID:24936054

  11. Water quality of Rob Roy Reservoir and Lake Owen, Albany County, and Granite Springs and Crystal Lake Reservoirs, Laramie County, Wyoming, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, Kathy Muller; Peterson, D.A.; Spillman, Bud; Padilla, Rosie

    1999-01-01

    The water quality of four reservoirs was assessed during 1997 and 1998 as a cooperative project between the Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities and the U. S. Geological Survey. The four reservoirs, Rob Roy, Lake Owen, Granite Springs, and Crystal Lake, provide approximately 75 percent of the public water supply for Cheyenne, Wyoming. Samples of water and bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for selected physical, chemical, and biological characteristics to provide data about the reservoirs. Water flows between the reservoirs through a series of pipelines and stream channels. The reservoirs differ in physical characteristics such as elevation, volume, and depth.Profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were examined. Three of the four reservoirs exhibited stratification during the summer. The profiles indicate that stratification develops in all reservoirs except Lake Owen. Stratification developed in Rob Roy, Granite Springs, and Crystal Lake Reservoirs by mid-July in 1998 and continued until September, with the thickness of the epilimnion increasing during that time. Secchi disk readings indicated Rob Roy Reservoir had the clearest water of the four reservoirs studied.The composition of the phytoplankton community was different in the upper two reservoirs from that in the lower two reservoirs. Many of the species found in Rob Roy Reservoir and Lake Owen are associated with oligotrophic, nutrient-poor conditions. In contrast, many of the species found in Granite Springs and Crystal Lake Reservoirs are associated with mesotrophic or eutrophic conditions. The total number of taxa identified also increased downstream.The chemical water type in the reservoirs was similar, but dissolved-solids concentrations were greater in the downstream reservoirs. Water in all four reservoirs was a calcium-bicarbonate type. In the fall of 1997, Rob Roy Reservoir had the lowest dissolved-solids concentration (19 milligrams per liter), whereas

  12. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by dexamethasone promotes adipocyte differentiation in mesenchymal progenitor cells, ROB-C26.

    PubMed

    Naito, Masako; Omoteyama, Kazuki; Mikami, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Tomihisa; Takagi, Minoru

    2012-12-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the mechanisms underlying Dex-induced differentiation have not been clearly elucidated. We examined the effect of Dex on the expression and activity of Wnt/β-catenin signal-related molecules in a clonal mesenchymal progenitor cell line, ROB-C26 (C26). Dex induced the mRNA expression of Wnt antagonists, dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), and Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF)-1. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that the downregulation of β-catenin protein expression by Dex occured concomitantly with the increased expression of the PPARγ protein. Dex decreased phosphorylation of Ser9-GSK3β and expression of active β-catenin protein. To examine the effects of Dex on Wnt/β-catenin activity, we used immunocytochemistry to analyze TCF/LEF-mediated transcription during Dex-induced adipogenesis in Wnt indicator (TOPEGFP) C26 cells. Our results demonstrated that Dex repressed TCF/LEF-mediated transcription, but induced adipocyte differentiation. Treatment with a GSK3β inhibitor attenuated Dex-induced inhibition of TCF/LEF-mediated transcriptional activity, but suppressed Dex-induced adipocyte differentiation, indicating that adipocyte differentiation and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin activity by Dex are mediated by GSK3β activity. Furthermore, β-catenin knockdown not only suppressed Dex-induced ALP-positive osteoblasts differentiation but also promoted Dex-induced adipocytes differentiation. These results suggest that inhibition of β-catenin expression by Dex promotes the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into adipocytes. PMID:22886144

  13. One-step "green" preparation of graphene nanosheets and carbon nanospheres mixture by electrolyzing graphite rob and its application for glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Meng, Xiaomeng; Shang, Kun; Ai, Shiyun

    2011-12-15

    The graphene nanosheets and carbon nanospheres mixture (GNS-CNS) was prepared by electrolyzing graphite rob in KNO(3) solution under constant current, which was characterized by TEM, AFM, SEM, FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TGA and UV-vis. The nano-mixture can keep stable in water for more than one month. Based on this kind of mixture material, a novel electrochemical biosensing platform for glucose determination was developed. Cyclic voltammetry of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on GNS-CNS/GCE exhibited a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at -0.488 V (E(pa)) and -0.509 V (E(pc)) by direct electron transfer between the protein and the electrode. The charge-transfer coefficient (α) was 0.51, the electron transfer rate constant was 2.64 s(-1) and the surface coverage of HRP was 3.18×10(-10) mol cm(-2). The immobilized GOD could retain its bioactivity and catalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen. The glucose biosensor has a linear range from 0.4 to 20 mM with detection limit of 0.1 mM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibits acceptable reproducibility and storage stability. The fabricated biosensor was further used to determine glucose in human plasma sample with the recoveries from 96.83% to 105.52%. Therefore, GOD/GNS-CNS/GCE could be promisingly applied to determine blood sugar concentration in the practical clinical analysis. PMID:21959225

  14. Novel blaROB-1-bearing plasmid conferring resistance to β-lactams in Haemophilus parasuis isolates from healthy weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Moleres, Javier; Santos-López, Alfonso; Lázaro, Isidro; Labairu, Javier; Prat, Cristina; Ardanuy, Carmen; González-Zorn, Bruno; Aragon, Virginia; Garmendia, Junkal

    2015-05-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glässer's disease, is one of the early colonizers of the nasal mucosa of piglets. It is prevalent in swine herds, and lesions associated with disease are fibrinous polyserositis and bronchopneumonia. Antibiotics are commonly used in disease control, and resistance to several antibiotics has been described in H. parasuis. Prediction of H. parasuis virulence is currently limited by our scarce understanding of its pathogenicity. Some genes have been associated with H. parasuis virulence, such as lsgB and group 1 vtaA, while biofilm growth has been associated with nonvirulent strains. In this study, 86 H. parasuis nasal isolates from farms that had not had a case of disease for more than 10 years were obtained by sampling piglets at weaning. Isolates were studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and determination of the presence of lsgB and group 1 vtaA, biofilm formation, inflammatory cell response, and resistance to antibiotics. As part of the diversity encountered, a novel 2,661-bp plasmid, named pJMA-1, bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase was detected in eight colonizing strains. pJMA-1 was shown to share a backbone with other small plasmids described in the Pasteurellaceae, to be 100% stable, and to have a lower biological cost than the previously described plasmid pB1000. pJMA-1 was also found in nine H. parasuis nasal strains from a separate collection, but it was not detected in isolates from the lesions of animals with Glässer's disease or in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates. Altogether, we show that commensal H. parasuis isolates represent a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogens or other bacteria. PMID:25747001

  15. Novel blaROB-1-Bearing Plasmid Conferring Resistance to β-Lactams in Haemophilus parasuis Isolates from Healthy Weaning Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Moleres, Javier; Santos-López, Alfonso; Lázaro, Isidro; Labairu, Javier; Prat, Cristina; Ardanuy, Carmen; González-Zorn, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glässer's disease, is one of the early colonizers of the nasal mucosa of piglets. It is prevalent in swine herds, and lesions associated with disease are fibrinous polyserositis and bronchopneumonia. Antibiotics are commonly used in disease control, and resistance to several antibiotics has been described in H. parasuis. Prediction of H. parasuis virulence is currently limited by our scarce understanding of its pathogenicity. Some genes have been associated with H. parasuis virulence, such as lsgB and group 1 vtaA, while biofilm growth has been associated with nonvirulent strains. In this study, 86 H. parasuis nasal isolates from farms that had not had a case of disease for more than 10 years were obtained by sampling piglets at weaning. Isolates were studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and determination of the presence of lsgB and group 1 vtaA, biofilm formation, inflammatory cell response, and resistance to antibiotics. As part of the diversity encountered, a novel 2,661-bp plasmid, named pJMA-1, bearing the blaROB-1 β-lactamase was detected in eight colonizing strains. pJMA-1 was shown to share a backbone with other small plasmids described in the Pasteurellaceae, to be 100% stable, and to have a lower biological cost than the previously described plasmid pB1000. pJMA-1 was also found in nine H. parasuis nasal strains from a separate collection, but it was not detected in isolates from the lesions of animals with Glässer's disease or in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates. Altogether, we show that commensal H. parasuis isolates represent a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogens or other bacteria. PMID:25747001

  16. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  17. Theoretical investigation on the bond dissociation enthalpies of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis using ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Duong, Tran; Pham, Linh Thuy; Nam, Pham Cam

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict the antioxidant property of phenolic compounds extracted from Artocarpus altilis. The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), and proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE) of the phenolic compounds have been computed. The ONIOM(ROB3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p):PM6) method is able to provide reliable evaluation for the BDE(Osbnd H) in phenolic compounds. An important property of antioxidants is determined via the BDE(Osbnd H) of those compounds extracted from A. altilis. Based on the BDE(Osbnd H), compound 12 is considered as a potential antioxidant with the estimated BDE value of 77.3 kcal/mol in the gas phase.

  18. A hydrostable and twofold interpenetrating three-dimensional zinc-organic framework with rob topology based on 4,4'-oxydibenzoate and 3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine ligands.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng Lan; Ma, De Yun; Qin, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of porous materials that have received widespread attention due to their potential applications in gas storage and/or separation, catalysis, luminescence, and so on. The title compound, poly[[(μ2-3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine-κ(2)N:N')bis(μ4-4,4'-oxydibenzoato-κ(4)O:O':O'':O''')dizinc] tetrahydrate], {[Zn2(C14H8O5)2(C12H12N2)]·4H2O}n, has been prepared by the solvothermal assembly of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O, 4,4'-oxydi(benzoic acid) and 3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine. The two Zn(II) atoms adopt the same five-coordinated distorted square-pyramidal geometry (i.e. ZnO4N), bonding to four O atoms from four different 4,4'-oxydibenzoate (oba) ligands and one N atom from a 3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine (dmbpy) ligand. The supramolecular secondary building unit (SBU) is a paddle-wheel [Zn2(COO)4] unit and these units are linked by oba ligands within the layer to form a two-dimensional net parallel to the b axis, with the dmbpy ligands pointing alternately up and down, which is further extended by dmbpy ligands to form a three-dimensional framework with rob topology. The single net leaves voids that are filled by mutual interpenetration of an independent equivalent framework in a twofold interpenetrating architecture. The title compound shows thermal stability up to 673 K and is stable in aqueous solutions in the pH range 5-9. Excitation and luminescence data observed at room temperature show that it emits a bright-blue fluorescence. PMID:27146564

  19. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  20. Robbing the Bank with a Theorem Prover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clulow, Jolyon

    So it's a fairly provocative title, how did we get to that? Well automated tools have been successfully applied to modelling security protocols and finding attacks, and some good examples here are Gavin Lowe's work, using FDR to model the Needham-Shroeder protocols, and Larry Paulson's work using Isabella to prove the SET protocol secure. Now we come to the observation that security protocols, and security application programming interfaces are very closely related. So just to define what we mean by a security API here. We're talking devices that offer security services, that will obviously have some interface, typically the application programming interface, and unlike a normal API it also has to enforce policy onto the user, it has to make sure that keys remain secret, that PINs aren't revealed, and that users can't generally do things that would violate the security policy.

  1. Robbing the Bank with a Theorem Prover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Paul; Adida, Ben; Bond, Mike; Clulow, Jolyon; Herzog, Jonathan; Lin, Amerson; Rivest, Ronald L.; Anderson, Ross

    In this work, we present the first automated analysis of security application programming interfaces (security APIs). In particular, we analyze the API of the IBM 4758 CCA, a hardware security module for banking networks. Adapting techniques from formal analyses of security protocols, we model the API purely according its specification and assuming ideal encryption primitives. We then use the automated theorem-prover Otter to analyze this model, combining its standard reasoning strategies with novel techniques of our own (also presented here). In this way, we derive not only all published API-level attacks against the 4758 CCA, but an extension to these attacks as well. Thus, this work represents the first step toward fully-automated, rigorous analyses of security APIs.

  2. Doing This At Bedtime Could Temporarily Rob Your Sight

    MedlinePlus

    ... their smartphone, said Plant, senior author of a paper on the phenomenon. Luckily, it's a temporary condition ... damage, he added. Plant said he wrote the paper because these people might think they've suffered ...

  3. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and remarkable…

  4. Doing This At Bedtime Could Temporarily Rob Your Sight

    MedlinePlus

    ... That way, both eyes will maintain the same adaptation to light, he said. Another eye specialist agreed. " ... always thinking of something as simple" as light adaptation, said Khurana, an expert with the American Academy ...

  5. Bush's 2008 Budget: "Robbing Peter to Pay Pell"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A few days before President Bush officially released his 2008 budget, administration officials announced that it would contain a historic increase in the maximum Pell Grant. The increase in Pell Grants would be paid for by cutting subsidies for student loans, a step that experts predicted could induce lenders to offer fewer benefits to borrowers.…

  6. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: The Case Against "Comparability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Two proposals in the bill currently circulating to reauthorize No Child Left Behind seem to be shoe-ins for making their way into federal law. The impetus behind both proposals is to help poor kids by making sure that districts spend as much money on them as gets spent on rich kids. Going against the grain, the National Council on Teacher Quality…

  7. Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Rob Lewis and Wynne Evans)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Wheeler

    2002-04-01

    In summary, what American course would be best served with this text? Probably not a GOB course, because it contains too much math. Probably not a general chemistry course, because it contains not enough math--although more math would then make it an ideal text for general chemistry. Maybe a course in applied chemistry for two-year-college students--but it would be a tough sell, given the availability of such books as Zumdahl's Introductory Chemistry or Stoker's Introduction to Chemical Principles for that set. Perhaps we'll develop a course called "Honors Applied Chemistry" and use it there. Until then, it will remain in my collection as a reference.

  8. Robbing Peter...Balancing Collection Development and Reference Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1988-01-01

    Examines problems of librarians responsible for both collection development and reference services, including time demands, unclear supervisory lines, and misunderstanding of collection development. The discussion includes suggestions for improving this situation, e.g., formal reporting lines for both areas, increased communication among…

  9. 75 FR 57664 - Airworthiness Directives; G ROB-WERKE Model G120A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...-1054 have been found cracked during regular maintenance. Structural failure of the ribs may cause failure of the middle flap support which may lead to flap asymmetry due to excessive flap deformation...

  10. Robbing Peter To Pay Paul: Resolving the Contradiction of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Initial education has been the focus of policy, resulting in higher participation rates and attainment. However, adult rates of participation and qualification have received less attention and are decreasing. One solution might be to break the link between education and human capital investment and foster a vision of lifelong learning as valuable…

  11. Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: The Price of Standards-Driven Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (Post-Compulsory Education and Training Initial Teacher Training). The research has identified that mentors and mentees consider that the role of the mentor is unclear. Moreover, mentors are unsure of the aims of PCET ITT programmes. The inconsistency of mentor training…

  12. Another Woman Gets Robbed? What Jung, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky Took from Sabina Spielrein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Certainly not as many who have heard the names of Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky, have heard of Sabina Spielrein. While Spielrein had numerous face-to-face encounters, some personal and some professional, with all four men, and the accounting of her life and the interactions she had with them has been the content of…

  13. Robbing Public to Pay Private? Two Cases of Refinancing Education Infrastructure in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Stephen; Slee, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This paper will explore private sector participation in public sector education in the Australian context, focusing on case studies of Queensland and New South Wales, with reference to developments in other states and territories and internationally. In Australia, most states and territories have PPP policies and key projects include the Southbank…

  14. Was Rumpelstiltskin Robbed? Using Fairy Tales to Promote Higher Level Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rycik, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends using fairy tales to help students use higher-order thinking skills. Offers reading activities designed to promote analysis, synthesis, and evaluation while preserving the magic and fun of fairy tales. (MG)

  15. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%). PMID:26982621

  16. Commemorating the 20th century Darwin: Ernst Mayr's words and thoughts, five years later. Interview by Rob J. Kulathinal.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Ernst

    2010-02-01

    It has been five years since Ernst Mayr, one of the most influential evolutionary biologists of the last century, passed away. Mayr's seminal work as a naturalist and, in particular, as a bird systematist allowed him to approach the species problem in a revolutionary way. As a leading architect of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, Mayr helped integrate Darwinian theory with the broad fields of systematics and genetics. We pay tribute to this legend by publishing an interview taken shortly before his death. PMID:20140034

  17. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  18. Calculated properties of some oxoborons R-B≡) and their higher energy isomers R-O=B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Tho; Groarke, Peter J.; Ha, Tae-Kyu

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been employed to study four simple oxoboron molecules, XBO (X = H, F, Cl and CH3) and their isomers XOB. Several properties of oxoborons including the geometries, rotational constants, vibrational wavenumbers, thermochemical parameters and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been calculated and thereby predicted using appropriate correction schemes based on available experimental data. Energy barriers for the 1,2-shifts obtained at the MP4/DZP level using MP2/DZP-geometries suggest that, while HOB and CH3OB are relatively stable with respect to unimolecular rearrangement (energy barrier of about 25 kcal mol-1), FOB and ClOB are unstable in this regard. The former have bent equilibrium structures and their energy is quite high relative to their oxoboron isomers (≥ 50 kcal mol-1). An analysis based on the Boys' localized orbitals and molecular electrostatic potentials discloses that during the 1,2-shifts, the migrating group (H or CH3) behaves essentially as a cationic species moving between two electron pairs.

  19. ULTRASONIC ENHANCEMENT OF THE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R828598C020
    Title: Ultrasonic Enhancement of the Removal of Heavy Metals
    Investigators: Dennis Truax, Krishnan Balasubramaniam
    Institution: Mississippi State University
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    ...

  20. INTEGRATED PETROLEUM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSORTIUM (IPEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827015
    Title: Integrated Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC)
    Investigator: Kerry L. Sublette
    Institution: University of Tulsa
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    Project Period: October 1, 19...

  1. Identity and generic placement of Phestinia costella Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) reared on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We provide descriptions and illustrations for identification of Phestinia costella Hampson, a stem gall producer on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Robinson (Asteraceae) that has been investigated for biological control measures. Specimens collected from C. odorata on Tr...

  2. Robertsonian Translocations: An Overview of 872 Robertsonian Translocations Identified in a Diagnostic Laboratory in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fan; Jiang, Shuai; Su, Hui; Liang, Jianfen; Deng, Chunhua; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    Robertsonian translocations (ROBs) have an estimated incidence rate of 1/1000 births, making this type of rearrangement the most common structural chromosomal abnormalities seen in the general population. In this study, we reports 872 cases of ROBs from 205,001 specimens karyotyped postnatally in a single accredited laboratory in China, including 583 balanced ROBs, 264 unbalanced ROBs, 9 mosaic ROBs, and 18 complex ROBs. Ninety-three percent of the balanced ROBs observed were adults with infertility, miscarriage, or offspring(s) with known chromosomal abnormalities. Significant excess of females were found to be carriers of balanced ROBs with an adjusted male/female ratio of 0.77. Ninety-eight percent of the unbalanced ROBs observed were children with variable referral reasons. Almost all of the unbalanced ROBs involved chromosome 21 except a single ROB with [46,XX,der(13;14),+13] identified in a newborn girl with multiple congenital anomalies. Multiple novel ROB karyotypes were reported in this report. This study represents the largest collections of ROBs in Chinese population. PMID:25932913

  3. Flexibility in Management of Modernization in Construction - Electrical Works/ Elastyczność W Zarządzaniu Modernizacją Obiektów Budowlanych Na Przykładzie Robót Elektrycznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotarski, Piotr; Pasławski, Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    The article presents the general principles of flexible approach, illustrated with case study regarding flexibility in modernization. Flexibility is understood in the present case as a skilful adaptation to changes in the dynamically changing environment. The essence of flexibility approach is being staged to make decisions based on environmental and process monitoring in progress. Presented case study of upgrading the electrical system in the multi-family housing in the common area is based on step by step procedure responding to damage state of this system. Simple analysis is based on cost comparison but there are other criteria (environmental, social etc.) and conflict solving situations taken into account in presented paper. Artykuł prezentuje możliwość zastosowania elastyczności w modernizacjach istniejących obiektów budowlanych na przykładzie instalacji oświetleniowej. Elastyczność jest rozumiana w tym przypadku jako umiejętne dostosowanie się do zmian w dynamicznie zmieniającym się środowisku. Istotą podejścia elastycznego jest podejmowanie odpowiednich decyzji w odpowiednim czasie opartych na monitoringu środowiska i procesu w toku. Prezentowane studium przypadku modernizacji instalacji elektrycznej w budownictwie wielorodzinnym w częściach wspólnych obiektu (korytarze, klatki schodowe, hala garażowa) opiera się na wymianie i modernizacji tylko tych punktów, które w danym momencie ulegają awarii. Prosta analiza oby typów modernizacji opiera się na porównaniu kosztów, natomiast trzeba zaznaczyć, że możliwe są także inne kryteria (środowiskowe, konfliktu społecznego, itp.), które będą przedmiotem kolejnych publikacji. Zastąpienie tradycyjnych żarówek rozwiązaniami opartymi na technologii LED z zastosowaniem czujników ruchu może prowadzić do znacznych oszczędności, ale może też oznaczać obniżenie komfortu dla użytkowników (np. dla osób starszych, którym jeden cykl działania oświetlenia nie jest wystarczający do pokonania całej drogi na korytarzu). Osiągnięcie kompromisu w tego typu konfliktach interesów może być rozwiązane za pomocą podejścia elastycznego i zwinnego.

  4. THE USE OF FLY ASH IN THE PRODUCTION OF SIALON BASED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: X832541C004
    Title: The Use of Fly Ash in the Production of SiAlON based Structural Ceramics
    Investigator: James R. Varner
    Institution: Alfred University
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    Project Perio...

  5. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Drinking Water Treatment Technologies for Removal of Endocrine Disruptors. Schenck, K*, Speth, T, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Rosenblum, L, Wendelken, S, Pepich, B, and Krishnan, R, Shaw Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA. Many of the chemicals identified...

  6. 76 FR 28421 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION... Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, Phone: (301) 713-2328 or Rob.Andrews@noaa.gov ....

  7. Quantum communication in the presence of a horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Daiqin; Ralph, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    Based on homodyne detection, we discuss how the presence of an event horizon affects quantum communication between an inertial partner, Alice, and a uniformly accelerated partner, Rob. We show that there exists a low frequency cutoff for Rob's homodyne detector that maximizes the signal to noise ratio and it approximately corresponds to the Unruh frequency. In addition, the low frequency cutoff which minimizes the conditional variance between Alice's input state and Rob's output state is also approximately equal to the Unruh frequency. Thus the Unruh frequency provides a natural low frequency cutoff in order to optimize quantum communication of both classical and quantum information between Alice and Rob.

  8. William Foster's Legacy: Learning from the Past and Reconstructing the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    William Foster's recent death not only robbed us of a good friend and a gentle soul but it also robbed the field of his ongoing wisdom about educational leadership. This article will attempt to pick up some threads of the thought that he left in his last manuscript, "The Decline of the Local." Foster's discussion of new technologies of thought…

  9. AN APPLIED ONTOLOGY TO THE MID-ATLANTIC CABLE: HISTORICAL TO MODERN INFORMATICS CONSIDERATION FROM A MATH PERSPECTIVE KAIEM L. FRINK ELIZABETH CITY STATE UNIVERSITY(ECSU)KAIEM_FRINK@HOTMAIL.COM, DR. DEWAYNE B. BRANCH ECSU, DR. ROB RASKIN JET PROPULSIONS LABORATORY GLENDA THOMAS ECSU,KENNETH JONES ECSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, K.; Branch, B. D.; Raskin, R.

    2009-12-01

    As early as the 1600's scientists in various fields world to address a global human need of human communication on a global basis by implementing the trans-Atlantic cable. The Mid 4Trans-Atlantic cable is one of the earliest forms of global commutation. Here may be the first evidence of informatics needs where science, data, and engineering were collaborated across disciplines to advance a world standard of living. This work investigates what applied ontology may have been consisting with the thought pattern of such expertise who conducted informatics arguably without computers, ontology’s, and a cyber infrastructure. In modern context, an applied ontology may best represent the body of intentional learning, research and collaboration among scientists to achieve a human goal. Perhaps if such intentional non-partisan work can achieve a solution such as Trans-Atlantic Cable, climate change may benefit from intentional collaborative ontology’s and systems of multi user knowledgebase or expert informatics systems. 1Bruce C. Heezen 1924 -1977 American Geologist famous for mapping the Mid Atlantic Mountain Ridge in the 1950’s. Heezen died in 1977 on a submarine cruise to study the Mid-Atlantic ridge near Ice land aboard the NR-1 submarine. 7Marie Tharp academic background is Bachelors Degree in English, Master Degree in Geology University of Michigan, and Mathematics Degree at the University of Tulsa. Tharp worked at Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University. History of the Digital Divide during the 1600’s touches on the availability of information. 3Issue of Mathematics during the 1600’s would be lack of communications and assessment. The scientific communities cannot address climate change most largely due to language barriers amongst humans. Weight per meter for the cable and the ships weight capacity in the 1600’sWeight/per meter 2w/m=X1 taking into account that maximum depths or Atlantic Ocean was unknown at that time and still is.

  10. Obligate short-arm exchange in de novo Robertsonian translocation formation influences placement of crossovers in chromosome 21 nondisjunction.

    PubMed

    Berend, Sue Ann; Page, Scott L; Atkinson, William; McCaskill, Christopher; Lamb, Neil E; Sherman, Stephanie L; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2003-02-01

    Robertsonian translocations (ROBs) involving chromosome 21 are found in approximately 5% of patients with Down syndrome (DS). The most common nonhomologous ROB in DS is rob(14q21q). Aberrant recombination is associated with nondisjunction (NDJ) leading to trisomy 21. Haplotype analysis of 23 patients with DS and de novo rob(14q21q) showed that all translocations and all nondisjoined chromosomes 21 were maternally derived. Meiosis II NDJ occurred in 21 of 23 families. For these, a ROB DS chromosome 21 genetic map was constructed and compared to a normal female map and a published trisomy 21 map derived from meiosis II NDJ. The location of exchanges differed significantly from both maps, with a significant shift to a more distal interval in the ROB DS map. The shift may perturb segregation, leading to the meiosis II NDJ in this study, and is further evidence for crossover interference. More importantly, because the event in the short arms that forms the de novo ROB influences the placement of chiasmata in the long arm, it is most likely that the translocation formation occurs through a recombination pathway in meiosis. Additionally, we have demonstrated that events that occur in meiosis I can influence events, such as chromatid segregation in meiosis II, many decades later. PMID:12506337

  11. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    PubMed

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass. PMID:18504987

  12. Parameter estimation using NOON states over a relativistic quantum channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Dominic; Kok, Pieter

    2013-11-01

    We study the effect of the acceleration of the observer on a parameter estimation protocol using NOON states. An inertial observer, Alice, prepares a NOON state in Unruh modes of the quantum field, and sends it to an accelerated observer, Rob. We calculate the quantum Fisher information of the state received by Rob. We find the counterintuitive result that the single-rail encoding outperforms the dual rail. The NOON states have an optimal N for the maximum information extractable by Rob, given his acceleration. This optimal N decreases with increasing acceleration.

  13. Disentanglement of two harmonic oscillators in relativistic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chou, C.-H.; Hu, B. L.

    2008-12-15

    We study the dynamics of quantum entanglement between two Unruh-DeWitt detectors, one stationary (Alice), and another uniformly accelerating (Rob), with no direct interaction but coupled to a common quantum field in (3+1)D Minkowski space. We find that for all cases studied the initial entanglement between the detectors disappears in a finite time ('sudden death'). After the moment of total disentanglement the correlations between the two detectors remain nonzero until late times. The relation between the disentanglement time and Rob's proper acceleration is observer dependent. The larger the acceleration is, the longer the disentanglement time in Alice's coordinate, but the shorter in Rob's coordinate.

  14. Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Non-Randomized Studies of Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Thiazolidinediones and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: Application of a New Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool

    PubMed Central

    Bilandzic, Anja; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Rosella, Laura; Henry, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions frequently include non-randomized studies. These are subject to confounding and a range of other biases that are seldom considered in detail when synthesizing and interpreting the results. Our aims were to assess the reliability and usability of a new Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for non-randomized studies of interventions and to determine whether restricting analysis to studies with low or moderate RoB made a material difference to the results of the reviews. Methods and Findings We selected two systematic reviews of population-based, controlled non-randomized studies of the relationship between the use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and major cardiovascular events. Two epidemiologists applied the Cochrane RoB tool and made assessments across the seven specified domains of bias for each of 37 component studies. Inter-rater agreement was measured using the weighted Kappa statistic. We grouped studies according to overall RoB and performed statistical pooling for (a) all studies and (b) only studies with low or moderate RoB. Kappa scores across the seven bias domains ranged from 0.50 to 1.0. In the COX-2 inhibitor review, two studies had low overall RoB, 14 had moderate RoB, and five had serious RoB. In the TZD review, six studies had low RoB, four had moderate RoB, four had serious RoB, and two had critical RoB. The pooled odds ratios for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death for rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone remained significantly elevated when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. However, the estimate for myocardial infarction declined from 1.14 (95% CI 1.07–1.24) to 1.06 (95% CI 0.99–1.13) when analysis was confined to studies with low RoB. Estimates of pooled relative risks of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors compared with no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug changed little when analyses were

  15. ISS Update: Progress 50 Launch and Docking with Tom Erkenswick

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias conducts an interview with Visiting Vehicle Officer Tom Erkenswick about the launch of the ISS Progress 50 resupply ship and its docking to the International ...

  16. Robert Ambrose: Principal Investigator, Game Changing Development Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Rob Ambrose is currently overseeing one very large existing project and will likely be overseeing several new starts in the near future. In addition, he has three projects: Human Robotic System...

  17. ISS Update: NASA Astronaut Mike Fincke

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias talks with NASA Astronaut Mike Fincke inside the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. They discuss the current activities taking place aboard the I...

  18. Living Well with Parkinson's Disease is an Art | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... about Parkinson's. Photo courtesy of Rob Cunningham When did you first get diagnosed with Parkinson's disease? What ... took up painting after you were diagnosed. How did you decide to do that? Does your condition ...

  19. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  20. Tiny Asteroid Approaches Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Oct. 15, 2010, NASA astronomer Rob Suggs captured this view of the tiny asteroid 2010 TG19 as it made its way among the stars of the constellation Pegasus. It will continue to approach during th...

  1. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  2. Sailing on the "Boundless and Bottomless Sea": A View from the OIA Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The prevention and resolution of student complaints are critical factors in maintaining and improving the student experience. Rob Behrens looks at the wider context, drawing on lessons from beyond higher education, to examine the opportunities and possible pitfalls.

  3. NASA Now: Forces and Motion: Project Morpheus

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet NASA engineer Rob Morehead who works on the main engines for Project Morpheus, a revolutionary new robotic lander. Morpheus is a full spacecraft and rocket-powered lander, which demonstrates n...

  4. Welcome Back to Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Scott Kelly is interviewed by public affairs officer Rob Navias just after returning to Earth aboard a Soyuz spacecraft on March 1, 2016 (March 2, local Kazakh time) following a 340 ...

  5. Reversing the Literacy Decline by Controlling the Electronic Demons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkman, Harriet

    1985-01-01

    Computer games, rock video, television, and movies are robbing teenagers of time they should be using to develop their minds. However, the electronic media do have a positive potential. A 10-item reference list is provided. (Author/DCS)

  6. ISS Update: Keeping Track of Station Inventory – 03.14.13

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Rob Adams, Inventory and Stowage Officer, inside the Mission Control Center. Adams and his team keep track of the gear aboard the International Space Stat...

  7. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Q of... - Confinement of Persons in District of Columbia Correctional Institutions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... violence means murder, manslaughter, rape, kidnapping, robbery, burglary, assault with intent to kill, assault with intent to rape, assault with intent to rob or extortion involving the threat or use...

  8. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart Q of... - Confinement of Persons in District of Columbia Correctional Institutions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... violence means murder, manslaughter, rape, kidnapping, robbery, burglary, assault with intent to kill, assault with intent to rape, assault with intent to rob or extortion involving the threat or use...

  9. Thermal bath of Dirac field in non-inertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anwei

    2016-07-01

    The properties of inertial Dirac thermal bath viewed from the perspective of a uniformly accelerated observer is investigated. Using the single-mode approximation, we obtain the expression of the thermal reduced density matrix, which is constructed by the effective partition function in another way compared with the case of scalar field. We deduce the spectrum of particles and antiparticles seen by Rob and antiRob, respectively. It is found that the fermionic thermal bath will suppress the appearance of Unruh particles.

  10. SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessing the methodological quality of RCTs. A similar initiative is warranted in the field of animal experimentation. Methods We provide an RoB tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE’s RoB tool). This tool is based on the Cochrane RoB tool and has been adjusted for aspects of bias that play a specific role in animal intervention studies. To enhance transparency and applicability, we formulated signalling questions to facilitate judgment. Results The resulting RoB tool for animal studies contains 10 entries. These entries are related to selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias and other biases. Half these items are in agreement with the items in the Cochrane RoB tool. Most of the variations between the two tools are due to differences in design between RCTs and animal studies. Shortcomings in, or unfamiliarity with, specific aspects of experimental design of animal studies compared to clinical studies also play a role. Conclusions SYRCLE’s RoB tool is an adapted version of the Cochrane RoB tool. Widespread adoption and implementation of this tool will facilitate and improve critical appraisal of evidence from animal studies. This may subsequently enhance the efficiency of translating animal research into clinical practice and increase awareness of the necessity of improving the methodological quality of animal studies. PMID:24667063

  11. Poor Reliability between Cochrane Reviewers and Blinded External Reviewers When Applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool in Physical Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Ospina, Maria; da Costa, Bruno R.; Egger, Matthias; Saltaji, Humam; Fuentes, Jorge; Ha, Christine; Cummings, Greta G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the inter-rater reliability of the RoB tool applied to Physical Therapy (PT) trials by comparing ratings from Cochrane review authors with those of blinded external reviewers. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PT were identified by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for meta-analysis of PT interventions. RoB assessments were conducted independently by 2 reviewers blinded to the RoB ratings reported in the Cochrane reviews. Data on RoB assessments from Cochrane reviews and other characteristics of reviews and trials were extracted. Consensus assessments between the two reviewers were then compared with the RoB ratings from the Cochrane reviews. Agreement between Cochrane and blinded external reviewers was assessed using weighted kappa (κ). Results In total, 109 trials included in 17 Cochrane reviews were assessed. Inter-rater reliability on the overall RoB assessment between Cochrane review authors and blinded external reviewers was poor (κ  =  0.02, 95%CI: −0.06, 0.06]). Inter-rater reliability on individual domains of the RoB tool was poor (median κ  = 0.19), ranging from κ  =  −0.04 (“Other bias”) to κ  =  0.62 (“Sequence generation”). There was also no agreement (κ  =  −0.29, 95%CI: −0.81, 0.35]) in the overall RoB assessment at the meta-analysis level. Conclusions Risk of bias assessments of RCTs using the RoB tool are not consistent across different research groups. Poor agreement was not only demonstrated at the trial level but also at the meta-analysis level. Results have implications for decision making since different recommendations can be reached depending on the group analyzing the evidence. Improved guidelines to consistently apply the RoB tool and revisions to the tool for different health areas are needed. PMID:24824199

  12. Risk of Bias Tool in Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses of Acupuncture in Chinese Journals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yali; Yang, Shengping; Dai, Junjie; Xu, Yongteng; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Huaili; Yan, Xianxia; Yang, Kehu

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of a risk of bias (ROB) tool has been encouraged and advocated to reviewers writing systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs). Selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias are included in the Cochrane ROB tool. It is important to know how this specific tool for assessing ROB has been applied since its release. Our objectives were to evaluate whether and to what extent the new Cochrane ROB tool has been used in Chinese journal papers of acupuncture. Methods We searched CBM, TCM database, CJFD, CSJD, and the Wanfang Database from inception to March 2011. Two reviewers independently selected SRs that primarily focused on acupuncture and moxibustion, from which the data was extracted and analyzed. Results A total of 836 SRs were identified from the search, of which, 105 were included and four are awaiting assessment. Thirty-six of the 105 SRs were published before release of the Cochrane ROB tool (up to 2009). Most used the Cochrane Handbook 4.2 or Jadad's scale for risk or quality assessment. From 2009 to March 2011 69 SRs were identified. While “risk of bias” was reported for approximately two-thirds of SRs, only two SRs mentioned use of a “risk of bias tool” in their assessment. Only 5.8% (4/69) of reviews reported information on all six domains which are involved in the ROB tool. A risk of bias graph/summary figure was provided in 2.9% (2/69) of reviews. Most SRs gave information about sequence generation, allocation concealment, blindness, and incomplete outcome data, however, few reviews (5.8%; 4/69) described selective reporting or other potential sources of bias. Conclusions The Cochrane “risk of bias” tool has not been used in all SRs/MAs of acupuncture published in Chinese Journals after 2008. When the ROB tool was used, reporting of relevant information was often incomplete. PMID:22174772

  13. Relativistic Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Dominic

    In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tends to zero. We investigate the observers' abilities to precisely measure the parameter of a state that is communicated between Alice and Rob. This parameter was encoded to either the amplitudes of a single excitation state or the phase of a NOON state. With NOON states the dual rail encoding provided greater precision, which is different to the results for the other situations. The precision was maximum for a particular number of excitations in the NOON state. We calculated the bipartite communication for Alice-Rob and Alice-AntiRob beyond the single mode approximation. Rob and AntiRob are causally disconnected counter-accelerating observers. We found that Alice must choose in advance with whom, Rob or AntiRob she wants to create entanglement using a particular setup. She could communicate classically to both.

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: A Quality-Adjusted Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Michael; Ly, Helen; Broffman, Michael; See, Caylie; Clemons, Jen; Chang, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicines reportedly increase efficacy and minimize toxicity of chemotherapy; however, little attention has been paid to how poor study quality can bias outcomes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, TCMLARS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines combined with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone. We screened for eligibility, extracted data, and pooled data with random-effects meta-analysis. Outcome measures were survival, toxicity, tumor response, performance status, quality of life, and Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) criteria to critically evaluate the quality of reporting in the randomized trials included in the meta-analysis. Results We found 36 potentially eligible studies, with only 3 (those with low ROB) qualifying for meta-analysis. Two reported chemotherapy-related diarrhea reduced by 57% (relative risk [RR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.19-1.01; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with nonsignificant results. Two reported white blood cell toxicity reduced by 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.72; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with statistically significant results. Stratifying analysis by studies with high versus low ROB, we found substantial overestimation of benefit: Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of platelet toxicity by Chinese herbal medicines (RR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.84 vs RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.11-3.92). Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of vomiting toxicity (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.33-0.61 vs RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.48-1.58). And, studies with high ROB overestimated by 21% the reduction in diarrhea toxicity (RR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.58 vs RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19-1.01). Studies with high ROB also overestimated by 16% improvement in tumor response (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.63 vs RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.81-1.79). Not accounting for

  15. Unveiling quantum entanglement degradation near a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Garay, Luis J.; León, Juan

    2010-09-01

    We analyze the entanglement degradation provoked by the Hawking effect in a bipartite system Alice-Rob when Rob is in the proximities of a Schwarzschild black hole while Alice is free falling into it. We will obtain the limit in which the tools imported from the Unruh entanglement degradation phenomenon can be used properly, keeping control on the approximation. As a result, we will be able to determine the degree of entanglement as a function of the distance of Rob to the event horizon, the mass of the black hole, and the frequency of Rob’s entangled modes. By means of this analysis we will show that all the interesting phenomena occur in the vicinity of the event horizon and that the presence of event horizons do not effectively degrade the entanglement when Rob is far off the black hole. The universality of the phenomenon is presented: There are not fundamental differences for different masses when working in the natural unit system adapted to each black hole. We also discuss some aspects of the localization of Alice and Rob states. All this study is done without using the single mode approximation.

  16. A Case Report of an Infant with Robertsonian Translocation (15;22)(q10;q10) and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Shin, Jung-Hee; Nam, Myung Hyun; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Chang Kyu; Cho, Yunjung; Kim, Young Kee; Yoon, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Rob(15; 22) is rare and account for only 0.6% of all Robertsonian translocations. We describe a case with rob(15;22) in which the phenotype includes generalized hypotonia, respiratory distress, tent shaped upper lips, hyporeflexia and single umbilical artery. Chromosome analysis with peripheral blood was performed, while the karyotype was interpreted as 45,XX,der(15;22)(q10;q10). In Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome FISH studies, deletion of the SNRPN gene was not observed, but deletion of 15p11.2 was noted. Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and chromosomal microarrays showed negative findings. Molecular studies associated with spinal muscular atrophy and progressive muscular dystrophy also showed negative findings. We suggest that rob(15;22) and deletion of 15p11.2 could be related to clinical presentation like this case. PMID:26927352

  17. Final Data Report: P- and S-Wave Velocity Logging Borings C4993, C4996, and C4997 Part A: Interval Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Steller, Robert; Diehl, John

    2007-02-01

    Insitu borehole P- and S-wave velocity measurements were collected in three borings located within the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) boundaries at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington. Geophysical data acquisition was performed between August and October of 2006 by Rob Steller, Charles Carter, Antony Martin and John Diehl of GEOVision. Data analysis was performed by Rob Steller and John Diehl, and reviewed by Antony Martin of GEOVision, and report preparation was performed by John Diehl and reviewed by Rob Steller. The work was performed under subcontract with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division with Marty Gardner as Battelle’s Technical Representative and Alan Rohay serving as the Technical Administrator for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This report describes the field measurements, data analysis, and results of this work.

  18. Final Data Report: P- and S-Wave Velocity Logging Borings C4993, C4996, and C4997 Part B: Overall Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, John; Steller, Robert

    2007-03-20

    Insitu borehole P- and S-wave velocity measurements were collected in three borings located within the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) boundaries at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington. Geophysical data acquisition was performed between August and October of 2006 by Rob Steller, Charles Carter, Antony Martin and John Diehl of GEOVision. Data analysis was performed by Rob Steller and John Diehl, and reviewed by Antony Martin of GEOVision, and report preparation was performed by John Diehl and reviewed by Rob Steller. The work was performed under subcontract with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division with Marty Gardner as Battelle’s Technical Representative and Alan Rohay serving as the Technical Administrator for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This report describes the field measurements, data analysis, and results of this work.

  19. Localized detection of quantum entanglement through the event horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Andrzej; Doukas, Jason; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    We present a localized solution to the problem of entanglement degradation in noninertial frames. A two-mode squeezed state is considered from the viewpoint of two observers, Alice (inertial) and Rob (accelerated), each observing a single localized mode of the field. We study the state of these modes to determine how much entanglement the observers can extract from the initial state. The dominant source of degradation is an inevitable mode mismatch between the mode of the squeezed state Rob is given and the mode he is able to observe from his accelerated frame. Leakage of the initial mode through Rob's horizon places a limit on his ability to fully measure the state, leading to an inevitable degradation of entanglement that even in principle cannot be fully retrieved by any measurement device.

  20. Effect of Risk of Bias on the Effect Size of Meta-Analytic Estimates in Randomized Controlled Trials in Periodontology and Implant Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Wu, Yun-Chun; Scheidgen, Moritz; Tu, Yu-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk of bias (ROB) may threaten the internal validity of a clinical trial by distorting the magnitude of treatment effect estimates, although some conflicting information on this assumption exists. Objective The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of ROB on the magnitude of treatment effect estimates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in periodontology and implant dentistry. Methods A search for Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs), including meta-analyses of RCTs published in periodontology and implant dentistry fields, was performed in the Cochrane Library in September 2014. Random-effect meta-analyses were performed by grouping RCTs with different levels of ROBs in three domains (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blinding of outcome assessment). To increase power and precision, only SRs with meta-analyses including at least 10 RCTs were included. Meta-regression was performed to investigate the association between ROB characteristics and the magnitudes of intervention effects in the meta-analyses. Results Of the 24 initially screened SRs, 21 SRs were excluded because they did not include at least 10 RCTs in the meta-analyses. Three SRs (two from periodontology field) generated information for conducting 27 meta-analyses. Meta-regression did not reveal significant differences in the relationship of the ROB level with the size of treatment effect estimates, although a trend for inflated estimates was observed in domains with unclear ROBs. Conclusion In this sample of RCTs, high and (mainly) unclear risks of selection and detection biases did not seem to influence the size of treatment effect estimates, although several confounders might have influenced the strength of the association. PMID:26422698

  1. Near real-time ionospheric monitoring over Europe at the Royal Observatory of Belgium using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine; Pottiaux, Eric; Aerts, Wim; Baire, Quentin; Legrand, Juliette; Defraigne, Pascale; Huang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Various scientific applications and services increasingly demand real-time information on the effects of space weather on Earth's atmosphere. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere over Europe from the measured delays in the GNSS signals, and provides publicly several derived products. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° × 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. This paper presents the method used in the ROB-IONO software to generate the maps. The ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed products such as IGS and ESA with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. In addition, we tested the reliability of the ROB-IONO software to detect abnormal ionospheric activity during the Halloween 2003 ionospheric storm. For this period, the mean differences with IGS and ESA maps are 0.9 ± 2.2 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu respectively with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution in time and space of both IGS and ESA maps compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, one on March 17, 2013 and one on February 27, 2014 also highlights the capability of the method adopted in the ROB-IONO software to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. In that frame, ROB maintains a data base publicly available with identified ionospheric

  2. Orexin B inhibits proliferation and stimulates specialized function of cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-12-01

    Orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB) are polypeptides derived from the same 130 amino acid long precursor (prepro-orexin) that bind and activate two closely related orphan G protein-coupled receptors OX1-R and OX2-R. These hypothalamic neuropeptides stimulate food intake and energy expenditure and play a significant role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Present studies aimed to investigate the effects of orexins on proliferative activity and osteocalcin secretion by cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells. Conventional RT-PCR methods detected expression of the OX1-R gene in freshly isolated ROB cells and cells cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days. In contrast, at all time points tested, expression of prepro-OX or OX2-R genes was not demonstrated. QPCR revealed the highest expression of OX1-R gene in freshly isolated bone cells and a notably lower one in cultured ROB cells. Exposure of cultured cells to both OXA and OXB stimulated expression of the OX1-R gene. However, this effect was seen at the lowest tested concentration (1x10(-10) M). Exposure of cultured ROB cells to OXA for 48 h did not change osteocalcin concentrations in media analyzed at days 7, 14 and 21 of culture. On the contrary, OXB notably stimulated osteocalcin concentrations in media taken at days 14 and 21 of culture. In contrast, OXA exerted a notable inhibitory effect on the proliferative activity of ROB cells at day 7 of culture, while OXB exerted a similar effect at day 14. Thus, the obtained results suggest that: (i)(ROB) cells are provided with functional OX1-R gene; (ii) in ROB cells expression of this gene seems to be up-regulated by low concentrations of both OXA and OXB; (iii) OXB exerts inhibitory effects on proliferative activity and stimulating effects on osteocalcin secretion by cultured ROB cells; (iv) rat calvarial osteoblasts provided with OX receptor may be a target for circulating orexins. Thus, orexins may be included in the expanding group of neuropeptides involved in the

  3. Temperature characteristics of microfiber coil resonators embedded in teflon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ye; Ming, Yang; Guo, Wei; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we investigate the temperature characteristic of an optical microfiber coil resonator (OMCR) which is wrapped on Teflon coated PMMA rob and embedded in low index polymer Teflon. The micro fiber used to fabricated the OMCR was 4 ~ 5μm in diameter and 14 mm in waist region length. The PMMA rob has a diameter of 2 mm. Our sample shows high temperature sensitivity as much as 80 pm/°C. The test result suggests OMCR could be of good value in application of temperature sensing.

  4. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physical and mental disabilities. In this issue, Krishnan and colleagues reveal that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is upregulated in patients with RTT and in murine models and provide strong evidence that targeting PTP1B has potential as a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RTT. PMID:26214520

  5. Shear flow behavior of a dynamically symmetric polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning

    2005-03-01

    Soft materials with complex internal structure often exhibit fascinating rheological behavior. For example, under flow the poly (ethylethylene) (PEE)/poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)/PEE-PDMS polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) showed shear-induced macrophase separation.^ 1 This was tentatively attributed to the extreme dynamical asymmetry of the two homopolymers, i.e., their viscosities differed by three orders of magnitude. To understand the role of the dynamic symmetry of a BμE when subjected to shear flow, we have developed a new ternary polymer blend system poly(butylene oxide) (PBO)/ poly(ethylenepropylene) (PEP)/PEP-PBO, which is dynamically almost symmetric. We will report on the shear flow behavior of this new BμE. Reference: [1] Krishnan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 87, 098301

  6. A new extra-vertebral treatment model for incomplete spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R V

    2003-02-01

    Advances made in recent times in spinal cord injury repair research will soon take us toward a cure in paraplegics. But what are the prospects for quadriplegics? Certain fundamental issues make treatment approaches to quadriplegia different and difficult. Injury at cervical region poses additional problems for any surgical intervention with life-threatening risks of i) endangering respiratory function, ii) cavitation, cysts, and syringomyelia formation extending cephalad to the injury, and iii) mid-lower cervical injuries, lower motor neuron death, and the resultant degeneration of brachial plexus axons would still leave the upper limbs denervated and paralyzed even as treatment procedures might successfully salvage the lower limbs. With these apparently insurmountable impediments in quadriplegic cord repair, it would be wise to turn to alternative treatment strategies. Conventional treatment models since the days of Ralph Gerard (1940) have all used intra-vertebral procedures. We present here a plausible extra-vertebral repair model suitable for incomplete cord injuries at cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels. The procedure consists of identifying the extent of viable grey-white matter in the injured area and to utilize it efficiently as a "neural tissue bridge." Next, labile state is induced by using botulinum toxin/colchicine (Krishnan, 1983, 1991; Krishnan et al., 2001 a,b) and Ca+ channel blockers in the motorsensory nerve terminals of polisegmentally innervated skeletal muscles that "bridge" the injured cord segments. This would retrogradely induce a redundant state of intra-spinal growth of nerve terminals and new synaptic connections within those viable neural tissues, as well as promote effective relinking of the injured cord ends and enhance motor-sensory recovery. PMID:12751430

  7. Influences of Television on Children's Behavior: Implications for War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Television is robbing children of their childhood. Moreover, it is destroying children's developing symbolic processes, and inhibiting their creativity and play. Television has remarkable influence over children's behavior. At this point, it is plausible to hypothesize linkages between television viewing and numerous social problems involving…

  8. Development of a set of compensating Triticum aestivum-Dasypyrum villosum Robertsonian translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, a wild relative of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the source of agronomically important genes for wheat improvement. The first step in exploiting this variation is the production of compensating Robertsonian translocations (cRobTs) consisting of D. villosum c...

  9. Use of PCR analysis for identification of species and genus of Septoria on grain crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on methods for molecular-genetic testing of the Septoria pathogens of wheat was initiated. Two species of septoria were studied: Septoria tritici Rob. et Desm., and Stagonospora nodorum [Berk] Castellani and E.G. Germano. Different protocols for extraction of DNA were applied; the best meth...

  10. Teaching English Education and Lurching Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadiow, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article narrates a critical classroom incident between the author, as an English teacher, and her student, Rob, and discusses how this incident reflected the flaws in her teaching practices and what she did to correct it. The author shares that one of the consequences of this incident was that she began to understand that her aspiration to be…

  11. Robert K. Clifton 1964-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, J.; Halvorson, H.

    Rob Clifton, the editor of this journal, passed away on 31 July 2002, after a valiant battle with cancer over the previous 14 months, and just after his 38th birthday. He was a researcher of enormous talent and energy, an outstanding teacher and colleague.

  12. Identifying, Confronting and Disrupting Stereotypes: Role on the Wall in an Intergenerational LGBTQ Applied Theatre Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseal, Jennifer; Ray, Kevin; Teitelbaum, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    In New York City, LGBTQ people from different generations have had few opportunities to connect. They have splintered into age-segregated micro-communities, robbing them of opportunities to weave a common history and share strategies that community members have used to survive and thrive. "Bridging the Gap" was a community-based intergenerational…

  13. What Great Coaches Do Differently: 11 Elements of Effective Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Rob; Whitaker, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Why do some athletic coaches succeed every season while others suffer loss after loss? This book describes the beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes of great athletic coaches. Where do they focus their attention? How do they spend their time and energy? And how can others gain the same advantages? Here, Rob Haworth and Todd Whitaker describe the…

  14. Regaining a Lost Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, Blacks are turning to science and not assumptions to put "Africa" back in "African-American." The eagerness to reconnect is understandable. People robbed of their history innately want to know where they come from. Blacks are now using DNA testing to determine their African lineage. Veteran genealogists say the PBS special, "African…

  15. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine "asmachilca"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respir...

  16. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  17. Bullying in Elementary School: An American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying in elementary schools is a recognized and widespread occurrence that threatens to rob children of their childhood. Part I of this commentary describes existing scientifically-based research on the nature, extent and effects of the phenomenon on children in United States schools. Part II analyzes the effectiveness of bullying prevention…

  18. Using Order of Magnitude Calculations to Extend Student Comprehension of Laboratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    2015-01-01

    Author Rob Dean previously published an Illuminations article concerning "challenge" questions that encourage students to think imaginatively with approximate quantities, reasonable assumptions, and uncertain information. This article has promoted some interesting discussion, which has prompted him to present further examples. Examples…

  19. 78 FR 69433 - Executive Order 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Resource Center, Room 131; and November 15, 2013, GSA's ROB Auditorium, 301 7th Street SW., (7th and D...-0075, Technical Data Center, Room N-2625, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW... provide input EO related on topics such as: Improving operational coordination with Federal, state,...

  20. Fifteen Years Later: Has Positive Programming Become the Expected Technology for Addressing Problem Behavior? A Commentary on Homer et. al. (1990)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Martha E.

    2005-01-01

    The author found it very satisfying to reread "Toward a technology of 'nonaversive' behavioral support," written in 1990 by Rob Horner and seven of his colleagues. Their predictions of the critical themes for advancing positive behavior support (PBS) ring true. Fifteen years have passed since the publication of this article, and much has happened…

  1. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  2. Role models face class expulsion.

    PubMed

    Sprinks, Jennifer

    There are plans to drop Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale from the curriculum taught in schools, according to leaked reports. Here, nurse leaders protest that this would rob young people of valuable role models and undermine the image of the profession. It is also suggested that a person's contribution to society is more important than their personality. PMID:23427681

  3. Polyphenol administration impairs T-cell proliferation by imprinting a distinct dendritic cell maturational profile.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Francesca Romana; Vadrucci, Elisa; Cavalcanti, Elisabetta; De Santis, Stefania; Kunde, Dale; Vacca, Michele; Myers, Jay; Allen, Frederick; Bianco, Giusy; Huang, Alex Y; Monsurro, Vladia; Santino, Angelo; Chieppa, Marcello

    2015-09-01

    Currently little is known as to how nutritionally derived compounds may affect dendritic cell (DC) maturation and potentially prevent inappropriate inflammatory responses that are characteristic of chronic inflammatory syndromes. Previous observations have demonstrated that two polyphenols quercetin and piperine delivered through reconstituted oil bodies (ROBs-QP) can influence DC maturation in response to LPS leading to a modulated inflammatory response. In the present study, we examined the molecular effects of ROBs-QP exposure on DC differentiation in mice and identified a unique molecular signature in response to LPS administration that potentially modulates DC maturation and activity in inflammatory conditions. Following LPS administration, ROBs-QP-exposed DCs expressed an altered molecular profile as compared with control DCs, including cytokine and chemokine production, chemokine receptor repertoire, and antigen presentation ability. In vivo ROBs-QP administration suppresses antigen-specific T-cell division in the draining lymph nodes resulting from a reduced ability to create stable immunological synapse. Our data demonstrate that polyphenols exposure can drive DCs toward a new anti-inflammatory molecular profile capable of dampening the inflammatory response, highlighting their potential as complementary nutritional approaches in the treatment of chronic inflammatory syndromes. PMID:26096294

  4. A Mean Wink at Authenticity: Chinese Images in Disney's "Mulan."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Weimin; Shen, Wenju

    2000-01-01

    Offers a critique from two Chinese educators with regard to the historical, cultural, linguistic, and artistic authenticity of Disney's animated film "Mulan." Argues that the filmmakers robbed the original story of its soul and "ran over Chinese culture with the Disney bulldozer," imposing mainstream cultural beliefs and values. (SR)

  5. Innovation in the Science Curriculum: Classroom Knowledge and Curriculum Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, John, Ed.

    The way in which science teachers use innovation and the implications for curriculum policy making are addressed in five articles. In "Classroom Knowledge and Curriculum Change: An Introduction," John Olson proposes a humanistic framework for curricular change. Rob Walker's "The School, the Community, and the Outsider: Case Study of a Case Study,"…

  6. 76 FR 13970 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Black Stem Rust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... disease is caused by a fungus that reduces the quality and yield of infected wheat, oat, barley, and rye crops by robbing host plants of food and water. In addition to infecting small grains, the fungus lives... Mahonia. The fungus is spread from host to host by wind-borne spores. The black stem rust quarantine...

  7. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  8. Beyond the Universities: The New Higher Education. Monitoring Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Philip, Ed.

    This book explores the expansion of higher education in the United Kingdom during the past 50 years and the coordination of university and further and distance education. The following 12 chapters are included: "Patterns of HE/FE [Higher Education/Further Education] Collaboration" (Tony Lewis, Rob Allen); "Student and Staff Perceptions of Higher…

  9. Pictures of Our Nobler Selves: A History of Native American Contributions to News Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahant, Mark N.

    Many American Indians deeply resent distorted depictions of themselves in the media. They are convinced that false media caricatures have helped rob them of their history. This report addresses a fascinating incongruity: the contributions made by Native Americans to the U.S. news media--a media that has played a key role in creating the flawed…

  10. Asymmetrical disassortative pollination in a distylous primrose: the complementary roles of bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xing-Fu; Jiang, Xian-Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Qing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism characterized by reciprocal herkogamy maintained through high levels of mating between morphs, serviced by appropriate pollinators. We studied how differential efficiency and abundance of distinct pollinators affect plant female reproduction in self- and intra-morph incompatible distylous Primula secundiflora. Bumblebees and syrphid flies were found to be the most abundant floral visitors. Bumblebees frequently exhibited nectar-robbing behavior. Because the robbing holes were always situated between the high- and low-level organs on both morphs, nectar-robbing bumblebees only pollinated S-styled flowers. L-styled flowers set four times as many seeds as did S-styled flowers after being visited by pollen-collecting syrphid flies. The natural female fecundity and the magnitude of pollen limitation varied between the morphs within populations because of the mosaic distribution of nectar-robbing bumblebees and syrphid flies. L-styled flowers and S-styled flowers set the same number of seeds after supplemental hand pollination, indicating equivalent female reproductive potential. We suggest that bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies play an important role in sustaining the floral dimorphism of heterostyly in P. secundiflora because of their complementary roles in the pollination system. PMID:25579323

  11. Asymmetrical disassortative pollination in a distylous primrose: the complementary roles of bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing-Fu; Jiang, Xian-Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Qing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism characterized by reciprocal herkogamy maintained through high levels of mating between morphs, serviced by appropriate pollinators. We studied how differential efficiency and abundance of distinct pollinators affect plant female reproduction in self- and intra-morph incompatible distylous Primula secundiflora. Bumblebees and syrphid flies were found to be the most abundant floral visitors. Bumblebees frequently exhibited nectar-robbing behavior. Because the robbing holes were always situated between the high- and low-level organs on both morphs, nectar-robbing bumblebees only pollinated S-styled flowers. L-styled flowers set four times as many seeds as did S-styled flowers after being visited by pollen-collecting syrphid flies. The natural female fecundity and the magnitude of pollen limitation varied between the morphs within populations because of the mosaic distribution of nectar-robbing bumblebees and syrphid flies. L-styled flowers and S-styled flowers set the same number of seeds after supplemental hand pollination, indicating equivalent female reproductive potential. We suggest that bumblebee nectar robbers and syrphid flies play an important role in sustaining the floral dimorphism of heterostyly in P. secundiflora because of their complementary roles in the pollination system. PMID:25579323

  12. 77 FR 60450 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ..., Matthew L. Kruger, Mary Kubiak, Lev J. Langlois, Joseph E. Lederer, Calvin M. Legomsky, Stephen H. Lew..., Philip Merritt, Marianna L. Merritt, Michael P. Meyer, Jonathan E. Micone, Vincent Miller, David L... Thomas, Rob C. Tierney, MaryAnn E. Tomchek, Debra Tomsheck, James F. Torrence, Donald Triner,...

  13. Chaos on Sesame Street: Does This Carnival of Images Help Students Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Jane M.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid, disjointed, and vivid style of Sesame Street may impede rather than promote progress toward literacy and the development of voluntary attention. It robs children of the ability to create mental pictures. Contends that it is a failure as an instructional medium. (DM)

  14. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude Canada Ltd. Experience" (Lloyd…

  15. Indigenous Knowledge in the Life Sciences Classroom: Put on Your de Bono Hats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beer, Josef; Whitlock, Elrina

    2009-01-01

    The whole world was united in its condemnation of the pre-1994 apartheid regime in South Africa. Apartheid meant that many South Africans were robbed of their democratic voices and cultural identities. In this article, the authors pose the question: Are you guilty of "knowledge apartheid" in your biology classroom? Does every student have a voice…

  16. Don't Bother Me, I'm Reading: Graphic Nonfiction for Middle Schoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a savvy guide to the best graphic nonfiction books for middle schoolers. These include: "Ronald Reagan: A Graphic Biography" by Andrew Hefler; "Clan Apis" by Jay Hosler; and "Corpses and Skeletons: The Science of Forensic Anthropology" by Rob Shone.

  17. The Athletae Dei: Missing the Meaning of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shirl J.

    By making virtue of ascesis or self-discipline in their sport, the athlete evangelists (the "athletae-Dei"), unwittingly rob sport of its fundamental theological significance. These proponents of an evangelical brand of protestant theology have shifted drastically from an anti-sport stance of a century ago to a position that not only embraces…

  18. Nonverbal Effects in Memory for Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narvaez, Alice; Hertel, Paula T.

    Memory for everyday conversational speech may be influenced by the nonverbally communicated emotion of the speaker. In order to investigate this premise, three videotaped scenes with bipolar emotional perspectives (joy/fear about going away to college, fear/anger about having been robbed, and disgust/interest regarding a friend's infidelity) were…

  19. The Power of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traver, Rob

    2016-01-01

    "Students are naturally inclined to watch one another, to make suggestions and support their peers, to avoid mistakes, to copy what works and modify what doesn't, and to learn from one another," writes Rob Traver in this article. To prove his point, Traver brings readers into three classrooms where teachers tap into students' intrinsic…

  20. Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... older adults' risk of the memory-robbing disorder Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests. The study included 280 healthy people aged 62 to 90 with normal mental function. The participants underwent physical exams, genetic testing and brain scans. According to the researchers ...

  1. Cultural practices to maintain soil quality and address climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For decades, farmers in Montana and the Dakotas have produced impressive yields of barley and wheat. But that bounty has come at a cost. Tilling the soil in the region’s crop-fallow production systems has robbed the soil of nutrients and organic matter and reduced crop yields. In fact, the region’s ...

  2. Appropriating Professionalism: Restructuring the Official Knowledge Base of England's "Modernised" Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines efforts by government and government agencies in England to prescribe and control the knowledge base of a teaching profession that has, under successive New Labour administrations since 1997, been subjected to "modernisation". A theoretical framework drawn from aspects of the work of Basil Bernstein, and of Rob Moore and…

  3. Is Interdisciplinarity Old News? A Disciplined Consideration of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theory of Basil Bernstein and on more recent applications of it by Rob Moore, John Beck and Michael Young to respond to recent calls for the replacement of discipline-based university faculties and departments with "problem-based" curricula and programmes of study. It considers, particularly, the potential consequences of…

  4. How to Fix Our Schools: It's More Complicated, and More Work, than the Klein-Rhee "Manifesto" Wants You to Believe. EPI Issue Brief #286

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Joel Klein, chancellor of the New York City public school system, and Michelle Rhee, who resigned October 13 as Washington, D.C. chancellor, published a "manifesto" in the "Washington Post" claiming that the difficulty of removing incompetent teachers "has left our school districts impotent and, worse, has robbed millions of children of a real…

  5. How to Fix Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Joel Klein, chancellor of the New York City public school system, and Michelle Rhee, who resigned October 13 as Washington, DC, chancellor, published a "manifesto" in the "Washington Post" claiming that the difficulty of removing incompetent teachers "has left school districts impotent and, worse, has robbed millions of children of a real future."…

  6. Grief Casualties on Skid Row.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Cornelius; Fleming, Dagmar

    1991-01-01

    Case study research in shelter for homeless men revealed small, but notable, minority suffering from unresolved grief resulting from death of spouse, child, parent, or other immediate family member, or to painful divorce. Failure to cope with grief appeared to have robbed them of will to maintain their social standing. (Author/NB)

  7. The Use of EFL Reading Strategies among High School Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kate Tzu-Ching; Chen, Sabina Chia-Li

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional English l language classroom, reading is the skill that receives the most emphasis (Susser & Rob, 1990). Learners should use reading strategies to plan how to read and to enhance their reading comprehension (Poole, 2010). The purpose of this study was to explore the use of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading…

  8. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.

  9. Music in the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2011-01-01

    In this article, five highly experienced music educators tell what they love about teaching music. They are: (1) Rob Amchin, professor of music education at the University of Louisville, Kentucky (elementary general music specialist and percussionist--over 30 years of experience); (2) Susan Bechler, retired orchestra teacher for the Victor Central…

  10. Informal Learning. Symposium 27. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on informal learning and human resource development. "Workplace Learning Reviewed: Confronting the Rhetoric with Empirical Research" (Rob F. Poell, Ferd J. Van der Krogt) discusses the considerable discrepancy between theory on workplace learning and actual workplace learning-related developments in…

  11. 75 FR 36313 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Pine Bluff, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Pine... proposes that operating procedures on the Rob Roy Drawbridge across the Arkansas Waterway at mile 67.4...

  12. Sport-Based Youth and Community Development: Beyond the Ball in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Castañeda, Amy; Castañeda, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Rob and Amy Castañeda, the co-founders of a sports/play-based youth and community development organization called Beyond the Ball (www.beyondtheball.org), cite the collaborative and dynamic nature of the TPSR Alliance as an important influence for their work. Beyond the Ball serves individuals between kindergarten and post-college, in the North…

  13. The Historiographical Dilemma in Myrdal's American Creed: Rhetoric's Role in Rescuing a Historical Moment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, E. Culpepper; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    1987-01-01

    Reexamines Gunnar Myrdal's "An American Dilemma" (1944), which argued race relations in America would improve because the American Creed of democratic liberalism created a dilemma between existing racial prejudice and the national ideology. Describes how Myrdal's deterministic perspective robbed civil rights historiography of its drama and shows…

  14. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  15. Humans, Sharks and the Shared Environment in the Contemporary Eco-Doc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Focussing on the film "Sharkwater" directed by Rob Stewart (2006), this article discusses formal interpretive aspects of recent environmental documentaries which are intended to raise awareness about environmental issues. It is argued that contemporary environmental documentaries seek to persuade audiences to protect the shared physical…

  16. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition from Language Input and from Form-Focused Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia

    2009-01-01

    Interest in L2 vocabulary learning and teaching started long before the nineteen-eighties (for references to earlier studies, see Rob Waring's database http://www1.harenet.ne.jp/~waring/vocab/vocrefs/vocref.html) but it declined with the advent of generative linguistics to the point of discrimination and neglect (Meara 1980). In 1986, I argued…

  17. Using Online Storybooks to Build Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan; Mathews, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    "If we teach today as we taught yesterday, then we rob our children of tomorrow" (Dewey, 1916). Dewey's words are still relevant today as educators across the world consider how to best connect the print-based literacies of the past to the technologically based literacies of the present. Dewey's advice of re-envisioning how to best teach children…

  18. Fostering Resilience in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Practical Strategies EC Staff Can Put into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Children enmeshed in violence don't experience a relaxed, predictable, or trusting home life. In fact, children exposed to home violence often experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) just as adults do after enduring violence. Domestic violence robs children of their childhood. And while early childhood staff can't erase the…

  19. 75 FR 68810 - Notice of Intent To Prepare One Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... (75 FR 38822) a document entitled Notice of Intent to Prepare Four Programmatic Environmental Impact... Register notice (75 FR 38822). Next Steps This environmental analysis process is being conducted pursuant.... Rob Janson, Acting Executive Director, Facilities Management and Engineering, Office of...

  20. Gathering recognizes contributions of former Section President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Niocaill, Conall; van der Pluijm, Ben; Torsvik, Trand

    To celebrate the sixtieth birthday of Rob Van derVoo, AGU's President and President-elect of its Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section, 1988-1992, a workshop was recently held in an intimate conference setting in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The purpose was to celebrate Rob's many contributions to the fields of paleomagnetism and tectonics as he reached this milestone. Some 30 people attended and were treated to 18 presentations, many of which have recently been published or are currently in review for a special issue in his honor. While great emphasis was placed on paleomagnetism as the only quantitative tool for generating paleogeographic reconstructions for pre-Mesozoic time, a recurring theme within the meeting was the integration of paleomagnetic results with those from other disciplines—a hallmark of Rob's research efforts at the University of Michigan. The meeting also provided an opportunity for students and colleagues of Rob's to indulge in more “speculative” ideas, and the presentations were accompanied by wide-ranging and “spirited” discussions during both the “formal” sessions and the highly enjoyable evening social activities.

  1. The "New Russian Literature" and Soviet Literature in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekic, Maria

    It is widely believed that poetry in the Soviet Union has lost its place to newspapers and periodicals that have robbed literature of its readers. Prior to glasnost, non-official literature in the Soviet Union was more than a literary event; it was often the only mode of political discourse available to the literate public. This paper suggests…

  2. Commencing the Rhizome: Towards a Minor Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoriou, Zelia

    2004-01-01

    In "The Postmodern Explained," a pedagogical sequel to "The Postmodern Condition," Jean Francois Lyotard reports on the domination of thought by the principle of realism. Lyotard speaks of a demand that threatens to totalize experience, to reduce language to Newspeak, to rob thinking of its childhood and pedagogy of its philosophical moment. It is…

  3. Overcoming Obstacles to Education: The Experience of Women University Students Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Sonya Corbin

    2000-01-01

    A hermeneutic phenomenological methodology was used to explore the experience of eight women university students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two themes describing obstacles to their education - "robbed of time" and "thoughts like a rubber ball" - were identified. Discusses strategies and treatment issues and…

  4. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  5. An Ethnographic Study of the Kids on the Streets of Fortaleza, Brazil: Family, School, Peer and Community Life, Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos Monteiro, Julieta M.; And Others

    Depiction of the problem of children living in the streets in third world countries emphasizes the extent to which they are victims (as statistics have shown them as numbers on the streets or killed by "death squads") or victimizers who affect an economy (e.g., by robbing tourists). Both descriptions suggest that one-dimensional portrait of the…

  6. Multiple Metaphors for a Singular Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates the epigenetic landscape metaphor in light of behavioral development. Cites two common errors in integrated models of behavior and biology: (1) fixing behavior as structure, thereby robbing it of dynamics and plasticity; and (2) assuming that a single optimal trajectory applies to development of organisms or systems. (BC)

  7. It Makes You Think: Learning Together. Think Global Thinkpiece Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this thinkpiece Rob Bowden argues that an East meets West project points the way for global learning to be truly transformative. The project has a simple premise--that there is much to be learned by bringing Eastern and Western perspectives and pedagogies together and that such a process not only nurtures a global learning disposition…

  8. The Case against Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    2001-01-01

    A proponent rebuts claims that charter schools rob funds and students from regular public schools, gamble with children's lives and taxpayers' money, are not truly accountable, resemble other public schools, undermine democratic values, underserve disabled children, marginalize minorities, invite profiteering, front for vouchers; and represent…

  9. Building a Foundation for Success: How Authorizers Can Help Schools with the Facilities Challenge. Authorizer Issue Brief. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsband, Robin; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2004-01-01

    One of the single biggest challenges for a charter school is securing financing for an adequate facility. While a stellar building provides no guarantee that a school will be a success, having adequate facilities that at least meet the needs of an academic program without robbing the budget can go a long way toward creating an environment…

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE SUSTAINABLE POINT OF USE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 1 billion people in the developing world lack access to safe, reliable sources of drinking water. Unsafe water takes a toll not only on human health but also on individuals’ economic productivity. Illness from waterborne disease robs people of time and...

  11. A Teaching Makeover Improves Learning for Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.; Brighton, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    In many primary classrooms, the prospect of addressing standards threatens to rob young children of the joy of learning. Teachers who feel pressed to move students of all backgrounds toward mastery of increasingly complex standards may abandon rich curriculum and move toward isolated "skill drills." This may be counterproductive. The…

  12. Influence of three coccidiostats on the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Shao, Yi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In-feed Medication has been used for a long time to prevent coccidiosis, a worldwide protozoal disease in rabbits. Florfenicol (FFC) has been widely used in veterinary clinics for bacterial diseases treatment. Therefore, the use of combinations of coccidiostats with FFC in rabbits is common. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of three coccidiostats, sulfaquinoxaline (SUL), robenidine (ROB), and toltrazuril (TOL), as feed additives on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC in rabbits. The disposition kinetics of FFC in rabbits were investigated after a single intravenous injection (25 mg/kg) in rabbits fed anticoccidial-free diets or feeds containing SUL (250 ppm), ROB (66 ppm), or TOL (2 ppm), respectively, for 20 days. Plasma FFC concentrations were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FFC were analyzed using a non-compartmental analysis based on the statistical moment theory. The results demonstrated that ROB feeding resulted in an obvious decrease in plasma FFC level as compared with anticoccidial-free feeding. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z), area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), area under the first moment curve (AUMC), and mean residence time (MRT) significantly decreased, whereas the elimination rate constant (λz) and total body clearance (CLz) obviously increased in rabbits pretreated with ROB. However, we did not find that SUL or TOL feeding had any effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to the use of FFC in rabbits supplemented with ROB. PMID:25319758

  13. Influence of three coccidiostats on the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Shao, Yi-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    In-feed Medication has been used for a long time to prevent coccidiosis, a worldwide protozoal disease in rabbits. Florfenicol (FFC) has been widely used in veterinary clinics for bacterial diseases treatment. Therefore, the use of combinations of coccidiostats with FFC in rabbits is common. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of three coccidiostats, sulfaquinoxaline (SUL), robenidine (ROB), and toltrazuril (TOL), as feed additives on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC in rabbits. The disposition kinetics of FFC in rabbits were investigated after a single intravenous injection (25 mg/kg) in rabbits fed anticoccidial-free diets or feeds containing SUL (250 ppm), ROB (66 ppm), or TOL (2 ppm), respectively, for 20 days. Plasma FFC concentrations were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FFC were analyzed using a non-compartmental analysis based on the statistical moment theory. The results demonstrated that ROB feeding resulted in an obvious decrease in plasma FFC level as compared with anticoccidial-free feeding. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), area under the first moment curve (AUMC), and mean residence time (MRT) significantly decreased, whereas the elimination rate constant (λz) and total body clearance (CLz) obviously increased in rabbits pretreated with ROB. However, we did not find that SUL or TOL feeding had any effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of FFC. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to the use of FFC in rabbits supplemented with ROB. PMID:25319758

  14. Neuromedin U directly stimulates growth of cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells acting via the NMU receptor 2 isoform.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Tyczewska, Marianna; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-09-01

    The neuromedin U (NMU) system is composed of NMU, neuromedin S (NMS) and their receptors NMUR1 and NMUR2. This system is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine functions, immune response, circadian rhythm and spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of the NMU system in regulating functions of cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells. By using QPCR, high expression of NMU mRNA was found in freshly isolated ROB cells while after 7, 14, and 21 days of culture, expression of the studied gene was very low. In contrast, NMUR2 mRNA expression in freshly isolated ROB cells was negligible and very high in cultured cells. The highest NMUR2 mRNA expression was observed at day 7, and was followed by lower levels at days 14 and 21 of culture. Neither NMS nor NMUR1 mRNA was found in studied cells. Exposure of cultured ROB cells to NMU8 at concentrations 10(-6) to 10(-10) M had no effect on expression levels of the genes. During the entire culture period, NMU8 did not affect osteocalcin production, but stimulated proliferative activity of ROB cells at days 14 and 21 of culture. Thus, we demonstrated that cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells are provided with NMUR2, the receptor isoform typical for the central nervous system. Acting via this receptor NMU8 stimulates proliferation of cultured cells and has no effect on their differentiated function (osteocalcin secretion). PMID:18698496

  15. Expression of precerebellins in cultured rat calvaria osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Zok, Agnieszka; Guidolin, Diego; De Caro, Raffaele; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-10-01

    Cerebellin (CER), originally isolated from rat cerebellum, is a hexadecapeptide derived from the larger precursor called precerebellin 1 (Cbln1). At present 4 propeptides designated as Cbln1, Cbln2, Cbln3 and Cbln4 are recognized. They belong to precerebellin subfamily of the C1q family proteins. Precerebellins act as transneuronal regulators of synapse development and synaptic plasticity in various brain regions. Initially CER was thought to be a cerebellum specific peptide, however subsequent studies revealed its presence in other brain regions as well as in extraneuronal tissues. We investigated whether precerebellins are expressed and involved in regulation of cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells. Classic RT-PCR revealed the presence of Cbln1 and Cbln3 mRNA in fragments of rat calvaria, in freshly isolated ROB cells and in ROB cells cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days. Cbln2 and Cbln4 mRNA, on the other hand, could not be demonstrated in ROB cells but was found to be present in the brain. In freshly isolated ROB cells expression of Cbln1 gene was very low and gradually increased in relation to the duration of culture. Expression of Cbln3, on the other hand, was very low in fragments of rat calvaria, and increased notably after digestion with collagenase-I. The highest expression of this precerebellin was observed at day 14 of culture while at days 7 and 21 levels of expressions were notably lower. Neither Cbln2 nor Cbln4 was found to be expressed in the ROB cells. Neither CER nor des-Ser1-CER (10(-10)-10(-6)M) affect osteocalcin production and proliferation rate of studied cells. The above findings suggest that CER, which theoretically would be derived from Cbln1, modulate neither differentiated (osteocalcin secretion) nor basic (proliferation) functions of cultured rat osteoblast-like cells. The obtained data raise an intriguing hypothesis that precerebellins may be involved in regulating of spatial organization of osteoblastic niches in the bone

  16. Involvement of Outer Membrane Protein TolC, a Possible Member of the mar-sox Regulon, in Maintenance and Improvement of Organic Solvent Tolerance of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Aono, Rikizo; Tsukagoshi, Norihiko; Yamamoto, Mami

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants with improved organic solvent tolerance levels showed high levels of outer membrane protein TolC and inner membrane protein AcrA. The TolC level was regulated positively by MarA, Rob, or SoxS. A possible mar-rob-sox box sequence was found upstream of the tolC gene. These findings suggest that tolC is a member of the mar-sox regulon responsive to stress conditions. When a defective tolC gene was transferred to n-hexane- or cyclohexane-tolerant strains by P1 transduction, the organic solvent tolerance level was lowered dramatically to the decane-tolerant and nonane-sensitive level. The tolerance level was restored by transformation of the transductants with a wild-type tolC gene. Therefore, it is evident that TolC is essential for E. coli to maintain organic solvent tolerance. PMID:9473050

  17. In vivo titration of mitomycin C action by four Escherichia coli genomic regions on multicopy plasmids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Vollmer, A C; LaRossa, R A

    2001-04-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC), a DNA-damaging agent, is a potent inducer of the bacterial SOS response; surprisingly, it has not been used to select resistant mutants from wild-type Escherichia coli. MMC resistance is caused by the presence of any of four distinct E. coli genes (mdfA, gyrl, rob, and sdiA) on high-copy-number vectors. mdfA encodes a membrane efflux pump whose overexpression results in broad-spectrum chemical resistance. The gyrI (also called sbmC) gene product inhibits DNA gyrase activity in vitro, while the rob protein appears to function in transcriptional activation of efflux pumps. SdiA is a transcriptional activator of ftsQAZ genes involved in cell division. PMID:11244065

  18. In Vivo Titration of Mitomycin C Action by Four Escherichia coli Genomic Regions on Multicopy Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yan; Vollmer, Amy C.; LaRossa, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC), a DNA-damaging agent, is a potent inducer of the bacterial SOS response; surprisingly, it has not been used to select resistant mutants from wild-type Escherichia coli. MMC resistance is caused by the presence of any of four distinct E. coli genes (mdfA, gyrl, rob, and sdiA) on high-copy-number vectors. mdfA encodes a membrane efflux pump whose overexpression results in broad-spectrum chemical resistance. The gyrI (also called sbmC) gene product inhibits DNA gyrase activity in vitro, while the rob protein appears to function in transcriptional activation of efflux pumps. SdiA is a transcriptional activator of ftsQAZ genes involved in cell division. PMID:11244065

  19. The GBT-based readout concept for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the readout concept for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR, which is designed to handle interaction rates up to 10 MHz with hundreds of tracks in fixed target heavy ion collisions of up to 35 AGeV. For data readout from the frontend electronics located close to the silicon strip sensors, the radiation tolerant Gigabit Transceiver ASICs (GBTx) and Versatile Link optical modules developed at CERN are used. The usage of these devices in the STS readout and the readout concept from the frontend electronics to the GBT based STS readout board (ROB) are detailed. Special emphasis is put on the implementation of the interface between the frontend boards (FEBs) and the ROB layer.

  20. Electronic-Nose Technology Using Sputum Samples in Diagnosis of Patients with Tuberculosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, Arend; Hoelscher, Michael; Maboko, Leonard; Jung, Jutta; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Cauchi, Michael; Bessant, Conrad; van Beers, Stella; Dutta, Ritaban; Gibson, Tim; Reither, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential of two different electronic noses (EN; code named “Rob” and “Walter”) to differentiate between sputum headspace samples from tuberculosis (TB) patients and non-TB patients. Only samples from Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN)- and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive (TBPOS) sputum samples and ZN- and culture-negative (TBNEG) samples were used for headspace analysis; with EN Rob, we used 284 samples from TB suspects (56 TBPOS and 228 TBNEG samples), and with EN Walter, we used 323 samples from TB suspects (80 TBPOS and 243 TBNEG samples). The best results were obtained using advanced data extraction and linear discriminant function analysis, resulting in a sensitivity of 68%, a specificity of 69%, and an accuracy of 69% for EN Rob; for EN Walter, the results were 75%, 67%, and 69%, respectively. Further research is still required to improve the sensitivity and specificity by choosing more selective sensors and type of sampling technique. PMID:20720034

  1. Organic Solvent Tolerance of Escherichia coli Is Independent of OmpF Levels in the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Asako, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kei; Aono, Rikizo

    1999-01-01

    The organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli was measured under conditions in which OmpF levels were controlled by various means as follows: alteration of NaCl concentration in the medium, transformation with a stress-responsive gene (marA, robA, or soxS), or disruption of the ompF gene. It was shown that solvent tolerance of E. coli did not depend upon OmpF levels in the membrane. PMID:9872794

  2. A is for aphorism - the power of silence.

    PubMed

    Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Sanne; Glasziou, Paul

    2012-11-01

    'All you have to do is listen' is the title of Rob Kapilow's delightful book on classical music; but he could equally have been talking about general practice consultations. Listening requires several skills including attention, echoing and body language, but begins with silence. Well timed silences, used judiciously, can allow the patient adequate space to express symptoms and concerns, while allowing the general practitioner more time for attention, comprehension and synthesis. PMID:23145428

  3. Refinements in practical accuracy factors for resistor-array IR scene projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Alan P.; Venables, Mark A.; Lake, Stephen P.; Gough, David W.

    1998-07-01

    We describe incremental improvements in measurement, understanding and control of sensor-perceived scene accuracy factors for BAe resistor-array IR scene projector devices by means of system and device design, analysis and measurement methodology. Progress has been made in the areas of fill- factor measurement, aliasing effects, dead pixel statistics, image spreading, the design of non-uniformity correction (NUC) systems, busbar robbing, heatsink effects and noise sources.

  4. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  5. Constructing and Experiencing Boyhoods in Research in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattman, Rob; Frosh, Stephen; Phoenix, Ann

    2005-01-01

    When Rob was about 14-years-old, at an all male boarding school, he was so glad that he did not have a tiny penis like another boy who was called girl. He was popular because he was good at sport, missed his mum and dog terribly but never showed it (except a little to his mum and dog) and talked a lot about girls he fancied. These memories were…

  6. Colleges Weigh When to Alert Students of Danger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    At the University of Chicago, the third Monday in November began with an hour of violence. Around 12:30 a.m., an assailant fired a shot at a staff member who was walking on the campus. At 1:15 a group of men robbed two female students on a nearby street. Just before 1:30, Amadou Cisse, a doctoral student, was shot and killed while walking to his…

  7. Suggestion of Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) septentrionalis as replacement name for Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa Lehnert & Stone, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Shortly after publication of Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa Lehnert & Stone, 2015 Rob Van Soest (pers. communication) noticed that this species name is a junior primary homonym of Raspailia fruticosa Dendy, 1887, now accepted as Endectyon fruticosa. According to the ICZN the published species name is unavailable and we now suggest to replace the name with Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) septentrionalis (holotype deposited at the Zoologische Staatssammlung München, ZSM 20150392, collection data published in Lehnert & Stone 2015). PMID:27394372

  8. New Near-Real Time Monitoring of the Ionosphere over Europe Available On-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, J. M.; Bergeot, N.; Bruyninx, C.; Pottiaux, E.; Aerts, W.; Baire, Q.; Legrand, J.; Defraigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    With the beginning of the 24th Solar cycle, the increased Solar activity requires having a close eye on the ionosphere for better understanding Space Weather physics and its effects on radio communications. In that frame, near-real time ionospheric models over Europe are now routinely generated at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). These models are made available to the public through new interactive web pages at the web site of the GNSS team (www.gnss.be) and the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (www.sidc.be) of ROB. The models are ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) maps estimated every 15 minutes on a 0.5°x0.5° grid. They use the high-rate GPS observations of the real-time stations in the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) provided by the ROB NTRIP broadcaster. The maps are published on the ROB web site with a latency of 7-15 minutes with respect to the last GPS measurement included in the 15-minute observation files. In a first step, this paper presents the processing strategy used to generate the VTEC maps: input data, parameter estimation, data cleaning and interpolation method. In addition, the tools developed to further exploit the product are introduced, e.g. on-demand animated VTEC maps. In a second step, the VTEC maps are compared with external ionospheric products and models such as Global Ionospheric Maps and IRI 2011. These new near-real time VTEC maps will allow any user within the geographical scope of the maps to estimate in near-real time the ionospheric delay induced along the signal of any observed satellite. In the future, the web site will continuously be updated in response to evolving user needs. This paper opens doors to discussions with the user community to target their needs.

  9. Teleportation of three-dimensional single particle state in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-Cheng; Wen, Jing-Ji; Ji, Xin; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang

    2014-02-01

    Considering the spin degree of freedom of the Dirac field, we study the entanglement behavior of a different class of communication channel and teleportation of three-dimensional single particle state in noninertial frames. Numerical analysis shows that the communication channel in our scheme can offer enough distillable entanglement for the teleportation protocol. Moreover, the teleportation protocol could work well if Rob's acceleration is not very big, but the fidelity of the teleportation is still reduced due to the Unruh effect.

  10. The levels of HDAC1 and thioredoxin1 are related to the death of mesothelioma cells by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    You, Bo Ra; Park, Woo Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor which is mainly derived from the pleura of lung. In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor on human mesothelioma cells in relation to the levels of HDAC1, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thioredoxin (Trx). While 1 µM SAHA inhibited cell growth in Phi and ROB cells at 24 h, it did not affect the growth in ADA and Mill cells. Notably, the level of HDAC1 was relatively overexpressed among Phi, REN and ROB cells. SAHA induced necrosis and apoptosis, which was accompanied by the cleavages of PARP and caspase-3 in Phi cells. This agent also increased the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) in Phi cells. All the tested caspase inhibitors attenuated apoptosis in SAHA-treated Phi cells whereas HDAC1 siRNA enhanced the apoptotic cell death. SAHA increased intracellular ROS levels including O2•- in Phi cells. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and vitamin C (Vit.C) significantly reduced the growth inhibition and death of Phi cells caused by SAHA. This drug decreased the mRNA and protein levels of Trx1 in Phi and ROB cells. Furthermore, Trx1 siRNA increased cell death and O2•- level in SAHA-treated Phi cells. In conclusion, SAHA selectively inhibited the growth of Phi and ROB mesothelioma cells, which showed the higher basal level of HDAC1. SAHA-induced Phi cell death was related to oxidative stress and Trx1 levels. PMID:26936390

  11. Experimentation with GRACE, the Generic Model of Emotions For Computational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Thi-Hai-Ha; Duhaut, Dominique

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model of emotions that we proposed in EmotiRob project. First of all, we make a comparison of recent models of emotions and show that our model is generic in basing on the theories of emotions of Ortony et al., of Lazarus, of Scherer and then the personality theory of Meyers-Brigg and Meyers. Then, we present our experimentation with the first instance of the model and its result to validate our work.

  12. Army Precision at Central Headquarters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    William "Rob" Roberts wasn't thinking about working as a professional educator, much less running a major school system, when he decided he'd had enough of formal schooling himself at age 19. Rather, he dreamed of big adventures, flying combat aircraft for the military. When he discovered the U.S. Army didn't insist on two years of college, only…

  13. Recovery from Trauma: A Look into the Process of Healing from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it is a narrative of the healing process and long-term effects of a sexual assault. But tied in with that is another aspect which I feel would be robbing my readers of a full understanding of my experience were I to exclude it. This involves these effects on an interpersonal level: an account of how…

  14. Two-stage approach for detection and reduction of motion artifacts in photoplethysmographic data.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Rajet; Natarajan, Balasubramaniam Bala; Warren, Steve

    2010-08-01

    Corruption of photopleythysmograms (PPGs) by motion artifacts has been a serious obstacle to the reliable use of pulse oximeters for real-time, continuous state-of-health monitoring. In this paper, we propose an automated, two-stage PPG data processing method to minimize the effects of motion artifacts. The technique is based on our prior work related to motion artifact detection (stage 1) [R. Krishnan, B. Natarajan, and S. Warren, "Analysis and detection of motion artifacts in photoplethysmographic data using higher order statistics,'' in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. (ICASSP 2008), Las Vegas, Nevada, Apr. 2008, pp. 613-616] and motion artifact reduction (stage 2) [R. Krishnan, B. Natarajan, and S. Warren, "Motion artifact reduction in photoplethysmography using magnitude-based frequency domain independent component analysis,'' in Proc. 17th Int. Conf. Comput. Commun. Network, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, Aug. 2008, pp. 1-5]. Regarding stage 1, we present novel and consistent techniques to detect the presence of motion artifact in PPGs given higher order statistical information present in the data. We analyze these data in the time and frequency domains (FDs) and identify metrics to distinguish between clean and motion-corrupted data. A Neyman-Pearson detection rule is formulated for each of the metrics. Furthermore, by treating each of the metrics as observations from independent sensors, we employ hard fusion and soft fusion techniques presented in [Z. Chair and P. Varshney, "Optimal data fusion in multiple sensor detection systems,'' IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., AES, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 98-101, Jan. 1986] and [C. C. Lee and J. J. Chao, "Optimum local decision space partitioning for distributed detection,'' IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., AES, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 536-544, Jul. 1989], respectively, in order to fuse individual decisions into a global system decision. For stage two, we propose a motion artifact reduction method

  15. Significant influence of the boreal summer monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean response during dipole events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Krishnan; Panickal, Swapna

    2010-05-01

    A majority of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in the last 50-years were accompanied by enhanced summer-monsoon circulation and above-normal precipitation over central-north India. Given that IODs peak during boreal-autumn following the summer-monsoon season, this study examines the role of the summer-monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean (IO) response using a suite of ocean model experiments and supplementary data-diagnostics. The present results indicate that if the summer-monsoon Hadley-type circulation strengthens during positive-IOD events, then the strong off-equatorial south-easterly winds over the northern flanks of the intensified Australian High can effectively promote upwelling in the south-eastern tropical Indian Ocean and amplify the zonal-gradient of the IO heat-content response. While it is noted that a strong-monsoon cross-equatorial flow by itself may not generate a dipole-like response, a strengthening (weakening) of monsoon easterlies to the south-of-equator during positive-IOD events tends to reinforce (hinder) the zonal-gradient of the upper-ocean heat-content response. The findings show that an intensification of monsoonal-winds during positive-IOD periods produces nonlinear amplification of easterly wind-stress anomalies to the south-of-equator due to the nonlinear dependence of wind-stress on wind-speed. It is noted that such an off-equatorial intensification of easterlies over SH enhances upwelling in the eastern IO off Sumatra-Java; and the thermocline shoaling provides a zonal pressure-gradient which drives anomalous eastward equatorial under-currents (EUC) in the sub-surface. Furthermore, the combination of positive-IOD and stronger-than-normal monsoonal flow favors intensification of shallow transient meridional-overturning circulation in the eastern IO; and enhances the feed of cold subsurface off-equatorial waters to the EUC. References: P. Swapna and R. Krishnan 2008: Geophy. Res. Lett. 35, L14S04, doi: 10.1029/ 2008GL033430 R

  16. B-FEARS: The Belgian Felt Earthquake Alert and Report System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapagnani, G.; Lecocq, T.; Martin, H.; Devos, F.; Hendrickx, M.; van Camp, M. J.; Vanneste, K.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2009-12-01

    An automatic felt earthquake alert and report system, B-FEARS, was developed around the Belgian seismic network allowing seismologists to provide the authorities, the media and the public with information on local felt earthquakes a few minutes after their occurrence. Their magnitude is sometimes as small as ML = 0.6. This system is based on the analysis of the connection flow (see Figure) on the website of the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB), in parallel to an automatic control of a web macroseismic inquiry based on the “Did you feel it?” of the U.S. Geological Survey (Wald et al., 1999), available on the ROB website since 2002. This information is neither as precise nor as reliable as the one supplied by the analysis of seismic signals, but is efficient thanks to the great population density in Belgium. For all events, a manual solution is provided; if the magnitude is large enough (ML>=1.4), source parameters are also automatically determined by SEISCOMP3, which has been implemented at the ROB during 2008 and fine tuned in collaboration with GFZ. 25 minutes website connection flow graphs for a ML 1.6 earthquake (2008-10-30) and a ML 2.5 (2008-12-20). For each date, the first dashed line represents the calculated t0 and the second the time B-FEARS triggered an alert.

  17. Pharmacopuncture for Cancer Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Soyeon; Zhang, Xiuyu; Lee, In-Seon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture's effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.44). The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12–2.89). Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation. PMID:24899911

  18. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Siew Li; Sudfangsai, Suthinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane’s Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of −0.55 (−1.04, −0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (−0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (−0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE. PMID:26805876

  19. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Siew Li; Sudfangsai, Suthinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane's Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.55 (-1.04, -0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (-0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (-0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE. PMID:26805876

  20. Fermionic entanglement that survives a black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan

    2009-10-15

    We introduce an arbitrary number of accessible modes when analyzing bipartite entanglement degradation due to Unruh effect between two partners Alice and Rob. Under the single mode approximation (SMA) a fermion field only had a few accessible levels due to Pauli exclusion principle conversely to bosonic fields which had an infinite number of excitable levels. This was argued to justify entanglement survival in the fermionic case in the SMA infinite acceleration limit. Here we relax SMA. Hence, an infinite number of modes are excited as the observer Rob accelerates, even for a fermion field. We will prove that, despite this analogy with the bosonic case, entanglement loss is limited. We will show that this comes from fermionic statistics through the characteristic structure it imposes on the infinite dimensional density matrix for Rob. Surprisingly, the surviving entanglement is independent of the specific maximally entangled state chosen, the kind of fermionic field analyzed, and the number of accessible modes considered. We shall discuss whether this surviving entanglement goes beyond the purely statistical correlations, giving insight concerning the black hole information paradox.

  1. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism.

    PubMed

    Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A; Prior, Kirsten M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-05-01

    Plant-animal mutualisms, such as seed dispersal, are often vulnerable to disruption by invasive species. Here, we show for the first time how a non-ant invasive species negatively affects seed dispersal by ants. We examined the effects of several animal species that co-occur in a temperate deciduous forest-including native and invasive seed-dispersing ants (Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal. We also video-recorded depots to determine which other taxa interact with seeds. We found that A. rudis was the main disperser of seeds and that A. subfuscus consumed elaiosomes without dispersing seeds. Rodent visitation was rare, and rodent exclusion had no significant effect on seed or elaiosome removal. We then used data obtained from laboratory and field mesocosm experiments to determine how elaiosome robbing by A. subfuscus affects seed dispersal by A. rudis and M. rubra. We found that elaiosome robbing by slugs reduced seed dispersal by ants, especially in mesocosms with A. rudis, which picks up seeds more slowly than M. rubra. Taken together, our results show that elaiosome robbing by an invasive slug reduces seed dispersal by ants, suggesting that invasive slugs can have profound negative effects on seed dispersal mutualisms. PMID:26830293

  2. Fermionic entanglement that survives a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; León, Juan

    2009-10-01

    We introduce an arbitrary number of accessible modes when analyzing bipartite entanglement degradation due to Unruh effect between two partners Alice and Rob. Under the single mode approximation (SMA) a fermion field only had a few accessible levels due to Pauli exclusion principle conversely to bosonic fields which had an infinite number of excitable levels. This was argued to justify entanglement survival in the fermionic case in the SMA infinite acceleration limit. Here we relax SMA. Hence, an infinite number of modes are excited as the observer Rob accelerates, even for a fermion field. We will prove that, despite this analogy with the bosonic case, entanglement loss is limited. We will show that this comes from fermionic statistics through the characteristic structure it imposes on the infinite dimensional density matrix for Rob. Surprisingly, the surviving entanglement is independent of the specific maximally entangled state chosen, the kind of fermionic field analyzed, and the number of accessible modes considered. We shall discuss whether this surviving entanglement goes beyond the purely statistical correlations, giving insight concerning the black hole information paradox.

  3. Pharmacopuncture for cancer care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Soyeon; Zhang, Xiuyu; Lee, In-Seon; Cho, Seung-Hun; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture's effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.44). The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12-2.89). Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation. PMID:24899911

  4. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to

  5. Utilizing Nontraditional Data Sources for Near Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Dynamics During the 2015-2016 Colombian Zika Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Santillana, Mauricio; Mekaru, Sumiko R; McGinnis, Denise P; Khan, Kamran; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 40 countries in Central and South America have experienced local vector-born transmission of Zika virus, resulting in nearly 300,000 total reported cases of Zika virus disease to date. Of the cases that have sought care thus far in the region, more than 70,000 have been reported out of Colombia. Objective In this paper, we use nontraditional digital disease surveillance data via HealthMap and Google Trends to develop near real-time estimates for the basic (R0) and observed (Robs) reproductive numbers associated with Zika virus disease in Colombia. We then validate our results against traditional health care-based disease surveillance data. Methods Cumulative reported case counts of Zika virus disease in Colombia were acquired via the HealthMap digital disease surveillance system. Linear smoothing was conducted to adjust the shape of the HealthMap cumulative case curve using Google search data. Traditional surveillance data on Zika virus disease were obtained from weekly Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) epidemiological bulletin publications. The Incidence Decay and Exponential Adjustment (IDEA) model was used to estimate R0 and Robs for both data sources. Results Using the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, we estimated a mean R0 of 2.56 (range 1.42-3.83) and a mean Robs of 1.80 (range 1.42-2.30). The traditional (INS) data yielded a mean R0 of 4.82 (range 2.34-8.32) and a mean Robs of 2.34 (range 1.60-3.31). Conclusions Although modeling using the traditional (INS) data yielded higher R0 estimates than the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, modeled ranges for Robs were comparable across both data sources. As a result, the narrow range of possible case projections generated by the traditional (INS) data was largely encompassed by the wider range produced by the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data. Thus, in the absence of traditional surveillance data, digital surveillance data can yield similar estimates for key transmission parameters and

  6. Electromagnetically driven, fast opening and closing gas jet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Mourik, R. A.; Leemans, W. P.; Murphy, H.; Clover, M.

    2011-03-01

    The design and performance are presented of an electromagnetically driven gas valve [M. Krishnan, J. Wright, and T. Ma, Proceedings of the 13th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1086 (AIP, New York, 2008)] that opens in <100μs, closes in <500μs, and can operate at pressures of ˜1000psia to drive supersonic nozzles. Such a valve has applications to laser-plasma accelerators, where the fast opening and closing would allow sharper edges to the flow and also allow higher rep-rate operation without loading the vacuum chamber. The valve action is effected by a flyer plate accelerated by the electromagnetic impulse of a low inductance, spiral wound, strip-line coil driven by a capacitor. Gas flows out of the valve when the seal between this flyer plate and the valve seat is broken. The electromagnetic force greatly exceeds the restoring forces provided by a spring and the gas pressure against the valve seat. Piezoresistive sensor and laser interferometer measurements of flow show that the valve opens in ˜100μs for all pressures up to 800 psia. The closing time is 500μs, set by the spring constant and mass. The prototype valve has been operated with helium at 0.5 Hz and at 500 psia for ˜1 hour at a time with no cooling.

  7. Characterization of Sleep in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Vorster, Albrecht P.A.; Krishnan, Harini C.; Cirelli, Chiara; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To characterize sleep in the marine mollusk, Aplysia californica. Design: Animal behavior and activity were assessed using video recordings to measure activity, resting posture, resting place preference, and behavior after rest deprivation. Latencies for behavioral responses were measured for appetitive and aversive stimuli for animals in the wake and rest states. Setting: Circadian research laboratory for Aplysia. Patients or Participants: A. californica from the Pacific Ocean. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Aplysia rest almost exclusively during the night in a semi-contracted body position with preferential resting locations in the upper corners of their tank. Resting animals demonstrate longer latencies in head orientation and biting in response to a seaweed stimulus and less frequent escape response steps following an aversive salt stimulus applied to the tail compared to awake animals at the same time point. Aplysia exhibit rebound rest the day following rest deprivation during the night, but not after similar handling stimulation during the day. Conclusions: Resting behavior in Aplysia fulfills all invertebrate characteristics of sleep including: (1) a specific sleep body posture, (2) preferred resting location, (3) reversible behavioral quiescence, (4) elevated arousal thresholds for sensory stimuli during sleep, and (5) compensatory sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. Citation: Vorster AP, Krishnan HC, Cirelli C, Lyons LC. Characterization of sleep in Aplysia californica. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1453-1463. PMID:25142567

  8. Ovarian Torsion in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy Leading to Iatrogenic Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vlachodimitropoulou Koumoutsea, Evangelia; Gupta, Manish; Hollingworth, Antony; Gorry, Anwen

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian torsion in the third trimester of pregnancy leading to a midline laparotomy and caesarean section for the delivery of a preterm baby is an uncommon event. As the woman is likely to present with nonspecific symptoms of lower abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, ovarian torsion can often be misdiagnosed as appendicitis or preterm labour. Treatment and the opportunity to preserve the tube and ovary may consequently be delayed. We report the case of a multiparous woman who had undergone two previous caesarean sections at term, presenting at 35 weeks of gestation with a presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography described a cystic lesion 6 × 3 cm in the right adnexa, potentially a degenerating fibroid or a torted right ovary. MRI of the pelvis was unable to provide further clarity. The patient was managed by midline laparotomy and simultaneous detorsion of the ovarian pedicle and ovarian cystectomy together with caesarean section of a preterm infant. This report describes that prompt recognition and ensuring intraoperative access can achieve a successful maternal and fetal outcome in this rare and difficult scenario. Furthermore, we would like to emphasise that the risk for a pregnant woman and her newborn could be reduced by earlier diagnosis and management of ovarian masses (Krishnan et al., 2011). PMID:27066282

  9. Sequence and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sroubek, Jakub; Krishnan, Yamini; McDonald, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-á-gogo-related gene (HERG) encodes a potassium channel that is highly susceptible to deleterious mutations resulting in susceptibility to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Most mutations adversely affect HERG channel assembly and trafficking. Why the channel is so vulnerable to missense mutations is not well understood. Since nothing is known of how mRNA structural elements factor in channel processing, we synthesized a codon-modified HERG cDNA (HERG-CM) where the codons were synonymously changed to reduce GC content, secondary structure, and rare codon usage. HERG-CM produced typical IKr-like currents; however, channel synthesis and processing were markedly different. Translation efficiency was reduced for HERG-CM, as determined by heterologous expression, in vitro translation, and polysomal profiling. Trafficking efficiency to the cell surface was greatly enhanced, as assayed by immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, and surface labeling. Chimeras of HERG-NT/CM indicated that trafficking efficiency was largely dependent on 5′ sequences, while translation efficiency involved multiple areas. These results suggest that HERG translation and trafficking rates are independently governed by noncoding information in various regions of the mRNA molecule. Noncoding information embedded within the mRNA may play a role in the pathogenesis of hereditary arrhythmia syndromes and could provide an avenue for targeted therapeutics.—Sroubek, J., Krishnan, Y., McDonald, T V. Sequence- and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency. PMID:23608144

  10. Disposal of Energy by UV-B Sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Thomas; Krishnan, Rajagopal

    2008-03-01

    Ideal sunscreens absorb dangerous UV light and dispose of the energy safely. ``Safe disposal'' usually means conversion to heat. However, efficient absorption entails a high radiative rate, which implies high energy-transfer and other rates, unless some process intervenes to ``defuse'' the excited state. We studied the excited-state kinetics of three UV-B (290-320 nm) sunscreens by absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence. Excited-state rate analysis suggests that some sunscreens have low radiative-rate ``dark'' states, in addition to normal excited states.* We deduce dark states when sunscreens of high extinction coefficient do not show lifetimes and total emission consistent with such high radiative rates. A high radiative rate, accompanied by efficient fluorescence emission and/or transfer, may be unfavorable for a sunscreen. In spite of its dark excited state, padimate O shows significant re-emission of light in the UV-A (320-400 nm) and energy transfer to a natural component of excised skin, probably collagen. * Krishnan, R. and T.M. Nordlund (2007) J. Fluoresc. DOI 10.1007/s10895-007-0264-3.

  11. The second Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), Chris Voorhees (left) and Satish Krishnan (right), from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, remove the second Mars microprobe from a drum. Two microprobes will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander, scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket. The solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  12. The first Mars microprobe is unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility -2 (SAEF- 2), workers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory open the drums containing the Mars microprobes that will hitchhike on the Mars Polar Lander. From left, they are Satish Krishnan, Charles Cruzan, Chris Voorhees and Arden Acord. Scheduled to be launched Jan. 3, 1999, aboard a Delta II rocket, the solar-powered spacecraft is designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south pole in order to study the water cycle there. The lander also will help scientists learn more about climate change and current resources on Mars, studying such things as frost, dust, water vapor and condensates in the Martian atmosphere. The Mars microprobes, called Deep Space 2, are part of NASA's New Millennium Program. They will complement the climate-related scientific focus of the lander by demonstrating an advanced, rugged microlaser system for detecting subsurface water. Such data on polar subsurface water, in the form of ice, should help put limits on scientific projections for the global abundance of water on Mars.

  13. Soot scattering measurements in the visible and near-infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    ZHU,JINYU; CHOI,MUN YOUNG; MULHOLLAND,GEORGE W.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.

    2000-02-08

    Scattering to extinction cross-section ratios, {rho}{sub se} were measured using the NIST Large Agglomerate Optics Facility for soot produced from ethene and acetylene laminar diffusion flames. Measurements were performed using light sources at 543.5 nm, 632.8 nm and 856 nm. The average scattering to extinction cross-section ratios for these wavelengths are equal to 0.246, 0.196, and 0.196 for ethene and 0.316, 0.230, and 0.239 for acetylene. The 856 nm measurements represent the longest wavelength for which accurate scattering measurements have been performed for soot. The size distribution and fractal properties of the two soots were determined to assess the effects of limited acceptance angle range, finite size of the sensor, and departure from cosine response on the uncertainty in the measurement of {rho}{sub se} The expanded relative uncertainty (95% confidence level) was found to be {+-}6% at the two visible wavelengths and {+-}8% at 856 nm. Both the magnitude and wavelength dependence of {rho}{sub se} for the present experiments are significantly different from those reported by Krishnan et al. for overfire soot produced using a turbulent flame. The results are compared with the predictions of fractal optics.

  14. Intraseasonal Variability of the South Asian Summer Monsoon: Present-day Simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Model HIRHAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, F. S.; Rinke, A.; Dethloff, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1950, observations show a robust negative trend of the seasonal rainfall associated with the South Asian summer monsoon over India coinciding with a continuous decrease in surface solar radiation ("dimming") over South Asia due to an increase of local aerosol emissions. On the intraseasonal timescale the summer monsoon fluctuates between periods of enhanced and reduced rainfall. The frequency of occurrence of these active and breaks monsoon phases affects directly the seasonal monsoon rainfall. This study investigates the regional pattern and changes of the South Asian monsoon for the period 1979-2012 using the regional atmospheric model HIRHAM5 with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° forced at the lateral and lower boundaries with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. Despite the dry bias in the mean summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian landmass, the simulated temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns are in agreement with the ERA-Interim reanalysis indicating a realistic representation of important dynamical summer monsoon features. In addition, mechanisms which controls active and break phases within the summer monsoon season are analyzed using daily outgoing longwave radiation model data as an identification tool of monsoon breaks as proposed by Krishnan et al. (2000). Model results reveal an increasing trend of the cumulative monsoon break days of around 1.4 days per year during the last 30 years. The possible link between this increasing of cumulative monsoon break days and the observed decrease of seasonal South Asian monsoon rainfall will be the scope of further investigations.

  15. Relaxation and short time dynamics of bulk liquids and fluids confined in spherical cavities and slit pores.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, S H; Ayappa, K G

    2005-12-15

    The density of states for bulk and confined fluids have been modeled using a recently proposed gamma distribution (Krishnan, S. H.; Ayappa, K. G. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 3197). The gamma distribution results in a closed form analytical expression for the velocity autocorrelation function and the relaxation time of the fluid. The two parameters of the gamma distribution are related analytically to the second and fourth frequency moments of the fluid using short time expansions. The predictions by the proposed gamma model are compared with the velocity autocorrelation functions obtained using the theory of instantaneous normal modes (INMs) and from molecular dynamics simulations. The model is applied to a bulk soft sphere liquid and fluids confined in a spherical cavity and slit-shaped pores. The gamma model is able to capture the resulting changes in relaxation time due to changes in density and temperature extremely well for both the bulk liquid and confined inhomogeneous fluid situations. In all cases, the predictions by the gamma model are superior to those obtained from the INM theory. In the case of the fluid confined in a slit pore, the loadings were obtained from a grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation where the pore is equilibrated with a bulk fluid. This is similar to a confinement situation in a surface force apparatus. The predicted relaxation times vs pore widths from the gamma model are seen to accurately capture the oscillations due to formation and disruption of layers within the slit pore. PMID:16375288

  16. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramesh; Bhaskaran, Bibin; Kumar, Suresh V

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To compare and evaluate the remineralizing potential of four commercially available products namely SHY-NM, GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. Materials and methods: The study included 50 extracted premolars having 3 × 3 mm window prepared on the middle third of the tooth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 48 hours at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and grouped into five study groups of 10 teeth in each. Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agent and sectioned using hard-tissue microtome. Each section obtained was visualized under polarized light microscope and analyzed using Image J software. Results: The statistically evaluated results revealed that SHY-NM has the most remineralizing potential followed by ReminPro, GC Tooth Mousse Plus and fluoridated toothpaste. Conclusion: Based on the study, the SHY-NM was superior to the GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. How to cite this article: Rajan R, Krishnan R, Bhaskaran B, Kumar SV. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):42-47. PMID:26124580

  17. Using design methods to provide the care that people want and need.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Kim; Krishnan, Jerry A

    2016-01-01

    Kim Erwin is an Assistant Professor at IIT Institute of Design and trained in user-centered design methods, which put people at the center of any problem space so as to develop solutions that better fit their everyday lives, activities and context. Her expertise is in making complex information easier to understand and use. Her research targets communication tools and methods for collaborative knowledge construction built through shared experiences. Her book, Communicating the New: Methods to shape and accelerate innovation focuses on helping teams explore, build and diffuse critical knowledge inside organizations. Jerry Krishnan is a Professor of Medicine and Public Health, and Associate Vice President for Population Health Sciences at the University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System. He pioneered the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process to elicit the expressed needs of stakeholders for research. He previously served as Chair of the US FDA Pulmonary and Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee and is a Principal Investigator in NIH and Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)-funded research consortia. He chairs the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Clinical Trials review committee and the PCORI Improving Healthcare Systems merit review panel. PMID:26698828

  18. Two body and multibody interaction in a cold Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing; Gallagher, Tom

    2009-05-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a Magneto Optical Trap (MOT) are not isolated and they tend to bond through dipole-dipole and multiple-multiple interactions between Rydberg atoms. The dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the fact that the dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction show the same size of broadening, studied by Raithel's group, and there is transition between two molecular states, studied by Farooqi and Overstreet, can not be explained by the two atom picture. The purpose of this paper is to show the multibody nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular state microwave spectrum. Specifically, single body, two body and three body interaction regions are separated. Moreover, the multibody energy levels for selected geometries are calculated. In addition, multibody blockade will be discussed. [3pt] [1] A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. Cubel Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008).[0pt] [2] S.M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic,Y.P. Zhang, J.R. Ensher, A.S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E.E. Eyler, and P.L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).[0pt] [3] K. Richard Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403 (2007).

  19. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis6

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λb:a and λf:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry’s law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry’s constant values was built. The calculated Henry’s law constants correlate very well (R2test = 0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry’s constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R2 = 0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  20. Analysis of PCR Thermocycling by Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ruchi; Ugaz, Victor

    2004-03-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated a novel device employing the circulatory flow field established by Rayleigh-Bénard convection to perform amplification of a 295 base target region from a human genomic DNA template inside a 35 uL cylindrical cavity using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [Krishnan, Ugaz & Burns, Science, Vol. 298, 2002, p. 793]. This design eliminates the need for dynamic external temperature control required in conventional thermocyclers that repeatedly heat and cool static sample volumes to denaturation, annealing, and extension temperatures. In this paper, we extend these studies by demonstrating the design and operation of a multiwell convective flow device capable of achieving amplification of a 191 base pair fragment associated with membrane channel proteins M1 and M2 of the influenza-A virus in as little as 15 minutes with performance comparable to a conventional thermocycler. We also study the effect of initial template concentration and observe no degradation in performance over four orders of magnitude of initial template loading dilution, consistent with conventional thermocycler results. These results illustrate the ability of convective flow PCR systems to achieve performance equal to or exceeding conventional thermocycling hardware, and demonstrate their suitability for use in rapid biodetection assays.

  1. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  2. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  3. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-03-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λ b:a and λ f:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry's law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry's constant values was built. The calculated Henry's law constants correlate very well (R(2) test  =  0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry's constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R(2)  =  0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  4. The Belgian National Seismic Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Camp, M.; Lecocq, T.; Vanneste, K.; Rapagnani, G.; Martin, H.; Devos, F.; Bukasa, B.; Hendrickx, M.; Collin, F.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) is responsible for the seismic activity monitoring in Belgium. For this purpose the ROB operates a network of 24 seismic stations. In addition 18 accelerographs have been installed since 2001 in the most seismic active zones. Seismometers allow detecting and localizing any earthquake of magnitude larger than 1.0 in Belgium and surrounding regions. The location of the accelerometric stations is chosen in function of the type of sub-soil and in some places in function of the nearness of important infrastructures as well. Seven seismic stations are now sending their data in real time to the Observatory (in Uccle) using ADSL lines. This will be increased in a near future. Among them 3 broad-band stations are also sending data to the ORFEUS and IRIS data centres. IRIS also receives data from the Belgian superconducting gravimeter. In addition, in 2010, a broadband borehole seismometer is to be installed at the Princess Elizabeth Antarctic station (71°57' S - 23°20' E), on the bedrock, 180 km away from the coastline. Recently a low-cost seismic alert system was developed for the Belgian territory, based on the connection flow on the ROB website (http://www.seismology.be), in parallel to an automatic control of the "Did you feel it ?" macroseismic inquiries, implemented in 2002. The alert is then confirmed at the latest by the seismic signals from five seismic stations that appear on the website with a delay of more or less ten minutes. It was successfully tested during the earthquake sequence that has been observed in the region at the southwest of Brussels since July 2008.

  5. Molecular studies of free and translocation trisomy

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Lefort, G.

    1994-09-01

    Twenty cases of trisomy 13 were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Six cases had translocation trisomy: two de novo rob(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;13q)r(13). Eighteen of nineteen informative patients were consistant with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in any of the three t(13q;13q) cases indicate that all were most likely isochromosomes of post-meiotic origin. In addition, two free trisomy cases were compatible with a somatic origin. Two mosaic free trisomy-13 cases, however, were both consistent with a maternal meiotic origin. The patient with a paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13;14) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. One balanced (non-trisomic) case with a non-mosaic 45,-13,-13,+t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologs, as has been found for all homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. It is therefore also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. We cannot therefore infer anything about the origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the two cases with de novo t(13q;14q) plus a maternally derived trisomy 13.

  6. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower

  7. Mapping the differential reddening in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, C.; Campos, Fabíola; Kepler, S. O.

    2013-10-01

    We build differential-reddening maps for 66 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) with archival Hubble Space Telescope WFC/ACS F606W and F814W photometry. Because of the different GC sizes (characterized by the half-light radius Rh) and distances to the Sun, the WFC/ACS field of view (200 arcsec × 200 arcsec) coverage (Robs) lies in the range 1 ≲ Robs/Rh ≲ 15 for about 85 per cent of the sample, with about 10 per cent covering only the inner (Robs ≲ Rh) parts. We divide the WFC/ACS field of view across each cluster in a regular cell grid and extract the stellar-density Hess diagram from each cell, shifting it in colour and magnitude along the reddening vector until matching the mean diagram. Thus, the maps correspond to the internal dispersion of the reddening around the mean. Depending on the number of available stars (i.e. probable members with adequate photometric errors), the angular resolution of the maps range from ≈ 7 arcsec × 7 arcsec to ≈ 20 arcsec × 20 arcsec. We detect spatially variable extinction in the 66 GCs studied, with mean values ranging from < δE(B-V)> ≡ 0.018 (NGC 6981) up to <δE(B-V)> ≡ 0.016 (Palomar 2). Differential-reddening correction decreases the observed foreground reddening and the apparent distance modulus but, since they are related to the same value of E(B - V), the distance to the Sun is conserved. Fits to the mean-ridge lines of the highly extincted and photometrically scattered GC Palomar 2 show that age and metallicity also remain unchanged after the differential-reddening correction, but measurement uncertainties decrease because of the reduced scatter. The lack of systematic variations of <δE(B-V)> with both the foreground reddening and the sampled cluster area indicates that the main source of differential reddening is interstellar.

  8. Effect of nursing home characteristics on residents' quality of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongjuan; Kane, Robert L; Shamliyan, Tatyana A

    2013-01-01

    The association between nursing home (NH) characteristics and residents' quality of life (QOL) has not been systematically reviewed. This study synthesizes published evidence about the association between NH ownership, affiliation, location, chain membership, percentage of private rooms, facility size, and staffing with residents' QOL. We searched Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scirus for primary studies published between 1960 and March 31, 2012. We critically appraised risk of bias according to study design, QOL measurements, and adjustment for residents' characteristics. We analyzed the statistical and clinical significance, direction and magnitude of the association. From 1117 citations retrieved, we found one longitudinal quasi-experimental and 10 cross-sectional eligible studies. Variability in the NH characteristics reported and QOL measurements precluded meta-analysis. Studies with low and medium risk of bias (ROB) suggested that nonprofit NHs resulted in better QOL for residents. The low ROB study indicated that in certain QOL domains, rural facilities and facilities with a higher percentage of private rooms were associated with better self-reported resident QOL. All low and medium ROB studies found that RN, LVN/LPN and total nursing staff had no significant relationship with QOL. One longitudinal quasi-experimental study indicated that the Green House with individualized care had better QOL than conventional NHs. The available evidence does not permit strong conclusions about the association between NH characteristics and residents' QOL. The evidence does, however, raise questions about whether NH structure alone can improve residents' QOL and how residents' QOL should be measured and improved. PMID:23623273

  9. Gloss, Colour and Grip: Multifunctional Epidermal Cell Shapes in Bee- and Bird-Pollinated Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R.; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower

  10. Vertical Total Electron Content Maps Over Europe From EUREF Permanent Network GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, N.; Bruyninx, C.; Pireaux, S.; Defraigne, P.; Legrand, J.; Baire, Q.; Pottiaux, E.

    2009-04-01

    The study of the ionosphere over Europe is essential for applications in the field of geophysics and space weather research (e.g. seismic monitoring, study of the interaction between Sun and Atmosphere) and it can also provide valuable information in support of radio system transmissions. Moreover, GPS errors induced by the ionosphere will increase in the next years due to the growing solar activity since the beginning of the 24th sunspot cycle in March 2008. To better understand the physics of the ionosphere and its effects on GPS positioning, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) is developing an automatic monitoring to detect rapid ionospheric changes in both time and space domains using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) GNSS data. In this study, we describe the method adopted by ROB to obtain 1°/1° hourly maps of the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) over Europe from the phase-smoothed code observations from 150 to 200 EPN stations. We focused on two characteristic ionospheric activity periods: 1) a period of rapid changes in the ionospheric state due to the Halloween geomagnetic super-storm of 29-31 October 2003; 2) a period of normal ionospheric activity in the beginning of 2008. To validate our results we compared our VTEC maps with Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) GPS based products (e.g. from CODE, IGS). The comparisons during normal ionospheric activity show differences of 0.1±1 TECU between the ROB and GIM products. However, during rapid changes in the ionospheric state, the differences are estimated to 1±3 TECU. This is caused by the smoothing of the ionospheric signal in the GIM which are given for 2 hourly intervals on a 5°/2.5° grid. In conclusion, our TEC products are in good agreement with GIM products during normal ionospheric activity and allow to better detect rapid changes in the ionospheric state compared to global products.

  11. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure. PMID:25740333

  12. Publication committee meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Publications Committee has oversight responsibility for the entire AGU publications program. It is supported in this activity by the Journals Board, the Books Board, and the Translations Board. The 1982-1984 committee is chaired by Thomas Graedel. Serving with him are David Atlas, Grant Gross, Jurate Landwehr, Peter Molnar, George Reid, and Rob Van der Voo.At its November 3-4 meeting the new committee spent much of its time acquainting its elf with the scope of the program, the current problems, and the potential opportunities. In addition to setting the background against which the work of the next two years would take place, the committee

  13. [Atopic eczema can be treated in a pre-emptive manner].

    PubMed

    Snellman, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The inflammation and itching associated with atopic eczema can rob the patient and even the whole family of their night's sleep. Cutaneous symptoms can be quickly alleviated with a glucocorticoid cream. Calcineurin inhibitors are an alternative to glucocorticoids. Regular washing of the skin must not be forgotten. In the treatment of moderate and severe atopic eczema, the frequency of applications of the medicinal cream is decreased only after the itching has ceased. Maintenance therapy does not seem to have more adverse effects than the conventional reactive mode of treatment, and can in fact be recommended especially for adults affected with moderate and severe atopic eczema. PMID:26245046

  14. Resistor array infrared projector nonuniformity correction: search for performance improvement II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świerkowski, Leszek; Joyce, Robert A.; Williams, Owen M.

    2007-04-01

    Research leading towards the continued improvement in resistor array infrared projector nonuniformity correction (NUC) is reported, particularly at low drive levels relevant to thermal imager and FLIR test and evaluation applications. Moire fringes have been successfully compensated, as has the checkerboard effect seen in earlier flood NUC measurements. With these improvements, the residual nonuniformity associated with the random spatial noise has been reduced successfully to the 0.1-0.2% rms level, equivalent to 20-60 mK noise equivalent temperature differences. The random noise is accompanied, however, by a low spatial frequency fixed pattern, currently unexplained but possibly attributable to busbar robbing in the electronic backplane.

  15. Resistor array infrared projector nonuniformity correction: search for performance improvement IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierkowski, Leszek; Joyce, Robert A.; Williams, Owen M.

    2009-05-01

    We assess the issues that need to be addressed to ensure that a resistor array infrared projector is capable of validly simulating the real world. These include control of the additional sources of blurring and aliasing arising from the presence of the projector and its associated scene generation system, nonuniformity correction, busbar robbing, spurious back reflections and narcissus. In particular, we reconfirm that a 2 × 2 projector/unit-under-test pixel mapping ratio offers a good compromise for controlling the additional blurring and aliasing, and furthermore, we demonstrate achievement of projector nonuniformity noise equivalent temperature differences (NETDs) in the 20 mK range.

  16. SoxS Increases the Expression of the Zinc Uptake System ZnuACB in an Escherichia coli Murine Pyelonephritis Model

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    Paralogous transcriptional regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS act individually and together to control expression of more than 80 Escherichia coli genes. Deletion of marA, rob, and soxS from an E. coli clinical isolate prevents persistence beyond 2 days postinfection in a mouse model of pyelonephritis. We used microarray analysis to identify 242 genes differentially expressed between the triple deletion mutant and its parent strain at 2 days postinfection in the kidney. One of these, znuC of the zinc transport system ZnuACB, displayed decreased expression in the triple mutant compared to that in the parental strain, and deletion of znuC from the parental strain reduced persistence. The marA rob soxS triple deletion mutant was less viable in vitro under limited-Zn and Zn-depleted conditions, while disruption of znuC caused a reduction in the growth rates for the parental and triple mutant strains to equally low levels under limited-Zn or Zn-depleted conditions. Complementation of the triple mutant with soxS, but not marA or rob, restored the parental growth rate in Zn-depleted medium, while deletion of only soxS from the parental strain led to low growth in Zn-depleted medium. Both results suggested that SoxS is a major regulator responsible for growth under Zn-depleted conditions. Gel shift experiments failed to show direct binding of SoxS to the znuCB promoter, thus suggesting indirect control of znuCB expression by SoxS. While SoxS expression in the triple mutant fully restored persistence, increased expression of znuACB via a plasmid in this mutant only partially restored wild-type levels of persistence in the kidney. This work implicates SoxS control of znuCB expression as a key factor in persistence of E. coli in murine pyelonephritis. PMID:22210763

  17. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  18. The development of e-MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrington, Simon; Beswick, Rob

    2016-06-01

    Deep in the heart of the Cheshire countryside lies Jodrell Bank Observatory, home to the UK's national facility for high-resolution radio astronomy: e-MERLIN, the enhanced Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network. In this issue of A&G, the e-MERLIN team highlights some of its cutting-edge experiments, probing fundamental physical processes in our own galaxy, and reaching further out to higher redshift where radio astronomy can investigate cosmic history and evolution. In this first article, Simon Garrington and Rob Beswick explain how e-MERLIN came to be.

  19. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    PubMed

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology. PMID:10718524

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Astrometric observations of Phobos (Pasewaldt+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasewaldt, A.; Oberst, J.; Willner, K.; Beisembin, B.; Hoffmann, H.; Matz, K. D.; Roatsch, T.; Michael, G.; Cardesin-Moinelo, A.; Zubarev, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    The data is given in the form of two tables. Each table contains the same set of observations: Data in tablea1.dat has been reduced using MEX navigation orbits and predicted attitude by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC). tablea2.dat data has been derived using MEX accurate orbits by the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and measured attitude by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC). >From 158 astrometric observations 103 were determined by means of both methods, 27 using only control point measurements, and 28 performing only limb fit observations. Hence, each data table contains 261 entries, namely 130 control point measurements and 131 limb fit observations. (2 data files).

  1. Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2002-04-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a dangerous thief that robs mothers of the love and happiness they expected to feel toward their newborn babies. Even though the number of qualitative studies on postpartum depression is increasing, knowledge development will be impeded unless the rich understandings gleaned from these studies are synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's 1988 approach, the author conducted a metasynthesis of 18 qualitative studies on postpartum depression. Four overarching themes emerged that reflected four perspectives involved in postpartum depression: (a) incongruity between expectations and the reality of motherhood, (b) spiraling downward, (c) pervasive loss, and (d) making gains. Implications for clinical practice and theory development are addressed. PMID:11939248

  2. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  3. Entanglement and discord: Accelerated observations of local and global modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doukas, Jason; Brown, Eric G.; Dragan, Andrzej; Mann, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the amount of entanglement and quantum discord extractable from a two-mode squeezed state as considered from the viewpoint of two observers, Alice (inertial) and Rob (accelerated). We find that using localized modes produces qualitatively different correlation properties for large accelerations than do Unruh modes. Specifically, the entanglement undergoes a sudden death as a function of acceleration, and the discord asymptotes to zero in the limit of infinite acceleration. We conclude that the previous Unruh mode analyses do not determine the acceleration-dependent entanglement and discord degradation of a given quantum state.

  4. Quantum communication with an accelerated partner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, T. G.; Ralph, T. C.; Walk, N.

    2013-01-01

    An unsolved problem in relativistic quantum information research is how to model efficient, directional quantum communication between localized parties in a fully quantum field-theoretical framework. We propose a tractable approach to this problem based on calculating expectation values of localized field observables in the Heisenberg picture. We illustrate our approach by analyzing, and obtaining approximate analytical solutions to, the problem of communicating coherent states between an inertial sender, Alice, and an accelerated receiver, Rob. We use these results to determine the efficiency with which continuous variable quantum key distribution could be carried out over such a communication channel.

  5. Acquisition of Basic Behaviors through Teleoperation using Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Christina

    2004-01-01

    My area of research is in artificial intelligence and robotics. The major platform of this research is NASA's Robonaut. This humanoid robot is located at the Johnson Space Center. Prior to receiving this grant, I was able to spend two summers in Houston working with the Robonaut team, which is headed by Rob Ambrose. My work centered on teaching Robonaut to grasp a wrench based on data gathered as a human teleoperated the robot. I tried to make the procedure as general as possible so that many different motions could be taught using this method.

  6. Structural approaches to understanding retinal proteins needed for vision.

    PubMed

    Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    The past decade has witnessed an impressive expansion of our knowledge of retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the regulation of the visual cycle required for normal eyesight. Progress in human genetics and next generation sequencing technologies have revealed the complexity behind many inherited retinal diseases. Structural studies have markedly increased our understanding of the visual process. Moreover, technical innovations and improved methodologies in proteomics, macromolecular crystallization and high resolution imaging at different levels set the scene for even greater advances. Pharmacology combined with structural biology of membrane proteins holds great promise for developing innovative accessible therapies for millions robbed of their sight or progressing toward blindness. PMID:24680428

  7. DIRECTOR/PRODUCER ROBERT ZEMECKIS DURING FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Robert Zemeckis, director/producer, and other Warner Bros. crew members oversee the filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  8. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE SEEN FROM VAB ROOF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' by Warner Bros.' cast and crew at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29 is captured by cameras on the roof of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  9. MORIARTY, ZEMECKIS, BURGESS AND OTHERS DURING FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    From left, Bruce Moriarty, first assistant director; Robert Zemeckis, director/producer; Don Burgess, director of photography; and other Warner Bros. crew members oversee the filming of scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best-selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  10. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE WITH VAB IN BACKGROUND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With the Vehicle Assembly Building looming in the background, Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  11. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 30. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  12. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  13. FILMING OF 'CONTACT' AT LC39 PRESS SITE WITH VAB IN BACKGROUND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With the Vehicle Assembly Building looming in the background, Warner Bros.' cast and crew are filming scenes for the movie 'Contact' at Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39 Press Site on January 29. The screenplay for 'Contact' is based on the best- selling novel by the late astronomer Carl Sagan. The cast includes Jodie Foster, Matthew McConaughey, John Hurt, James Woods, Tom Skerritt, David Morse, William Fichtner, Rob Lowe and Angela Bassett. Described by Warner Bros. as a science fiction drama, 'Contact' will depict humankind's first encounter with evidence of extraterrestrial life.

  14. Securitization of tobacco settlement payments to reduce states' conflict of interest.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Jody; Falba, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Securitization of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) payments from tobacco companies is hotly debated in states and policy circles. Securitization is issuing a bond backed by future payments in return for up-front money. Many public health advocates are strongly against securitization. However, securitization itself does not rob states of tobacco control. Rather, the issue is lack of commitment to tobacco control by states. Further, securitization can mitigate states' conflict of interest between keeping tobacco companies fiscally healthy to ensure their MSA payments and reducing tobacco sales for health reasons. States should not align with tobacco companies with the common interest of keeping tobacco companies fiscally healthy. PMID:15371384

  15. Acidification of Europa's subsurface ocean as a consequence of oxidant delivery.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A; Greenberg, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Oxidants are formed at the surface of Europa and may be delivered to the subsurface ocean, possibly in great quantities. Whether these substances would be available for biological metabolism is uncertain, because they may react with sulfides and other compounds to generate sulfuric and other acids. If this process has been active on Europa for much of its age, then not only would it rob the ocean of life-supporting oxidants but the subsurface ocean could have a pH of ~2.6, which is so acidic as to present an environmental challenge for life, unless organisms consume or sequester the oxidants fast enough to ameliorate the acidification. PMID:22283235

  16. EDITORIAL: Special section on signal transduction Special section on signal transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Stanislav

    2012-08-01

    , where a single molecule can participate in multiple types of interactions. Mathematical analysis of these models is discussed in the papers by Del Vecchio [8], Seaton and Krishnan [9], and Hatzimanikatis and colleagues [10]. Finally, all signaling systems are information processing devices. While this point is broadly accepted, there have been only a few attempts to apply information theory to experimental signaling systems. A review by Andre Levchenko and colleagues [11] provides a very clear introduction to information theory and its potential applications to signal transduction in cellular systems. References [1] Félix M-A 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045001 [2] Oron E and Ivanova N 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045002 [3] MacNamara A et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045003 [4] Jensen K J and Janes K A 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045004 [5] Zarnitsyna V and Zhu C 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045005 [6] Rubinstein B et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045006 [7] Frank T D et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045007 [8] Del Vecchio D et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045008 [9] Seaton D D and Krishnan J 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045009 [10] Radivojevic A et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045010 [11] Rhee A et al 2012 Phys. Biol. 9 045011

  17. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Sulochana; Joseph, P. V.

    2003-12-01

    For over a century, the term break has been used for spells in which the rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone is interrupted. The phenomenon of ’break monsoon’ is of great interest because long intense breaks are often associated with poor monsoon seasons. Such breaks have distinct circulation characteristics (heat trough type circulation) and have a large impact on rainfed agriculture. Although interruption of the monsoon rainfall is considered to be the most important feature of the break monsoon, traditionally breaks have been identified on the basis of the surface pressure and wind patterns over the Indian region. We have defined breaks (and active spells) on the basis of rainfall over the monsoon zone. The rainfall criteria are chosen so as to ensure a large overlap with the traditional breaks documented by Ramamurthy (1969) and De et al (1998). We have identified these rainbreaks for 1901-89. We have also identified active spells on the basis of rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone. We have shown that the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with the number of rainbreak days (correlation coefficient -0.56) and significantly positively correlated with the number of active days (correlation coefficient 0.47). Thus the interannual variation of the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is shown to be related to the number of days of rainbreaks and active spells identified here. There have been several studies of breaks (and also active spells in several cases) identified on the basis of different criteria over regions differing in spatial scales (e.g., Webster et al 1998; Krishnan et al it 2000; Goswami and Mohan 2000; and Annamalai and Slingo 2001). We find that there is considerable overlap between the rainbreaks we have identified and breaks based on the traditional definition. There is some overlap with the breaks identified by Krishnan et al (2000) but little overlap with breaks identified by Webster et al (1998

  18. A high level computational study of the CH4/CF4 dimer: how does it compare with the CH4/CH4 and CF4/CF4 dimers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Matthew J.; Mecozzi, Sandro

    2012-04-01

    The interaction within the methane-methane (CH4/CH4), perfluoromethane-perfluoromethane (CF4/CF4) methane-perfluoromethane dimers (CH4/CF4) was calculated using the Hartree-Fock (HF) method, multiple orders of Møller-Plesset perturbation theory [MP2, MP3, MP4(DQ), MP4(SDQ), MP4(SDTQ)], and coupled cluster theory [CCSD, CCSD(T)], as well as the PW91, B97D, and M06-2X density functional theory (DFT) functionals. The basis sets of Dunning and coworkers (aug-cc-pVxZ, x = D, T, Q), Krishnan and coworkers [6-311++G(d,p), 6-311++G(2d,2p)], and Tsuzuki and coworkers [aug(df, pd)-6-311G(d,p)] were used. Basis set superposition error (BSSE) was corrected via the counterpoise method in all cases. Interaction energies obtained with the MP2 method do not fit with the experimental finding that the methane-perfluoromethane system phase separates at 94.5 K. It was not until the CCSD(T) method was considered that the interaction energy of the methane-perfluoromethane dimer (-0.69 kcal mol-1) was found to be intermediate between the methane (-0.51 kcal mol-1) and perfluoromethane (-0.78 kcal mol-1) dimers. This suggests that a perfluoromethane molecule interacts preferentially with another perfluoromethane (by about 0.09 kcal mol-1) than with a methane molecule. At temperatures much lower than the CH4/CF4 critical solution temperature of 94.5 K, this energy difference becomes significant and leads perfluoromethane molecules to associate with themselves, forming a phase separation. The DFT functionals yielded erratic results for the three dimers. Further development of DFT is needed in order to model dispersion interactions in hydrocarbon/perfluorocarbon systems.

  19. Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold {sup 85}Rb Rydberg gas

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jianing

    2010-11-15

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.

  20. Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold Rb85 Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing

    2010-11-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.233201 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.183002 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.011403 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.

  1. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizing for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.

  2. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  3. The hunter becomes the hunted: when cleptobiotic insects are captured by their target ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Wright, Pamela; Roux, Olivier; LaPierre, Louis M.

    2012-04-01

    Here we show that trying to rob prey (cleptobiosis) from a highly specialized predatory ant species is risky. To capture prey, Allomerus decemarticulatus workers build gallery-shaped traps on the stems of their associated myrmecophyte, Hirtella physophora. We wondered whether the frequent presence of immobilized prey on the trap attracted flying cleptoparasites. Nine social wasp species nest in the H. physophora foliage; of the six species studied, only Angiopolybia pallens rob prey from Allomerus colonies. For those H. physophora not sheltering wasps, we noted cleptobiosis by stingless bees ( Trigona), social wasps ( A. pallens and five Agelaia species), assassin bugs (Reduviidae), and flies. A relationship between the size of the robbers and their rate of capture by ambushing Allomerus workers was established for social wasps; small wasps were easily captured, while the largest never were. Reduviids, which are slow to extract their rostrum from prey, were always captured, while Trigona and flies often escaped. The balance sheet for the ants was positive vis-à-vis the reduviids and four out of the six social wasp species. For the latter, wasps began by cutting up parts of the prey's abdomen and were captured (or abandoned the prey) before the entire abdomen was retrieved so that the total weight of the captured wasps exceeded that of the prey abdomens. For A. pallens, we show that the number of individuals captured during attempts at cleptobiosis increases with the size of the Allomerus' prey.

  4. Isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites in Central and South American Calea species and their biochemical systematic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen species of the genus Calea (Family Compositae, Tribe Heliantheae) from Central and northern South America, including the type species for the genus, were investigated chemically to determine their secondary metabolites. The taxa studied were C. leptocephala Blake, C. megacephala Rob, and Greenm., and C. trichotoma B. Smith from Mexico, C. prunifolia Kunth (syn. C. pittieri) from Costa Rica, C. prunifolia Kunth from Panama, C. jamaicensis L. from Jamaica, and the Venezuelan species C. berteriana DC., C. divaricata Benthem, C. oliverii Rob. and Greenm., C. prunifolia Kunth, C. septuplinervia Hieron., C. solidaginea Kunth, and C. subcordata Kunth. The chemical investigation of these Calea species, undertaken as part of biochemical systematic study, has resulted in the isolation of 83 compounds, of which 38 are new natural products. The isolated compounds were represented by a dioxin derivative, 3 benzofuranes, 5 chromenes, 12 flavones, and 62 sesquiterpene lactones. The structures of the new compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. These methods included MS, IR, UV, and CD, /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR, and single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis.

  5. Econo-Thermodynamics: The Nature of Economic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimkes, Juergen

    2006-03-01

    Physicists often model economic interactions like collisions of atoms in gases: by interaction one agent gains, the other loses. This leads to a Boltzmann distribution of capital, which has been observed in wealth distributions of different countries. However, economists object: no economic agent will attend a market in which he gets robbed! This conflict may be resolved by writing basic laws of economics into terms of calculus. In these terms the daily struggle for survival of all economic systems turns out to be a Carnot cycle that is driven by energy: heat pumps and economic production depend on oil, GNP and oil consumption run parallel for all countries. Motors and markets are based on the same laws of calculus (macro-economics) and statistics (micro-economics). Economic interactions mean exploiting a third party (nature) and are indeed close to robbing! A baker sells bread to his customers, but the flour comes from nature. Banks sells loans to investors, but the money comes from savers. Econo-thermodynamics is a thrilling new interdisciplinary field.

  6. Resistor array performance errors associated with extended targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisko, R. Bryan; Marlow, Steven A.; Huber, August J.; Thompson, Rhoe A.

    2006-05-01

    In recent hardware-in-the-loop tests conducted in a cryogenic chamber, a dual band sensor observed radiometric anomalies for extended targets. In order to understand the radiometric errors associated with the infrared projection arrays, systematic measurements were performed at both cryogenic and ambient temperatures. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) engineers have previously investigated an artifact observed in these arrays called "busbar robbing," but these observations were of square blocks of emitters and did not characterize radiometric accuracy of extended targets in a dynamic engagement scenario. It was discovered that when numerous emitters in a contiguous pattern are turned on, rather than scattered over the array, the "busbar robbing" effect causes the actual emitter outputs to be different from what you measure if you drive them to the same level with fewer pixels. When the emitters that are driven have some "aspect ratio" or elongated shape, then the effect is dependent on how this pattern is aligned with the emitter axes. The results of these experiments address the radiometric error that can be expected from the resistor array projectors for end game scenarios when a target becomes extended at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures.

  7. The hunter becomes the hunted: when cleptobiotic insects are captured by their target ants.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Carpenter, James M; Corbara, Bruno; Wright, Pamela; Roux, Olivier; Lapierre, Louis M

    2012-04-01

    Here we show that trying to rob prey (cleptobiosis) from a highly specialized predatory ant species is risky. To capture prey, Allomerus decemarticulatus workers build gallery-shaped traps on the stems of their associated myrmecophyte, Hirtella physophora. We wondered whether the frequent presence of immobilized prey on the trap attracted flying cleptoparasites. Nine social wasp species nest in the H. physophora foliage; of the six species studied, only Angiopolybia pallens rob prey from Allomerus colonies. For those H. physophora not sheltering wasps, we noted cleptobiosis by stingless bees (Trigona), social wasps (A. pallens and five Agelaia species), assassin bugs (Reduviidae), and flies. A relationship between the size of the robbers and their rate of capture by ambushing Allomerus workers was established for social wasps; small wasps were easily captured, while the largest never were. Reduviids, which are slow to extract their rostrum from prey, were always captured, while Trigona and flies often escaped. The balance sheet for the ants was positive vis-à-vis the reduviids and four out of the six social wasp species. For the latter, wasps began by cutting up parts of the prey's abdomen and were captured (or abandoned the prey) before the entire abdomen was retrieved so that the total weight of the captured wasps exceeded that of the prey abdomens. For A. pallens, we show that the number of individuals captured during attempts at cleptobiosis increases with the size of the Allomerus' prey. PMID:22361902

  8. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in regulating interanimal coordination of movements.

    PubMed

    Himmler, Brett T; Bell, Heather C; Horwood, Lewis; Harker, Allonna; Kolb, Bryan; Pellis, Sergio M

    2014-10-01

    Rats with juvenile play experience display a greater ability in coordinating their movements with social partners than those deprived of such experience, and this may be due to the play-induced neural restructuring of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present study investigates the role of the mPFC in interanimal coordination. Rats with and without bilateral mPFC lesions were tested on a robbing-and-dodging task. This food protection task measures the ability of rats to protect pieces of food by gaining and maintaining an interanimal distance between themselves and the rat attempting to rob the food. Given that mPFC lesions have been associated with sensory and motor deficits, the same rats were also subjected to a task to measure skilled motor movements. Rats with bilateral mPFC lesions had more food stolen and displayed an inability to maintain interanimal distance with partner, but did not exhibit any motor or sensory deficits. These findings suggest that the mPFC is involved in interanimal coordination and that the play-induced neural restructuring of this area may account for the enhanced coordination seen in rats with prior play experience. PMID:25111337

  9. Cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells are provided with orexin type 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tortorella, Cinzia; Tyczewska, Marianna; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2007-12-01

    Orexins A and B are hypothalamic peptides which are derived from the proteolytic cleavage of prepro-orexin and act via two subtypes of receptors, named OX1-R (that almost exclusively binds orexin-A) and OX2-R (nonselective for both orexins). Several lines of evidence show that other neuropeptides, which like orexins are involved in the central control of energy homeostasis (e.g. leptin and ghrelin), may play a role in the regulation of bone metabolism, acting via autocrine-paracrine or endocrine routes. Therefore, we studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) the expression of the orexin system in rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells, whose osteoblastic lineage was immunocytochemically demonstrated by their osteonectin and collagen-1alpha content at day 14 of culture. Conventional PCR detected the mRNA expression of OX1-R, but not OX2-R and prepro-orexin in ROB cells at days 2, 7 and 21 of culture. Semiquantitative real time-PCR evidenced a gradual down-regulation of OX1-R mRNA in relation to the duration of culture. This novel finding suggests that rat osteoblasts could be a target for circulating orexin-A, especially during their early stages of differentiation into mature osteoblasts. PMID:17982683

  10. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  11. Biological treatment in rheumatic diseases: results from a longitudinal surveillance: adverse events.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, L; Honkanen, V; Uotila, T; Pöllänen, J; Waahtera, M; Romu, M; Puolakka, K; Vasala, M; Karjalainen, A; Luukkainen, R; Nordström, D C

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of biologicals in a clinical setting. Data on adverse events (AEs) have been collected over a 5-year period by means of detailed reports sent in to the National Register of Biological Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) and validated by information collected by the National Agency for Medicines. Three hundred and eight reports on AEs were filed, concerning a total of 248 patients; this corresponds to 17% of all patients in the ROB-FIN register who started biological treatments. Skin reactions and infections comprised 35 and 28% of the AEs, respectively. Some cases of tuberculosis and other infections, heart failure and demyelinating conditions were seen. Our work demonstrates no unexpected AEs in a Finnish patient cohort consisting of rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthropathy patients, although many of them were treated with combination treatments in common use in Finland. Biological treatment appears safe in the hands of the Finnish rheumatologists. PMID:16402217

  12. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:26841492

  13. Entanglement dynamics of non-inertial observers in a correlated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of decoherence and correlated noise on the entanglement of X-type state of the Dirac fields in the non-inertial frame is investigated. A two qubit X-state is considered to be shared between the partners where Alice is in inertial frame and Rob in an accelerated frame. The concurrence is used to quantify the entanglement of the X-state system influenced by time correlated amplitude damping, depolarizing and bit flip channels. It is seen that amplitude damping and bit flip channels heavily influence the entanglement of the system as compared to the depolarizing channel. It is found possible to avoid entanglement sudden death (ESD) for all the channels under consideration for μ > 0.75 for any type of initial state. No ESD behaviour is seen for depolarizing channel in the presence of correlated noise for entire range of decoherence parameter p and Rob's acceleration r. It is also seen that the effect of environment is much stronger than that of acceleration of the accelerated partner. Furthermore, it is investigated that correlated noise compensates the loss of entanglement caused by the Unruh effect.

  14. Reflective optical bi-stability of antiferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Fu, S. F.; Zhou, S.; Wang, X. Z.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate one magnetically nonlinear response of antiferromagnetic (AF) films to incident electromagnetic waves, or the reflective optical bi-stability (ROB). Such geometry is used, where the AF anisotropy axis and external static magnetic field both are parallel to the film surfaces and normal to the incident plane. For TE incident waves with the electric component transverse to the incident plane, the ROB of the AF film with the absorption is calculated, but the case of TM incident waves is neglected since no magnetic nonlinearity is induced in this geometry. The bi-stability is completely different in the two resonant-frequency vicinities. Two kinds of bi-stability are found in the higher vicinity, and their features versus incident power are opposite. We also find that there are critical incident angle and critical film thickness for the existence of bi-stability. The bi-stability disappears when the film thickness or incident angle exceeds its critical value. Because the properties of bi-stable reflection sensitively depend on the external field and the incident angle, this bi-stability can be easily modulated by means of changing these quantities.

  15. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  16. Middle-Ear Microsurgery Simulation to Improve New Robotic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Péan, Fabien; Ferrary, Evelyne; Cotin, Stéphane; Sterkers, Olivier; Duriez, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed. PMID:25157373

  17. Middle-ear microsurgery simulation to improve new robotic procedures.

    PubMed

    Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Péan, Fabien; Ferrary, Evelyne; Cotin, Stéphane; Sterkers, Olivier; Duriez, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed. PMID:25157373

  18. A passionate love: the contributions of the late professor Robert John Barrett.

    PubMed

    Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2007-10-01

    Professor Robert John Barrett died suddenly, after a long and difficult illness, on January 12th, 2007. At the time of his death, at the age of 57, he was Head of the Discipline of Psychiatry at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, University of Adelaide. His passing was mourned by countless individuals in Australia and internationally. The celebration of his life, held in the University of Adelaide's Bonython Hall, from which generations of scholars have received their parchments upon graduation, was an emotive ritual of which Rob would have both approved and also enjoyed immensely. The Hall was filled to capacity, with over 1300 people listening to a collection of his favourite music and tributes delivered by eight of his friends and family members. Dignitaries in full academic regalia, including the Vice-Chancellor, the immediate past and current Deans of Medicine, and the Head of School oversaw proceedings from an elevated position in the Hall, the symbolic meaning of which would have caused Rob to smile wryly. A reflection of his life in pictures, at the conclusion of the ceremony, before the pall-bearers carried his coffin to the hearse, evoked yet more tears and grief at the tragic and untimely loss of this man: an outstanding intellectual, wise mentor, gifted teacher, caring doctor, and true and loyal friend. PMID:20433093

  19. Membrane Stresses Induced by Overproduction of Free Fatty Acids in Escherichia coli.

    SciTech Connect

    Lennen, Rebecca M.; Kruziki, Max A.; Kumar, Kritika; Zinkel, Robert A.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Lipton, Mary S.; Hoover, Spencer W.; Ranatunga, Don Ruwan; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Marner II, Wesley D.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2011-11-01

    Microbially produced fatty acids are potential precursors to high energy density biofuels, including alkanes and alkyl ethyl esters by either catalytic conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) or enzymatic conversions of acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Metabolic engineering efforts aimed at overproducing FFAs in Escherichia coli have achieved less than 30% of the maximum theoretical yield on the supplied carbon source. In this work, the viability, morphology, transcript levels, and protein levels of a strain of E. coli that overproduces medium chain length FFAs was compared to an engineered control strain. By early stationary phase, an 85% reduction in viable cell counts and exacerbated loss of inner membrane integrity were observed in the FFA overproducing strain. These effects were enhanced in strains endogenously producing FFAs compared to strains exposed to exogenously fed FFAs. Under two sets of cultivation conditions, long chain unsaturated fatty acid content greatly increased and the expression of genes and proteins required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased. Membrane stresses were further implicated by increased expression of genes and proteins of the phage shock response, the MarA/Rob/SoxS regulon, and the nuo and cyo operons of aerobic respiration. Gene deletion studies confirmed the importance of the phage shock proteins and Rob for maintaining cell viability, however little to no change in FFA titers was observed after 24 h cultivation. The results of this study serve as a baseline for future targeted attempts to improve FFA yields and titers in E. coli.

  20. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:21437597

  1. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rob

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Rob Knight of the University of Colorado gives a presentation on "Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  2. Noodle-map chaos - A simple example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, O. E.; Hudson, J. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    Chaos-generating folded two-dimensional maps can be generalized to higher dimensions in two ways: as folded-towel (or pancake) maps and as bent-walking-stick (or noddle) maps. The noodle case is of mathematical interest because the topologically one-dimensional attractors involved may, despite their thinness, be of the 'non-sink' type (that is, stand in a bijective relation to their domain of attraction). Moreover, Shtern recently showed that the well-known Kaplan-Yorke conjecture on the fractal dimensionality of chaotic attractors may fail in the case of noodle maps. We present here an explicit 3-variable noodle map with constant divergence (constant Jacobian determinant). The example is a higher analogue to the Henon diffeomorphism. A map of similar shape was recently found experimentally by Rob Shaw in a study of the irregularly dripping faucet.

  3. Commodity multi-processor systems in the ATLAS level-2 trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Blair, R.; Bock, R.; Bogaerts, A.; Dawson, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Hauser, R.; Kugel, A.; Lay, R.; Muller, M.; Noffz, K.-H.; Pope, B.; Schlereth, J.; Werner, P.

    2000-05-23

    Low cost SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processor) systems provide substantial CPU and I/O capacity. These features together with the ease of system integration make them an attractive and cost effective solution for a number of real-time applications in event selection. In ATLAS the authors consider them as intelligent input buffers (active ROB complex), as event flow supervisors or as powerful processing nodes. Measurements of the performance of one off-the-shelf commercial 4-processor PC with two PCI buses, equipped with commercial FPGA based data source cards (microEnable) and running commercial software are presented and mapped on such applications together with a long-term program of work. The SMP systems may be considered as an important building block in future data acquisition systems.

  4. KSC-04PD-0795

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On a tour of the KSC Space Life Sciences Lab, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (at left) listen to Rob Ferl (right), assistant director of the Bio Technology Program, University of Florida (one of the five partners in the SLS Lab). Second from right is U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The new lab is a state-of-the- art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  5. Coping with paradoxes of risk communication: Observations and suggestions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.B. )

    1993-06-01

    The maturation of the field of risk communication has resulted in several manuals, a National Research Council review, a Society for Risk Analysis subgroup, and critics. Critics Pieter-Jan Stalen and Rob Coppock, and Harry Otway and Brian Wynne, have pointed out that much risk communication is impractical or paradoxical. In this letter, the author supports many of the criticisms of these critics, but also discusses errors and omissions in their viewpoints that he feels will inhibit progress in effective risk communication. Topics discussed are motivations for risk communication, the practicality of advice, the audience for risk communication, credibility, and whose interests are best served by risk communication. The purpose of this essay is therefore to spur further debate on the issue of risk communication. 13 refs.

  6. Advanced multi-GNSS troposphere modeling for improved monitoring and forecasting of severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiaux, Eric; Berckmans, Julie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2014-05-01

    The Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) contributes to the EUMETNET EIG GNSS Water Vapour Program (E-GVAP) aiming at the operational exploitation of GNSS signals for improving Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Within E-GVAP, ROB provides hourly-updated Zenith Tropospheric Delays (ZTDs) from a network of about 350 GPS stations covering Europe. Over the past years, many GPS station operators have upgraded their equipment to observe simultaneously multiple GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo). However, these additional observations are presently not exploited for operational meteorology, which still relies on the analysis of GPS-only observations to provide only ZTD (no or few information on spatial heterogeneities is provided). Improving this situation is one of the goals of the new COST Action ES1206: "Advanced GNSS Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Extreme Weather Events and Climate" (GNSS4SWEC) to which ROB participates. In that context, ROB is investigating a new processing strategy using the latest Bernese software version 5.2 to provide new and enhanced tropospheric products, including the estimation of ZTD and horizontal gradients, based on the analysis of multi-GNSS observations. These products will improve the analysis of the behavior of atmospheric water vapor (including its local heterogeneities) and stimulate the use of GNSS for the monitoring and forecasting of severe weather. As a first step, we studied the benefits of including GLONASS observations w.r.t. a GPS-only processing system, focusing particularly on the reliability and stability of the ZTD estimation. We also studied the sensitivity of the new multi-GNSS ZTD estimates with respect to the relative constraints imposed during the parameter estimation. In our setup, relative constraints of 0.007m provide a good balance between reducing the noise and allowing for the natural variability of the ZTD. We also show that the new multi-GNSS ZTD estimates generally agree with the GPS-only estimates at the

  7. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  8. Nonuniformity correction using a flood technique and 1:1 mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.

    2001-08-01

    Although the sparse grid Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) technique can accurately correct individual emitters on a resistor array, it is not a good solution for all projection applications. Due to busbar robbing, the sparse grid NUC breaks down when a large number of emitters are turned on simultaneously. For this case, a more appropriate NUC data collection method is needed. This method involves measuring the entire resistor array at once with a 1:1 mapping between the projector and NUC sensor. Then busbar effects, measured during the NUC data collection, can be accounted for and corrected. This paper presents details pertaining to the flood NUC technique and results. This NUC system is implemented at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware In the Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB, Florida.

  9. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Knight, Rob [University of Colorado

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Rob Knight of the University of Colorado gives a presentation on "Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  10. Kenneth Fitzpatrick Russell: the first reader to the Gordon Craig Library.

    PubMed

    Burke, P F

    1997-08-01

    A review of the life and achievements of Kenneth Fitzpatrick Russell, whose death in his 76th year robbed us of a civilized gentleman who was at the zenith of his creative output, would be a daunting task, if only because of the breadth of his hobbies and interests: art and medical literature; reading; sinology and seal carving; numismatics, medical philately; bookbinding, collecting bookplates; carpentry; metal work, including pewter casting and silversmithing; model ship building and cooking. Yet these various interests were simply a backdrop to his public career at the University of Melbourne and the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, where he laid the foundations of an international reputation as scholar and collector. PMID:9287914

  11. [A case of Williams syndrome who exhibited fetishism].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Masayuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare congenital disease in which the etiological locus is a micro-deletion in chromosome 7. Here, we describe the case of a 22-year-old male who was diagnosed with Williams syndrome at the age of 3 years. As a child, the patient exhibited patterns of behavior characteristic of this syndrome including hyperactivity, attention deficit, and over-friendliness. He also showed persistent interest in construction vehicles, playgrounds, and gloves. He became interested in gloves after watching a television program in which the heroine fought her enemies while wearing gloves. Watching pornographic movies allowed him to attach strong sexual significance to gloves when he was 19 years old. Since that time, he has assaulted women wearing gloves four times to rob them of the gloves. The current paper discusses both the role of the cognitive profile unique to Williams syndrome and that of environmental factors in the development of fetishism in this case. PMID:15669216

  12. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations--such as the readiness potential--as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  13. Gear Windage Modeling Progress - Experimental Validation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Rob; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    In the Subsonics Rotary Wing (SRW) Project being funded for propulsion work at NASA Glenn Research Center, performance of the propulsion system is of high importance. In current rotorcraft drive systems many gearing components operate at high rotational speed (pitch line velocity > 24000 ft/ min). In our testing of high speed helical gear trains at NASA Glenn we have found that the work done on the air - oil mist within the gearbox can become a significant part of the power loss of the system. This loss mechanism is referred to as windage. The effort described in this presentation is to try to understand the variables that affect windage, develop a good experimental data base to validate, the analytical project being conducted at Penn State University by Dr. Rob Kunz under a NASA SRW NRA. The presentation provides an update to the status of these efforts.

  14. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  15. Medical practice branding using cable television.

    PubMed

    Miaoulis, George; Kissinger, Mark; Sirko-Fiorilli, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Genesis Medical Associates is an independent primary care practice in the suburbs of Pittsburgh. Given competitive pressures, a member of the physician leadership began thinking about the need for the practice to develop an "identity and awareness" program to set the practice apart from the competition. The idea for branding the campaign began when Dr. Rob Potter, Jr., was attending a Pittsburgh Pirates baseball game and a fan said to him, "You're that doctor I see on television" in the nursing home commercial. Triggered by this experience, Potter saw the opportunity to develop an awareness and identity campaign for Genesis. In this article we share the reasons for, the steps taken, and initial results in developing a medical practice branding strategy. PMID:15921142

  16. Panel Discussion I. Star Formation in Galaxies: How Do We Continue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    This is the written account of the first of two panel discussions, on Star formation in galaxies: how do we continue? The chair of the panel was Phil James, and panel members were John Beckman, Torsten Böker, Daniela Calzetti, Angeles Díaz, and Rob Kennicutt. The panel and audience discussed the following four questions: 1) What are the most critically needed techniques to give accurate measurements of total rates and efficiencies of star formation? 2) Do we understand the form of the initial mass function and its variation as a function of redshift and environment? 3) Are there multiple modes of star formation in galaxies (bulge vs disk, burst vs continuous) or does the Schmidt law explain everything? 4) How do we bring together our understanding of star formation in our Galaxy and in external systems?

  17. Immune Privilege of Corneal Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Niederkorn, Jerry Y.; Larkin, D. Frank P.

    2013-01-01

    Corneal transplantation has been performed successfully for over 100 years. Normally, HLA typing and systemic immunosuppressive drugs are not utilized, yet 90% of corneal allografts survive. In rodents, corneal allografts representing maximal histoincompatibility enjoy >50% survival even without immunosuppressive drugs. By contrast, other categories of transplants are invariably rejected in such donor/host combinations. The acceptance of corneal allografts compared to other categories of allografts is called immune privilege. The cornea expresses factors that contribute to immune privilege by preventing the induction and expression of immune responses to histocompatibility antigens on the corneal allograft. Among these are soluble and cell membrane molecules that block immune effector elements and also apoptosis of T lymphocytes. However, some conditions rob the corneal allograft of its immune privilege and promote rejection, which remains the leading cause of corneal allograft failure. Recent studies have examined new strategies for restoring immune privilege to such high-risk hosts. PMID:20482389

  18. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  19. Impact of traumatic events and organizational response. A study of bank robberies.

    PubMed

    Miller-Burke, J; Attridge, M; Fass, P M

    1999-02-01

    This study explored how experiencing a traumatic event in the workplace affects employee physical health, mental health, personal functioning, and work performance. Post-event use of health care services and the effectiveness of critical incident stress debriefing sessions and other coping interventions were also examined. A retrospective self-report methodology and mailed survey were used with 141 employees of 42 different bank branches that had recently been robbed. The results found that most employees had multiple negative consequences from experiencing a bank robbery while at work. Psychological, physical, work, and personal areas were all affected by the robbery. Furthermore, more threatening incidents were associated with more severe consequences. Critical incident stress debriefing interventions delivered after robbery were rated as helpful by 78% of employees who attended. The implications for health care providers and organizations are discussed. PMID:10029951

  20. Spasmolytic activity of some plants used by the Otomi Indians of Quéretaro (México) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Rojas, A; Bah, M; Rojas, J I; Serrano, V; Pacheco, S

    1999-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from Baccharis heterophylla H. B. K (Asteraceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae), Dyssodia pinnata var. pinnata Rob. (Asteraceae), Gentiana spathacea H. B. K. (Gentianaceae), Loeselia mexicana Brand. (Polemoniaceae), Selaginella pallescens Spring. (Selaginellaceae) and Zornia diphylla Pers. (Fabaceae) on the spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The concentration-response curves and IC50 values were obtained and the respective relaxant potencies were compared with that of the CHCl3-MeOH (1:1) extract of Datura lanosa. The data showed that all the extracts produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous ileum contractions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against pathogenic enterobacteria was tested. The pharmacological actions shown by the extracts of the selected species tend to support ethnomedical use of the plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:11962546

  1. Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, U. K. North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D. Ltd., Aberdeen ); Mantel, K.A. ); Morton, D.J. ); Riley, L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Oil-bearing Late Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Graben. They form the reservoirs in Scott, which in 1993 will be the largest producing North Sea oil field to come on stream for more than a decade. Together with Scott, the Piper, Saltire, Tartan, Highlander, Petronella, Rob Roy, and Ivanhoe fields contained almost 2 Bbbl of recoverable reserves in these formations. The Sgiath and Piper represent two phases of Late Jurassic transgression and regression, initially represented by paralic deposited sand culminating in a wave-dominated delta sequence. The history of the Sgiath and Piper formations is reviewed and lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlations presented to illustrate the distribution of the reservoir sandstones.

  2. Performance of an integrated approach for prediction of bond dissociation enthalpies of phenols extracted from ginger and tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Pham Cam; Chandra, Asit K.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-01-01

    Integration of the (RO)B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p) with the PM6 method into a two-layer ONIOM is found to produce reasonably accurate BDE(O-H)s of phenolic compounds. The chosen ONIOM model contains only two atoms of the breaking bond as the core zone and is able to provide reliable evaluation for BDE(O-H) for phenols and tocopherol. Deviation of calculated values from experiment is ±(1-2) kcal/mol. BDE(O-H) of several curcuminoids and flavanoids extracted from ginger and tea are computed using the proposed model. The BDE(O-H) values of enol curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate are predicted to be 83.3 ± 2.0 and 76.0 ± 2.0 kcal/mol, respectively.

  3. Is neural Darwinism Darwinism?

    PubMed

    van Belle, T

    1997-01-01

    Neural Darwinism is a theory of cognition developed by Gerald Edelman along with George Reeke and Olaf Sporns at Rockefeller University. As its name suggests, neural Darwinism is modeled after biological Darwinism, and its authors assert that the two processes are strongly analogous. both operate on variation in a population, amplifying the more adaptive individuals. However, from a computational perspective, neural Darwinism is quite different from other models of natural selection, such as genetic algorithms. The individuals of neural Darwinism do not replicate, thus robbing the process of the capacity to explore new solutions over time and ultimately reducing it to a random search. Because neural Darwinism does not have the computational power of a truly Darwinian process, it is misleading to label it as such. to illustrate this disparity in adaptive power, one of Edelman's early computer experiments, Darwin I, is revisited, and it is shown that adding replication greatly improves the adaptive power of the system. PMID:9090158

  4. KSC-05PD-0155

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Vehicle Assembly Building, United Space Alliance technicians Rob Williams (left) and Ed Carillion (background) work in the enclosure that is pumping warm, dry air around the External Tank (ET) to maintain the proper temperature and humidity prior to the aft hard-point closeout spray. The spray is being applied on an area of the tank where the ET is mated to the transporter. Foam is not applied to that area at the Michoud Assembly Facility in Louisiana to avoid damage to the foam during travel. The ET, which arrived at KSC Jan. 5, is in the checkout cell for final processing. The tank is scheduled to fly on Space Shuttle Discovery on Return to Flight mission STS-114. The launch window is May 12 to June 3.

  5. Discrete Differential Forms: A Novel Methodology for Robust Computational Electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, P; Koning, J; Rieben, R; Stowell, M; White, D A

    2003-01-17

    This is the final report for the LLNL LDRD 01-LW-068. The Principle Investigator was Daniel White of the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC). Collaborators included Paul Castillo and Mark Stowell of CASC, and Ph.D students Joe Koning and Rob Rieben of UC Davis. Some of the simulation results in this report were partially funded by a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency research grant, and the two Ph.D. students were supported by the LLNL Student-Employee Graduate Research Fellow program. We begin with a short Administrative Overview which describes the motivation, scope, and deliverables of this research effort. Then follows the Technical section, which introduces the theory behind our Discrete Differential Forms approach, provides an overview of our FEMSTER C++ class library, and concludes with example simulations.

  6. Higher-Order Mixed Finite Element Methods for Time Domain Electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Stowell, M; Koning, J; Rieben, R; Fisher, A; Champagne, N; Madsen, N

    2004-02-06

    This is the final report for LDRD 01-ERD-005. The Principal Investigator was Niel Madsen of the Defense Sciences Engineering Division (DSED). Collaborators included Daniel White, Joe Koning and Nathan Champagne of DSED, Mark Stowell of Center for Applications Development and Software Engineering (CADSE), and Ph.D. students Rob Rieben and Aaron Fisher at the UC Davis Department of Applied Science. It should be noted that the students were partially supported by the LLNL Student-Employee Graduate Research Fellow program. We begin with an Introduction which provides background and motivation for this research effort. Section II contains high-level description of our Approach, and Section III summarizes our key research Accomplishments. A description of the Software deliverables is provided in Section IV, and Section V includes simulation Validation and Results. It should be noted we do not get into the mathematical details in this report, rather these can be found in our publications which are listed in Section III.

  7. Pulling up the runaway: the effect of new evidence on euthanasia's slippery slope.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, C J

    1998-01-01

    The slippery slope argument has been the mainstay of many of those opposed to the legalisation of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. In this paper I re-examine the slippery slope in the light of two recent studies that examined the prevalence of medical decisions concerning the end of life in the Netherlands and in Australia. I argue that these two studies have robbed the slippery slope of the source of its power--its intuitive obviousness. Finally I propose that, contrary to the warnings of the slippery slope, the available evidence suggests that the legalisation of physician-assisted suicide might actually decrease the prevalence of non-voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. PMID:9800591

  8. Patient's jewelry stolen as she rests in the ED.

    PubMed

    2007-12-01

    In a hospital ED in Rhode Island, a 96-year-old patient was robbed of her jewelry while she rested in her room. The thief was dressed in scrubs. Identification badges are only one way of keeping unwanted intruders out and your patients' belongings safe. Other suggestions: Have different groups of staff members, i.e., ED doctors and nurses, wear color-coded scrubs that distinguish them from other hospital personnel. If your staff see a strangely dressed person or someone who looks lost or like they don't fit in, they should question them about their identity. Create protocols for the removal and safekeeping of patients' jewelry that cover several different scenarios. PMID:18198764

  9. Medical humanities and philosophy: is the universe expanding or contracting?

    PubMed

    Stempsey, William E

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether the universe is expanding or contracting serves as a model for current questions facing the medical humanities. The medical humanities might aptly be described as a metamedical multiverse encompassing many separate universes of discourse, the most prominent of which is probably bioethics. Bioethics, however, is increasingly developing into a new interdisciplinary discipline, and threatens to engulf the other medical humanities, robbing them of their own distinctive contributions to metamedicine. The philosophy of medicine considered as a distinct field of study has suffered as a result. Indeed, consensus on whether the philosophy of medicine even constitutes a legitimate field of study is lacking. This paper presents an argument for the importance of a broad conception of the philosophy of medicine and the central role it should play in organizing and interpreting the various fields of study that make up the metamedical multiverse. PMID:17549604

  10. Candidates for GRL North American coeditor sought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), AGU's all-Union primary research journal, is seeking candidates and nominations for candidates to succeed Rob Van der Voo, whose term as North American Coeditor ends December 31, 1986. The successful candidate will be challenged to seek out interesting papers at the forefront of the geophysical sciences and to attempt to strike a balance in the publication of that science that is of interest to the entire AGU membership. While complementing the interests of Editor in Chief Alex Dessler, the successful candidate will also be challenged to maintain rapid publication time and minimize the publication of research that is routine. The North American Coeditor should be prepared to welcome controversial research papers that challenge conventional wisdom in all fields of interest to AGU. The individual selected for this prestigious position will have a vital role in making GRL an even more important and more exciting journal that readers look forward to receiving each month.

  11. A New Class of Priority-based Weighted Fair Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Pan, ChengSheng; Zhang, ErHan; Liu, HaiYan

    The traditional fair queuing scheduling algorithm (WFQ WF2Q) for data application is a fair and efficient algorithm, while when they face to real-time applications such as voice, interactive video, and so on, they are short of the guarantee of strict time delay. In view of this, we propose one kind of weighted fair scheduling algorithm which is based on an strict rob priority class, this algorithm add an absolute priority queue based on the foundation of based class weighted fair scheduling algorithm(CBWFQ), and it also carries on the expansion to network simulator NS2. With the comparison to traditional algorithm, we can drawn a conclusion from the simulation results that the new algorithm can improve the time delay, fairness and other network performances based on the same throughput. Namely it guarantees the real-time application of Quality of Service, also guarantees the fair transmission of other service.

  12. Continuous variable methods in relativistic quantum information: characterization of quantum and classical correlations of scalar field modes in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ragy, Sammy; Girolami, Davide

    2012-11-01

    We review a recently introduced unified approach to the analytical quantification of correlations in Gaussian states of bosonic scalar fields by means of Rényi-2 entropy. This allows us to obtain handy formulae for classical, quantum, total correlations, as well as bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We apply our techniques to the study of correlations between two modes of a scalar field as described by observers in different states of motion. When one or both observers are in uniform acceleration, the quantum and classical correlations are degraded differently by the Unruh effect, depending on which mode is detected. Residual quantum correlations, in the form of quantum discord without entanglement, may survive in the limit of an infinitely accelerated observer Rob, provided they are revealed in a measurement performed by the inertial Alice.

  13. Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Kleinman, L.; Fast, J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3-6 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The

  14. Two unusual 12-connected metal-organic coordination polymers with fcu net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Dan; Luo, Yu-Hui; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Two new three-dimensional 12-connected metal-organic coordination polymers, [Zn2(bptc)(H2O)]·C2H5OH·H2O (1) and [Cd4(bptc)2(bbi)(H2O)]·H2O (2) (H4bptc=biphenyl-2,5,2',5'-tetracarboxylic acid, bbi=1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)), have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. All compounds are also characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric (TG) analyses and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Topological analysis indicates that both 1 and 2 are 12-connected frameworks with fcu topology, which are based on cuboid cage and rob-like {Cd3} subunit as 12-connected nodes, respectively. Furthermore, the luminescence properties of the two compounds were discussed in detail.

  15. Analysis and design of a 1×2 ring resonator-based plasmonic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatuzian, Hassan; Keshavarz Moazzam, Mostafa

    2014-08-01

    Relying on the next generation chip-scale technology, Plasmonics, here is presented a novel plan for Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton-based Ring Resonator (DLSPP-RR) switching configuration. The device is a 1x2 switch with a left-rob Y splitter in the middle of coupling region to share the electromagnetic energy between the two straight and bend output waveguides. Like other active devices, specially switching structures, this plan also will have the potential to be prepared as an active device if its trapped-modes into ring resonator can be controlled on the frequency axis. We implemented simulation of the device by means of the rigorous 3D Finite Element Method (3D-FEM) to certificate its truly passive performance. The obtained results are mixed as transmission spectrums of two output ports on a relatively close frequency band around the telecommunication wavelength of λ = 1550 nm.

  16. Expanding the Planetary Analog Test Sites in Hawaii - Planetary Basalt Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) is one of the very few planetary surface research test sites in the country that is totally funded by the state legislature. In recent expansions, PISCES is broadening its work in planetary test sites to include much more R&D work in the planetary surface systems, and the manipulation of basalt materials. This is to include laser 3D printing of basalt, 'lunar-concrete' construction in state projects for Hawaii, renewable energy, and adding lava tubes/skylights to their mix of high-quality planetary analog test sites. PISCES Executive Director, Rob Kelso, will be providing program updates on the interest of the Hawaii State Legislature in planetary surface systems, new applied research initiatives in planetary basalts and interests in planetary construction.

  17. Disentanglement of two harmonic oscillators in relativistic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yuin; Chou, Chung-Hsien; Hu, B. L.

    2008-12-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum entanglement between two Unruh-DeWitt detectors, one stationary (Alice), and another uniformly accelerating (Rob), with no direct interaction but coupled to a common quantum field in (3+1)D Minkowski space. We find that for all cases studied the initial entanglement between the detectors disappears in a finite time (“sudden death”). After the moment of total disentanglement the correlations between the two detectors remain nonzero until late times. The relation between the disentanglement time and Rob’s proper acceleration is observer dependent. The larger the acceleration is, the longer the disentanglement time in Alice’s coordinate, but the shorter in Rob’s coordinate.

  18. Error-corrected quantum annealing with hundreds of qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudenz, Kristen L.; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2014-02-01

    Quantum information processing offers dramatic speedups, yet is susceptible to decoherence, whereby quantum superpositions decay into mutually exclusive classical alternatives, thus robbing quantum computers of their power. This makes the development of quantum error correction an essential aspect of quantum computing. So far, little is known about protection against decoherence for quantum annealing, a computational paradigm aiming to exploit ground-state quantum dynamics to solve optimization problems more rapidly than is possible classically. Here we develop error correction for quantum annealing and experimentally demonstrate it using antiferromagnetic chains with up to 344 superconducting flux qubits in processors that have recently been shown to physically implement programmable quantum annealing. We demonstrate a substantial improvement over the performance of the processors in the absence of error correction. These results pave the way towards large-scale noise-protected adiabatic quantum optimization devices, although a threshold theorem such as has been established in the circuit model of quantum computing remains elusive.

  19. Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jieci; Jing Jiliang

    2010-09-15

    Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob's qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a 'critical point'.

  20. Measuring the Impact of Programs that Challenge the Public Stigma of Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.

    2010-01-01

    Public stigma robs people with mental illnesses from rightful opportunities related to work and other important life goals. Advocates have developed anti-stigma programs meant to address the prejudice and discrimination associated with these conditions. Evidence is now needed to make sense of program impact; this paper looks at measurement issues related to stigma change. Community based participatory research is central to this research and includes the involvement of a diverse collection of stakeholders in all phases of evaluation. Investigators should be cautious about measures vis-à-vis social desirability effects and should directed by social validity of targeted audiences. Conceptual domains with some research support that correspond with assessments include behavior, penetration, psychological perspective, knowledge, and physiological/information processes. These issues are summarized as ten recommendations for evaluation of anti-stigma programs. PMID:20674114

  1. Neurodegeneration and Identity.

    PubMed

    Strohminger, Nina; Nichols, Shaun

    2015-09-01

    There is a widespread notion, both within the sciences and among the general public, that mental deterioration can rob individuals of their identity. Yet there have been no systematic investigations of what types of cognitive damage lead people to appear to no longer be themselves. We measured perceived identity change in patients with three kinds of neurodegenerative disease: frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Structural equation models revealed that injury to the moral faculty plays the primary role in identity discontinuity. Other cognitive deficits, including amnesia, have no measurable impact on identity persistence. Accordingly, frontotemporal dementia has the greatest effect on perceived identity, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has the least. We further demonstrated that perceived identity change fully mediates the impact of neurodegenerative disease on relationship deterioration between patient and caregiver. Our results mark a departure from theories that ground personal identity in memory, distinctiveness, dispositional emotion, or global mental function. PMID:26270072

  2. Engine panel seals for hypersonic engine applications: High temperature leakage assessments and flow modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Ko, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A critical mechanical system in advanced hypersonic engines is the panel-edge seal system that seals gaps between the articulating horizontal engine panels and the adjacent engine splitter walls. Significant advancements in seal technology are required to meet the extreme demands placed on the seals, including the simultaneous requirements of low leakage, conformable, high temperature, high pressure, sliding operation. In this investigation, the seal concept design and development of two new seal classes that show promise of meeting these demands will be presented. These seals include the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal. Presented are key elements of leakage flow models for each of these seal types. Flow models such as these help designers to predict performance-robbing parasitic losses past the seals, and estimate purge coolant flow rates. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted leakage rates over a wide range of engine simulated temperatures and pressures, showing good agreement.

  3. First Results of the TIGRE Chromospheric Activity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Hempelmann, A.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of the stellar activity survey with TIGRE (Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato, Robótico-Espectroscópico). This long term program was started in August 2013 with the monitoring of a larger number of stars. We aim at measuring the short- and long-term variability of stellar activity for stars of different spectral types and luminosity classes, using indicators of different spectral lines (mainly Ca II S-Index, Ca II IR triplet, H_α and sodium D). A transformation equation of the TIGRE S-Index into the Mount Wilson S-index was derived in order to compare our results to the vast body of existing S-index measurements. Furthermore, the correlation between the S-index and the lines of the Ca II IR triplet has been studied, based on strictly simultaneous observations.

  4. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    2012-04-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

  5. Ducted Fan Designs Lead to Potential New Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, aerospace engineers Rob Bulaga and Mike Moshier formed Trek Aerospace Inc., based in Folsom, California, to develop personal air vehicles using a novel ducted fan design. The company relied on Ames Research Center for a great deal of testing, the results of which have provided greater lift, lowered weight, more power, and improved maneuverability. The technology has been applied to three models: the Dragonfly UMR-1, the Springtail EFV, and the OVIWUN, a small-scale version that is for sale through the company's Web site. It is safer than a manned vehicle, and its size makes it relatively difficult for it to damage itself during test flights the way a larger mass, faster craft could.

  6. The neural antecedents to voluntary action: Response to commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Hacker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience must attend to the conceptual coherence of its hypotheses as well as to their empirical support. Examining the most influential studies of the neural antecedents to voluntary action, our Discussion Paper sought to identify the real-world consequences of neglecting the former in what we argued has been too narrow a pursuit of the latter. Though conceptual in form, our analysis is sharply empirical in its conclusions, revealing what have long been thought to be momentous experimental observations—such as the readiness potential—as the outcome of previously unidentified confounds that rob them of significance. Conversely, we suggested that experimental studies of two-way control, amongst other defining features of the voluntary, have been given less emphasis than the subject demands. Here, we ramify our analysis down the paths identified by others in the commentaries we received. PMID:26001157

  7. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  8. Low thermal expansion seal ring support

    DOEpatents

    Dewis, David W.; Glezer, Boris

    2000-01-01

    Today, the trend is to increase the temperature of operation of gas turbine engines. To cool the components with compressor discharge air, robs air which could otherwise be used for combustion and creates a less efficient gas turbine engine. The present low thermal expansion sealing ring support system reduces the quantity of cooling air required while maintaining life and longevity of the components. Additionally, the low thermal expansion sealing ring reduces the clearance "C","C'" demanded between the interface between the sealing surface and the tip of the plurality of turbine blades. The sealing ring is supported by a plurality of support members in a manner in which the sealing ring and the plurality of support members independently expand and contract relative to each other and to other gas turbine engine components.

  9. Pro-Nuclear Environmentalism: Should We Learn to Stop Worrying and Love Nuclear Energy?

    PubMed

    van Munster, Rens; Sylvest, Casper

    2015-10-01

    In light of repeated failures to reach political agreement on effective policies to combat climate change, pro-nuclear environmentalists have set out to reverse the traditionally anti-nuclear inclinations of environmentalists. This essay examines the ideological commitments and assumptions of pro-nuclear environmentalism by performing a critical, historical analysis of the nuclear-environment nexus through the prism of documentary film. We focus on the work and career of documentary filmmaker Rob Stone, whose most recent production, Pandora's Promise (PP) (2013), has emerged as a central statement of this creed. PP actively forges a new political imaginary that replaces the apocalyptic image of nuclear fallout with that of catastrophic climate change. In terms of its rhetorical and visual strategies, however, PP also reveals that pro-nuclear environmentalist arguments have a long lineage. A close study of such continuities reveals a number of political implications that call for reflection as well as caution. PMID:26593709

  10. The origin of the moon: Further studies of the giant impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, W.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Melosh, H. J.

    A number of technical improvements in the calculations which simulate the most violent event that has occurred to the earth during its history: its collision with the next largest body which was present in its region of accumulation in the early solar system, are discussed. This body was a planet in its own right, an object a little more massive than the planet Mars. The collision created a disk of molten and gaseous debris in orbit around the protoearth, and it is believed that the dissipation of this disk resulted in the formation of the moon. Also discussed is the serendipitous discovery that has emerged from the simulations: the role played by a huge, hot, rotating bar of rock and iron, which is formed immediately after the collision, in transferring angular momentum to much of the rock that is put into orbit, and in robbing the iron of angular momentum so that it falls promptly into the protoearth.

  11. The 2012 Transit of Venus for Cytherean Atmospheric Studies and as an Exoplanet Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Reardon, K. P.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.; Willson, R.; Kopp, G.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Sterling, A.; Scherrer, P.; Schou, J.; Golub, L.; Reeves, K.

    2012-10-01

    We worked to assemble as complete a dataset as possible for the Cytherean atmosphere in collaboration with Venus Express in situ and to provide an analog of spectral and total irradiance exoplanet measurements. From Haleakala, the whole transit was visible in coronal skies; our B images showed the evolution of the visibility of Venus's atmosphere and of the black-drop effect, as part of the Venus Twilight Experiment's 9 coronagraphs distributed worldwide with BVRI. We imaged the Cytherean atmosphere over two minutes before first contact, with subarcsecond resolution, with the coronagraph and a separate refractor. The IBIS imaging spectrometer at Sacramento Peak Observatory at H-alpha and carbon-dioxide also provided us high-resolution imaging. The NST of Big Bear Solar Observatory also provided high-resolution vacuum observations of the Cytherean atmosphere and black drop evolution. Our liaison with UH's Mees Solar Observatory scientists provided magneto-optical imaging at calcium and potassium. Spaceborne observations included the Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA and HMI, and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode, and total-solar-irradiance measurements with ACRIMSAT and SORCE/TIM, to characterize the event as an exoplanet-transit analog. Our expedition was sponsored by the Committee for Research and Exploration/National Geographic Society. Some of the funds for the carbon-dioxide filter for IBIS were provided by NASA through AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, and Eric Pilger '82 for assistance with Haleakala observing, Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur Astronomers for assistance with equipment and with the site, Stan Truitt for the loan of his Paramount ME, and Steve Bisque/Software Bisque for TheSky X controller. We thank Joseph Gangestad '06 of Aerospace Corp., a veteran of our 2004 expedition, for assistance at Big Bear. We thank the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory and

  12. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Michael E; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  13. Membrane Stresses Induced by Overproduction of Free Fatty Acids in Escherichia coli▿†

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M.; Kruziki, Max A.; Kumar, Kritika; Zinkel, Robert A.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Lipton, Mary S.; Hoover, Spencer W.; Ranatunga, Don R.; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Marner, Wesley D.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    Microbially produced fatty acids are potential precursors to high-energy-density biofuels, including alkanes and alkyl ethyl esters, by either catalytic conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) or enzymatic conversion of acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Metabolic engineering efforts aimed at overproducing FFAs in Escherichia coli have achieved less than 30% of the maximum theoretical yield on the supplied carbon source. In this work, the viability, morphology, transcript levels, and protein levels of a strain of E. coli that overproduces medium-chain-length FFAs was compared to an engineered control strain. By early stationary phase, an 85% reduction in viable cell counts and exacerbated loss of inner membrane integrity were observed in the FFA-overproducing strain. These effects were enhanced in strains endogenously producing FFAs compared to strains exposed to exogenously fed FFAs. Under two sets of cultivation conditions, long-chain unsaturated fatty acid content greatly increased, and the expression of genes and proteins required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased. Membrane stresses were further implicated by increased expression of genes and proteins of the phage shock response, the MarA/Rob/SoxS regulon, and the nuo and cyo operons of aerobic respiration. Gene deletion studies confirmed the importance of the phage shock proteins and Rob for maintaining cell viability; however, little to no change in FFA titer was observed after 24 h of cultivation. The results of this study serve as a baseline for future targeted attempts to improve FFA yields and titers in E. coli. PMID:21948837

  14. Nectar alkaloids decrease pollination and female reproduction in a native plant.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lynn S; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of floral traits may be shaped by a community of floral visitors that affect plant fitness, including pollinators and floral antagonists. The role of nectar in attracting pollinators has been extensively studied, but its effects on floral antagonists are less understood. Furthermore, the composition of non-sugar nectar components, such as secondary compounds, may affect plant reproduction via changes in both pollinator and floral antagonist behavior. We manipulated the nectar alkaloid gelsemine in wild plants of the native perennial vine Gelsemium sempervirens. We crossed nectar gelsemine manipulations with a hand-pollination treatment, allowing us to determine the effect of both the trait and the interaction on plant female reproduction. We measured pollen deposition, pollen removal, and nectar robbing to assess whether gelsemine altered the behavior of mutualists and antagonists. High nectar gelsemine reduced conspecific pollen receipt by nearly half and also reduced the proportion of conspecific pollen grains received, but had no effect on nectar robbing. Although high nectar gelsemine reduced pollen removal, an estimate of male reproduction, by one-third, this effect was not statistically significant. Fruit set was limited by pollen receipt. However, this effect varied across sites such that the sites that were most pollen-limited were also the sites where nectar alkaloids had the least effect on pollen receipt, resulting in no significant effect of nectar alkaloids on fruit set. Finally, high nectar gelsemine significantly reduced seed weight; however, this effect was mediated by a mechanism other than pollen limitation. Taken together, our work suggests that nectar alkaloids are more costly than beneficial in our system, and that relatively small-scale spatial variation in trait effects and interactions could determine the selective impacts of traits such as nectar composition. PMID:22011842

  15. Development and characterization of a compensating wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Robertsonian translocation with Sr44 resistance to stem rust (Ug99).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxuan; Danilova, Tatiana V; Rouse, Matthew N; Bowden, Robert L; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S; Pumphrey, Michael O

    2013-05-01

    The emergence of the highly virulent Ug99 race complex of the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. One of the effective genes against the Ug99 race complex is Sr44, which was derived from Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth and D.R. Dewey and mapped to the short arm of 7J (designated 7J#1S) present in the noncompensating T7DS-7J#1L∙7J#1S translocation. Noncompensating wheat-alien translocations are known to cause genomic duplications and deficiencies leading to poor agronomic performance, precluding their direct use in wheat improvement. The present study was initiated to produce compensating wheat-Th. intermedium Robertsonian translocations with Sr44 resistance. One compensating RobT was identified consisting of the wheat 7DL arm translocated to the Th. intermedium 7J#1S arm resulting in T7DL∙7J#1S. The T7DL∙7J#1S stock was designated as TA5657. The 7DL∙7J#1S stock carries Sr44 and has resistance to the Ug99 race complex. This compensating RobT with Sr44 resistance may be useful in wheat improvement. In addition, we identified an unnamed stem rust resistance gene located on the 7J#1L arm that confers resistance not only to Ug99, but also to race TRTTF, which is virulent to Sr44. However, the action of the second gene can be modified by the presence of suppressors in the recipient wheat cultivars. PMID:23358862

  16. Effectiveness and safety of treatments used for the management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Souvik; Tamayo, Maria E; Aune, Dagfinn; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants is one of the most controversial topics in neonatal medicine. The availability of different pharmacotherapeutic options often poses a practical challenge to the practising neonatologist as to which one to choose as a therapeutic option. Our objectives are to determine the relative merits of the available pharmacotherapeutic options for the management of PDA. Methods and Analysis We will conduct a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials evaluating the use of intravenous or oral: indomethacin, ibuprofen and acetaminophen for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants. The primary outcome is failure of closure of the PDA. Secondary outcomes are neonatal mortality, need for surgical closure, duration of ventilator support, chronic lung disease, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotising enterocolitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, time to full enteral feeds and oliguria. We will search Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) as well as grey literature resources. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, review full texts, extract information, and assess the risk of bias (ROB) and the confidence in the estimate (with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach). Subgroup analysis according to gestational age, birth weight, different doses of interventions, time of administration of the first dose of the intervention, and echocardiographic definition of haemodynamically significant PDA and ROB are planned. We will perform a Bayesian network meta-analysis to combine the pooled direct and indirect treatment effect estimates for each outcome, if adequate data are available. Ethics and Dissemination The results will help to reduce the uncertainty about the safety and effectiveness of the interventions, will identify knowledge gaps or will encourage further research for

  17. The Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Mission, the Mars Surveyor 2001 (MS01) Mission, and the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The NEAR Mission was launched on February 17, 1996 for a three year cruise to the asteroid 433 Eros. During October, November, and December 1998 cruise measurements with the gamma-ray spectrometer were made at three different escape-window-width settings. These were done in order to understand how the count rate and peak width change as the window width settings change. Analysis of these spectra was completed using the latest version of the spectral analysis program, RobWin. Results as a function of energy were combined with the results from the Schlumberger-Doll Research experiments (described below). Laboratory measurements were needed to confirm efficiency calculations above 6 MeV and to understand the relationship between the full energy peak areas and the areas of the first and second escape peaks as a function of the escape peak widths. A week of measurements was made at Schlumberger-Doll Research using their 14-MeV pulsed neutron generator and large soil samples. Data were collected after adding iron and nickel to the sample to increase the emission of high-energy lines. Approximately 24 hours of data were accumulated at each of three escape peak window widths. These data were analyzed with RobWin. Combining results from the cruise measurements and the laboratory measurements indicated that both data sets had similar energy dependence and that this energy dependence was different from that obtained using standard Monte Carlo calculations. Alternate methods of simulating the response of the detector to changes in the escape window widths are being investigated.

  18. Patients’ online access to their electronic health records and linked online services: a systematic review in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Freda; de Lusignan, Simon; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Quinn, Tom; Cavill, Mary; Franco, Christina; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Ellis, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Background Online access to medical records by patients can potentially enhance provision of patient-centred care and improve satisfaction. However, online access and services may also prove to be an additional burden for the healthcare provider. Aim To assess the impact of providing patients with access to their general practice electronic health records (EHR) and other EHR-linked online services on the provision, quality, and safety of health care. Design and setting A systematic review was conducted that focused on all studies about online record access and transactional services in primary care. Method Data sources included MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EPOC, DARE, King’s Fund, Nuffield Health, PsycINFO, OpenGrey (1999–2012). The literature was independently screened against detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria; independent dual data extraction was conducted, the risk of bias (RoB) assessed, and a narrative synthesis of the evidence conducted. Results A total of 176 studies were identified, 17 of which were randomised controlled trials, cohort, or cluster studies. Patients reported improved satisfaction with online access and services compared with standard provision, improved self-care, and better communication and engagement with clinicians. Safety improvements were patient-led through identifying medication errors and facilitating more use of preventive services. Provision of online record access and services resulted in a moderate increase of e-mail, no change on telephone contact, but there were variable effects on face-to-face contact. However, other tasks were necessary to sustain these services, which impacted on clinician time. There were no reports of harm or breaches in privacy. Conclusion While the RoB scores suggest many of the studies were of low quality, patients using online services reported increased convenience and satisfaction. These services positively impacted on patient safety, although there were variations of

  19. Avoidance behaviour of two eco-physiologically different earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Aporrectodea caliginosa) in natural and artificial saline soils.

    PubMed

    Owojori, O J; Reinecke, A J

    2009-04-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of Eisenia fetida and Aporrectodea caliginosa in OECD artificial soil spiked with NaCl and in natural saline soil (of varying ionic constitutions) collected from Robertson Experimental Farm (ROBS) in Western Cape, South Africa. For each organism, the ecotoxicological test was performed using a two-chamber test over a period of 48 h. The results showed that in the OECD soil, the avoidance EC50 (the concentration/electrical conductivity at which there is effect on 50% of the organisms) for A. caliginosa of 667 mg kg(-1) NaCl was lower than 1164 mg kg(-1) for E. fetida. Similarly in ROBS soil, the avoidance EC50 for A. caliginosa of 0.26 dS m(-1) was lower than 0.56 dS m(-1) in E. fetida. These results indicated that A. caliginosa showed better avoidance to salinity than E. fetida irrespective of soil types or ionic constitution. When compared with literature data, EC50 values in avoidance tests were either lower or comparable to those of reproduction, which was the most sensitive life-cycle parameter. The only exception was the EC50 value for avoidance of E. fetida in natural soil which was higher than for reproduction suggesting that the predictive value of the avoidance test for this species might be lower in natural soils. The variation in sensitivities of these earthworms could be as a result of differences in their eco-physiology. These findings suggest the relevance of the avoidance test as a suitable screening method showing first tendencies of saline stress on the habitat function of soils. PMID:19211128

  20. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizingmore » for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.« less

  1. A preliminary investigation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around a cylinder at ReD = 3900 using a commercial CFD code

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-02-14

    Engineering fluid mechanics simulations at high Reynolds numbers have traditionally been performed using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations and a turbulence model. The RANS methodology has well-documented shortcomings in the modeling of separated or bluff body wake flows that are characterized by unsteady vortex shedding. The resulting turbulence statistics are strongly influenced by the detailed structure and dynamics of the large eddies, which are poorly captured using RANS models (Rodi 1997; Krishnan et al. 2004). The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology offers the potential to more accurately simulate these flows as it resolves the large-scale unsteady motions and entails modeling of only the smallest-scale turbulence structures. Commercial computational fluid dynamics products are beginning to offer LES capability, allowing practicing engineers an opportunity to apply this turbulence modeling technique to much wider array of problems than in dedicated research codes. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the LES capability in the commercial CFD solver StarCD by simulating the flow around a cylinder at a Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, D, of 3900 using the constant coefficient Smagorinsky LES model. The results are compared to both the experimental and computational results provided in Kravchenko & Moin (2000). We find that StarCD provides predictions of lift and drag coefficients that are within 15% of the experimental values. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the time-averaged velocity statistics and the published data. The differences in these metrics may be due to the use of a truncated domain in the spanwise direction and the short time-averaging period used for the statistics presented here. The instantaneous flow field visualizations show a coarser, larger-scale structure than the study of Kravchenko & Moin (2000), which may be a product of the LES implementation or of the domain and resolution used

  2. PCR microfluidic devices for DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunsun; Xu, Jinliang; Ma, Wenli; Zheng, Wenling

    2006-01-01

    The miniaturization of biological and chemical analytical devices by micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology has posed a vital influence on such fields as medical diagnostics, microbial detection and other bio-analysis. Among many miniaturized analytical devices, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microchip/microdevices are studied extensively, and thus great progress has been made on aspects of on-chip micromachining (fabrication, bonding and sealing), choice of substrate materials, surface chemistry and architecture of reaction vessel, handling of necessary sample fluid, controlling of three or two-step temperature thermocycling, detection of amplified nucleic acid products, integration with other analytical functional units such as sample preparation, capillary electrophoresis (CE), DNA microarray hybridization, etc. However, little has been done on the review of above-mentioned facets of the PCR microchips/microdevices including the two formats of flow-through and stationary chamber in spite of several earlier reviews [Zorbas, H. Miniature continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction: a breakthrough? Angew Chem Int Ed 1999; 38 (8):1055-1058; Krishnan, M., Namasivayam, V., Lin, R., Pal, R., Burns, M.A. Microfabricated reaction and separation systems. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2001; 12:92-98; Schneegabeta, I., Köhler, J.M. Flow-through polymerase chain reactions in chip themocyclers. Rev Mol Biotechnol 2001; 82:101-121; deMello, A.J. DNA amplification: does 'small' really mean 'efficient'? Lab Chip 2001; 1: 24N-29N; Mariella, Jr. R. MEMS for bio-assays. Biomed Microdevices 2002; 4 (2):77-87; deMello AJ. Microfluidics: DNA amplification moves on. Nature 2003; 422:28-29; Kricka, L.J., Wilding, P. Microchip PCR. Anal BioAnal Chem 2003; 377:820-825]. In this review, we survey the advances of the above aspects among the PCR microfluidic devices in detail. Finally, we also illuminate the potential and practical applications of PCR microfluidics to some fields such

  3. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramana, V; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E V Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan, Santhana

    2014-01-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first molar and the anterior most incisors of the rabbit has served as orthodontic force element. The BP- Pamidronate was administered at the dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body intra-peritonially, on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. On the 21st day both group of animals were sacrificed, mandibles were dissected. The formed diastema between the 1st and 2nd molar was measured on the dissected mandibles using standard metric scale, which is considered as the OTM in the mesial direction. Next, the alveolar bone regions along with intact mesial surfaces were processed for histological investigation (osteoclastic count). Results : The student ‘t’ test has been done to compare the mean values of molar tooth movement and osteoclastic count. Parameter :1 molar tooth movement has shown a significant difference between the control (3.750 ± 0.548 mm) and the experimental group (3.050 ± 0.556 mm) with calculated ‘p’ value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.0110 level. Parameter : 2 osteoclastic count has shown a significant difference between the control (13.335000 ± 0.735856 per square mm.) and the experimental group (11.426900 ± 1.49369 per square mm) calculated ‘p’ value (p-value <0.05) is significant at 0.003 level. Conclusion : The molar tooth movement and the osteoclastic count were significantly reduced in BP – Pamidronate administered animals than non-drug recipients. How to cite the article: Venkataramana V, Chidambaram S, Reddy BV, Goud EV, Arafath M, Krishnan S. Impact of Bisphosphonate on

  4. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  5. Determining Acceptable Explosive Charge Mass Under Different Geological Conditions / Problematyka Wyznaczania Dopuszczalnych Ładunków Mw W Zróżnicowanych Warunkach Geologicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyra, Józef; Sołtys, Anna; Winzer, Jan; Dworzak, Michał; Biessikirski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    This article presents a procedure for determining the safety of explosive charges for their surrounding environment, using a limestone mine as a case study. Varied geological structures, as well as other constructions in the surrounding area of a mine, sometimes necessitate the use of two or more ground vibration propagation equations, and thus a variety of explosive charges, depending on the area of rock blasting. This is a crucial issue for the contractor, as it is important to blast the rock as few times as possible, while using the maximum amount of explosive charge for each blast. Wykonywanie robót strzałowych w górnictwie polega na odpalaniu mas materiału wybuchowego (MW) celem uzyskania dużej ilości odpowiednio rozdrobnionego urobku. W momencie zwiększonego popytu na surowce skalne zakłady górnicze zmuszone są do zwielokrotnienia wykonywania prac strzałowych aby zapewnić regularne dostawy produktu. Konsekwencją takich działań jest ponoszenie dodatkowych kosztów operacyjnych. Celem ich minimalizacji oraz uzyskania jak największej efektywności prowadzonych robót strzałowych jest wydłużanie serii, a więc stosowanie coraz to większych mas ładunków materiałów wybuchowych. Efektem takiego postępowanie jest możliwość wystąpienia w otoczeniu oddziaływania o potencjalnie szkodliwym charakterze m. in. drgania parasejsmiczne. Aby wyeliminować powyższy problem oraz zapewnić niezbędny komfort mieszkańcom, Prawo geologiczne i górnicze, Prawo ochrony środowiska i rozporządzenia wykonawcze nakładają na podmiot wykonujący roboty strzałowe obowiązek ochrony otoczenia, poprzez prowadzenie działalności profilaktycznej w zakresie kontroli, monitorowania oraz wyznaczania dopuszczalnych mas ładunków MW. W momencie gdy nie ma możliwości ograniczenia niepożądanych wpływów dynamicznych po przez zmianę parametrów siatki strzałowej czy modyfikację struktury czasowo-częstotliwościowej drgań, jedyną możliwością staje si

  6. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    and radiation generation in plasmas. The next section includes state-of-the-art papers on laboratory accelerators driven by lasers (Nakajima et al., Shukla, Johnson et al.), microwaves (Nishida et al., Bogomolov et al.) and by particle beams (Ogata et al.). Also in this section are theoretical papers presenting new work on synchrotron like oscillations in plasma waves (Fedele) and two types of laboratory radiation sources, FEL's (Marshall et al.) and ionization fronts (Lai et al.), and Frantzeskakis et al. described the Hamiltonian analysis of a slow-wave autonomous cyclotron buncher. Section 3 contains papers on astrophysical plasmas, with the general presentations of Colgate and Krishnan. Kazanas and Krishnan address active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Thielheim discusses general acceleration mech anisms in rotating magnetized systems. Asseo discussed Langmuir solitons in pulsars and Blackman et al. treat magnetic reconnection relativistically. Su et al. analyze the possibility of plasma wave excitation and particle acceleration by neu trinos from supernovae. Dogiel et al. on cosmic ray scattering by MHD fluctuations. The papers in Section 4 treat fusion plasmas (Dendy et al. and Lashmore-Davies et al.). Section 5, space plasmas, includes papers on acceleration processes in the magnetosphere (Anagnostopoulos and Marshall et al.) and the sun (Barletta et al.). It is evident from the Workshop and the papers collected here that this is indeed a rich field of investigations and that both the natural and laboratory plasma communities can benefit from the cross-fertilization of ideas between them. We wish to thank the authors and attendees for their contributions to the success of this workshop, Dr Philip Debenham and Dr David Sutter of the U.S. D.o.E. and Dr Charles Roberson of the U.S. O.N.R. for their financial support (Grants DE-FGO3-93ER40776 and N00014-93-1-0814), and the ECC Twinning Grant SC1*-CT92-0773. We appreciate the considerable local support from Mr Glegles and

  7. The Effectiveness of Conservative Management for Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, Sayeed; Madi, Mohammad; Rushton, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy) for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB) of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12. Data Sources PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies RCTs evaluating acute (<4 weeks) WADII, any conservative intervention, with outcome measures important to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Results Fifteen RCTs all assessed as high RoB (n=1676 participants) across 9 countries were included. Meta-analyses enabled 4 intervention comparisons: conservative versus standard/control, active versus passive, behavioural versus standard/control, and early versus late. Conservative intervention was more effective for pain reduction at 6 months (95%CI: -20.14 to -3.38) and 1-3 years (-25.44 to -3.19), and improvement in cervical mobility in the horizontal plane at <3 months (0.43 to 5.60) compared with standard/control intervention. Active intervention was effective

  8. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Kleinman, L.; Fast, J.

    2010-06-01

    It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2-4 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively downwind. Similar

  9. AB016. Developing diagnostic strategy of multiple congenital anomalies in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sjarif, Damayanti Rusli; Aswin, Yulia Ariani

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatricians quite often must deal with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Without a correct diagnosis, many available forms of therapy will be under-or-overused and counseling about prognosis and recurrence risk maybe unrealistic. The basis for diagnosis of MCA involves a combination of defining the physical manifestations and diagnostic genetic testing. Chromosome analysis is a standard practice to unravel the etiology of MCA. Conventional cytogenetic method has limitation in detecting abe1rrations less than 5 Mb in size. Microarray technology could overcome this obstacle. The aim of this study is to develop diagnosis strategy of MCA cases. Methods Seventy two MCA cases were recruited from July 2013 until June 2014. Fifty one subjects were diagnosed phenotypically using OMIM and POSSUM databases. Subsequently, chromosome analysis were performed as a first step of diagnosis strategy. Nine cases among those subjects found to have chromosome aberrations, whereas twelve cases showed normal karyotypes. Eight subjects from the normal karyotype group have a good quality of DNA and proceed to microarray examination. Microarray examination were done at Department of Medical Genetics, UMC Utrecht, Netherlands, using Infinium CytoSNP-850K DNA analysis bead chip kit from Illumina. Chips were scanned using Hi-scan scanner from Illumina. Data were extracted using genome studio software. Data were analyzed using Nexus software. Results Nine out of twenty cases were found to have chromosome aberrations. Those aberrations are:46,XY,add(13)(q34); 46,XY,6 Mar, 17 dmin; 46,XX,r(4)(p16q35); 46,XY,22ps+; 46,XY,add(5)(p15); 47,XX+G; 46,XX/45XX Rob (13,15/q10.2,q10), 45XX Rob (13,14)(q10,q10); 46,XX, ring 13; 45,XY,der(2)del(2)(q37.3)t(2;15)(q37.2;q11.2). Five out of eight subjects which tested by microarray showed normal array. Two subjects showed well known deletion syndrome, which are Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and Williams-Beuren syndrome. One case has normal array with

  10. Transit Observations of Venus's Atmosphere in 2012 from Terrestrial and Space Telescopes as Exoplanet Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Penn, M. J.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Galayda, E.; Reardon, K. P.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Ehrenreich, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Dantowitz, R.

    2013-06-01

    We extensively observed the 8 June 2012 transit of Venus from several sites on Earth; we provide this interim status report about this and about two subsequent ToVs observed from space. From Haleakala Obs., we observed the entire June transit over almost 7 h with a coronagraph of the Venus Twilight Experiment B filter) and with a RED Epic camera to compare with simultaneous data from ESA's Venus Express, to study the Cytherean mesosphere; from Kitt Peak, we have near-IR spectropolarimetry at 1.6 µm from the aureole and during the disk crossing that compare well with carbon dioxide spectral models; from Sac Peak/IBIS we have high-resolution imaging of the Cytherean aureole for 22 min, starting even before 1st contact; from Big Bear, we have high-resolution imaging of Venus's atmosphere and the black-drop effect through 2nd contact; and we had 8 other coronagraphs around the world. For the Sept 21 ToV as seen from Jupiter, we had 14 orbits of HST to use Jupiter's clouds as a reflecting surface to search for an 0.01% diminution in light and a differential drop that would result from Venus's atmosphere by observing in both IR/UV, for which we have 170 HST exposures. As of this writing, preliminary data reduction indicates that variations in Jovian clouds and the two periods of Jupiter's rotation will be too great to allow extraction of the transit signal. For the December 20 ToV as seen from Saturn, we had 22 hours of observing time with VIMS on Cassini, for which we are looking for a signal of the 10-hr transit in total solar irradiance and of Venus's atmosphere in IR as an exoplanet-transit analog. Our Maui & Sac Peak expedition was sponsored by National Geographic Society's Committee for Research and Exploration; HST data reduction by NASA: HST-GO-13067. Some of the funds for the carbon dioxide filter for Sac Peak provided by NASA through AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur Astronomers; Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, Eric

  11. Three 2012 Transits of Venus: From Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Edelman, E.; Reardon, K.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.; Silverstone, M. D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Willson, R. C.; Kopp, G. A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Sterling, A. C.; Scherrer, P. H.; Schou, J.; Golub, L.; McCauley, P.; Reeves, K.

    2013-01-01

    We observed the 2012 June 6/5 transit seen from Earth (E/ToV), simultaneously with Venus Express and several other spacecraft not only to study the Cytherean atmosphere but also to provide an exoplanet-transit analog. From Haleakala, the whole transit was visible in coronal skies; among our instruments was one of the world-wide Venus Twilight Experiment's nine coronagraphs. Venus's atmosphere became visible before first contact. SacPeak/IBIS provided high-resolution images at Hα/carbon-dioxide. Big Bear's NST also provided high-resolution observations of the Cytherean atmosphere and black-drop evolution. Our liaison with UH's Mees Solar Observatory scientists provided magneto-optical imaging at calcium and potassium. Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA and HMI, and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode, and total-solar-irradiance measurements with ACRIMSAT and SORCE/TIM, were used to observe the event as an exoplanet-transit analog. On September 20, we imaged Jupiter for 14 Hubble Space Telescope orbits, centered on a 10-hour ToV visible from Jupiter (J/ToV), as an exoplanet-transit analog in our own solar system, using Jupiter as an integrating sphere. Imaging was good, although much work remains to determine if we can detect the expected 0.01% solar irradiance decrease at Jupiter and the even slighter differential effect between our violet and near-infrared filters caused by Venus's atmosphere. We also give a first report on our currently planned December 21 Cassini UVIS observations of a transit of Venus from Saturn (S/ToV). Our E/ToV expedition was sponsored by the Committee for Research and Exploration/National Geographic Society; supplemented: NASA/AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Ratkowski, Stan Truitt, Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, and Eric Pilger '82 at Haleakala, and Joseph Gangestad '06 at Big Bear for assistance, and Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab and Hinode science and operations teams for support

  12. Towards a first detailed reconstruction of sunspot information over the last 150 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Laure; Clette, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    With four centuries of solar evolution, the International Sunspot Number (SSN) forms the longest solar time series currently available. It provides an essential reference for understanding and quantifying how the solar output has varied over decades and centuries and thus for assessing the variations of the main natural forcing on the Earth climate. For such a quantitative use, this unique time-series must be closely monitored for any possible biases and drifts. This is the main objective of the Sunspot Workshops organized jointly by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) since 2010. Here, we will report about some recent outcomes of past workshops, like diagnostics of scaling errors and their proposed corrections, or the recent disagreement between the sunspot sumber and other solar indices like the 10.7cm radio flux. Our most recent analyses indicate that while part of this divergence may be due to a calibration drift in the SSN, it also results from an intrinsic change in the global magnetic parameters of sunspots and solar active regions, suggesting a possible transition to a new activity regime. Going beyond the SSN series, in the framework of the SOTERIA, TOSCA and SOLID projects, we produced a survey of all existing catalogs providing detailed sunspot information and we also located different primary solar images and drawing collections that can be exploitable to complement the existing catalogs (COMESEP project). These are first steps towards the construction of a multi-parametric time series of multiple sunspot group properties over at least the last 150 years, allowing to reconstruct and extend the current 1-D SSN series. By bringing new spatial, morphological and evolutionary information, such a data set should bring major advances for the modeling of the solar dynamo and solar irradiance. We will present here the current status of this work. The catalog now extends over the last 3 cycles (Lefevre & Clette 2011

  13. Postnatal changes in the expressions of serotonin 1A, 1B, and 2A receptors in ten brain stem nuclei of the rat: implication for a sensitive period

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiuli; Wong-Riley, Margaret T.T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical period in respiratory network development occurs in the rat around postnatal days (P)12–13, when abrupt neurochemical, metabolic, and physiological changes were evident. As serotonin (5-HT) and its receptors are involved in respiratory modulation, and serotonergic abnormality is implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, we hypothesized that 5-HT receptors are significantly down-regulated during the critical period. This was documented recently for 5-HT2AR in several respiratory nuclei. The present study represents a comprehensive analysis of postnatal development of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in ten brain stem nuclei and 5-HT2AR in six nuclei not previously examined. Optical densitometric analysis of immunohistochemically-reacted neurons from P2 to P21 indicated four developmental patterns of expression: 1) Pattern I: a high level of expression at P2–P11, an abrupt and significant reduction at P12, followed by a plateau until P21 (5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in raphé magnus [RM], raphé obscurus [ROb], raphé pallidus [RP], pre-Bötzinger complex [PBC], nucleus ambiguus [Amb], and hypoglossal nucleus [XII; 5-HT1AR only]). 2) Pattern II: a high level at P2–P9, a gradual decline from P9 to P12, followed by a plateau until P21 (5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in the retrotrapezoid nucleus [RTN]/parafacial respiratory group [pFRG]). 3) Pattern III: a high level at P2–P11, followed by a gradual decline until P21 (5-HT1AR in the ventrolateral subnucleus of solitary tract nucleus [NTSVL] and the non-respiratory cuneate nucleus [CN]). 4) Pattern IV: a relatively constant level maintained from P2 to P21 (5-HT1AR in the commissural subnucleus of solitary tract nucleus [NTSCOM]; 5-HT1BR in XII, NTSVL, NTSCOM, and CN; and 5-HT2AR in RM, ROb, RP, RTN/pFRG, NTSVL, and NTSCOM). Thus, a significant reduction in the expression of 5-HT1AR, 5-HT1BR, and 5-HT2AR in multiple respiratory-related nuclei at P12 is consistent with reduced serotonergic transmission during the critical period

  14. Climate change impact on groundwater levels in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2013-12-01

    The unsustainable use of groundwater in many countries might cause water availability restrictions in the future. Such issue is likely to worsen due to predicted climate changes for the incoming decades. As numerous studies suggest, aquifers recharge rates will be affected as a result of climate change. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is one of the most important transboundary aquifer in the world, providing drinkable water for millions of people in four South American countries (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). Considering the GAS relevance and how its recharge rates might be altered by climatic conditions anomalies, the objective of this work is to assess possible climate changes impacts on groundwater levels in this aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models' (GCM) outputs were used as inputs in a transient flux groundwater model created using the software SPA (Simulation of Process in Aquifers), enabling groundwater table fluctuation to be evaluated under distinct climatic scenarios. Six monitoring wells, located in a representative basin (Ribeirão da Onça basin) inside a GAS outcrop zone (ROB), provided water table measurements between 2004 and 2011 to calibrate the groundwater model. Using observed climatic data, a water budget method was applied to estimate recharge in different types of land uses. Statistically downscaled future climate scenarios were used as inputs for that same recharge model, which provided data for running SPA under those scenarios. The results show that most of the GCMs used here predict temperature arises over 275,15 K and major monthly rainfall mean changes to take place in the dry season. During wet seasons, those means might experience around 50% decrease. The transient model results indicate that water table variations, derived from around 70% of the climate scenarios, would vary below those measured between 2004 and 2011. Among the thirteen GCMs considered in this work, only four of them predicted more extreme

  15. Effect of solar radio bursts on GNSS signal reception over Europe for the period 1999-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bergeot, Nicolas; Marqué, Christophe; Aerts, Wim; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Intense solar radio bursts (SRB) emitted at L-band frequencies can affect the carrier-to-noise C/N0 ratio of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals by increasing the background noise. Such space weather events can consequently decrease the quality of GNSS-based results especially for kinematic high-precision positioning. It is thus important to develop a method capable to detect such events in near real time on a wide area. For this purpose, the ROB-IONO software was adapted for analysing the effect of SRB on the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN). First, S1 and S2 raw data extracted from RINEX files were converted into the C/N0 unit (dB.Hz) taking into account manufacturer corrections. Then, the differences (ΔC/N0) between all these C/N0observables and their medians of the 7 previous satellite ground track repeat cycles, i.e. their normal quiet state, were computed. The mean of all these well-calibrated ΔC/N0values from different GNSS receivers and satellites offer at each epoch a reliable metric to detect and quantify the impact of a SRB. We investigated the degradation of GPS and GLONASS C/N0 on the entire EPN during 10 intense SRBs occurring at daylight over Europe between 1999 and 2013. The analysis shows that: (1) GPS and GLONASS ΔC/N0 agree at the 0.1±0.2dB.Hz level; (2) The standard deviation of the mean ΔC/N0of the EPN GNSS receivers is below 1dB.Hz 96% of the time, and below 0.6dB.Hz 76% of the time; (3) maximum ΔC/N0 degradation occurs at the epoch of maximum solar peak flux delivered by the solar ground observatories; (4) C/N0 degradation becomes larger with increasing solar zenithal angle. Consequently, the ROB-IONO software is capable to detect the degradation of GNSS signal reception over Europe due to SRBs. In addition, by taking advantage of the increasing number of EPN stations delivering C/N0 data since 2005, even less intense SRB events can now be detected. Finally, the developed method can be completely applied in near

  16. Novel Applications of Peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, Abdul; Ball, Andrew S.; Tuncer, Munir; Wilson, Michael T.

    1997-02-01

    . Warhol, M. J.; Heitz, P. U. Lab. Invest. 1992, 67, 263-269. 9. Pergande, M.; Jung, K. Clin. Chem. 1993, 39, 1885-1890. 10. Allain, C. C; Poon, L. S.; Chan, C. S. G; Richmond, W.; Fu, P. C. Clin. Chem. 1974, 20, 470-475. 11. Rob, A; Ball, A. S.; Tuncer, M; Wilson, M. T. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1995, 23, 507. 12. Rob, A.; Ball, A. S.; Tuncer, M.; Jones, G. D.; Taylor, P. D; Wilson, M. T. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 1996, 24, 455.

  17. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Alexander, Trevor W.; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), blaROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the blaROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and gcp

  18. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 2008 Numerical Relativity Data Analysis Meeting, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, 11-14 August 2008 Proceedings of the 2008 Numerical Relativity Data Analysis Meeting, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, 11-14 August 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Patrick; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-06-01

    many of the highlights of the meeting. These include an article that summarizes the NINJA project, a collaboration between data analysts and numerical relativists that is testing data analysis pipelines on numerical relativity waveforms buried in simulated detector noise. In addition, there are several technical papers concerning the results of team efforts involved in NINJA. Also included is a review of the status of black-hole simulations, updates on black-hole and neutron-star sources of gravitational waves, accuracy tests of gravitational waveforms, binary parameter estimation methods, updates on searches using analytic and phenomenological waveforms, and a road map to the advanced LIGO detectors. The conference organizers would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation under grant number PHY-0838740, and support from Syracuse University. We thank the local organizing committee of Duncan Brown, Penny Davis and Joshua Smith as well as the other members of the scientific organizing committee of Duncan Brown (Syracuse University), Sascha Husa (AEI), Badri Krishnan (AEI) and Harald Pfeiffer (CITA) for putting together an exciting conference. We also thank the editorial staff of the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity, especially Adam Day, Suzanne Prescott, and Joseph Tennant for their assistance, support, and patience in preparing this issue. Finally, we would like to thank the participants of NRDA2008 for making this conference so vital and energizing. The next NRDA meeting will be held at the Albert Einstein Institute in Potsdam, Germany 6-9 July 2009. We look forward to new collaborations, and to the continued blurring of the lines between our communities as we explore the interface of numerical relativity and data analysis. Patrick Sutton, Cardiff University and Deirdre Shoemaker, Georgia Institute of Technology Guest Editors

  19. Explaining the variability of Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI): deconvolution of variability related to Light Use Efficiency and Canopy attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlier, Elodie; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Soudani, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    . 1992. A narrow-waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency. Remote Sensing of Environment 41, 35-44. Garbulsky MF, Peñuelas J, Gamon J, Inoue Y, Filella I. 2011. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the remote sensing of leaf, canopy and ecosystem radiation use efficiencies: A review and meta-analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 281-297. Hilker T, Coops NC, Hall FG, Black TA, Wulder MA, Nesic Z, Krishnan P. 2008. Separating physiologically and directionally induced changes in PRI using BRDF models. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 2777-2788. Hmimina G, Dufrêne E, Soudani K. 2014. Relationship between PRI and leaf ecophysiological and biochemical parameters under two different water statuses: toward a rapid and efficient correction method using real-time measurements. Plant, Cell & Environment 37, 2, 473-487. Nakaji T, Oguma H, Fujinuma Y. 2006. Seasonal changes in the relationship between photochemical reflectance index and photosynthetic light use efficiency of Japanese larch needles. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27, 493-509. Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran P, Munehiro M, Omasa K. 2012. Relationships between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and plant pigment indices at different leaf growth stages. Photosynthesis Research 113, 261-271.

  20. Protective effect of salidroside against bone loss via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Jin, Xin; Guo, Xiao Qin; Wang, Yue; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ling Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays a critical role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis during bone development and regeneration. Salidroside (SAL) has shown anti-hypoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible roles of SAL in the prevention of hypoxia-induced osteoporosis have remained unknown. Two osteoblast cell lines, MG-63 and ROB, were employed to evaluate the effects of SAL on cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Rats subjected to ovariectomy-induced bone loss were treated with SAL in vivo. Our results showed that pre-treatment with SAL markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced reductions in cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization. SAL down-regulated HIF-1α expression and inhibited its translocation; however, SAL increased its transcriptional activity and, consequently, up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In vivo studies further demonstrated that SAL caused decreases in the mineral, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and BGP concentrations in the blood of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Moreover, SAL improved the trabecular bone microarchitecture and increased bone mineral density in the distal femur. Additionally, SAL administration partially ameliorated this hypoxia via the HIF-1α-VEGF signalling pathway. Our results indicate that SAL prevents bone loss by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis and that these effects are associated with the activation of HIF-1α signalling. PMID:27558909

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVI photometry of NGC 2547 (Naylor+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, T.; Totten, E. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Pozzo, M.; Devey, C. R.; Thompson, S. A.

    2002-11-01

    The catalogues have been created using the optimal photometry algorithm described in Naylor (1998MNRAS.296..339N) and Naylor et al. (2002MNRAS.335..291N, this paper). Further information is also available from Tim Naylor's optimal photometry page ( http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/Photometry/description.html ). The catalogues are primarily in what is called cluster format, though there are occasional variations where they are needed. There is a deep survey (Table 3), a shallower, but wider area survey (Table 4), and the combination of these (Table 5). Extracted from the deep catalogue are tables of members of the cluster derived using either the D'Antona & Mazzitelli (1997MmSAI..68..807D) isochrones (Table 6). or the Siess (2000A&A...358..593S) isochrones (Table 7). These catalogues are the result of a collaboration between teams within the Exeter Astrophysics Group led by Tim Naylor, and the Keele Astrophysics Group led by Rob Jeffries. The contributors to the currently available catalogues are Tina Devey, Monica Pozzo (now at Imperial), Simon Thompson and Ed Totten. (6 data files).

  2. A Prejudiced Review of Ancient Parasites and Their Host Echinoderms: CSI Fossil Record or Just an Excuse for Speculation?

    PubMed

    Donovan, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the presence of a parasite and identifying it is a relatively straightforward task for the twenty-first century parasitologist. Not so the pursuit of ancient parasites in fossil organisms, a much more difficult proposition. Herein, Boucot's seven-tiered scheme of reliability classes is applied as a measure of confidence of the recognition of putative parasitism in two echinoderm classes, Upper Palaeozoic crinoids and a Cretaceous echinoid (high confidence is 1, low confidence 7). Of the five examples, the parasitic(?) organism is preserved in only two of them. A zaphrentoid coral on the camerate crinoid Amphoracrinus may have robbed food from the arms (Category 1 or 2B). A pit in what appears to be a carefully selected site on the disparid crinoid Synbathocrinus is associated with a growth deformity of the cup (Category 4). Multiple pits in an Amphoracrinus theca are also associated with a deformed cup, but it is more difficult to interpret (Category 4 or 7). Some specimens of the camerate crinoid Neoplatycrinites have circular grooves or depressions posteriorly, presumably produced by coprophagic/parasitic platyceratid gastropods (Category 1). Site selectivity of pits in the echinoid Hemipneustes places them preferentially adjacent to respiratory tube feet (Category 4). From these examples it is deduced that sparse infestations of borings or epizoozoic organisms permit a more confident interpretation of organism/organism interactions; dense accumulations, possibly following multiple spatfalls, mask such patterns. PMID:26597070

  3. Reflections about bizarre mummification practices on mummies at Egypt's Dakhleh oasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Arthur C

    2009-12-01

    About 100 mummified human remains were excavated from the Dakhleh Oasis in Egypt's Western Desert. Of these, less than half were examined by dissection. These dated to the Late Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. Initially, a confusing pattern of mortuary mummification practices was encountered that was identified ultimately as a product of primarily initial spontaneous mummification by desiccation. This was followed by tomb robbing in antiquity with unwrapping; body disarticulation followed, in turn, by mummy body reconstruction with atypical use of resin applications. Some of the resin was shown to be contaminated by bitumen that was responsible for inappropriately old radiocarbon dates of mummy tissue samples. Chemical reconstruction of diet using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen characterized their diet to be primarily that of C3 plants, consistent with trading records excavated from that site. Analysis of the mummy coprolites also enabled the first finding of the intestinal parasite Enterobius vermicularis in either ancient or modern Egyptian human coprolites. The principal focus of this report is to demonstrate and verify the value of including visceral dissection as part of a mummy examination whenever possible. PMID:20440958

  4. A flow visualization study of single-arm sculling movement emulating cephalopod thrust generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakidi, Asimina; Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer P.; Tsakiris, Dimitris P.; Ekaterinaris, John A.

    2014-11-01

    In addition to jet propulsion, octopuses use arm-swimming motion as an effective means of generating bursts of thrust, for hunting, defense, or escape. The individual role of their arms, acting as thrust generators during this motion, is still under investigation, in view of an increasing robotic interest for alternative modes of propulsion, inspired by the octopus. Computational studies have revealed that thrust generation is associated with complex vortical flow patterns in the wake of the moving arm, however further experimental validation is required. Using the hydrogen bubble technique, we studied the flow disturbance around a single octopus-like robotic arm, undergoing two-stroke sculling movements in quiescent fluid. Although simplified, sculling profiles have been found to adequately capture the fundamental kinematics of the octopus arm-swimming behavior. In fact, variation of the sculling parameters alters considerably the generation of forward thrust. Flow visualization revealed the generation of complex vortical structures around both rigid and compliant arms. Increased disturbance was evident near the tip, particularly at the transitional phase between recovery and power strokes. These results are in good qualitative agreement with computational and robotic studies. Work funded by the ESF-GSRT HYDRO-ROB Project PE7(281).

  5. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kosuke

    2002-01-01

    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  6. Electrolocation of objects in fluids by means of active sensor movements based on discrete EEVs.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Homeyer, Sabine; Engelmann, Jacob; Schneider, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Weakly electric fish use self-generated electric fields for communication and for active electrolocation. The sensor part of the biological system consists of a vast amount of electroreceptors which are distributed across the skin of the electric fish. Fish utilise changes of their position and body geometry to aid in the extraction of sensory information. Inspired by the biological model, this study looks for a fixed, minimal scanning strategy compiled of active receptor-system movements that allows unique identification of the positions of objects in the vicinity. The localisation method is based on the superposition of numerical extracted contour-rings of rotated and/or linearly shifted EEVs (Solberg et al 2008 Int. J. Rob. Res. 27 529-48), simulated by means of FEM. For the evaluation of a movement sequence, matrices of unique intersection points and respective contrast functions are introduced. The resultant optimal scanning strategy consists of a combination of a linear shift and a rotation of the original EEV. PMID:27530278

  7. Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Forest, David L.; Johnson, Lincoln V.; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD). A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease. PMID:26035859

  8. Sensor de orvalho/chuva aplicado à operação de telescópios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelli, J. C.; Neres, N. L.; Strauss, C.

    2003-08-01

    Foi desenvolvida uma estação meteorológica para o telescópio robótico Obelix do Observatório Abrahão de Moraes que inclui sensores de temperatura e umidade, além de um inédito sensor de orvalho e chuva que comanda o fechamento automático da cúpula caso haja perigo de condensação. Este sensor é composto de uma malha de segmentos metálicos próximos e detecta o aumento da condutividade do ar que precede a condensação. Esse método é mais confiável que o critério de 100% de umidade, que pode causar falsos alarmes devido a imprecisão dos sensores de umidade em geral e por não considerar a influência dos ventos que dificultam a condensação. O trabalho apresenta o método de construção desse sensor e os testes de avaliação. Sugere-se portanto a inclusão desse sensor nas estações meteorológicas dos telescópios do país.

  9. Lanthanide-thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate frameworks: ionothermal synthesis, helical structures, photoluminescent properties, and single-crystal-to-single-crystal guest exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Cai-Hong; Wang, Fei; Kang, Yao; Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Eight three-dimensional lanthanide-thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate frameworks, [Ln(TDC)(2)]·(choline) (1-6; Ln = Gd, Nd, Eu, Er, Tb, Dy; TDC = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate), [Yb(TDC)(2)(e-urea)]·(choline)·H(2)O (7; e-urea = ethyleneurea), [Nd(2)(TDC)(3)(e-urea)(4)]·3(e-urea) (8) have been successfully prepared in deep eutectic solvents (choline chloride/e-urea), respectively. Compounds 1-7 are anionic frameworks with 8-connected bcu topology, while compound 8 features a neutral 6-connected rob-type framework with guest e-urea molecules. In these structures, lanthanide ions show dicapped trigonal prism, pentagonal bipyramid, and tricapped trigonal prism coordination configurations, respectively, and the TDC ligands exhibit different coordination modes. Versatile helical substructures are presented in these compounds. The photoluminescent properties of compounds 3 (Eu) and 8 (Nd) were studied. Moreover, compound 8 can perform single-crystal-to-single-crystal guest exchange. The ethanol-exchange mechanism of 8 can be ascribed to the kinetically controlled flexibility (KCF). PMID:22136232

  10. Molecular characterization of de novo secondary trisomy 13.

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, L. G.; McCaskill, C.; Han, J. Y.; Choo, K. H.; Cutillo, D. M.; Donnenfeld, A. E.; Weiss, L.; Van Dyke, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Unbalanced Robertsonian translocations are a significant cause of mental retardation and fetal wastage. The majority of homologous rearrangements of chromosome 21 in Down syndrome have been shown to be isochromosomes. Aside from chromosome 21, very little is known about other acrocentric homologous rearrangements. In this study, four cases of de novo secondary trisomy 13 are presented. FISH using alpha-satellite sequences, rDNA, and a pTRI-6 satellite I sequence specific to the short arm of chromosome 13 showed all four rearrangements to be dicentric and apparently devoid of ribosomal genes. Three of four rearrangements retained the pTRI-6 satellite I sequence. Case 1 was the exception, showing a deletion of this sequence in the rearrangement, although both parental chromosomes 13 had strong positive hybridization signals. Eleven microsatellite markers from chromosome 13 were also used to characterize the rearrangements. Of the four possible outcomes, one maternal Robertsonian translocation, two paternal isochromosomes, and one maternal isochromosome were observed. A double recombination was observed in the maternally derived rob(13q13q). No recombination events were detected in any isochromosome. The parental origins and molecular chromosomal structure of these cases are compared with previous studies of de novo acrocentric rearrangements. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7977360

  11. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP1 and WAP2. We show that WAP2, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP1, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP1 is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning. Thanks to Yuri Balashov, Gordon Belot, Rob Caldwell, Marcelo Gleiser, Brad Monton, Ken Olum, Jim Peebles, Lee Smolin and Alex Vilenkin for helpful discussions and comments on an earlier draft.

  12. Retinal optical coherence tomography at 1 μm with dynamic focus control and axial motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Lee, Sujin; Miao, Dongkai; Ju, Myeong Jin; Mackenzie, Paul J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal imaging is important to noninvasively visualize the various retinal structures to aid in better understanding of the pathogenesis of vision-robbing diseases. However, conventional OCT systems have a trade-off between lateral resolution and depth-of-focus. In this report, we present the development of a focus-stacking OCT system with automatic focus optimization for high-resolution, extended-focal-range clinical retinal imaging by incorporating a variable-focus liquid lens into the sample arm optics. Retinal layer tracking and selection was performed using a graphics processing unit accelerated processing platform for focus optimization, providing real-time layer-specific en face visualization. After optimization, multiple volumes focused at different depths were acquired, registered, and stitched together to yield a single, high-resolution focus-stacked dataset. Using this system, we show high-resolution images of the retina and optic nerve head, from which we extracted clinically relevant parameters such as the nerve fiber layer thickness and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture.

  13. Phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelope by cross-species chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Rubes, Jiri; Kubickova, Svatava; Pagacova, Eva; Cernohorska, Halina; Di Berardino, Dino; Antoninova, Marketa; Vahala, Jiri; Robinson, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal homologies have been established between cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and eight species of spiral-horned antelope, Tribe Tragelaphini: Nyala (Tragelaphus angasii, 2n = 55male/56female), Lesser kudu (T. imberbis, 2n = 38male,female), Bongo (T. eurycerus, 2n = 33male/34female), Bushbuck (T. scriptus, 2n = 33male/34female), Greater kudu (T. strepsiceros, 2n = 31male/32female), Sitatunga (T. spekei, 2n = 30male,female) Derby eland (Taurotragus derbianus 2n = 31male/32female) and Common eland (T. oryx 2n = 31male/32female). Chromosomes involved in centric fusions in these species were identified using a complete set of cattle painting probes generated by laser microdissection. Our data support the monophyly of Tragelaphini and a clade comprising T. scriptus, T. spekei, T. euryceros and the eland species T. oryx and T. derbianus, findings that are largely in agreement with sequence-based molecular phylogenies. In contrast, our study suggests that the arid adaptiveness of T. oryx and T. derbianus is recent. Finally, we have identified the presence of the rob(1;29) fusion as an evolutionary marker in most of the tragelaphid species investigated. This rearrangement is associated with reproductive impairment in cattle and raises questions whether subtle distinctions in breakpoint location or differential rescue during meiosis underpin the different outcomes detected among these lineages. PMID:18704723

  14. Salerno, saints, and Sutton's Law: on the origin of Europe's "First" medical school.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2009-08-01

    When the famous bank robber, Willie Sutton was asked why he robbed banks, he replied, ''Because that's where the money is'' The Salerno school is often described as the first European school of medicine. Many scholars have offered theories to account for its origins, including the idea that it is merely a historical "construct" and not a school at all. This paper proposes another hypothesis based on a juxtaposition of primary sources, secondary literature, and observations of religious worship in the Salerno region. An extraordinary number of sites sacred to the memory of doctor saints dot the coastal promontory near Salerno. This concentration of medical saints might be explained by the church catering to a populace aware of the secular healing tradition in nearby Salerno. But if the saints came with or even before the school, both church and medicine could be seen as responding to a preexisting local need. Sutton's Law points to another hypothesis. Famous for its climate, gardens, and natural beauty, the coast served as a health resort since at least the time of ancient Rome. As a result, sick people with resources have long traveled to the region in search of comfort and cures. Saints and doctors followed the sick (and their money). PMID:19356856

  15. Culture in chaos: the need for leadership and followership in medicine.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J S

    1999-01-01

    The health care industry is changing at a dizzying pace and most of its players are struggling to maintain some form of the status quo. But resisting change will not prove fruitful--ultimately, it will rob physician executives of the opportunity to be architects in designing a new, more efficient health care system and their role in it. Because health care is a complex adaptive system (CAS)--change occurs rapidly and events are unpredictable--the old command and control style of leadership and a linear way of interpreting events is too rigid and, therefore, an ineffective model for guiding change. Complexity science offers insights about leading for change. In CASs, changes emerge in response to environmental demands for adaptability. Since the nature of these demands is unpredictable, the role of leadership is to manage the relationships and context out of which these changes emerge. A leadership style is called for that leads to purpose, makes positive changes by influencing context and relationships, and takes followers to a better place. PMID:10537744

  16. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    PubMed

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)]. PMID:26723332

  17. "What do these women want?": Feminist responses to Feminine Forever, 1963-1980.

    PubMed

    Houck, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    In 1963, Brooklyn gynecologist Robert A. Wilson and his wife, Thelma, published a paper in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society arguing that untreated menopause robbed women of their femininity and ruined the quality of their lives. In 1966 Robert Wilson published a best-selling book, Feminine Forever, in which he maintained that menopause was an estrogen-deficiency disease that should be treated with estrogen replacement therapy to prevent the otherwise inevitable "living decay." This paper explores the issues raised by the convergence of Wilson's campaign and the emergence of the women's movement. Between 1963 and 1980, feminists did not respond with one voice to Wilson's ideas: at first, some embraced them as a boon for aging women, while others resisted regarding female aging as pathological. In 1975, studies linking ERT and endometrial cancer challenged the wisdom of routine hormone therapy; this shifted the tenor of the feminist discussion, but it did not create a consensus about the meaning of menopause or its treatment. Nevertheless, the feminist discussion of menopause revealed a larger women's health agenda-namely, the unyielding belief that women should retain control of their bodies and participate fully in the decision-making efforts regarding their health. By controlling their bodies, all women, whether feminist or not, could ultimately control their lives. PMID:12649555

  18. An alternative resource sharing scheme for land mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee; Sue, Miles K.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary comparison between the two competing channelization concepts for the Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS), namely frequency division (FD) and code division (CD), is presented. Both random access and demand-assigned approaches are considered under these concepts. The CD concept is compared with the traditional FD concept based on the system consideration and a projected traffic model. It is shown that CD is not particularly attractive for the first generation Mobile Satellite Services because of the spectral occupancy of the network bandwidth. However, the CD concept is a viable alternative for future systems such as the personal access satellite system (PASS) in the Ka-band spectrum where spectral efficiency is not of prime concern. The effects of power robbing and voice activity factor are incorporated. It was shown that the traditional rule of thumb of dividing the number of raw channels by the voice activity factor to obtain the effective number of channels is only valid asymptotically as the aggregated traffic approaches infinity.

  19. Use and mis-use of supplementary material in science publications.

    PubMed

    Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary material is a ubiquitous feature of scientific articles, particularly in journals that limit the length of the articles. While the judicious use of supplementary material can improve the readability of scientific articles, its excessive use threatens the scientific review process and by extension the integrity of the scientific literature. In many cases supplementary material today is so extensive that it is reviewed superficially or not at all. Furthermore, citations buried within supplementary files rob other scientists of recognition of their contribution to the scientific record. These issues are exacerbated by the lack of guidance on the use of supplementary information from the journals to authors and reviewers. We propose that the removal of artificial length restrictions plus the use of interactive features made possible by modern electronic media can help to alleviate these problems. Many journals, in fact, have already removed article length limitations (as is the case for BMC Bioinformatics and other BioMed Central journals). We hope that the issues raised in our article will encourage publishers and scientists to work together towards a better use of supplementary information in scientific publishing. PMID:26525146

  20. Ferenczi's concept of identification with the aggressor: understanding dissociative structure with interacting victim and abuser self-states.

    PubMed

    Howell, Elizabeth F

    2014-03-01

    No one has described more passionately than Ferenczi the traumatic induction of dissociative trance with its resulting fragmentation of the personality. Ferenczi introduced the concept and term, identification with the aggressor in his seminal "Confusion of Tongues" paper, in which he described how the abused child becomes transfixed and robbed of his senses. Having been traumatically overwhelmed, the child becomes hypnotically transfixed by the aggressor's wishes and behavior, automatically identifying by mimicry rather than by a purposeful identification with the aggressor's role. To expand upon Ferenczi's observations, identification with the aggressor can be understood as a two-stage process. The first stage is automatic and initiated by trauma, but the second stage is defensive and purposeful. While identification with the aggressor begins as an automatic organismic process, with repeated activation and use, gradually it becomes a defensive process. Broadly, as a dissociative defense, it has two enacted relational parts, the part of the victim and the part of the aggressor. This paper describes the intrapersonal aspects (how aggressor and victim self-states interrelate in the internal world), as well as the interpersonal aspects (how these become enacted in the external). This formulation has relevance to understanding the broad spectrum of the dissociative structure of mind, borderline personality disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. PMID:24603172

  1. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  2. Optical signatures of high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.; Charlot, Stephane

    1994-01-01

    We combine an N-body and gasdynamic simulation of structure formation with an updated population synthesis code to explore the expected optical characteristics of a high-redshift cluster of galaxies. We examine a poor (2 keV) cluster formed in a biased, cold dark matter cosmology and employ simple, but plausible, threshold criteria to convert gas into stars. At z = 2, the forming cluster appears as a linear chain of very blue (g-r approximately equals 0) galaxies, with 15 objects brighter than r = 25 within a 1 square arcmin field of view. After 2 Gyr of evolution, the cluster viewed at z = 1 displays both freshly infalling blue galaxies and red galaxies robbed of recent accretion by interaction with the hot intracluster medium. The range in G-R colors is approximately 3 mag at z = 1, with the reddest objects lying at sites of highest galaxy density. We suggest that red, high-redshift galaxies lie in the cores of forming clusters and that their existence indicates the presence of a hot intracluster medium at redshifts z approximately equals 2. The simulated cluster viewed at z = 2 has several characteristics similar to the collection of faint, blue objects identified by Dressler et al. in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation. The similarities provide some support for the interpretation of this collection as a high-redshift cluster of galaxies.

  3. Astrometric observations of Phobos with the SRC on Mars Express. New data and comparison of different measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasewaldt, A.; Oberst, J.; Willner, K.; Beisembin, B.; Hoffmann, H.; Matz, K. D.; Roatsch, T.; Michael, G.; Cardesín-Moinelo, A.; Zubarev, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: From April 2008 to August 2011 Mars Express carried out 74 Phobos flybys at distances between 669 and 5579 km. Images taken with the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) were used to determine the spacecraft-centered right ascension and declination of this Martian moon. Methods: Image positions of Phobos were measured using the limb-fit and control-point measurement techniques. Camera pointing and pointing drift were controlled by means of background star observations that were compared to corresponding positions from reference catalogs. Blurred and noisy images were restored by applying an image-based point spread function in a Richardson-Lucy deconvolution. Results: Here, we report on a set of 158 Phobos astrometric observations with estimated accuracies between 0.224 and 3.405 km circular w.r.t. the line of sight to the satellite. Control point measurements yield slightly more accurate results than the limb fit ones. Our observations are in good agreement with the current Phobos ephemerides by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) with mean offsets of up to 335 m. Our data can be used for the maintenance and update of these models. Tables A.1 and A.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A28

  4. A Lightweight, High-performance I/O Management Package for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Wang

    2007-07-17

    File storage systems are playing an increasingly important role in high-performance computing as the performance gap between CPU and disk increases. It could take a long time to develop an entire system from scratch. Solutions will have to be built as extensions to existing systems. If new portable, customized software components are plugged into these systems, better sustained high I/O performance and higher scalability will be achieved, and the development cycle of next-generation of parallel file systems will be shortened. The overall research objective of this ECPI development plan aims to develop a lightweight, customized, high-performance I/O management package named LightI/O to extend and leverage current parallel file systems used by DOE. During this period, We have developed a novel component in LightI/O and prototype them into PVFS2, and evaluate the resultant prototype—extended PVFS2 system on data-intensive applications. The preliminary results indicate the extended PVFS2 delivers better performance and reliability to users. A strong collaborative effort between the PI at the University of Nebraska Lincoln and the DOE collaborators—Drs Rob Ross and Rajeev Thakur at Argonne National Laboratory who are leading the PVFS2 group makes the project more promising.

  5. Workplace Homicides Among U.S. Women: The Role of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Gurka, Kelly K.; Konda, Srinivas; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Amandus, Harlan E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with serious consequences for the workplace. Workplace homicides occurring to U.S. women over a 6-year period, including those perpetrated by an intimate partner, are described. METHODS Workplace homicides among U.S. women from 2003 to 2008 were categorized into type I (criminal intent), type II (customer/client), type III (co-worker), or type IV (personal relations) events using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Fatality rates were calculated and compared among workplace violence (WPV) types, occupations, and characteristics including location of homicide, type of workplace, time of day, and weapon used. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2008, 648 women were feloniously killed on the job. The leading cause of workplace homicide for U.S. women was criminal intent, such as robbing a store (n = 212; 39%), followed by homicides perpetrated by a personal relation (n= 181; 33%). The majority of these personal relations were intimate partners (n = 142; 78%). Over half of workplace homicides perpetrated by intimate partners occurred in parking lots and public buildings (n = 91; 51%). CONCLUSIONS A large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners. WPV prevention programs should incorporate strategies to prevent and respond to IPV. PMID:22463843

  6. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  7. Subversion of NPC1 pathway of cholesterol transport by Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qingming; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Summary Intracellular cholesterol amounts, distribution, and traffic are tightly regulated to maintain the healthy eukaryotic cell function. However, how intracellular pathogens that require cholesterol, interact with the host cholesterol homeostasis and traffic is not well understood. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular and cholesterol-robbing bacterium, which causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here we found that a subset of cholesterol-binding membrane protein, Niemann–Pick type C1 (NPC1)-bearing vesicles devoid of lysosomal markers were upregulated in HL-60 cells infected with A. phagocytophilum, and trafficked to live bacterial inclusions. The NPC1 localization to A. phagocytophilum inclusions was abolished by low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol traffic inhibitor U18666A. Studies using NPC1 siRNA and the cell line with cholesterol traffic defect demonstrated that the NPC1 function is required for bacterial cholesterol acquisition and infection. Furthermore, trans-Golgi network-specific soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP4) and syntaxin 16, which are associated with NPC1 and LDL-derived cholesterol vesicular transport were recruited to A. phagocytophilum inclusions, and VAMP4 was required for bacteria infection. Taken together, A. phagocytophilum is the first example of a pathogen that subverts the NPC1 pathway of intracellular cholesterol transport and homeostasis for bacterial inclusion membrane biogenesis and cholesterol capture. PMID:22212234

  8. Computer animation of Phanerozoic plate motions

    SciTech Connect

    Scotese, C.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985, the PALEOMAP Project, in collaboration with research groups both in the US and abroad, has assembled a digital model that describes global plate motions during the last 600 million years. In this paper the authors present a series of computer animations that dynamically illustrates the movement of continents and terranes, and the evolution of the ocean basins since the breakup of the late Precambrian supercontinent. These animations depict the motion of the plates from both equatorial and polar perspectives. Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstructions are based on a synthesis of linear magnetic anomalies, fracture zone locations, intracontinental rifts, collision and thrust belts, and zones of strike-slip. Paleozoic plate reconstructions, though more speculative, are based on evidence of past subduction, continental collision, and inferred sea floor spreading. The relative longitudinal positions of the continents during the Paleozoic and the width of intervening oceans have been adjusted to best explain changing biogeographic and paleoclimatic patterns. A new paleomagnetic/hot spot reference frame has been constructed that combines paleomagnetic data compiled by Rob Van der Voo (1992) with inferred motion relative to a fixed frame of hot spots. Using probable Early Mesozoic and Paleozoic hot spot tracks on the major continents, the authors have extended plate motions relative to the hot spot reference frame back to 400 million years.

  9. Model of Transcriptional Activation By MarA in Escherichia Coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael E.; Markowitz, David A.; Rosner, Judah L.; Martin, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli, and used the model to analyze measurements of MarA-dependent activity of the marRAB, sodA, and micF promoters in mar-rob- cells. The model rationalizes an unexpected poor correlation between the mid-point of in vivo promoter activity profiles and in vitro equilibrium constants for MarA binding to promoter sequences. Analysis of the promoter activity data using the model yielded the following predictions regarding activation mechanisms: (1) MarA activation of the marRAB, sodA, and micF promoters involves a net acceleration of the kinetics of transitions after RNA polymerase binding, up to and including promoter escape and message elongation; (2) RNA polymerase binds to these promoters with nearly unit occupancy in the absence of MarA, making recruitment of polymerase an insignificant factor in activation of these promoters; and (3) instead of recruitment, activation of the micF promoter might involve a repulsion of polymerase combined with a large acceleration of the kinetics of polymerase activity. These predictions are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. A lack of recruitment in transcriptional activation represents an exception to the textbook description of activation of bacterial sigma-70 promoters. However, use of accelerated polymerase kinetics instead of recruitment might confer a competitive advantage to E. coli by decreasing latency in gene regulation.

  10. Colistin and tigecycline resistance in carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: emerging resistance mechanisms and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Osei Sekyere, J; Govinden, U; Bester, L A; Essack, S Y

    2016-09-01

    A literature review was undertaken to ascertain the molecular basis for tigecycline and colistin resistance mechanisms and the experimental basis for the detection and delineation of this resistance particularly in carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct were searched with the keywords colistin, tigecycline, resistance mechanisms and detection methods. Trans-complementation and comparative MIC studies, mass spectrometry, chromatography, spectrofluorometry, PCR, qRT-PCR and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were commonly used to determine tigecycline and colistin resistance mechanisms, specifically modifications in the structural and regulatory efflux (acrAB, OqxAB, kpgABC adeABC-FGH-IJK, mexAB-XY-oprJM and soxS, rarA robA, ramRAB marRABC, adeLRS, mexRZ and nfxb) and lipid A (pmrHFIJFKLM, lpxA, lpxC lpxD and mgrB, pmrAB, phoPQ,) genes respectively. Mutations in the ribosomal 16S rRNA operon rrnBC, also yielded resistance to tigecycline through target site modifications. The mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin was identified via WGS, trans-complementation and a murine thigh infection model studies. Common detection methods are mainly antibiotic sensitivity testing with broth microdilution while molecular identification tools are mostly PCR and WGS. Spectrofluorometry, MALDI-TOF MS, micro-array and real-time multiplex PCR hold much promise for the future as new detection tools. PMID:27153928

  11. Is psychoanalysis a matter of subjectivation?

    PubMed

    Wainrib, Steven

    2012-10-01

    We are not born subject but become one, in a two-and-fro process between what is played out on the intrapsychic stage and the field of intersubjectivation. The author proposes to examine two of the main movements of psychic life brought into play in this process. In the domain of the 'subjectivating link', becoming a subject depends on the relationship with another, authentically taken into account as a desiring subject and not simply as an object for oneself. In the course of history, this intersubjectivation is only internalized as a lasting preconscious predisposition if sufficient trust is established in the possibility of mutual recognition. When this perspective recedes, the subject tends to fall back on narcissistic positions, in search of an end to lack. Such a narcissistic tendency drives the subject to constitute himself by subjugating his objects, striving to rob them of their otherness. A plurality of subject positions will be recognized in every analytic encounter. Psychoanalytic work can allow for a lasting change insofar as it modifies the equilibrium between diverse psychic trends. The multiplicity of the issues at stake in subjectivation allows us to integrate theoretical pluralism while encouraging us to reflect on the diversification of our practices. PMID:23043396

  12. Inception of cadaver dissection and its relevance in present day scenario of medical education.

    PubMed

    Rath, Gayatri; Garg, Krishna

    2006-06-01

    The concept of dissection for acquiring knowledge about the structure of human body was started in 15th century and barber--surgeons used to demonstrate various structures at the professors command. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) was the first medical student to dissect the cadaver and also continued with it even as a professor. Slowly and steadily its importance was realised. Once autopsy was accepted as a ideal parameter to establish the causes of death, the importance of dissection got enhanced. Cadavers were obtained earlier from the grave robbings and mortuaries, which was followed by, an Anatomy Act of 1832, by which unclaimed bodies were provided to the anatomy department. For last two decades, many persons started donating their bodies to the department of anatomy. In India, mostly unclaimed bodies are handed over to anatomy department for teaching and research purpose. Cadavers teach students during 1st professional course, autopsy teaches again in IInd and IIIrd professional courses and even later on throughout the career. Dissection helps in developing a spatial and tactile appreciation for the fabric of the human body that cannot be achieved by prosection or computerised learning aids alone. PMID:17058553

  13. Forensic features of a fatal Datura poisoning case during a robbery.

    PubMed

    Le Garff, E; Delannoy, Y; Mesli, V; Hédouin, V; Tournel, G

    2016-04-01

    Datura poisonings have been previously described but remain rare in forensic practice. Here, we present a homicide case involving Datura poisoning, which occurred during a robbery. Toxicological results were obtained by second autopsy performed after one previous autopsy and full body embalmment. A 35-year-old man presented with severe stomach and digestive pain, became unconscious and ultimately died during a trip in Asia. A first autopsy conducted in Asia revealed no trauma, intoxication or pathology. The corpse was embalmed with methanol/formalin. A second autopsy was performed in France, and toxicology samples were collected. Scopolamine, atropine, and hyoscyamine were found in the vitreous humor, in addition to methanol. Police investigators questioned the local travel guide, who admitted to having added Datura to a drink to stun and rob his victim. The victim's death was attributed to disordered heart rhythm due to severe anticholinergic syndrome following fatal Datura intoxication. This is a recent case of a rare homicide involving Datura that highlights general information on Datura and discusses forensic interpretation after a previous autopsy and body embalmment. PMID:26952786

  14. Early evolution of efficient enzymes and genome organization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cellular life with complex metabolism probably evolved during the reign of RNA, when it served as both information carrier and enzyme. Jensen proposed that enzymes of primordial cells possessed broad specificities: they were generalist. When and under what conditions could primordial metabolism run by generalist enzymes evolve to contemporary-type metabolism run by specific enzymes? Results Here we show by numerical simulation of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction chain that specialist enzymes spread after the invention of the chromosome because protocells harbouring unlinked genes maintain largely non-specific enzymes to reduce their assortment load. When genes are linked on chromosomes, high enzyme specificity evolves because it increases biomass production, also by reducing taxation by side reactions. Conclusion The constitution of the genetic system has a profound influence on the limits of metabolic efficiency. The major evolutionary transition to chromosomes is thus proven to be a prerequisite for a complex metabolism. Furthermore, the appearance of specific enzymes opens the door for the evolution of their regulation. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Sándor Pongor, Gáspár Jékely, and Rob Knight. PMID:23114029

  15. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    PubMed

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  16. Interventional robotic systems: Applications and technology state-of-the-art

    PubMed Central

    CLEARY, KEVIN; MELZER, ANDREAS; WATSON, VANCE; KRONREIF, GERNOT; STOIANOVICI, DAN

    2011-01-01

    Many different robotic systems have been developed for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on robotic systems for image-guided interventions such as biopsy of suspicious lesions, interstitial tumor treatment, or needle placement for spinal blocks and neurolysis. Medical robotics is a young and evolving field and the ultimate role of these systems has yet to be determined. This paper presents four interventional robotics systems designed to work with MRI, CT, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound imaging devices. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials. The systems include the AcuBot for active needle insertion under CT or fluoroscopy, the B-Rob systems for needle placement using CT or ultrasound, the INNOMOTION for MRI and CT interventions, and the MRBot for MRI procedures. Following these descriptions, the technology issues of image compatibility, registration, patient movement and respiration, force feedback, and control mode are briefly discussed. It is our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions, but more research and clinical trials are needed. The possibility of performing new clinical procedures that the human cannot achieve remains an ultimate goal for medical robotics. Engineers and physicians should work together to create and validate these systems for the benefits of patients everywhere. PMID:16754193

  17. Analysis of continuous GPS measurements from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Several years of continuous data have been collected at remote bedrock Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Annual to sub-annual variations are observed in the position time-series. An atmospheric pressure loading (APL) effect is calculated from pressure field anomalies supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model loading an elastic Earth model. The predicted APL signal has a moderate correlation with the vertical position time-series at McMurdo, Ross Island (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) station MCM4), produced using a global solution. In contrast, a local solution in which MCM4 is the fiducial site generates a vertical time series for a remote site in Victoria Land (Cape Roberts, ROB4) which exhibits a low, inverse correlation with the predicted atmospheric pressure loading signal. If, in the future, known and well modeled geophysical loads can be separated from the time-series, then local hydrological loading, of interest for glaciological and climate applications, can potentially be extracted from the GPS time-series.

  18. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; Bozioney, Christopher M.; Brinkman, John Michael; Chestney, Louis S.; Czernec, Richard P.; Dial, William B.; Dombrosky, Deena M.; Eustace, John G.; Reid, Ryan James; Reinke, Sharon A.; Rogers, Christopher R.; Samrani, Joseph T.; Shumway, Steven Scott; Smith, Teresa Ann; Stroh, James R.; Storck, Jennifer L.; Werner, Christopher Raymond; Wilkinson, Myron A.; Zoldak, John T.; Grant, Nechelle M.; Loucks, Brian C.; Plastow, Richard A.; Pestak, Mark W.; Fletcher, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  19. Striving to Reduce Vulnerability:Lessons from the Poor Community Livelihoodsin the Jakarta Bay Facing High Risk of Rapid Urbanization and Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, D.; Delinom, R. M.; Abdurachim, A. Y.; Dalimunthe, S.; Haba, J.; Pawitan, H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses water-food issues in relation to how livelihoods of the poor community in Jakarta Bayarein high risk ofrapid urbanization and climate changes. As a part of the capital city of Indonesia, this area has experienced rapid increase in populationand extensive developments causing significant increase in the built up area. This city is unable to keep with demand on sewers, water and solid waste management, leading to settlement with concentrated slum pockets areas and widespread of flooding. The community is mostly poor people of productive group, live with urban pressure in fragile home and livelihoods.The situation becomes much worse due to the impact of climate change with flooding as the greatest climate and disaster risk. With lack of basic services, coastal water inundation (BanjirRob)commonly occursand floods the community housing areaswithout patternanymore. The community has lack of fresh and clean water sources and facedeconomic problem, particularly significant reduction of fishing activities. Coastal reclamation and water pollution from nearby industries are blamed as the main reason for these problems. Strategies therefore have to be developed, especially increasing community awareness and preparedness, and poverty alleviation, to sustain their livelihoods in this high risk urban area.

  20. The Use of Arabidopsis to Study Interactions between Parasitic Angiosperms and Their Plant Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Goldwasser, Y.; Westwood, J. H.; Yoder, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    Parasitic plants invade host plants in order to rob them of water, minerals and nutrients. The consequences to the infected hosts can be debilitating and some of the world's most pernicious agricultural weeds are parasitic. Parasitic genera of the Scrophulariaceae and Orobanchaceae directly invade roots of neighboring plants via underground structures called haustoria. The mechanisms by which these parasites identify and associate with host plants present unsurpassed opportunities for studying chemical signaling in plant-plant interactions. Seeds of some parasites require specific host factors for efficient germination, thereby insuring the availability of an appropriate host root prior to germination. A second set of signal molecules is required to induce haustorium development and the beginning of heterotrophy. Later stages in parasitism also require the presence of host factors, although these have not yet been well characterized. Arabidopsis is being used as a model host plant to identify genetic loci associated with stimulating parasite germination, haustorium development, and parasite support. Arabidopsis is also being employed to explore how host plants respond to parasite attack. Current methodologies and recent findings in Arabidopsis – parasitic plant interactions will be discussed. PMID:22303205

  1. Official crime data versus collaborative crime mapping at a Brazilian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, P. L.; Jesus, E. G. V.; Sant'Ana, R. M. S.; Martins, C.; Delgado, J. P. M.; Fernandes, V. O.

    2014-11-01

    In July of 2013 a group of undergraduate students from the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, published a collaborative web map called "Where I Was Robbed". Their initial efforts in publicizing their web map were restricted to announce it at a local radio as a tool of social interest. In two months the map had almost 10.000 reports, 155 reports per day and people from more the 350 cities had already reported a crime. The present study consists in an investigation about this collaborative web map spatial correlation to official robbery data registered at the Secretary of Public Safety database, for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Kernel density estimator combined with map algebra was used to the investigation. Spatial correlations with official robbery data for the city of Salvador were not found initially, but after standardizing collaborative data and mining official registers, both data pointed at very similar areas as the main hot spots for pedestrian robbery. Both areas are located at two of the most economical active areas of the city, although web map crimes reports were more concentrated in an area with higher income population. This results and discussions indicates that this collaborative application is been used mainly by mid class and upper class parcel of the city population, but can still provide significant information on public safety priority areas. Therefore, extended divulgation, on local papers, radio and TV, of the collaborative crime map application and partnership with official agencies are strongly recommended.

  2. Ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of some plants used in traditional medicine of Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México).

    PubMed

    Hernández, T; Canales, M; Avila, J G; Duran, A; Caballero, J; Romo de Vivar, A; Lira, R

    2003-10-01

    The village of Zapotitlán de las Salinas is situated in the Valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Puebla, Mexico. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat gastrointestinal diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. Out of 119 interviews, 44 plant species were registered, of which the following are the most frequently used (listed in descending order): Lippia graveolens H.B. et K. (Verbenaceae), Lantana achyranthifolia Desf. (Verbenaceae), Turnera diffusa (Willd.) ex Schult. (Turneraceae), Lippia oaxacana Rob. et Greenm. (Verbenaceae), Gymnolaena oaxacana (Greenm.) Rydb. (Asteraceae), Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. et Schult. (Boraginaceae), Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Acalypha hederacea Torrey (Euphorbiaceae). From these plants, hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts were prepared in order to assess their antibacterial activity against 14 bacterial strains causing the most common gastrointestinal diseases in Mexican population. All hexane extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. There is a correlation between the frequency of mention (of plant use) and the antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the knowledge of plants most frequently used for gastrointestinal infections in Zapotitlán de las Salinas is supported by scientific rationale. PMID:12963140

  3. Dynamic obstacle avoidance using Bayesian Occupancy Filter and approximate inference.

    PubMed

    Llamazares, Angel; Ivan, Vladimir; Molinos, Eduardo; Ocaña, Manuel; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to solve the problem of dynamic obstacle avoidance for a mobile platform using the stochastic optimal control framework to compute paths that are optimal in terms of safety and energy efficiency under constraints. We propose a three-dimensional extension of the Bayesian Occupancy Filter (BOF) (Coué et al. Int. J. Rob. Res. 2006, 25, 19-30) to deal with the noise in the sensor data, improving the perception stage. We reduce the computational cost of the perception stage by estimating the velocity of each obstacle using optical flow tracking and blob filtering. While several obstacle avoidance systems have been presented in the literature addressing safety and optimality of the robot motion separately, we have applied the approximate inference framework to this problem to combine multiple goals, constraints and priors in a structured way. It is important to remark that the problem involves obstacles that can be moving, therefore classical techniques based on reactive control are not optimal from the point of view of energy consumption. Some experimental results, including comparisons against classical algorithms that highlight the advantages, are presented. PMID:23529117

  4. Two unusual 12-connected metal–organic coordination polymers with fcu net

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Dan; Luo, Yu-Hui; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong

    2013-09-15

    Two new three-dimensional 12-connected metal–organic coordination polymers, [Zn{sub 2}(bptc)(H{sub 2}O)]·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH·H{sub 2}O (1) and [Cd{sub 4}(bptc){sub 2}(bbi)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O (2) (H4bptc=biphenyl-2,5,2′,5′-tetracarboxylic acid, bbi=1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)), have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. All compounds are also characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric (TG) analyses and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Topological analysis indicates that both 1 and 2 are 12-connected frameworks with fcu topology, which are based on cuboid cage and rob-like (Cd3) subunit as 12-connected nodes, respectively. Furthermore, the luminescence properties of the two compounds were discussed in detail. - Graphical abstract: Two new compounds with unusual 12-connected fcu topology display intriguing structural feature, as well as luminescence property. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two new 3D metal–organic coordination polymers based on biphenyl-2,5,2′,5′-tetracarboxylic acid ligand have been synthesized. • Two compounds exhibit rare 12-connected fcu topology. • Photoluminescent property at room temperature has been investigated.

  5. Plasmids for heterologous expression in Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N D; Highlander, S K

    1997-02-28

    New cloning and expression vectors that replicate both in Pasteurella haemolytica and in Escherichia coli were constructed based on a native sulfonamide (SuR) and streptomycin (SmR) resistant plasmid of P. haemolytica called pYFC1. Each shuttle vector includes an MCS and a selectable antibiotic resistance marker that is expressed in both organisms. Plasmid pNF2176 carries the P. haemolytica ROB-1 beta-lactamase gene (blaP, ApR) and pNF2214 carries the Tn903 aph3 kanamycin resistance (KmR) element. The expression vector, pNF2176, was created by placing the MCS downstream of the sulfonamide gene promoter (PsulII) on pYFC1; this was used to clone and express the promoterless Tn9 chloramphenicol resistance gene (cat, CmR) in P. haemolytica (pNF2200). A promoter-probe vector (pNF2283) was constructed from pNF2200 by deleting PsulII. PMID:9074498

  6. Cellular model studies of brain-mediated phototherapy on Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Hu, Bina; Li, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yong-Qing

    2008-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now the most common neurodegenerative disease. Despite approval of several drugs for AD, the disease continues to rob millions of their memories and their lives. We have studied the cellular models of brain-mediated phototherapy on AD, and the studies will be reviewed in this paper. Genetic studies have shown that dysfunction of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) or tau is sufficient to cause AD. Aβ or Aβ induced redox stress induced neuron apoptosis might be as a cellular model of AD. We found red light at 640+/-15 nm from light emitting diode array (RLED640) might inhibit Aβ 25-35 induced PC12 cell apoptosis, which is mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and it might inhibit hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced differentiated PC12 cell (dPC12) apoptosis, which is mediated by tyrosine hydroxylase. There is rhythm dysfunction in AD. We found low intensity 810 nm laser irradiation might rehabilitate TNF-alpha induced inhibition of clock gen expression of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Our studies provide a foundation for photobiomodulation on brain to rehabilitate AD.

  7. Precision instrument placement using a 4-DOF robot with integrated fiducials for minimally invasive interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Roland; Lin, Ralph; Cheng, Peng; Kronreif, Gernot; Kornfeld, Martin; Lindisch, David; Wood, Bradford J.; Viswanathan, Anand; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasingly attractive to patients and medical personnel because they can reduce operative trauma, recovery times, and overall costs. However, during these procedures, the physician has a very limited view of the interventional field and the exact position of surgical instruments. We present an image-guided platform for precision placement of surgical instruments based upon a small four degree-of-freedom robot (B-RobII; ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, Vienna, Austria). This platform includes a custom instrument guide with an integrated spiral fiducial pattern as the robot's end-effector, and it uses intra-operative computed tomography (CT) to register the robot to the patient directly before the intervention. The physician can then use a graphical user interface (GUI) to select a path for percutaneous access, and the robot will automatically align the instrument guide along this path. Potential anatomical targets include the liver, kidney, prostate, and spine. This paper describes the robotic platform, workflow, software, and algorithms used by the system. To demonstrate the algorithmic accuracy and suitability of the custom instrument guide, we also present results from experiments as well as estimates of the maximum error between target and instrument tip.

  8. Preliminary Thoughts on Introducing Structs to SIDL/Babel: White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2004-01-08

    In the past 6 months, there has been increased interest in adding something analogous to C structs to the SIDL language and the Babel language interoperability tool [2, 6]. In particular, Rob Armstrong, of the Common Component Architecture [4], said the lack of structs ''is an oft-cited reason that people can't use Babel.'' Because the interest is high and lack of structs is a barrier to Babel adoption, we must carefully consider the current work around, the motivations for structs, the implications of adding structs, and the alternatives for structs in SIDL/Babel. This document provides the background necessary for a discussion of structs in SIDL/Babel. For the purposes of this document, I am going to call the potential new language feature a SIDL struct. The SIDL struct is analogous to a C struct, a Pascal record, or a Fortran 90 (F90) derived data type. It is a collection of data with no methods or behavior associated with it. Each element of the collection has a name and a type. SIDL structs allow for data abstraction, but they do not provide data hiding. All data is public in a SIDL struct.

  9. Promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis therapy for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-qin; Wei, Jing-jing; Xia, Wan; Li, Ji-huang; Liu, Ai-ju; Yin, Su-bing; Wang, Chen; Song, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Guo-qing; Fan, Ji-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the current evidence available regarding the promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis (PBCRBS) therapy for Chinese patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Six databases were searched from their inception to November 2013. The studies assessed in ≥4 domains with 'yes' were selected for detailed assessment and meta-analysis. The herbal compositions for PBCRBS therapy for acute ICH patients were also assessed. Results: From the 6 databases, 292 studies claimed randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Nine studies with 798 individuals were assessed in ≥4 domains with 'yes' by using the Cochrane RoB tool. Meta-analysis showed that PBCRBS monotherapy and adjuvant therapy for acute ICH could improve the neurological function deficit, reduce the volume of hematoma and perihematomal edema, and lower the mortality rate and dependency. Moreover, there were fewer adverse effects when compared with Western conventional medication controls. Xueshuantong Injection and Fufang Danshen Injection, Buyang Huanwu Decoction and Liangxue Tongyu formula, and three herbs (danshen root, sanqi and leech) were the most commonly used Chinese herbal patent injections, herbal prescriptions and single herbs, respectively. Conclusion: Despite the apparently positive findings, it is premature to conclude that there is sufficient efficacy and safety of PBCRBS for ICH because of the high clinical heterogeneity of the included studies and small number of trials in the meta-analysis. Further large sample-sizes and rigorously designed RCTs are needed. PMID:25960132

  10. Sleeping Beauty: Kleine–Levin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mudgal, Soumiya; Jiloha, R. C.; Kandpal, Manish; Das, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) alias sleeping beauty syndrome, is a rare sleep disorder. Clinically presenting as episodes of hypersomnolence, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, hyperphagia and hypersexuality. KLS may have an idiopathic onset or may be precipitated by neurological event or infection. Until date, no definite underlying cause is established and neither there are any definitive management guidelines. It remains a diagnosis of exclusion after other psychiatric and neurological causes have been ruled out. Coloring of presentation with behavioral and mood elements makes it important for a psychiatrist to be well-informed about the condition to avoid the erroneous diagnosis. KLS is a devastating illness, which robs the patient of time, experiences, and relationships. An early diagnosis and effective management can help patient escape from the morbidity caused by this disorder. Armodafinil and oxcarbamazepine have found to be effective in two of the case. The emphasis of this report is to add to the existing clinical knowledge of neurologists, psychiatrists and physicians. In the future, research is needed on genetic etiology and management of this disorder. PMID:25316944

  11. Understanding the diversity of male clients of sex workers in China and the implications for HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Maman, Suzanne; Pan, Suiming

    2012-01-01

    Male clients of sex workers have been overlooked in China's HIV prevention efforts. This study aims to examine men's practices and attitudes toward extramarital sexual relationships, motivations for visiting female sex workers (FSWs), perceptions of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk and risk prevention strategies used. One hundred and eighty-six clients of FSWs with varying socio-economic statuses were interviewed in different sex work settings. Men described no conflict between their role as a client and a responsible family provider. They described social pressure from peers and business partners to visit FSWs, sexual pleasure and companionship as motivators to seek commercial sex. While some men reported no risks associated with visiting FSWs, others identified risks such as being arrested by the police, robbed by gangs and threatening the health of their families by contracting a STI. This study underscores the diversity of FSW clients and the need to understand the beliefs and behaviours of different client types to develop appropriate HIV prevention programmes. It also demonstrates the feasibility of recruiting different types of male clients, a hard-to-reach population for Chinese HIV prevention efforts. PMID:22313090

  12. Diagnostic methods for mastitis in cows are not appropriate for use in humans: commentary.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers are now being targeted for marketing of diagnostic tools for mastitis that were developed for the dairy industry and which aim to provide information regarding choice of antibiotic treatment. Meanwhile, scientists are striving to understand how the human microbiome affects health and wellbeing and the importance of maintenance of bacterial balance in the human body. Breast milk supplies a multitude of bacteria to populate the baby's intestinal tract and kick-start the immune system. Researchers propose a paradigm shift in the understanding of bacterial content in breast milk and an alternative paradigm for the understanding of lactational mastitis: there is the beginning of evidence that many cases of lactational mastitis will resolve spontaneously. An international group of researchers is attempting to answer how dietary habits, birth mode, genetics and environmental factors may impact the bacterial content of breast milk. Until we have more comprehensive knowledge about the human milk microbiome, diagnostic aids for identification of women in need of antibiotic therapy for mastitis remain unreliable. Diagnostic aids could lead to the injudicious use of antibiotic therapy, which in turn may rob the infant of bacteria valuable for development of its immune system. The marketing of diagnostic aids for use in human medicine, that were originally developed for use in cows, is neither evidence-based nor good ethical practice. PMID:26877759

  13. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  14. [The problem of durable resistance of plants to different pests].

    PubMed

    Odintsova, I G; Radchenko, E E; Tyryshkin, L G

    2002-01-01

    Different hypotheses concerning durable plant resistance against different pest were tested: 1) resistance is weak and polygenetically controlled; 2) resistance depends on "residual effect" of oligogenes that were overcome by pests. Contrast pair of plants and pests were used in experiments: wheat, barley--facultative parasite Bipolaris sorokiniana Shoem., wheat--obligate parasite Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm., sorghum--greenbug Schizaphis graminum Rond. Differential interaction between parasite and host plant resulted in their increased compatibility under long reproduction of parasite on resistant varieties were regarded as criteria of quick overcoming of resistance. The results did not support any hypothesis. The rate of adaptation of B. sorokiniana to the resistant varieties of wheat and barley did not depend on the level of resistance expression (weak, moderate or strong) and genetic control (oligogenic, polygenic or cytoplasmatic). It was shown by hybridological analysis that "residual effect" of oligogenes of sorghum resistance against greenbug depended on small resistance genes, that can be independent or weakly connected with marker oligogene. These data allows to doubt in phenomenon of "residual effect" of oligogenes. It was shown that non specific pathogenicity of parasitic fungi increased during their reproductions on sensitive varieties of plants. Thus, cultivation of sensitive varieties causes damage of crop culture non only because of their own losses, but also by increasing the infection of moderately resistant varieties. PMID:12070944

  15. Maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14: association with autosomal recessive rod monochromacy.

    PubMed Central

    Pentao, L; Lewis, R A; Ledbetter, D H; Patel, P I; Lupski, J R

    1992-01-01

    Rod monochromacy (complete congenital achromatopsia) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait of unknown genetic location. The disorder is characterized by total absence of color discrimination because retinal cone photoreceptors do not develop; systemic features do not occur. A 20-year-old white female with rod monochromacy presented with short stature (less than 5th percentile), mild developmental delay, premature puberty, small hands and feet (length less than 5th percentile), minimal dysmorphism, and a reproductive history of three consecutive first-trimester miscarriages. Cytogenetic analysis showed 45,XX,rob(14;14) in all 30 cells examined. Southern analysis of DNA from the patient and her phenotypically normal mother and two brothers (her father is deceased) ascertained the parental origin of the 14;14 Robertsonian translocation. Analysis of RFLPs associated with nine VNTR probes and two dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms from chromosome 14 demonstrated that the patient had inherited two copies of a single allele, each of which was maternally derived. A fully informative RFLP analysis of three probes from chromosome 14 enabled reconstruction of the paternal haplotype and showed the lack of any paternal contribution to the subject. These data are consistent with maternal isodisomy for all portions of chromosome 14 tested by these markers. This finding suggests that rod monochromacy maps to chromosome 14, and it emphasizes the importance of uniparental isodisomy to provide a putative chromosomal assignment of a gene for a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1347967

  16. The space instrument SOVAP of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, S.; Conscience, C.; Mefta, M.; Chevalier, A.; Crommelynck, D.

    2010-12-01

    PICARD is a scientific mission of the French space agency CNES. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate. The payload was launched on 15 june 2010 in a Sun Synchronous Orbit at 725 km altitude. The mission life time is two years, however to be extended to three years. The payload consists of two absolute radiometers measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) and an imaging telescope to determine the solar diameter, the limb shape and asphericity. SOVAP (SOlar VAriability PICARD) is an experiment developed by the STCE (Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence) with a contribution of the CNRS (Centre National de Recherche Scientifique) composed of an absolute radiometer provided by the RMIB (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) to measure the TSI and a bolometer provided by the ROB (Royal Observatory of Belgium) to measure both the solar and terrestrial outgoing radiation with 10 s sampling . The Sovap instrument aims at high quality metrology in the space environment. In this paper, we describe the SOVAP instrument and its technical performances.

  17. The space instrument SOVAP of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conscience, C.; Meftah, M.; Chevalier, A.; Dewitte, S.; Crommelynck, D.,

    2011-09-01

    PICARD is a Satellite dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the absolute total and spectral solar irradiance, the diameter and solar shape and the Sun's interior probed by helioseismology method. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate. PICARD was launched on June 15, 2010. The Satellite was placed into the heliosynchronous orbit of 735 km with inclination of 98.28 degrees. The payload consists in two absolute radiometers measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) and an imaging telescope to determine the solar diameter, the limb shape and asphericity. SOVAP (SOlar VAriability Picard) is an experiment developed by the Belgian STCE (Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence) with a contribution of the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) composed of an absolute radiometer provided by the RMIB (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) to measure the TSI and a bolometer provided by the ROB (Royal Observatory of Belgium). The continuous observation of the solar irradiance at the highest possible precision and accuracy is an important objective of the Earth climate change. This requires: high quality metrology in the space environment. In this article, we describe the SOVAP instrument, its performances and uncertainties on the measurements of the TSI.

  18. Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance Using Bayesian Occupancy Filter and Approximate Inference

    PubMed Central

    Llamazares, Ángel; Ivan, Vladimir; Molinos, Eduardo; Ocaña, Manuel; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to solve the problem of dynamic obstacle avoidance for a mobile platform by using the stochastic optimal control framework to compute paths that are optimal in terms of safety and energy efficiency under constraints. We propose a three-dimensional extension of the Bayesian Occupancy Filter (BOF) (Coué et al. Int. J. Rob. Res. 2006, 25, 19–30) to deal with the noise in the sensor data, improving the perception stage. We reduce the computational cost of the perception stage by estimating the velocity of each obstacle using optical flow tracking and blob filtering. While several obstacle avoidance systems have been presented in the literature addressing safety and optimality of the robot motion separately, we have applied the approximate inference framework to this problem to combine multiple goals, constraints and priors in a structured way. It is important to remark that the problem involves obstacles that can be moving, therefore classical techniques based on reactive control are not optimal from the point of view of energy consumption. Some experimental results, including comparisons against classical algorithms that highlight the advantages are presented. PMID:23529117

  19. Incorporating human activities into an earth system model of the Northeastern United States: socio-hydrology at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Stewart, R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Lu, X.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Ehsani, N.; Shikhmacheva, K.; Yang, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern United States is one of the most urbanized regions of the world and its 70 million residents will be challenged by climate change as well as competing demands for land and water through the remainder of the 21st Century. The strategic management decisions made in the next few years will have major impacts on the region's future water resources, but planners have had limited quantitative information to support their decision-making. We have developed a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), which allows for the testing of future scenarios of climate change, land use change and infrastructure management to better understand their implications for the region's water resources and ecosystem services. Human features of the water cycle - including thermoelectric power plants, wastewater treatment plants interbasin transfers and changes in impervious cover with different patterns of urban development - are explicitly represented in our modeling. We are currently engaged in a novel, participatory scenario design process with regional stakeholders to ensure the policy relevancy of our modeling experiments. The NE-RESM hydrologic modeling domain. Figure by Stanley Glidden and Rob Stewart

  20. New high efficiency low capital coal fueled combined cycle using existing CFBs and large gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Advanced Coal Power Technologies (IGCC, PFBII, and HIPPS) despite over two decades of technical development, have seen a disappointing lack of commercial (unsubsidized) utilization. Pulverized coal (PC) steam cycles still dominate because of the intrinsic high capital cost of advanced coal technologies. Recent studies have shown that partial gasification combined cycles yield higher efficiencies than full gasification IGCC cycles. They also show that atmospheric CFB combustors suffer little or no efficiency penalty versus pressurized combustors (and have substantially lower capital costs) because turbine exhaust heat can be fully recovered as the combustion air supply for atmospheric combustors. One new atmospheric partial gasification combined cycle is particularly promising from both a capital cost and efficiency basis. It integrates existing coal atmospheric CFB boiler technology with conventional simple cycle high temperature gas turbines. The CFB boiler also supplies hot bed material to an inexpensive raw coal devolatilizer riser tube which produces a medium-high BTU turbine fuel gas without the need for an expensive power robbing oxygen plant.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Polar and Non-Polar Extracts of Cyanthillium cinereum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Gunjan; Rajkumar, V.; Ashok Kumar, R.; Mathew, Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Cyanthillium cinereum (Less.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally known for its medicinal properties, all aspects of which are yet to be exploited. This study was aimed at investigating the therapeutic potential of polar (methanolic and aqueous) and nonpolar (hexane and chloroform) crude extracts of the whole plant. Several parameters including free-radical (DPPH•, ABTS•+, H2O2 and •OH) scavenging, reducing power, protection of DNA against oxidative damage, cytotoxicity, inhibition of oxidative hemolysis in erythrocytes, total phenolic content and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were examined. All the free-radical generating assay models demonstrated positive scavenging efficiency with differential but considerable magnitudes for the four extracts. However, only the hexane extract showed significant H2O2 scavenging effect. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by thiobarbituric acid-malondialdehyde (MDA) reaction, and a high degree of inhibition was shown by all the extracts. Reducing power of the polar extracts was higher than the non-polar ones. All extracts showed a concentration-dependent increase in phenolic contents. Oxidative damage to erythrocytes was hindered by all extracts in diverse degrees. XTT assay showed that all extracts have mild cytotoxic property. The aqueous extract evidently demonstrated protective effect on pBR322 plasmid DNA against oxidative breakdown. These results suggested the potential of C. cinereum as medicine against free-radical-associated oxidative damage and related degenerative diseases involving metabolic stress, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. PMID:19875433

  2. Optimized Algorithms for Prediction Within Robotic Tele-Operative Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Allan, Mark B.; SunSpiral, Vytas

    2010-01-01

    Robonaut, the humanoid robot developed at the Dexterous Robotics Labo ratory at NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a testbed for human-rob ot collaboration research and development efforts. One of the recent efforts investigates how adjustable autonomy can provide for a safe a nd more effective completion of manipulation-based tasks. A predictiv e algorithm developed in previous work was deployed as part of a soft ware interface that can be used for long-distance tele-operation. In this work, Hidden Markov Models (HMM?s) were trained on data recorded during tele-operation of basic tasks. In this paper we provide the d etails of this algorithm, how to improve upon the methods via optimization, and also present viable alternatives to the original algorithmi c approach. We show that all of the algorithms presented can be optim ized to meet the specifications of the metrics shown as being useful for measuring the performance of the predictive methods. 1

  3. Molecular characterization of de novo secondary trisomy 13

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.G.; McCaskill, C.; Han, Jin-Yeong; Choo, K.H.A.; Cutillo, D.M.; Donnenfeld, A.E.; Weiss, L.; Van Dyke, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Unbalanced Robertsonian translocations are a significant cause of mental retardation and fetal wastage. The majority of homologous rearrangements of chromosome 21 in Down syndrome have been shown to be isochromosomes. Aside from chromosome 21, very little is known about other acrocentric homologous rearrangements. In this study, four cases of de novo secondary trisomy 13 are presented. FISH using alpha-satellite sequences, rDNA, and a pTRI-6 satellite I sequence specific to the short arm of chromosome 13 showed all four rearrangements to be dicentric an apparently devoid of ribosomal genes. Three of four rearrangements retained the pTRI-6 satellite I sequence. Case 1 was the exception, showing a deletion of this sequence in the rearrangement, although both parental chromosomes 13 had strong positive hybridization signals. Eleven microsatellite markers from chromosome 13 were also used to characterize the rearrangements. Of the four possible outcomes, one maternal Robertsonian translocation, two paternal isochromosomes, and one maternal isochromosomes were observed. A double recombination was observed in the maternally derived rob(13q13q). No recombination events were detected in any isochromosome. The parental origins and molecular chromosomal structure of these cases are compared with previous studies of de novo acrocentric rearrangements. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Extra area effects of cloud seeding - An updated assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, T. P.; Golden, J.; Griffith, D.; Woodley, W.; Rosenfeld, D.; Breed, D.; Solak, M.; Boe, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the commonly-held hypothesis that cloud seeding reduces precipitation in regions adjacent to seeding target areas, sometimes referred to as “downwind” but more correctly referred to as “extra area” effects (“the robbing Peter to pay Paul” hypothesis). The overall concept in the potential creation of extra area effects from seeding is illustrated with respect to the hydrologic cycle, which includes both dynamical and microphysical processes. For the first time, results were synthesized from five operational and research weather modification experiments, including winter orographic snowpack enhancement and summer experiments to enhance rainfall. One of the most surprising aspects of these results is that extra area seeding effects on precipitation appear to be uniformly positive (5-15% increases, perhaps greater for some convective systems) for both winter and summer seeding projects examined in this paper. The spatial extent of the positive extra area seeding effects may extend to a couple hundred kilometers for winter orographic seeding projects and summer convective seeding projects (such as North Dakota, Texas, Thailand). Both microphysical and dynamical effects of seeding appear to be contributors to these extra area effects. Future work needs to incorporate larger data sets from some of the larger more sustained projects with advanced cloud models and tracer experiments.

  5. Successful demonstration of a compact laser-pumped vector helium magnetometer on the Daytime Dynamo sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Pierce, D.; Dawson, O.; Bernal, I.; Leinweber, H. K.; Shaffer, C.; Plaschke, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Daytime Dynamo sounding rocket mission is a Goddard Space Flight Center led experiment (PI, Rob Pfaff) to study the dayside ionospheric dynamo with a suite of instruments that measure electromagnetic fields, upper atmospheric winds, and the ambient charged and neutral particle populations. Two Dynamo launches have taken place, the first on July 10th, 2011, the second on July 4th 2013. The primary objective of the mission is to determine the constituents of the dynamo current equation and to determine the degree to which the dynamo current is sustained via neutral winds, DC electric fields, or both. Dynamo carries a magnetometer developed by a JPL/UCLA collaboration that measures the vector magnetic field, and from its variation with altitude, allows us to deduce the horizontal current density. The low-mass instrument uses a laser pumped helium sensor developed at JPL, combined with digital electronics based on recent developments in fluxgate magnetometer electronics at UCLA. We will present an overview of the magnetometer design and the instrument performance.

  6. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Li-Ya

    2011-06-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2O)] n(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n(2), and [Cu 2(PHDA) 2(BPP)] n(3) (H 2PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 86 68 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state.

  7. Anisotropic 2-dimensional Robin Hood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Cwilich, Gabriel; Zypman, Fredy

    2009-03-01

    We have considered the Robin Hood model introduced by Zaitsev[1] to discuss flux creep and depinning of interfaces in a two dimensional system. Although the model has been studied extensively analytically in 1-d [2], its scaling laws have been verified numerically only in that case. Recent work suggest that its properties might be important to understand surface friction[3], where its 2-dimensional properties are important. We show that in the 2-dimensional case scaling laws can be found provided one considers carefully the anisotropy of the model, and different ways of introducing that anisotropy lead to different exponents and scaling laws, in analogy with directed percolation, with which this model is closely related[4]. We show that breaking the rotational symmetry between the x and y axes does not change the scaling properties of the model, but the introduction of a preferential direction of accretion (``robbing'' in the language of the model) leads to new scaling exponents. [1] S.I.Zaitsev, Physica A189, 411 (1992) [2] M. Pacuzki, S. Maslov and P.Bak, Phys Rev. E53, 414 (1996) [3] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110 (2006) [4] G. Odor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 663 (2004) .

  8. Automatic optimization high-speed high-resolution OCT retinal imaging at 1μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Liu, Xiyun; Miao, Dongkai; Lee, Sujin; Lee, Sieun; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Mackenzie, Paul J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution OCT retinal imaging is important in providing visualization of various retinal structures to aid researchers in better understanding the pathogenesis of vision-robbing diseases. However, conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems have a trade-off between lateral resolution and depth-of-focus. In this report, we present the development of a focus-stacking optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with automatic optimization for high-resolution, extended-focal-range clinical retinal imaging. A variable-focus liquid lens was added to correct for de-focus in real-time. A GPU-accelerated segmentation and optimization was used to provide real-time layer-specific enface visualization as well as depth-specific focus adjustment. After optimization, multiple volumes focused at different depths were acquired, registered, and stitched together to yield a single, high-resolution focus-stacked dataset. Using this system, we show high-resolution images of the ONH, from which we extracted clinically-relevant parameters such as the nerve fiber layer thickness and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture.

  9. Evaluating method for the double image phenomenon of LED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Hong; Kuo, Chao-Hui; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    In recent years, the overriding advantages long life, high efficiency, small size and short reaction time have made LED become a viable alternative to conventional light sources. LED lighting sources are usually composed of several individual LED cells which must be mounted on a panel as a lighting module. Being composed of several individual LED cells, the LED sources will cause the double image phenomenon. The double image phenomenon is more obvious when the LED sources are more closer, such as LED table lamp, and limits the applications of LED sources. By using a proper secondary optical lens, the double image phenomenon can be reduced. In this research, an evaluating method based on image processing is developed for the double image phenomenon of a LED sources. By analyzing the gray-scale of the grabbed image which is obtained by putting a rob under a LED source, an index of double image can be established and be a criterion to judge different LED sources. Furthermore, a series of LED lighting simulations are shown in this paper and several type of secondary optical lens are compared and discussed in this paper as well.

  10. Quantum Fisher information in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Xiao, Xing; Ge, Li; Wang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Chang-pu

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the performance of quantum Fisher information (QFI) under the Unruh-Hawking effect, where one of the observers (e.g., Rob) is uniformly accelerated with respect to other partners. In the context of relativistic quantum information theory, we demonstrate that quantum Fisher information, as an important measure of the information content of quantum states, has a rich and subtle physical structure compared with entanglement or Bell nonlocality. In this work, we mainly focus on the parametrized (and arbitrary) pure two-qubit states, where the weight parameter θ and phase parameter ϕ are naturally introduced. Intriguingly, we prove that QFI with respect to θ (Fθ) remains unchanged for both scalar and Dirac fields. Meanwhile, we observe that QFI with respect to ϕ (Fϕ) decreases with the increase of acceleration r but remains finite in the limit of infinite acceleration. More importantly, our results show that the symmetry of Fϕ (with respect to θ =π/4) has been broken by the influence of the Unruh effect for both cases.

  11. Microbial infections in a declining wild turkey population in Texas (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was conducted at 5 locations in Texas for avian pathogens that might adversely affect wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) productivity and survival. At 1 site, the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge (WWR), turkeys have declined precipitously in recent years. During the winters of 1983-85, 442 wild turkeys were caught with cannon and drop nets, 161 of these on WWR. Blood samples were drawn for serologic evaluation, and cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected for isolation attempts. Salmonella spp. bacteria, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) were not detected in any samples tested. Serologic tests for antibodies to NDV and AIV also were negative. Many mycoplasma isolates were recovered from turkeys from every location. Characterization of these isolates indicated that several species were present. None were species typically associated with mycoplasmosis in domestic turkeys, such as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. meleagridis (MM), or M. synoviae (MS), although antibodies to these pathogens were detected in turkeys at every location sampled. There was no evidence to link any of these disease causing agents to the decline observed in the population of wild turkeys on the WWR.

  12. Secondary stem anatomy and uses of four drought-deciduous species of a tropical dry forest in México.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Alejandra Quintanar; Velázquez Núñez, Mariana; Solares Arenas, Fortunato; de la Paz Pérez Olvera, Carmen; Torre-Blanco, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Wood and bark anatomy and histochemistry of Acacia bilimekii Humb. & Bonpl., Acacia cochliacantha Mcbride, Conzatia nultiflora (Rob) Stand. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. are described from stem samples collected in a tropical dry forest (Morelos, Mexico). Enzyme activities were tested in tangential, radial and transverse cuts of fresh material. Histochemistry and stem anatomy were studied on similar cuts previously softened in a solution of water-glicerol-PEG. Our results show that the anatomical patterns of bark and wood, as well as the histochemical patterns and specific gravity, are influenced by water accessibility and climate; these patterns could guarantee mechanical and anti-infection strategies to support extreme conditions. Enzyme cytochemistry reveals biochemical activities probably related to lipid utilization routes for the lignification processes and for synthesis of extractives; these results suggest that the formation and maturation of woody tissue is very active at the beginning of the rainy season. These species are widely used by the local population. Traditional uses include firewood, dead and live fences, fodder, construction, supporting stakes, handcrafts, farming tools, extraction of tanning products, and medicine. There is no relationship between use and abundance. Alternative uses are proposed according to a density index. PMID:17354418

  13. Epidemic of illicit drug use, mechanisms of action/addiction and stroke as a health hazard

    PubMed Central

    Esse, Katherine; Fossati-Bellani, Marco; Traylor, Angela; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse robs individuals of their jobs, their families, and their free will as they succumb to addiction; but may cost even more: a life of disability or even life lost due to stroke. Many illicit drugs have been linked to major cardiovascular events and other comorbidities, including cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and marijuana. This review focuses on available epidemiological data, mechanisms of action, particularly those leading to cerebrovascular events, and it is based on papers published in English in PubMed during 1950 through February 2011. Each drug's unique interactions with the brain and vasculature predispose even young, healthy people to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Cocaine and amphetamines have the strongest association with stroke. However, the level of evidence firmly linking other drugs to stroke pathogenesis is weak. Large epidemiological studies and systematic evaluation of each drug's action on the brain and cardiovascular system are needed to reveal the full impact of drug use on the population. PMID:22398980

  14. Highlights from Sherwood 2014. International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, March 24-26, Bahia Resort Hotel, San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-31

    Rob Goldston (PPPL) kicked off the Sherwood meeting with his review talk, “Understanding and innovation in magnetic fusion”. He covered a history of results from tokamak experiments in the areas of core confinement, stability, sustainment – tying the paradigms for understanding all three to the plasma edge, where outstanding questions remain. Two other review talks were given by Russel Caflisch (UCLA) on “Accelerated simulation of coulomb collisions in plasmas”, and Dan Barnes (Tri Alpha) on “Plasma theory as private enterprise”. Altogether, there were 15 invited talks spanning the field of fusion theory on topics such as nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the tokamak edge, plasma-wall modelling, toroidal rotation, zonal flows, magnetic field-line reconnection, coulomb collisions, and intrinsic momentum transport. Author-provided summaries of several of the invited talks are included on pages 7 to 14 of this document. There was a very strong showing by graduate students, postdocs, and young scientists at the meeting. More than 25 students from around the world presented papers. A list of all participating students can be found on page 5 of this document

  15. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  16. Ritualised versus aggressive behaviours displayed by Polyrhachis laboriosa (F. Smith) during intraspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Mercier, J L; Lenoir, A; Dejean, A

    1997-10-01

    The intraspecific territoriality of Polyrhachis laboriosa was studied thanks to dyadic confrontations between nestmates and alien foragers in chemically marked and unmarked arenas, complementing experiments and observations in nature. When foragers meet, the alien flees while the resident attacks, especially when on a marked area. However, when an alien scout extends its territory, it attacks the resident ant, such confrontation resulting in a high rate of reciprocal full attacks. When surrounded by several residents, the intruder is always spread-eagled if it does not succeed in fleeing. We described ritualised displays, such as threatening (opening mandibles; bending the gaster) or appeasing behaviours (antennal boxing; attempt at trophallaxis; pupal posture; raising the gaster). They occur only when the encounter maintains a low level of aggression, during laboratory experiments, or in nature during encounters involving a queen or an experimentally-introduced intruder. Foraging queens are tolerated on the territories of conspecific mature colonies. When they encounter resident workers, reciprocal avoidance occurs. Nevertheless, the latter perform ritualised displays when the queens approach their nest or attempt to rob their prey. This situation seems to compensate in part the archaic semi-claustral mode of foundation of this species, as the queens are indirectly protected by their conspecifics who do not tolerate other competitors around large food sources. PMID:24896378

  17. 6th Dysferlin Conference, 3-6 April 2013, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Douglas E; Rufibach, Laura E; Williams, Bradley A; Lee, Elaine R; Windish, Hillarie P; Hwang, Esther Y; Shira, Sarah R; Mittal, Plavi

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 Dysferlin Conference, sponsored and organized by the Jain Foundation, was held from April 3-6, 2013 in Arlington, VA. Participants included 34 researcher speakers, 5 dysferlinopathy patients and all 8 members of the Jain Foundation team. Dysferlinopathy is a rare disease that typically robs patients of mobility during their second or third decade of life. The goals of these Dysferlin Conferences are to bring experts in the field together so that they will collaborate with one another, to quicken the pace of understanding the biology of the disease and to build effective platforms to ameliorate disease. This is important because the function of dysferlin and how to compensate for its absence is still not well understood, in spite of the fact that the dysferlin gene was identified more than a decade ago. The objective of this conference, therefore, was to share and discuss the newest unpublished research defining the role of dysferlin in skeletal muscle, why its absence causes muscular dystrophy and possible therapies for dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy patients. PMID:24480524

  18. Retinal optical coherence tomography at 1 μm with dynamic focus control and axial motion tracking.

    PubMed

    Cua, Michelle; Lee, Sujin; Miao, Dongkai; Ju, Myeong Jin; Mackenzie, Paul J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal imaging is important to noninvasively visualize the various retinal structures to aid in better understanding of the pathogenesis of vision-robbing diseases. However, conventional OCT systems have a trade-off between lateral resolution and depth-of-focus. In this report, we present the development of a focus-stacking OCT system with automatic focus optimization for high-resolution, extended-focal-range clinical retinal imaging by incorporating a variable-focus liquid lens into the sample arm optics. Retinal layer tracking and selection was performed using a graphics processing unit accelerated processing platform for focus optimization, providing real-time layer-specific en face visualization. After optimization, multiple volumes focused at different depths were acquired, registered, and stitched together to yield a single, high-resolution focus-stacked dataset. Using this system, we show high-resolution images of the retina and optic nerve head, from which we extracted clinically relevant parameters such as the nerve fiber layer thickness and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture. PMID:26882449

  19. Speciation of surface gold in pressure oxidized carbonaceous gold ores by TOF-SIMS and TOF-LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, S. S.; Chryssoulis, S. L.; Sodhi, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt ever to speciate gold preg-robbed by carbonaceous matter using a surface sensitive microbeam technique. This approach enables the direct determination of gold species sorbed on carbonaceous particulates thus providing a new tool in understanding the chemistry of gold sorption on carbon. The reasoning behind this effort was to study the detrimental effect chloride ions have on gold recovery by pressure oxidation of carbonaceous sulfide ores, a technology largely used by the mining industry. The characterization of the sorbed gold species involved three surface sensitive microbeam analytical techniques (TOF-SIMS, TOF-LIMS and XPS) providing confirmatory results for better accuracy. Optimum conditions for detection of gold compounds with minimum fragmentation by TOF-SIMS and TOF-LIMS mass spectrometers have been determined. A reference library of 16 major gold complexes with halogen, thiosulfate, cyanide and thiocyanate groups relevant to the gold recovery processes has been established. The most suitable of the microbeam techniques tested was found to be negative (-ve) ion TOF-LIMS, offering best sensitivity and a small analytical spot size.

  20. Anatomy's use of unclaimed bodies: reasons against continued dependence on an ethically dubious practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, D Gareth; Whitaker, Maja I

    2012-03-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies has been one of the distinguishing features of the anatomy profession since the passing of nineteenth century legislation aimed at solving the problem of grave robbing. Only in more recent years has the use of bequeathed bodies supplanted dependence upon unclaimed bodies in many (but not all) countries. We argue that this dependence has opened the profession to a range of questionable ethical practices. Starting with contraventions of the early Anatomy Acts, we trace the manner in which the legitimacy of using unclaimed bodies has exposed vulnerable groups to dissection without their consent. These groups have included the impoverished, the mentally ill, African Americans, slaves, and stigmatized groups during the Nazi era. Unfortunately, ethical constraints have not been imposed on the use of unclaimed bodies. The major public plastination exhibitions of recent years invite us to revisit these issues, even though some like Body Worlds claim to use bequeathed bodies. The widespread use of unclaimed bodies in institutional settings has lent to these public exhibitions a modicum of legitimacy that is needed even when donated bodies are employed. This is because the notion of donation has changed as demonstrated by consideration of the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. We conclude that anatomists should cease using unclaimed bodies. Difficult as this will be in some cultures, the challenge for anatomists is to establish relationships of trust with their local communities and show how body donation can assist both the community and the profession. PMID:21800367

  1. Geometry, analysis, and computation in mathematics and applied sciences. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kusner, R.B.; Hoffman, D.A.; Norman, P.; Pedit, F.; Whitaker, N.; Oliver, D.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1993, the GANG laboratory has been co-directed by David Hoffman, Rob Kusner and Peter Norman. A great deal of mathematical research has been carried out here by them and by GANG faculty members Franz Pedit and Nate Whitaker. Also new communication tools, such as the GANG Webserver have been developed. GANG has trained and supported nearly a dozen graduate students, and at least half as many undergrads in REU projects.The GANG Seminar continues to thrive, making Amherst a site for short and long term visitors to come to work with the GANG. Some of the highlights of recent or ongoing research at GANG include: CMC surfaces, minimal surfaces, fluid dynamics, harmonic maps, isometric immersions, knot energies, foam structures, high dimensional soap film singularities, elastic curves and surfaces, self-similar curvature evolution, integrable systems and theta functions, fully nonlinear geometric PDE, geometric chemistry and biology. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) geometric variational problems; (2) soliton geometry; (3) embedded minimal surfaces; (4) numerical fluid dynamics and mathematical modeling; (5) GANG graphics and mathematical software; (6) description of the computational and visual analysis facility; and (7) research by undergraduates and GANG graduate seminar.

  2. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25590708

  3. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-11-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened. PMID:25387391

  4. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)—that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word’s more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  5. Protective effect of salidroside against bone loss via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Jin, Xin; Guo, Xiao Qin; Wang, Yue; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ling Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays a critical role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis during bone development and regeneration. Salidroside (SAL) has shown anti-hypoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible roles of SAL in the prevention of hypoxia-induced osteoporosis have remained unknown. Two osteoblast cell lines, MG-63 and ROB, were employed to evaluate the effects of SAL on cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Rats subjected to ovariectomy-induced bone loss were treated with SAL in vivo. Our results showed that pre-treatment with SAL markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced reductions in cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization. SAL down-regulated HIF-1α expression and inhibited its translocation; however, SAL increased its transcriptional activity and, consequently, up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In vivo studies further demonstrated that SAL caused decreases in the mineral, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and BGP concentrations in the blood of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Moreover, SAL improved the trabecular bone microarchitecture and increased bone mineral density in the distal femur. Additionally, SAL administration partially ameliorated this hypoxia via the HIF-1α-VEGF signalling pathway. Our results indicate that SAL prevents bone loss by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis and that these effects are associated with the activation of HIF-1α signalling. PMID:27558909

  6. BeiDou Time Transfer With the Standard CGGTTS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Defraigne, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    The R2CGGTTS software tool developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) to provide clock solutions in the standard Common GNSS Generic Time Transfer Standard (CGGTTS) has been extended to BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). The BDS includes satellites in three different orbits: 1) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO); 2) Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO); and 3) Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). This paper presents first results obtained with this upgraded software, and a comparison between common view (CV) time transfer solutions obtained with either BDS, or GPS or Galileo. These preliminary results indicate that the BeiDou MEO satellites give time transfer results with a higher noise than the GPS results. This additional noise is shown to be due to some elevation-dependent delay in the BDS code measurements. Some biases were furthermore pointed out between the CV results obtained with the different BeiDou MEO satellites when the receivers used in the two stations are of different make. These biases may reach some nanoseconds, and find most probably their origin in the receiver hardware or firmware. It is shown additionally that using the BeiDou IGSO satellites and the GEO satellites, although increasing the number of observations, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, introduces a significant time transfer noise in the CV results. PMID:26766373

  7. Dead-baby dreams, transfiguration and recovery from infant death trauma in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn

    2013-10-01

    Maternal reactions to infant death in Northeast Brazil have been at the epicenter of anthropological debate since the 1980s. This ethnographic study of 45 death narratives by bereaved mothers collected from 1979-1989 in Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil, refutes existing claims of mothers' "selective neglect" and "indifference" towards sick babies and emotionally empty grief response. I argue that through dead-baby dreams--and their imaginary transfiguration-grieving mothers alleviate infant death trauma. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, definitive loss, and personal guilt-the social seeds of depression--are reframed to deny death's finality and exonerate mothers from crippling self-blame. By transfiguring lingering mental images of the tiny cold corpse, mothers remold the irreversibility and definitiveness of death, gaining a sense of control over its unpredictable "jolt." In the politically oppressive Northeast Brazil--where social justice remains "an illusion"--mothers dream to preserve their own mental sanity and to recover from death's cruel aftermath. Any interpretation of mourning behavior must be contextualized within the local moral world and its "assumed structure of reality" to avoid demoralizing grieving Brazilian mothers and compounding their suffering. "You see, the only thing a poor woman truly owns that no one can borrow, cheat, steal or rob from her … is her imagination!" (Dona Chiquinha grieving death of her 10 children, Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil). PMID:23988325

  8. [Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. A urological pathography].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Häcker, A; Langbein, S; Bross, S; Honeck, P; Alken, P

    2006-04-01

    The death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was mysterious from the very first day, and cause of wildest speculation and adventurous assertions. Over the last 100 years, medical science has investigated the physical sufferings and the mysterious death of Mozart with increasing intensity. By means of letters from his father Leopold, his sister "Nannerl", himself and reports from his physicians and contemporaries, we would like to create a medical pathography. The rumour that Mozart was poisoned appeared soon after his early death at the age of 35 on December 5th 1791, and was kept up persistently. Accused were the physician van Swieten, Mozart's freemason's loge and the royal band master Salieri. Mozart, however, died due to chronic kidney disease and ultimately due to uraemia. Once the renal damage has reached a certain point, a minimum of additional stress leads to decompensation. This catastrophe occurs typically within the fourth decade of life. When listening to Mozart's music, we should remember that this apparently happy person was actually a premature adult robbed of his childhood, whose short life was an endless chain of indisposition, over fatigue, misery, concern and illness. PMID:16369845

  9. Accounting for personhood in palliative sedation: the Ring Theory of Personhood.

    PubMed

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Application of sedation at the end of life has been fraught with ethical and clinical concerns, primarily focused on its potential to hasten death. However, in the face of clinical data that assuage most of these concerns, a new threat to this treatment of last resort has arisen. Concern now pivots on its effects on the personhood of the patient, underpinned by the manner in which personhood has been conceptualised. For many authors, it is consciousness that is seen to be the seat of personhood, thus its loss is seen to rob a patient of their moral and ethical worth, leaving them in a state that cannot ethically be differentiated from death. Here I proffer a clinically based alternative to this view, the Ring Theory of Personhood, which dispels these concerns about sedation at the end of life. The Ring Theory envisages personhood as a coadunation of three domains of concern: the innate, the individual and the relational elements of personhood. The innate element of personhood is held to be present among all humans by virtue of their links with the Divine and or their human characteristics. The individual elements of personhood pivot on the presence of consciousness-dependent features such as self-awareness, self-determination and personality traits. The relational component of personhood envisages an individual as being 'socially embedded' replete with social and familial ties. It is these three equally important inter-related domains that define personhood. PMID:24072720

  10. Lateralized Kinematics of Predation Behavior in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Oda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway. PMID:22238598

  11. Phylloxera and the grapevine: a sense of common purpose?

    PubMed

    Battey, Nicholas H; Simmonds, Paul E

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of life is its continuation: survival is the reason things live. Here we explore this 'basic' of biology, by reference to the extraordinary life-cycle of the aphid-like pest phylloxera, and the complexity of its relationship with its host the grapevine. The effort and ingenuity that phylloxera employs to continue itself leads to a doubt that survival alone is sufficient reason. It has frequently been suggested that the reduction of life to a catalogue of facts (by science) creates this doubt, because it robs existence of its essence (which is something other than its mechanics). The part that science is said to steal is what Robert Pirsig calls Quality-the harmonious balance of things. Pirsig seems to imply that this is something inherent in things-and independent from us. A more mundane explanation is that the difference between facts and the complete reality is us-the tendency of mind to connect freely between different kinds of information. This possibility is briefly illustrated here by a myth based on the facts of phylloxera. PMID:16306235

  12. Death: a foe to be conquered? Questioning the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gellie, Anthea; Mills, Amber; Levinson, Michele; Stephenson, Gemma; Flynn, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    There are few certainties in life-death is one of them. Yet death is often thought of today as the 'loss of the battle' against illness, where in traditional societies it was the natural, meaningful, end to life. Medical knowledge and technologies have extended the possibilities of medical care and increased our life span. People living in most developed countries today can expect to survive to an advanced age and die in hospital rather than at home as in the past. Owing to these and other historical, cultural and social factors, our views on death have been skewed. Medical technology provides an arsenal of weapons to launch against death and the 'war against disease' has entrenched itself in medical philosophy. We now primarily experience death through the lens of a camera. Representations of 'death as spectacle' distort our perceptions and leave us ill-prepared for the reality. Additionally, death as a natural consequence of life has become much less visible than it was in the past due to our longer life expectancies and lack of infectious disease. The continued thrust for treatment, wedded with a failure to recognise the dying process, can rob individuals of a peaceful, dignified death. Progress being made in Advance Care Planning and palliative care is limited by the existing paradigm of death as a 'foe to be conquered'. It is time for a shift in this paradigm. PMID:25225350

  13. Sampling and Complementarity Effects of Plant Diversity on Resource Use Increases the Invasion Resistance of Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan H.; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei Z.; Yuan, Yue; Li, Bin; Wang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Although plant diversity is postulated to resist invasion, studies have not provided consistent results, most of which were ascribed to the influences of other covariate environmental factors. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the mechanisms by which plant diversity influences community invasibility, an experiment was conducted involving grassland sites varying in their species richness (one, two, four, eight, and sixteen species). Light interception efficiency and soil resources (total N, total P, and water content) were measured. The number of species, biomass, and the number of seedlings of the invading species decreased significantly with species richness. The presence of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. ex Trev. and Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxburgh) Maxim. significantly increased the resistance of the communities to invasion. A structural equation model showed that the richness of planted species had no direct and significant effect on invasion. Light interception efficiency had a negative effect on the invasion whereas soil water content had a positive effect. In monocultures, Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Rob. et Vaut. showed the highest light interception efficiency and P. scabiosaefolia recorded the lowest soil water content. With increased planted-species richness, a greater percentage of pots showed light use efficiency higher than that of A. filiforme and a lower soil water content than that in P. scabiosaefolia. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study suggest that plant diversity confers resistance to invasion, which is mainly ascribed to the sampling effect of particular species and the complementarity effect among species on resources use. PMID:26556713

  14. Concerns about eroding the ethical barrier to in vitro eugenics: lessons from the hESC debate.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    In his discussion of in vitrogametogenesis, Rob Sparrow claims that an ethical barrier to development of this technology is that many jurisdictions currently prohibit the practice of creating embryos solely for the purpose of research. However, he suggests that this ethical barrier will soon be eroded, in view of the fact that in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility. In this commentary, I argue that Sparrow is being overly optimistic in his analysis here. I claim that the debate over so-called compromise positions in the human embryonic stem cell debate suggests that the purpose of the research for which a research embryo is created is unlikely to be considered as having any significant bearing on the moral permissibility of the practice for those who oppose it. Even though in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility, I argue that opponents of the practice of creating embryos solely for research purposes would still view the creation of research embryos that the development of in vitro gametogenesis would require, as being incompatible with affording the embryo proper moral respect. I conclude by suggesting that Sparrow's analysis of the potential benefits of in vitro gametogenesis provides us with further reasons to scrutinise the unconvincing arguments that are often cited in favour of prohibiting the practice of creating embryos solely for research purposes. PMID:23918813

  15. Recreating the real, realizing the imaginary--a composer's preoccupation with acoustic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godman, Rob

    2002-11-01

    For centuries composers have been concerned with spatialization of sound and with the use of acoustic spaces to create feeling, atmosphere, and musical structure. This paper will explore Rob Godman's own use of sound in space, including (1) his treatment of ancient Vitruvian principles and how they are combined with new technologies; (2) an exploration of virtual journeys through real and imaginary acoustic spaces; (3) how sounds might be perceived in air, liquid, and solids; and (4) how technology has allowed composers to realize ideas that previously had only existed in the imagination. While focusing on artistic concerns, the paper will provide information on research carried out by the composer into acoustic spaces that are able to transform in real time with the aid of digital technology (Max/MSP software with sensor technology) and how these have been used in installation and pre-recorded work. It will also explore digital reconstructions of Vitruvian theatres and how we perceive resonance and ambience in the real and virtual world.

  16. Administration of Reconstituted Polyphenol Oil Bodies Efficiently Suppresses Dendritic Cell Inflammatory Pathways and Acute Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Elisabetta; Vadrucci, Elisa; Delvecchio, Francesca Romana; Addabbo, Francesco; Bettini, Simona; Liou, Rachel; Monsurrò, Vladia; Huang, Alex Yee-Chen; Pizarro, Theresa Torres

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are natural compounds capable of interfering with the inflammatory pathways of several in vitro model systems. In this study, we developed a stable and effective strategy to administer polyphenols to treat in vivo models of acute intestinal inflammation. The in vitro suppressive properties of several polyphenols were first tested and compared for dendritic cells (DCs) production of inflammatory cytokines. A combination of the polyphenols, quercetin and piperine, were then encapsulated into reconstituted oil bodies (OBs) in order to increase their stability. Our results showed that administration of low dose reconstituted polyphenol OBs inhibited LPS-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion, including IL-6, IL-23, and IL-12, while increasing IL-10 and IL-1Rα production. Mice treated with the polyphenol-containing reconstituted OBs (ROBs) were partially protected from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and associated weight loss, while mortality and inflammatory scores revealed an overall anti-inflammatory effect that was likely mediated by impaired DC immune responses. Our study indicates that the administration of reconstituted quercetin and piperine-containing OBs may represent an effective and potent anti-inflammatory strategy to treat acute intestinal inflammation. PMID:24558444

  17. Kermesite, Sb2S2O: crystal structure revision and order-disorder interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hybler, Jiří; Durovič, Slavomil

    2013-12-01

    Kermesite, Sb2S2O, is a desymmetrized order-disorder (OD) structure of layers. Two data sets were recorded using twinned crystals from Pezinok, Slovakia (named as Pz21, Pz24). The primitive unit cell is triclinic, P1, Z = 4, cell parameters are a = 8.1416 (3), b = 10.6968 (3), c = 5.7835 (2) Å, α = 102.758 (3), β = 110.657 (3), γ = 101.020 (3)°, R(obs) = 0.0243 (Pz21), and a = 8.1372 (2), b = 10.6969 (2), c = 5.7840 (1) Å, α = 102.787 (2), β = 110.606 (2), γ = 100.983 (2)°, R(obs) = 0.0321 (Pz24). The structure can also be described in the non-standard pseudo-monoclinic octuple (Z = 32), F-centered (Kupčík) cell with extra points in 1/4,1/4,0; 1/4,3/4,1/2; 3/4,1/4,1/2; 3/4,3/4,0, with parameters a = 21.6466 (9), b = 8.1416 (3), c = 20.3824 (9) Å, α = 90.079 (4), β = 101.985 (5), γ = 89.948 (4)° (Pz21), and a = 21.6558 (5), b = 8.1372 (2), c = 20.3859 (8) Å, α = 90.028 (3), β = 101.994 (3), γ = 89.986 (2)° (Pz24). The structure is built of layers parallel to the bc plane, stacked along the a vector of the octuple cell, composed of ribbons parallel to the b vector: (i) ribbon of two strips of SbO5 flattened quadrangular pyramids, sharing apical edges; (ii) ribbon of edge-sharing corrugated lozenges SbO3S. Basal S atoms of pyramids share corners of lozenges. Sb atoms are displaced out of coordination polyhedra into the inter-layer space. The OD layer comprises adjacent halves of the structure building layers. The layer group is A(1)2/m1, the protocell is defined by b, c, (a/4)sin β. The MDO1 (4A) polytype is generated by repetition of the t(1,1/4,0) [or alternatively t(1,-1/4,0)] translation. The co-existence of two kinds of domains give rise to the twinning. The twin operation is 2[010], twin index 2. The total continuation of [. a2 .] generates the MDO2 (2M) polytype, space group A12/a1. Simulated and real diffraction patterns are presented. The important values (edges, angles) and

  18. Early postnatal development of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression, TRH receptor binding, and TRH responses in neurons of rat brainstem.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Viana, F; Kanter, R K; Szymeczek-Seay, C L; Berger, A J; Millhorn, D E

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the postnatal development of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-containing raphe system in the brainstem of neonatal rats. Postnatal changes in TRH expression in nucleus (n.) raphe obscurus (ROb) and n. raphe pallidus (RPa) were evaluated by in situ hybridization using an 35S-labeled oligonucleotide probe complementary to TRH precursor mRNA. TRH mRNA expression was low at birth [postnatal day 0 (P0)], but was clearly evident by P7 and increased from that time to reach sustained high levels from P14 to P28. Consistent with this postnatal increase in TRH expression, we found increases in the density of TRH-immunoreactive (IR) fibers, which are derived from ROb and RPa, in the hypoglossal nucleus (nXII). TRH-IR fibers in nXII were very sparse at P0, but increased markedly over the first 2 postnatal weeks. The change in TRH innervation of nXII was closely matched by concomitant increases in 3H-methyl-TRH binding in nXII; specific TRH binding increased from very low levels at birth to high levels of P14. Finally, we recorded intracellularly the electrophysiological responses to TRH of hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs; n = 42) of neonatal rats (P0-P21) in a brainstem slice preparation. The response of neonatal HMs to TRH, in contrast to adult HMs, was highly variable. In some neonatal HMs, even at P0, TRH caused a depolarization with a decrease in input conductance (GN) that was characteristic of the response of all adult HMs. However, in other neonatal HMs, TRH was either without effect or caused a slight depolarization with no apparent change in GN, responses that were unlike those of adult HMs. A response was considered typical (i.e., "adult-like") if GN decreased to < 85% of control. The percentage of cells responding in a typical manner increased progressively from 25% at P0-P2 to 100% after P11. In addition, we found that the density of TRH-sensitive current (normalized to cell capacitance) increased with postnatal age in HMs that responded in a

  19. Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Ong, Irene M.; McIlwain, Sean; Morales, Eduardo H.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Tremaine, Mary; Bothfeld, William; Higbee, Alan; Ulbrich, Arne; Balloon, Allison J.; Westphall, Michael S.; Aldrich, Josh; Lipton, Mary S.; Kim, Joonhoon; Moskvin, Oleg V.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Coon, Joshua J.; Kiley, Patricia J.; Bates, Donna M.; Landick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass), phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and protein levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(P)H, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation, whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts. PMID:25177315

  20. Application of medicinal plants in maternal healthcare and infertility: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdillahi, Halima S; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Plants have played significant roles as medicine during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum care in many rural areas of the world. In addition to this, plants have been used for centuries to treat infertility and related reproduction problems. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of plant species used in maternal healthcare, including infertility, in South Africa, in terms of scientific evaluation for efficacy and safety. In addition to this, the role of medicinal plants as a tool in achieving the MDG5 of reducing maternal mortality by 2015 was evaluated. A search was done with the aid of Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, peer-reviewed papers, and books, using keywords such as child birth, labour pain, maternal health, maternal mortality, menstrual pains, and postpartum. The plants listed in the different research articles were classified according to their use and the target effect of a plant extract or compound on reproductive function. Eighty-four plant species were found to be used to treat infertility and related problems. Twenty plant species are used during pregnancy, while 26 plant species are used to ease childbirth. For postpartum healing and any problems after childbirth, nine plant species were recorded. Unhealthy pregnancy and birth complications are among the factors that contribute to the loss of cognitive potential in the developing world's children, condemning them to impoverished lives. The best way to keep a country poor is to rob its children of their full developmental potential. In this respect, medicinal plants play a significant role in reducing maternal mortality and ensuring the birth of healthy children. PMID:23609109

  1. Interspecific relationships between American coots and waterfowl during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Patterson, Craig T.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between American Coots (Fulica americana) and water-fowl during the breeding season are well-documented (Ryder 1959, Nudds 1981). Ducks and coots use similar nesting, feeding, brooding, and loafing sites during the breeding season (Munro 1939, Sooter 1945, Ryder 1959). Coots create potential nest sites, repulse predators, provide predation buffers for ducks (Sooter 1945; Ryder 1958, 1959), and may also destroy eggs and young of other marsh-nesting birds (Munro 1937, Burger 1973, McNicholl 1975). Coots, ducks, and swans often feed cooperatively (Ryder 1959, Anderson 1974, Ryan 1981); and American Wigeon (Anas americana) and Gadwell () may rob feeding coots (Knapton and Knudsen 1978, Ryan 1981). Interspecies aggression between coots and waterfowl usually occurs when ducks approach coot nests or broods (Ryan and Dinsmore 1979). Despite these interactions, the numbers of duck broods produced in areas in Utah with nesting coots and in areas where coots have been removed were similar (Ryder 1958, 1961). Densities of coots and ducks, and brood counts of coots and ducks for a 26-year period in Saskatchewan also indicated no significant relationship between numbers of coots and waterfowl (Nudds 1981). Coots and waterfowl from large areas of breeding habitat concentrate on smaller areas during the nonbreeding season (Weller 1975:102). These species may also change diets and habitats during migration and while wintering (Weller 1975). This study documents associations between waterfowl and coots during fall migration and examines feeding and behavioral interactions between coots and waterfowl in mixed flocks. Specifically, we (1) describe temporal and spatial overlap among migrations of coots and waterfowl, (2) present behavioral interactions among species, and (3) document food habits of birds feeding sympatrically during fall migration in Oklahoma.

  2. Joining together to combat poverty.

    PubMed

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development. PMID:10810165

  3. Trans-specific gene silencing between host and parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Tomilov, Alexey A; Tomilova, Natalia B; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard; Yoder, John I

    2008-11-01

    Species of Orobanchaceae parasitize the roots of nearby host plants to rob them of water and other nutrients. Parasitism can be debilitating to the host plant, and some of the world's most pernicious agricultural pests are parasitic weeds. We demonstrate here that interfering hairpin constructs transformed into host plants can silence expression of the targeted genes in the parasite. Transgenic roots of the hemi-parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor expressing the GUS reporter gene were allowed to parasitize transgenic lettuce roots expressing a hairpin RNA containing a fragment of the GUS gene (hpGUS). When stained for GUS activity, Triphysaria roots attached to non-transgenic lettuce showed full GUS activity, but those parasitizing transgenic hpGUS lettuce lacked activity in root tissues distal to the haustorium. Transcript quantification indicated a reduction in the steady-state level of GUS mRNA in Triphysaria when they were attached to hpGUS lettuce. These results demonstrate that the GUS silencing signal generated by the host roots was translocated across the haustorium interface and was functional in the parasite. Movement across the haustorium was bi-directional, as demonstrated in double-junction experiments in which non-transgenic Triphysaria concomitantly parasitized two hosts, one transgenic for hpGUS and the other transgenic for a functional GUS gene. Observation of GUS silencing in the second host demonstrated that the silencing trigger could be moved from one host to another using the parasite as a physiological bridge. Silencing of parasite genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for controlling parasitic weeds. PMID:18643992

  4. Chemical constituents of Papulaspora immersa, an endophyte from Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Barros, Francisco Washington Araújo; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Pessoa, Cláudia; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2010-12-01

    Papulaspora immersa H. H. Hotson was isolated from roots and leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), traditionally known as Yacon. The fungus was cultured in rice, and, from the AcOEt fraction, 14 compounds were isolated. Among them, (22E,24R)-8,14-epoxyergosta-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (4), 2,3-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-c-1,c-4,8-triol (10), and the chromone papulasporin (13) were new secondary metabolites. The spectral data of the known natural products were compared with the literature data, and their structures were established as the (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (1), 24-methylenecycloartan-3β-ol (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), (-)-(3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (-)-(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (6), 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (7), (-)-(4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (8), naphthalene-1,8-diol (9), 6,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (11), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (12), and tyrosol (14). Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MDA-MB435 (melanoma), HCT-8 (colon), SF295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), with IC₅₀ values of 3.3, 14.7, 5.0 and 1.6 μM, respectively. Strong synergistic effects were also observed with compound 5 and some of the isolated steroidal compounds. PMID:21162007

  5. Social Egg Freezing: Developing Countries Are Not Exempt.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-08-01

    Non-medical egg freezing has only been available for about the last 5 years, as new vitrification techniques have made the success rates for actual conception more reliable than the earlier method of slow freezing. The improved outcomes of new technologies of vitrification and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have led to the marketing of egg freezing for non-medical reasons, whereby women are offered the possibility of preserving their eggs until such time as they wish to have a child. For many women today, it is not cancer but the simple passage of time that robs them of their chance of motherhood. Social, educational, emotional and financial pressures often lead them to delay trying to start a family until their late thirties, by which time the chance of success is very low. Women at age 40 face a 40 % chance of miscarriage if they can get pregnant at all, and by the age of 45, the risk of miscarriage is 75 %. Donor eggs are not an option for many because of supply constraints and ethical and cultural concerns. Freezing a woman's eggs at age 30 literally "freezes in time" her fertility potential and gives her the chance of a healthy pregnancy at a time of her choosing. Despite the initial reactions of disapproval, more and more fertility clinics are now offering oocyte cryopreservation to healthy women in order to extend their reproductive options. This procedure is now becoming popular even in developing economies, and egg freezing in major Indian Metros is now routine. PMID:27382212

  6. (3+1)-Incommensurately modulated crystal structure of Cs3ScSi6O15.

    PubMed

    Hejny, Clivia; Kahlenberg, Volker; Schmidmair, Daniela; Dabić, Predrag

    2016-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of Cs3ScSi6O15 shows the presence of main reflections and satellite reflections up to the fourth order along the c* direction. The (3+1)-dimensional incommensurately modulated structure was solved in superspace group X3m1(00gamma)0s0 [a = 13.861 (1), c = 6.992 (1) Å, V = 1163.4 (2) Å(3)] with a modulation wavevector q = 0.14153 (2)c*. Refinement of three modulation waves for positional and anisotropic displacement parameter values for all atoms converged to R(obs) values for all, main and satellite reflections of first, second and third order of 0.0200, 0.0166, 0.0181, 0.0214 and 0.0303, respectively. Cs3ScSi6O15 forms a mixed tetrahedral-octahedral framework with prominent six-membered rings of [SiO4]-tetrahedra interconnected by [ScO6]-octahedra. Apart from Sc, all atoms are strongly affected by positional modulation with maximum atomic displacements of up to 0.93 Å causing rigid polyhedral arrangements to perform tilt and twist movements relative to each other, such as a rotation of the Sc-octahedra around the 3-axis by over 38°. Cs has an irregular coordination environment; however, considering distances up to 3.5 Å, the bond-valence sum changes by no more than 0.02 as a function of t and thus overall kept at a level of ca 1.075. PMID:26830802

  7. Simultaneous screening for and determination of 128 date-rape drugs in urine by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2010-05-20

    Date-rape drugs (DRDs) are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and raping or robbing them while under the influence of the drug. The wide variety of substances used for criminal purposes, their low concentrations in body fluids and, often, a long time delay between the event and clinical examination make comprehensive screening analysis of biological materials collected from crime victims for the presence of these drugs very difficult. Detection of a drug used to facilitate sexual assault in biological fluids can be very important evidence of a committed crime. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple GC-EI-MS screening procedure for date-rape drugs in urine. Target analytes were isolated by solid-phase extraction. 2-mL urine samples were extracted and then derivatized by using BSTFA+1%TMCS reagent. Detection of all compounds was based on full-scan mass spectra and for each compound one ion was chosen for further quantification. The method allowed the simultaneous screening, detection and quantification of 128 compounds from different groups (number of compounds): opioids (20), amphetamines (11), GHB and related products (3), hallucinogens (9), benzodiazepines (18), antihistamines (9), antidepressants (14), selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (4), antipsychotics (7), barbiturates (7), other sedatives (5), muscle relaxants (2) and other drugs (19). The procedure can easily be expanded to encompass more substances. The developed method appeared to be suitable for screening for the target DRDs. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of authentic urine samples collected from victims of rapes and other crimes in routine casework. PMID:20207513

  8. The Temporal Morphology of Infrasound Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Garcés, Milton; Hedlin, Michael; Brachet, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Expert knowledge suggests that the performance of automated infrasound event association and source location algorithms could be greatly improved by the ability to continually update station travel-time curves to properly account for the hourly, daily, and seasonal changes of the atmospheric state. With the goal of reducing false alarm rates and improving network detection capability we endeavor to develop, validate, and integrate this capability into infrasound processing operations at the International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Numerous studies have demonstrated that incorporation of hybrid ground-to-space (G2S) enviromental specifications in numerical calculations of infrasound signal travel time and azimuth deviation yields significantly improved results over that of climatological atmospheric specifications, specifically for tropospheric and stratospheric modes. A robust infrastructure currently exists to generate hybrid G2S vector spherical harmonic coefficients, based on existing operational and emperical models on a real-time basis (every 3- to 6-hours) (D rob et al., 2003). Thus the next requirement in this endeavor is to refine numerical procedures to calculate infrasound propagation characteristics for robust automatic infrasound arrival identification and network detection, location, and characterization algorithms. We present results from a new code that integrates the local (range-independent) τp ray equations to provide travel time, range, turning point, and azimuth deviation for any location on the globe given a G2S vector spherical harmonic coefficient set. The code employs an accurate numerical technique capable of handling square-root singularities. We investigate the seasonal variability of propagation characteristics over a five-year time series for two different stations within the International Monitoring System with the aim of understanding the capabilities of current working knowledge of the

  9. Chromosome abnormalities in Indonesian patients with short stature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature. Methods G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009. Results The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping. PMID:22863325

  10. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    PubMed

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them. PMID:9209757

  11. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M.; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas. PMID:26785039

  12. Activation and Alliance of Regulatory Pathways in C. albicans during Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenjie; Solis, Norma V.; Ehrlich, Rachel L.; Woolford, Carol A.; Filler, Scott G.; Mitchell, Aaron P.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression dynamics have provided foundational insight into almost all biological processes. Here, we analyze expression of environmentally responsive genes and transcription factor genes to infer signals and pathways that drive pathogen gene regulation during invasive Candida albicans infection of a mammalian host. Environmentally responsive gene expression shows that there are early and late phases of infection. The early phase includes induction of zinc and iron limitation genes, genes that respond to transcription factor Rim101, and genes characteristic of invasive hyphal cells. The late phase includes responses related to phagocytosis by macrophages. Transcription factor gene expression also reflects early and late phases. Transcription factor genes that are required for virulence or proliferation in vivo are enriched among highly expressed transcription factor genes. Mutants defective in six transcription factor genes, three previously studied in detail (Rim101, Efg1, Zap1) and three less extensively studied (Rob1, Rpn4, Sut1), are profiled during infection. Most of these mutants have distinct gene expression profiles during infection as compared to in vitro growth. Infection profiles suggest that Sut1 acts in the same pathway as Zap1, and we verify that functional relationship with the finding that overexpression of either ZAP1 or the Zap1-dependent zinc transporter gene ZRT2 restores pathogenicity to a sut1 mutant. Perturbation with the cell wall inhibitor caspofungin also has distinct gene expression impact in vivo and in vitro. Unexpectedly, caspofungin induces many of the same genes that are repressed early during infection, a phenomenon that we suggest may contribute to drug efficacy. The pathogen response circuitry is tailored uniquely during infection, with many relevant regulatory relationships that are not evident during growth in vitro. Our findings support the principle that virulence is a property that is manifested only in the distinct

  13. CREST - a large and diverse superfamily of putative transmembrane hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    . Reviewers This article was reviewed by Kira S. Markarova, Igor B. Zhulin and Rob Knight. PMID:21733186

  14. Condensed tannins inhibit house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) development in livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Kimberly A; Muir, James P; Lambert, Barry D; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-12-01

    Reducing chemical use for suppressing internal and external parasites of livestock is essential for protecting environmental health. Although plant condensed tannins are known to suppress gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants, no research on the effects of tannins on external arthropod populations such as the house fly, Musca domestica L., have been conducted. We examined the impact of plant material containing condensed tannins on house fly development. Prairie acacia (Acacia angustissima (Mill.), Kuntze variety hirta (Nutt.) B.L. Rob.) herbage, panicled tick-clover (Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.) herbage, and quebracho (Shinopsis balansae Engl.) extracts were introduced at rates of 1, 3 or 5% condensed tannins/kg beef cattle, dairy cattle, and goat manure, respectively. In a second experiment, we also introduce purified catechin at 1 or 3% of dairy manure dry matter and measured its impact on house fly development. For the house flies used in these experiments, the following was recorded: percent fly emergence (PFE), average daily gain (ADG), and average fly weight (AFW). No effects (P>0.05) in house fly development were measured in the caprine manure. Prairie acacia (20.9% condensed tannins) had no effect on house flies developing in either bovine manures. Tick clover (4.9% condensed tannins) had a negative effect on all three quantifiable variables of house fly development in the bovine manures, whereas quebracho extract (64.0% condensed tannins) at the 3 and 5% rate reduced fly emergence in beef manure and average daily gain in dairy manure. The application of purified catechin at 3%, but not 1%, reduced fly PFE, ADG, and AFW. PMID:22217775

  15. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  16. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A.

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. In Vivo Evolution of Bacterial Resistance in Two Cases of Enterobacter aerogenes Infections during Treatment with Imipenem

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Sébastien; Pinet, Elizabeth; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Davin-Régli, Anne-Véronique; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Masi, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are a major concern worldwide. Changes in membrane permeability, including decreased influx and/or increased efflux of antibiotics, are known as key contributors of bacterial MDR. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand molecular mechanisms that link membrane permeability to MDR in order to design new antimicrobial strategies. In this work, we describe genotype-phenotype correlations in Enterobacter aerogenes, a clinically problematic and antibiotic resistant bacterium. To do this, series of clinical isolates have been periodically collected from two patients during chemotherapy with imipenem. The isolates exhibited different levels of resistance towards multiple classes of antibiotics, consistently with the presence or the absence of porins and efflux pumps. Transport assays were used to characterize membrane permeability defects. Simultaneous genome-wide analysis allowed the identification of putative mutations responsible for MDR. The genome of the imipenem-susceptible isolate G7 was sequenced to closure and used as a reference for comparative genomics. This approach uncovered several loci that were specifically mutated in MDR isolates and whose products are known to control membrane permeability. These were omp35 and omp36, encoding the two major porins; rob, encoding a global AraC-type transcriptional activator; cpxA, phoQ and pmrB, encoding sensor kinases of the CpxRA, PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component regulatory systems, respectively. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of membrane alterations relative to mutational steps in the evolution of MDR of a recognized nosocomial pathogen. PMID:26398358

  18. Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow through a stationary and rotating infinite serpentine passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Gregory M.; Durbin, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Serpentine passages are found in a number of engineering applications including turbine blade cooling passages. The design of effective cooling passages for high-temperature turbine blades depends in part on the ability to predict heat transfer, thus requiring an accurate representation of the turbulent flow field. These passages are subjected to strong curvature and rotational effects, and the resulting turbulent flow field is fairly complex. An understanding of the flow physics for flows with strong curvature and rotation is required in order to improve the design of turbine blade cooling passages. Experimental measurements of certain turbulence quantities for such configurations can be challenging to obtain, especially near solid surfaces, making the serpentine passage an ideal candidate for a direct numerical simulation (DNS). A DNS study has been conducted to investigate the coupled effect of strong curvature and rotation by simulating turbulent flow through a fully developed, smooth wall, round-ended, isothermal serpentine channel subjected to orthogonal mode rotation. The geometry investigated has an average radius of curvature Rc/δ=2.0 in the curved section and dimensions 12πδ×2δ×3πδ in the streamwise, transverse, and spanwise directions. The computational domain consists of periodic inflow/outflow boundaries, two solid wall boundaries, and periodic boundaries in the spanwise direction. The simulations were conducted for Reynolds number, Reb=5600, and rotation numbers, Rob ,z=0 and 0.32. Differences observed between the stationary and rotating cases are discussed in terms of the mean velocity, secondary flow, and Reynolds stresses.

  19. Sensationalising the female pudenda: an examination of public communication of aesthetic genital surgery.

    PubMed

    Ashong, Ashong C; Batta, Herbert E

    2013-03-01

    We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms. PMID:23445703

  20. Injection drug users’ involvement in drug dealing in the downtown eastside of Vancouver: Social organization and systemic violence

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Lawlor, Jeff; Wood, Evan; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit drug markets are a key component of the risk environment surrounding injection drug use. However, relatively few studies have explored how injection drug users’ (IDUs) involvement in drug dealing shapes their experiences of drug market-related harm. This exploratory qualitative study aims to understand IDUs’ dealing activities and roles, as well as the perceived benefits and risks related to participation in illicit drug markets, including experiences of drug market violence. Methods Ten IDUs with extensive involvement in drug dealing activities were recruited from the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS) and participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which elicited discussion of experiences dealing drugs, perceived benefits and hazards related to dealing, and understandings of drug market violence. Results Participant's involvement in drug market activities included corporate sales, freelance or independent sales, and opportunistic sales termed “middling” as well as drug market-related hustles entailing selling bogus drugs and robbing dealers. Participants primarily dealt drugs to support their own illicit drug use, and we found that arrest and criminal justice involvement, hazards stemming from drug debts, and drug market-related violence were key risks related to dealing activities. Conclusion The challenges of managing personal consumption while selling drugs exacerbates the hazards associated with drug dealing. Efforts to address drug dealing among IDUs should consider both drug dependency and the material conditions that propel drug users towards dealing activities. Interventions should explore the potential of combining enhanced drug treatment programs with low threshold employment and alternative income generation opportunities. PMID:23664788

  1. Flash floods in the Sahara: A case study for the 28th January 2013 flood in Qena-Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Moawad; Omar, Ahmed; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the torrential rainfall and its consequent surface runoff in the Sahara is a crucial issue for better flood protection and water management plans. This is often hampered by lack of the appropriate in situ measurements. Even now the satellite derived rainfall suffers from great uncertainty. Thus, we adjusted the data obtained from real-time satellite rainfall coverage (HYDIS) using the in situ observed rainfall (Robs). Hydro-morphological parameters were then integrated with the empirical curve number (CN) approach to estimate the surface runoff in Qena, Egypt during the 28th January 2013 flash flood event. We deduced that the study area received a total precipitation (∑Rcum) of ~35.6×106 [mm] and a total rain volume (∑Rvol) of ~88.9×109 [m3] mainly from wadi Qena (89.8%). The majority of the rainfalls fell at light intensity (<2.5 [mm hr-1]). The estimated total surface runoff (∑Qsur) was 26.5×106 mm and the total runoff volume (∑Qvol) was 66.2×106 [m3]. The total surface transmission losses (∑Tlos) were calculated as 9.1×106 [mm], which represents about 25.6% of the total precipitation (∑Rcum) and creates substantial opportunities for alluvial aquifer recharge. The total surface runoff (∑Qsur) and flood magnitude were generally low, therefore, flood influences were restricted to the destruction of some roads in Qena but no fatalities were involved, nevertheless. Most of the running water was contained by the El Sail Canal and poured into the Nile River. It is expected that the applied method in this study will be helpful for our understanding and quantification of flood hydrology and contribute to better risk management plan in the arid and hyper-arid regions.

  2. The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, Stefaan

    The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.

  3. Desertification: a question of linkages.

    PubMed

    Stiles, D

    1985-01-01

    Desertification threatens 35% of the earth's land surface and 19% of the world's population. Each year, 60,000 sq km of land are reduced to desert-like conditions. Of the world's drylands, 60% has already been affected by the desertification process. The direct cost of desertification in the form of loss in agricultural production has been estimated at US$26 billion/year. To halt and perhaps reverse the desertification process, the United Nations Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) formulated a comprehensive Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (PACD) in 1977. However, there has been little progress in implementing the 28 recommendations contained within the PACD. Less than US$50,000, none of it from developed countries, has been raised toward the US$90 billion needed over a 20-year period. Developed nations prefer to give assistance through bilateral aid agreements that allow them to secure secondary benefits such as contracts, employment, and political influence. Another problem involves policies within the affected countries. Environmental programs tend not to be awarded high priority because of their lack of quick visual evidence of results. Government leaders must be convinced that desertification is a steady process that is robbing their lands of productive capabilities and increasing economic dependence on outside sources of support. A national machinery and institutional support to coordinate national action must be established. This requires development of a national plan of action to combat desertification, in which a detailed assessment is made of a country's desertification problems, priority projects are identified, and the institutional support to organize and coordinate the national plan is outlined. The United Nations Environment Program is prepared to assist any developing country in the preparation of such plans. PMID:12266990

  4. Molecular evolution of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: 9-year surveillance of penicillin-binding protein 3 mutations in isolates from Japan.

    PubMed

    Sanbongi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takahisa; Osaki, Yumi; Senju, Nami; Ida, Takashi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2006-07-01

    A total of 621 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae collected in Japan between 1995 and 2003 were studied for their susceptibilities to several antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase production, and amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3). Over the four study periods (first period, 1995 to 1996; second period, 1997 to 1998; third period, 2000 to 2001; fourth period, 2002 to 2003), the susceptibilities to beta-lactam agents decreased and the incidence of isolates with substitutions at positions 377, 385, 389, 517, and/or 526 in PBP 3 increased from 28.8% to 52.0%. Five hundred seventy-one beta-lactamase-nonproducing isolates were grouped into 18 classes, based on the pattern of the five mutations in PBP 3. The Asp526Lys substitution led to 6.0-, 4.3-, 2.4-, and 5.4-fold increases in amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefdinir, cefditoren, and faropenem resistance, respectively. PBP 3 with multiple substitutions (Met377Ile, Ser385Thr, and/or Leu389Phe) together with Asp526Lys resulted in increased resistance compared to that for PBP 3 with the Asp526Lys substitution alone. These results indicate that mutations at these five positions increased resistance to most beta-lactams. Although a significant change in the prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing strains was not observed, the proportions of those possessing both PBP 3 alterations and beta-lactamase production have slightly increased (from 1.4% to 5.0%). The ROB-1 beta-lactamase was rare, but this is the first report of this beta-lactamase in Japan. PMID:16801430

  5. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - October 2015.

    PubMed

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd; Layton, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The number of publications about myofascial pain and trigger points (TrP) seems to increase every year. In the current overview we include 27 articles published in past months. The Basic Review section includes articles about the presence and characteristics of TrPs in various neck and shoulder muscles, the correlation between referred pain from active TrPs and knee osteoarthritis, and an anatomical study exploring whether the location of TrPs may be related to the nerve innervation of muscles. Zuil-Escobar and colleagues from Spain considered the intra-rater reliability of the identification of latent TrPs in several leg muscles and the possible correlation of TrP and the presence of a lower medial longitudinal arch. In the section on manual approaches, contributing author Rob Grieve and colleagues continue their studies of TrPs in the lower extremity muscles, while Méndez-Rebolledo and colleagues studied the impact of cross taping and compression. Dry needling (DN) continues to be a topic of interest. We included twelve papers addressing a wide range of topics, such as the effectiveness and safety of DN, and the impact of DN on proprioception, spasticity, and fibromyalgia. Two papers investigated the utilization of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and laser on TrPs, The final section on other clinical studies and reviews includes 8 papers. The studies originated in thirteen different countries with Spain leading the charts with 7 contributions to the literature, followed by Brazil with four. As we have mentioned in previous editions of this literature overview, many studies suffer from very small sample sizes, which makes it difficult to reach definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, myofascial pain continues to be a topic of interest to researchers and clinicians around the globe. PMID:26592232

  6. Prevalence and Epizootical Aspects of Varroasis in Golestan Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bokaie, Saeid; Sharifi, Laleh; Mehrabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Varroa destructor mite is considered as a major pest of honey bees Apis mellifera. The rapid spread of Varroa mites among bee colonies may be due to several factors, including drifting of infested bees, movement of bee swarms, and robbing of weakened colonies. Disease spread and predisposing the infested bees to other diseases lead to high economic losses in beekeeping industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and evaluate some managing factors in Golestan Province in Iran in 2008. Methods: According to the records of Agricultural Research Center, 80 infested beekeeping centers identified and a questionnaire consists of managing factors for each center has been designed. All data were recorded and analyzed by SPSS software to calculate χ2 test. Results: Among 80 apiculture centers, 72 centers (92%) were infested to Varroa and hive density of 90.6% of the centers was 31–60 hives in one center (P= 0.324). All of the apiculture centers had more than 6 km distance to nearest beekeeping center (P= 0.687). Amongst bee keepers 15(93.8%) had low literacy level (P= 0.479) and 26(89.7%) had 5–10 years experience in beekeeping (P= 0.953). Conclusion: We can conclude that because of the high prevalence of the disease, the usual methods of prevention are not effective. This high prevalence emphasizes that we are very far from a solution for Varroa infestation and extra researches on mite biology, tolerance breeding, and Varroa treatment is immediately required. PMID:25629070

  7. Formic acid-based treatments for control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Satta, Alberto; Floris, Ignazio; Eguaras, Martin; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Melis, Marinella

    2005-04-01

    Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and their residues in honey in a Mediterranean region (Sardinia, Italy). Both treatments were efficient in the apiary control of the varroosis, with values of percentage of mite mortality ranging between 93.6 and 100%, without statistical differences between them. The more gradual release of formic acid from the gel application allowed a longer action (2 wk for each treatment) compared with the Liebig-Dispenser (approximately 3d for each treatment). The rate of daily evaporation ranged between approximately 5 and 9 g/d from BeeVar and approximately 26 and 35 g/d from the Liebig-Dispenser, in the first and second treatment, respectively. The total amount of formic acid administered per hive during all the treatment period was approximately 200 g for either treatment. A significantly higher adult bee mortality was recorded in the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives compared with the BeeVar-treated group. On the contrary, BeeVar treatment produced an interruption of brood reared, whereas the extension of the sealed brood area of the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives was not significantly different from that of the control hives. Neither queen mortality nor robbing activity was observed due to the treatments. Formic acid residues in honey collected in the nest were 3,855 +/- 2,061 and 3,030 +/- 1,624 mg/kg for the BeeVar- and the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives, respectively. After 21 d from the end of the treatment, the residues fell to 1,261 +/- 1,054 and 794 +/- 518 mg/kg for the honey sampled from the BeeVar and Liebig-Dispenser groups, respectively. PMID:15889712

  8. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    PubMed

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation. PMID:17456904

  9. SCR atmosphere induced reduction of oxidized mercury over CuO-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Shaokang; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-06-16

    CuO-CeO2/TiO2 (CuCeTi) catalyst synthesized by a sol-gel method was employed to investigate mercury conversion under a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) atmosphere (NO, NH3 plus O2). Neither NO nor NH3 individually exhibited an inhibitive effect on elemental mercury (Hg(0)) conversion in the presence of O2. However, Hg(0) conversion over the CuCeTi catalyst was greatly inhibited under SCR atmosphere. Systematic experiments were designed to investigate the inconsistency and explore the in-depth mechanisms. The results show that the copresence of NO and NH3 induced reduction of oxidized mercury (Hg(2+), HgO in this study), which offset the effect of catalytic Hg(0) oxidation, and hence resulted in deactivation of Hg(0) conversion. High NO and NH3 concentrations with a NO/NH3 ratio of 1.0 facilitated Hg(2+) reduction and therefore lowered Hg(0) conversion. Hg(2+) reduction over the CuCeTi catalyst was proposed to follow two possible mechanisms: (1) direct reaction, in which NO and NH3 react directly with HgO to form N2 and Hg(0); (2) indirect reaction, in which the SCR reaction consumed active surface oxygen on the CuCeTi catalyst, and reduced species on the CuCeTi catalyst surface such as Cu2O and Ce2O3 robbed oxygen from adjacent HgO. Different from the conventionally considered mechanisms, that is, competitive adsorption responsible for deactivation of Hg(0) conversion, this study reveals that oxidized mercury can transform into Hg(0) under SCR atmosphere. Such knowledge is of fundamental importance in developing efficient and economical mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. PMID:25961487

  10. RapMap: a rapid, sensitive and accurate tool for mapping RNA-seq reads to transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Avi; Sarkar, Hirak; Gupta, Nitish; Patro, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The alignment of sequencing reads to a transcriptome is a common and important step in many RNA-seq analysis tasks. When aligning RNA-seq reads directly to a transcriptome (as is common in the de novo setting or when a trusted reference annotation is available), care must be taken to report the potentially large number of multi-mapping locations per read. This can pose a substantial computational burden for existing aligners, and can considerably slow downstream analysis. Results: We introduce a novel concept, quasi-mapping, and an efficient algorithm implementing this approach for mapping sequencing reads to a transcriptome. By attempting only to report the potential loci of origin of a sequencing read, and not the base-to-base alignment by which it derives from the reference, RapMap—our tool implementing quasi-mapping—is capable of mapping sequencing reads to a target transcriptome substantially faster than existing alignment tools. The algorithm we use to implement quasi-mapping uses several efficient data structures and takes advantage of the special structure of shared sequence prevalent in transcriptomes to rapidly provide highly-accurate mapping information. We demonstrate how quasi-mapping can be successfully applied to the problems of transcript-level quantification from RNA-seq reads and the clustering of contigs from de novo assembled transcriptomes into biologically meaningful groups. Availability and implementation: RapMap is implemented in C ++11 and is available as open-source software, under GPL v3, at https://github.com/COMBINE-lab/RapMap. Contact: rob.patro@cs.stonybrook.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307617

  11. Dowry--a deep-rooted cause of violence against women in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R; Harish, D; Gupta, Manisha; Singh, Virendar Pal

    2005-04-01

    The world has entered the new millenium but it is a harsh reality that the woman in India has long been ill-treated in our male-dominated society. She is deprived of her independent identity and is looked upon as a commodity. She is not only robbed of her dignity and pride by way of seduction by the men outside, but also may become a victim of cruelty by her saviours, within the four walls of her own house. However, her trauma does not end here, it may even go to the extent of forcing her to commit suicide or she may be burnt to death for various reasons, including that of dowry. This type of violence transgresses the boundaries of caste, class, region or religion and is prevalent in almost all societies in India. The system of dowry is a social practice which on its own has claimed the lives of scores of women--both young and old, and has made life a virtual hell for many more. Unfortunately, education among women has not produced a reformative effect on their social outlook, nor encouraged any change in them conducive to social upliftment. Those parents who prefer not to take dowry for their well-qualified and settled male children, are in fact considered 'strange' by the society and doubts about 'the respectability of the groom's family' are usually raised. The present study makes an in-depth review of the dowry system in India and analyses the reasons which have demonized dowry into its present commercialized and institutionalized form. PMID:15895643

  12. A data model for drilling information and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, C.A.; Barazzutti, M.

    1995-12-31

    As computing technology has evolved, so have the demands placed by the user community on the functions it provides. The expectations of software used in drilling operations are changing from a convenient way of producing the daily drilling report, to acquiring drilling data for use in engineering analysis programs. This data is expected to provide insight into an increasing array of complicated engineering operations questions. There are a number of commercial morning reporting systems in use throughout the industry. However, after collecting many years worth of drilling data, the engineer is finding that their morning reporting system cannot easily provide the answers to some very basic questions. Many providers of drilling information systems have built their applications founded on daily wellsite operations, using the latest Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) to ensure their case of use. The data model is usually an afterthought, and is generally time rather than activity based. In some cases, the data model is used as a tool to further the system`s {open_quotes}user-friendliness{close_quotes}. This robs the application of its versatility in performing even some of the most fundamental analysis of the data. To date, neither POSC (Petrotechnical Open Systems Corporation) nor the PPDM (Public Petroleum Data Model) have initiated studies to develop a drilling data model. The authors will present a data model that was used as a basis for Shell Canada`s (SCan) Drilling Information System. The provision of a sound data model, that accurately reflects the fundamental data used by drilling (or other operations), is paramount to the success of any information system. Without it, the utilization of engineering operations analysis tools for optimization would be extremely difficult.

  13. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  14. Floating into Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  15. The Beaverhead Impact Structure: Discovery and Investigation of an Allocthonous Impact Structure in SW Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Brearley, A. J.; Housen, B. A.; Fiske, P. S.; Hargraves, R.

    2003-12-01

    In 1989, Rob Hargraves identified shatter-coned sandstone cobbles in a glacial till in the Tendoy Mts., SW Montana. Subsequent investigations by Hargraves and co-workers discovered shatter cones in Precambrian sandstones and gneisses over a 25x8 km region and pseudotachylites over a more restricted region - thus defining the remains of the 50-100 km diameter, 600M to 1B year old, Beaverhead Impact Structure. Though one of 170+ impact structures identified on Earth, Beaverhead remains distinctive and important for several reasons. First, it is the only example to date of an allocthonous fragment of an impact structure, tectonically dissected and transported eastward by tens of kilometers. Second, it preserves pseudotachylies in several lithologies with varying morphologies and features (such as large vesicles) that suggest they were exhumed very quickly after formation. Finally, the orientation of shatter cones relative to sandstone bedding and cross-bedding suggests that a previously unidentified episode of tectonic deformation predated the impact (the first documented use of shatter cones as an indicator of paleo-orientation of strata). To date, nearly all the impact craters recognized on Earth retain some vestige of their original circular geometry. The discovery of Beaverhead suggests that many more meteorite impact structures may be partially preserved in orogenic belts, and that careful observation of petrologic and outcrop-scale features is the key to their discovery. Hargraves' discovery of Beaverhead (the largest impact structure yet identified in the United States) in a region already extensively mapped and studied by geologists, is only one of many examples of the insight, careful observation, and undogmatic thinking that characterized his outstanding scientific career. By bringing together regional structural geologists, planetary scientists, geophysicists and sedimentary geologists, Hargraves and his co-workers illuminated an unusual and important event

  16. Neutron Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components. Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Thomas R.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-09-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of promising manufacturing methods that industry is beginning to explore and adopt. Macroscopically complicated and near net shape components are being built using AM, but how the material behaves in service is a big question for industry. Consequently, AM components/materials need further research into exactly what is made and how it will behave in service. This one and a half day workshop included a series of invited presentations from academia, industry and national laboratories (see Appendix A for the workshop agenda and list of talks). The workshop was welcomed by Alan Tennant, Chief Scientist, Neutron Sciences Directorate, ORNL, and opened remotely by Rob Ivestor, Deputy Director, Advanced Manufacturing Office-DOE, who declared AM adoptees as titans who will be able to create customized 3-D structures with 1 million to 1 billion micro welds with locally tailored microstructures. Further he stated that characterization with neutrons is key to be able to bring critical insight/information into the AM process/property/behavior relationship. Subsequently, the presentations spanned a slice of the current state of the art AM techniques and many of the most relevant characterization techniques using neutrons. After the talks, a panel discussion was held; workshop participants (see Appendix B for a list of attendees) providing questions and the panel answers. The main purpose of the panel discussion was to build consensus regarding the critical research needs in AM that can be addressed with neutrons. These needs were placed into three categories: modes of access for neutrons, new capabilities needed, new AM material issues and neutrons. Recommendations from the workshop were determined based on the panel discussion.

  17. Simulations of a Demonstration of Cloud Albedo Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    The Twomey effect describes how the reflectivity of marine stratocumulus clouds can be increased by a change of the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. The increase can be sufficient to reverse global warming Latham et (2008). This paper combines real MODIS cloud images supplied by Rob Wood as part of the recent VOCALS experiment off the Pacific coast of South America with computer-simulated reflectivity change in pixels down wind of the release point. Initial cloud conditions, spray rate, wake divergence angle and drop half-life are varied over a range of reasonable values. The resulting images show that it may be very difficult to detect reflectivity changes necessary to reverse catastrophic global warming with the human eye to a level which would convince a non-technical decision maker that the procedure has had any effect. The paper goes on to show that by taking a large number of different digitized cloud images, shifting them in the computer to align release points, rotating them to align wind directions and then adding them the background of uncorrelated cloud patterns will converge towards an even middle grey from which the correlated cloud images will emerge. The figure below shows the result for one hundred super-positions except that it had to be removed because of EGU rules. The spray rate was 0.03 m3 sec, drop half life 59 hours, plume dispersion half-angles 1, 2, 5 and 10 degrees, initial drop concentration 65/cm3, wind-speed 6 m/sec, liquid water content 0.3 gm/m3 , boundary layer depth 1000 metres.

  18. Phosphorus Necrosis of the Jaw: A Present-day Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J. P. W.; Baron, R.; Buckland, D. H.; Cooke, M. A.; Craig, J. D.; Duffield, D. P.; Grosart, A. W.; Parkes, P. W. J.; Porter, A.

    1962-01-01

    A historical note on the aetiology of phossy jaw shows that present-day knowledge is little greater than it was a century ago. The varied clinical course of the disease is described together with a report of 10 classical cases not previously reported. Six cases, not amounting to true necrosis but in which healing after dental extraction was delayed, and described, and mention is made of the noticeable differences in the oral state and appearances of tartar of healthy workmen exposed to phosphorus compared with healthy workmen not exposed. But no systematic differences of any kind were found in the incidence of general infections, fractures of bones, haematological findings, and biochemical studies of blood and urine in two groups of healthy men most exposed and least exposed to phosphorous in the same factory. An intensive study in hospital of a case of classical necrosis showed no departure from normal, except delayed healing following bone biopsy from the iliac crest, and a reversed polymorphonuclear/lymphocyte ratio. In the discussion the time of onset of necrosis after first exposure to phosphorus, clinical and radiological diagnosis, the organisms present, personal susceptibility, the appearance of the sequestra, and regeneration of bone are considered. An up-to-date note on prevention of the disease is given, although this has met with only partial success. Some persons are highly susceptible and, whilst complete protection is impossible in the light of our present knowledge, early diagnosis and modern treatment have robbed the disease of its terrible manifestations of Victorian times and turned it into a minor, although often uncomfortable complaint, with little or no resulting disability. Images PMID:14449812

  19. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  20. Sensationalising the Female Pudenda: An Examination of Public Communication of Aesthetic Genital Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ashong, Ashong C.; Batta, Herbert E.

    2013-01-01

    We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms. PMID:23445703