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Sample records for krp1 sarcosin promotes

  1. Krp1 (Sarcosin) promotes lateral fusion of myofibril assembly intermediates in cultured mouse cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cynthia C.; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; Horowits, Robert

    2008-03-10

    Krp1, also called sarcosin, is a cardiac and skeletal muscle kelch repeat protein hypothesized to promote the assembly of myofibrils, the contractile organelles of striated muscles, through interaction with N-RAP and actin. To elucidate its role, endogenous Krp1 was studied in primary embryonic mouse cardiomyocytes. While immunofluorescence showed punctate Krp1 distribution throughout the cell, detergent extraction revealed a significant pool of Krp1 associated with cytoskeletal elements. Reduction of Krp1 expression with siRNA resulted in specific inhibition of myofibril accumulation with no effect on cell spreading. Immunostaining analysis and electron microscopy revealed that cardiomyocytes lacking Krp1 contained sarcomeric proteins with longitudinal periodicities similar to mature myofibrils, but fibrils remained thin and separated. These thin myofibrils were degraded by a scission mechanism distinct from the myofibril disassembly pathway observed during cell division in the developing heart. The data are consistent with a model in which Krp1 promotes lateral fusion of adjacent thin fibrils into mature, wide myofibrils and contribute insight into mechanisms of myofibrillogenesis and disassembly.

  2. BTB-Kelch protein Krp1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Camille W.; Cosgrove, Ruth A.; Drozd, Anja C.; Wiggins, Emma L.; Woodhouse, Sam; Watson, Rachel A.; Spence, Heather J.; Ozanne, Brad W.

    2011-01-01

    The BTB-Kelch protein Krp1 is highly and specifically expressed in skeletal muscle, where it is proposed to have a role in myofibril formation. We observed significant upregulation of Krp1 in C2 cells early in myoblast differentiation, well before myofibrillogenesis. Krp1 has a role in cytoskeletal organization and cell motility; since myoblast migration and elongation/alignment are important events in early myogenesis, we hypothesized that Krp1 is involved with earlier regulation of differentiation. Krp1 protein levels were detectable by 24 h after induction of differentiation in C2 cells and were significantly upregulated by 48 h, i.e., following the onset myogenin expression and preceding myosin heavy chain (MHC) upregulation. Upregulation of Krp1 required a myogenic stimulus as signaling derived from increased myoblast cell density was insufficient to activate Krp1 expression. Examination of putative Krp1 proximal promoter regions revealed consensus E box elements associated with myogenic basic helix-loop-helix binding. The activity of a luciferase promoter-reporter construct encompassing this 2,000-bp region increased in differentiating C2 myoblasts and in C2 cells transfected with myogenin and/or MyoD. Knockdown of Krp1 via short hairpin RNA resulted in increased C2 cell number and proliferation rate as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, whereas overexpression of Krp1-myc had the opposite effect; apoptosis was unchanged. No effects of changed Krp1 protein levels on cell migration were observed, either by scratch wound assay or live cell imaging. Paradoxically, both knockdown and overexpression of Krp1 inhibited myoblast differentiation assessed by expression of myogenin, MEF2C, MHC, and cell fusion. PMID:21368295

  3. ATP-binding motifs play key roles in Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, function for bi-polar growth control in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Dong Keun; Cho, Bon A; Kim, Hyong Bai . E-mail: hbkim5212@hotmail.com

    2005-06-03

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein with various functions related to the cell growth and division. It has been reported that Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, which belongs to the kinesin heavy chain superfamily, localizes on microtubules and may play an important role in cytokinesis. However, the function of Krp1p has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we overexpressed an intact form and three different mutant forms of Krp1p in fission yeast constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two ATP-binding motifs or by truncation of the leucine zipper-like motif (LZiP). We observed hyper-extended microtubules and the aberrant nuclear shape in Krp1p-overexpressed fission yeast. As a functional consequence, a point mutation of ATP-binding domain 1 (G89E) in Krp1p reversed the effect of Krp1p overexpression in fission yeast, whereas the specific mutation in ATP-binding domain 2 (G238E) resulted in the altered cell polarity. Additionally, truncation of the leucine zipper-like domain (LZiP) at the C-terminal of Krp1p showed a normal nuclear division. Taken together, we suggest that krp1p is involved in regulation of cell-polarized growth through ATP-binding motifs in fission yeast.

  4. Sarcosine sarcosinium trifluoroacetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Giester, G.; Fleck, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the synthesis of a new salt in the system sarcosine - trifluoroacetic acid - water, namely sarcosine sarcosinium trifluoroacetate, whose structure contains a dimeric cation formed by an O-H···O hydrogen bond with an O···O distance equal to 2.528(2) Å. This is the first example among salts of amino acids with dimeric cation that contains the trifluoroacetate anion. Vibrational spectra of this crystal and previously known sarcosinium trifluoroacetate crystal have been studied. Peculiarities of the dimeric cation have been compared with other known salts of sarcosine with dimeric cations.

  5. Novel β-Propeller of the BTB-Kelch Protein Krp1 Provides a Binding Site for Lasp-1 That Is Necessary for Pseudopodial Extension*♦

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Christopher H.; McGarry, Lynn C.; Spence, Heather J.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Ozanne, Bradford W.

    2009-01-01

    Kelch-related protein 1 (Krp1) is up-regulated in oncogene-transformed fibroblasts. The Kelch repeats interact directly with the actin-binding protein Lasp-1 in membrane ruffles at the tips of pseudopodia, where both proteins are necessary for pseudopodial elongation. Herein, we investigate the molecular basis for this interaction. Probing an array of overlapping decapeptides of Rattus norvegicus (Rat) Krp1 with recombinant Lasp-1 revealed two binding sites; one (317YDPMENECYLT327) precedes the first of five Kelch repeats, and the other (563TEVNDIWKYEDD574) is in the last of the five Kelch repeats. Mutational analysis established that both binding sites are necessary for Krp1-Lasp-1 interaction in vitro and function in vivo. The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of rat Krp1 (amino acids 289–606) reveals that both binding sites are brought into close proximity by the formation of a novel six-bladed β-propeller, where the first blade is not formed by a Kelch repeat. PMID:19726686

  6. Hexafluorosilicates of sarcosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, M.; Ghazaryan, V. V.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Recently we established the existence of an entire class of salts of amino acids with hexafluorosilicate anions. Three types of salts with singly charged cations are formed: 2A+·SiF62-, A+·(A⋯A+)·SiF62-, 2(A⋯A+)·SiF62-, where A and A+ are amino acids in zwitterionic and singly charged state and (A⋯A+) is dimeric cation with short hydrogen bond. In present work we investigated the system sarcosine + H2SiF6 + H2O. Salts of all three mentioned types are formed in this system: 2Sar·H2SiF6 (2Sar+·SiF62-) (I), 3Sar·H2SiF6·2H2O (Sar+·(Sar⋯Sar+)·SiF62-·2H2O) (II), 4Sar·H2SiF6 (2(Sar⋯Sar+)·SiF62-) (III). The crystal and molecular structures at room temperature as well as thermal expansion of all three crystals are determined. A phase transition near 180 K was found in (II) and the structure below phase transition point (at 150 K) is determined. In addition to (I) a hydrated sample (Ia) is identified by the infrared spectrum. Infrared and Raman spectra of (I, II, III) are discussed on the basis of their structures.

  7. Sox transcription in sarcosine utilization is controlled by Sigma(54) and SoxR in Bacillus thuringiensis HD73.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qi; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Bo; Yang, Min; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Jie; Song, Fuping

    2016-01-01

    Sarcosine oxidase catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of sarcosine to yield glycine, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we analyzed the transcription and regulation of the sox locus, including the sarcosine oxidase-encoding genes in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). RT-PCR analysis revealed that the sox locus forms two opposing transcriptional units: soxB (soxB/E/F/G/H/I) and soxR (soxR/C/D/A). The typical -12/-24 consensus sequence was located 15 bp and 12 bp from the transcriptional start site (TSS) of soxB and soxC, respectively. Promoter-lacZ fusion assays showed that the soxB promoter is controlled by the Sigma(54) factor and is activated by the Sigma(54)-dependent transcriptional regulator SoxR. SoxR also inhibits its own expression. Expression from the PsoxCR promoter, which is responsible for the transcription of soxC, soxD, and soxA, is Sigma(54)-dependent and requires SoxR. An 11-bp inverted repeat sequence was identified as SoxR binding site upstream of the soxB TSS. Purified SoxR specifically bound a DNA fragment containing this region. Mutation or deletion of this sequence abolished the transcriptional activities of soxB and soxC. Thus, SoxR binds to the same sequence to activate the transcription of soxB and soxC. Sarcosine utilization was abolished in soxB and soxR mutants, suggesting that the sox locus is essential for sarcosine utilization. PMID:27404799

  8. Sox transcription in sarcosine utilization is controlled by Sigma54 and SoxR in Bacillus thuringiensis HD73

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qi; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Bo; Yang, Min; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Jie; Song, Fuping

    2016-01-01

    Sarcosine oxidase catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of sarcosine to yield glycine, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we analyzed the transcription and regulation of the sox locus, including the sarcosine oxidase-encoding genes in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). RT-PCR analysis revealed that the sox locus forms two opposing transcriptional units: soxB (soxB/E/F/G/H/I) and soxR (soxR/C/D/A). The typical −12/−24 consensus sequence was located 15 bp and 12 bp from the transcriptional start site (TSS) of soxB and soxC, respectively. Promoter-lacZ fusion assays showed that the soxB promoter is controlled by the Sigma54 factor and is activated by the Sigma54-dependent transcriptional regulator SoxR. SoxR also inhibits its own expression. Expression from the PsoxCR promoter, which is responsible for the transcription of soxC, soxD, and soxA, is Sigma54-dependent and requires SoxR. An 11-bp inverted repeat sequence was identified as SoxR binding site upstream of the soxB TSS. Purified SoxR specifically bound a DNA fragment containing this region. Mutation or deletion of this sequence abolished the transcriptional activities of soxB and soxC. Thus, SoxR binds to the same sequence to activate the transcription of soxB and soxC. Sarcosine utilization was abolished in soxB and soxR mutants, suggesting that the sox locus is essential for sarcosine utilization. PMID:27404799

  9. 40 CFR 180.1207 - N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1207 Section 180.1207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  10. The Tumor Suppressor Activity of the Transmembrane Protein with Epidermal Growth Factor and Two Follistatin Motifs 2 (TMEFF2) Correlates with Its Ability to Modulate Sarcosine Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaofei; Overcash, Ryan; Green, Thomas; Hoffman, Donald; Asch, Adam S.; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    The type I transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) is expressed in brain and prostate and overexpressed in prostate cancer, but its role in this disease is unclear. Several studies have suggested that TMEFF2 plays a role in suppressing the growth and invasive potential of human cancer cells, whereas others suggest that the shed portion of TMEFF2, which lacks the cytoplasmic region, has a growth-promoting activity. Here we show that TMEFF2 has a dual mode of action. Ectopic expression of wild-type full-length TMEFF2 inhibits soft agar colony formation, cellular invasion, and migration and increases cellular sensitivity to apoptosis. However, expression of the ectodomain portion of TMEFF2 increases cell proliferation. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identify sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH), the enzyme that converts sarcosine to glycine, as a TMEFF2-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analysis confirms the interaction of SARDH with full-length TMEFF2. The ectodomain does not bind to SARDH. Moreover, expression of the full-length TMEFF2 but not the ectodomain results in a decreased level of sarcosine in the cells. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor activity of TMEFF2 requires the cytoplasmic/transmembrane portion of the protein and correlates with its ability to bind to SARDH and to modulate the level of sarcosine. PMID:21393249

  11. Interactions of aminomethylphosphonic acid and sarcosine with montmorillonite interlayer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennig, Amanda; Slutter, Annette; Tribe, Lorena

    The smectite clay, montmorillonite, can be found in many soils throughout the world. In addition to its importance in agriculture and soil remediation, montmorillonite has extensive applications in industry both in its natural form and as a component of composite materials. The adsorptive properties of montmorillonite have been explored in relation to its interactions with the common herbicide glyphosate. This herbicide, when exposed to microorganisms in the soil is degraded, forming two products: aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and sarcosine. The atomic-level interactions of these compounds with the montmorillonite interlayer surfaces are studied here using molecular mechanics. The final outcomes of these calculations are analyzed in terms of the proximity of the montmorillonite surface to the moieties of the degradation products. The phosphonate moiety was found to be the most important source of interactions for AMPA, while for sarcosine there was an even distribution between the amino and carboxylic moieties, and Na+ ion mediated surface complexes.0

  12. Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the Concentrations of Neuronal and Glial Metabolites in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine concentration around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain metabolite concentration, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the concentration of metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients) for six months. Metabolite concentrations in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in metabolite concentrations between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA) and neurogilal activity (mI) with simultaneous improvement

  13. Adding Sarcosine to Antipsychotic Treatment in Patients with Stable Schizophrenia Changes the Concentrations of Neuronal and Glial Metabolites in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine concentration around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain metabolite concentration, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the concentration of metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients) for six months. Metabolite concentrations in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in metabolite concentrations between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA) and neurogilal activity (mI) with simultaneous improvement

  14. Exclusive recognition of sarcosine in water and urine by a cavitand-functionalized silicon surface

    PubMed Central

    Biavardi, Elisa; Tudisco, Cristina; Maffei, Francesca; Motta, Alessandro; Massera, Chiara; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Dalcanale, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    A supramolecular approach for the specific detection of sarcosine, recently linked to the occurrence of aggressive prostate cancer forms, has been developed. A hybrid active surface was prepared by the covalent anchoring on Si substrates of a tetraphosphonate cavitand as supramolecular receptor and it was proven able to recognize sarcosine from its nonmethylated precursor, glycine, in water and urine. The entire complexation process has been investigated in the solid state, in solution, and at the solid–liquid interface to determine and weight all the factors responsible of the observed specificity. The final outcome is a Si-based active surface capable of binding exclusively sarcosine. The complete selectivity of the cavitand-decorated surface under these stringent conditions represents a critical step forward in the use of these materials for the specific detection of sarcosine and related metabolites in biological fluids. PMID:22308349

  15. Paramagnetic Nanoparticles as a Platform for FRET-Based Sarcosine Picomolar Detection

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Zbynek; Cernei, Natalia; Krizkova, Sona; Masarik, Michal; Kopel, Pavel; Hodek, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we describe an ultrasensitive specific biosensing system for detection of sarcosine as a potential biomarker of prostate carcinoma based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET biosensor employs anti-sarcosine antibodies immobilized on paramagnetic nanoparticles surface for specific antigen binding. Successful binding of sarcosine leads to assembly of a sandwich construct composed of anti-sarcosine antibodies keeping the Förster distance (Ro) of FRET pair in required proximity. The detection is based on spectral overlap between gold-functionalized green fluorescent protein and antibodies@quantum dots bioconjugate (λex 400 nm). The saturation curve of sarcosine based on FRET efficiency (F604/F510 ratio) was tested within linear dynamic range from 5 to 50 nM with detection limit down to 50 pM. Assembled biosensor was then successfully employed for sarcosine quantification in prostatic cell lines (PC3, 22Rv1, PNT1A), and urinary samples of prostate adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:25746688

  16. An organic indicator functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite-based colorimetric assay for the detection of sarcosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhonghua; Yin, Bo; Wang, Hui; Li, Mengqian; Rao, Honghong; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Xinbin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies.Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS

  17. Hypomania after augmenting venlafaxine and olanzapine with sarcosine in a patient with schizophrenia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Szyburska, Justyna; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Kałużyńska, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system plays an important and well-established role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Agents with glutamatergic properties such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonists (ie, glycine, D-cycloserine) and glycine transporter type 1 inhibitors (eg, sarcosine, bitopertin) are investigated in schizophrenia with special focus on negative and cognitive symptomatology. In this article, we describe a case of a 34-year-old woman with diagnosis of schizophrenia with persistent moderate negative and cognitive symptoms, a participant of the Polish Sarcosine Study (PULSAR) treated with olanzapine (25 mg per day) and venlafaxine (75 mg per day). During ten weeks of sarcosine administration (2 g per day) the patient's activity and mood improved, but in the following 2 weeks, the patient reported decreased need for sleep, elevated mood, libido and general activity. We diagnosed drug-induced hypomania and recommended decreasing the daily dose of venlafaxine to 37.5 mg per day, which resulted in normalization of mood and activity in about 1 week. After this change, activity and mood remained stable and better than before adding sarcosine, and subsequent depressive symptoms were not noted. We describe here the second case report where sarcosine induced important affect changes when added to antidepressive and antipsychotic treatment, which supports the hypothesis of clinically important glutamate-serotonin interaction. PMID:25784808

  18. Potentiometric sensor fabrication having 2D sarcosine memories and analytical features.

    PubMed

    Özkütük, Ebru Birlik; Diltemiz, Sibel Emir; Avcı, Şeyma; Uğurağ, Deniz; Aykanat, Rabia Berna; Ersöz, Arzu; Say, Rıdvan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method based on novel molecular imprinted polymeric sensor has been developed and validated for the determination of prostate cancer metabolite biomarker. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been synthesized by emulsion polymerization, using sarcosine as template molecule, methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The performance of the developed sarcosine sensor has been evaluated, and the results have indicated that a sensitive potentiometric sensor has been fabricated. The sarcosine sensor has showed high-selectivity, shorter response time (<2min), wider linear range (10(-2)-10(-6)mM), lower detection limit (1.35×10(-7)mM), and satisfactory long-term stability (>5.5months). PMID:27612708

  19. Two grams of sarcosine in schizophrenia - is it too much? A potential role of glutamate-serotonin interaction.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Szyburska, Justyna; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Therefore, glutamatergic agents such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-agonists (ie, glycine, D-cycloserine) and glycine transporter type 1 inhibitors (eg, sarcosine) are studied for their efficacy in ameliorating negative and cognitive symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia. We report the case of a 23-year-old schizophrenic patient treated with quetiapine and citalopram, who was offered concomitant sarcosine treatment. After obtaining an informed consent, we started administration of 2 g of sarcosine per day to treat persistent negative and cognitive symptoms. The patient's activity and mood improved within 2 weeks, but in the following 2 weeks the patient reported increased drive, activity, libido, unpleasant inner tension, and irritability. We ruled out hypomania and decided to decrease the daily dose of sarcosine to 1 g, which resulted in reduction of drive and irritability. Activity and mood improved compared with his state before adding sarcosine. We suggest a sarcosine dose between 1 g and 2 g per day with an initial dose of 2 g, but if side effects occur, the dose should be decreased to 1 g per day. We would like to emphasize the clinically important glutamate-serotonin interaction during concomitant use of sarcosine, citalopram, and quetiapine in our patient, which may lead to serious discomfort. PMID:24523591

  20. Prospective evaluation of serum sarcosine and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Hsing, Ann W.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling has identified, sarcosine, a derivative of the amino acid glycine, as an important metabolite involved in the etiology or natural history of prostate cancer. We examined the association between serum sarcosine levels and risk of prostate cancer in 1122 cases (813 non-aggressive and 309 aggressive) and 1112 controls in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Sarcosine was quantified using high-throughput liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. A significantly increased risk of prostate cancer was observed with increasing levels of sarcosine (odds ratio [OR] for the highest quartile of exposure [Q4] versus the lowest quartile [Q1] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.65; P-trend 0.03). When stratified by disease aggressiveness, we observed a stronger association for non-aggressive cases (OR for Q4 versus Q1 = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.88; P-trend 0.006) but no association for aggressive prostate cancer (OR for Q4 versus Q1 = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.47; P-trend 0.89). Although not statistically significant, temporal analyses showed a stronger association between sarcosine and prostate cancer for serum collected closer to diagnosis, suggesting that sarcosine may be an early biomarker of disease. Interestingly, the association between sarcosine and prostate cancer risk was stronger among men with diabetes (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.04, 6.84) compared with those without reported diabetes (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.95–1.59, P-interaction = 0.01). This study found that elevated levels of serum sarcosine are associated with an increased prostate cancer risk and evidence to suggest that sarcosine may be an early biomarker for this disease. PMID:23698636

  1. Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Grignards with Allylic and Vinylic Bromides: Use of Sarcosine as a Natural Ligand.

    PubMed

    Frlan, Rok; Sova, Matej; Gobec, Stanislav; Stavber, Gaj; Časar, Zdenko

    2015-08-01

    Sarcosine was discovered to be an excellent ligand for cobalt-catalyzed carbon-carbon cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with allylic and vinylic bromides. The Co(II)/sarcosine catalytic system is shown to perform efficiently when phenyl and benzyl Grignards are coupled with alkenyl bromides. Notably, previously unachievable Co-catalyzed coupling of allylic bromides with Grignards to linearly coupled α-products was also realized with Co(II)/sarcosine catalyst. This method was used for efficient preparation of the key intermediate in an alternative synthesis of the antihyperglycemic drug sitagliptin. PMID:26158563

  2. Comparative study of the use of sarcosine, proline and glycine as acrylamide inhibitors in ripe olive processing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; López-López, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect on acrylamide (AA) formation and the impact on sensory characteristics in ripe olives of three selected amino acids (sarcosine, proline and glycine), which previously showed high AA inhibition rates in an olive model system. Each amino acid was separately added to packing solutions to give 100 or 200 mM at equilibrium, prior to a sterilisation treatment at 121°C. The results showed that sarcosine at 100 mM may be a good candidate for reducing the AA content in ripe olives with a limited effect on sensory characteristics. Studies with a model solution of AA and sarcosine heated at 121°C for 30 min suggested that the main mechanism for the inhibitory effect of sarcosine on AA formation was the Michael reaction. PMID:24294998

  3. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  4. Monopeptide versus Monopeptoid: Insights on Structure and Hydration of Aqueous Alanine and Sarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2009-11-19

    Despite the obvious significance, the aqueous interactions of peptides remain incompletely understood. Their synthetic analogues called peptoids (poly-N-substituted glycines), have recently emerged as a promising biomimetic material, particularly due to their robust secondary structure and resistance to denaturation. We describe comparative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies of aqueous sarcosine, the simplest peptoid, and alanine, its peptide isomer, interpreted by density functional theory calculations. The sarcosine nitrogen K-edge spectrum is blue-shifted with respect to that of alanine, in agreement with our calculations; we conclude that this shift results primarily from the methyl group substitution on the nitrogen of sarcosine. Our calculations indicate that the nitrogen K-edge spectrum of alanine differs significantly between dehydrated and hydrated scenarios, while that of the sarcosine zwitterion is less affected by hydration. In contrast, the computed sarcosine spectrum is greatly impacted by conformational variations, while the alanine spectrum is not. This relates to a predicted solvent dependence for alanine, as compared to sarcosine. Additionally, we show the theoretical nitrogen K-edge spectra to be sensitive to the degree of hydration, indicating that experimental X-ray spectroscopy may be able to distinguish between bulk and partial hydration, such as found in confined environments near proteins and in reverse micelles.

  5. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments. PMID:27409603

  6. Crystal structure of heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase from Corynebacterium sp. U-96

    SciTech Connect

    Ida, Koh; E-mail: idakoh@sci.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Moriguchi, Tomotaka; Suzuki, Haruo; E-mail: suzuki@sci.kitasato-u.ac.jp

    2005-07-29

    Sarcosine oxidase from Corynebacterium sp. U-96 is a heterotetrameric enzyme. Here we report the crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with dimethylglycine and folinic acid. The {alpha} subunit is composed of two domains, contains NAD{sup +}, and binds folinic acid. The {beta} subunit contains dimethylglycine, FAD, and FMN, and these flavins are approximately 10 A apart. The {gamma} subunit is in contact with two domains of {alpha} subunit and has possibly a folate-binding structure. The {delta} subunit contains a single atom of zinc and has a Cys{sub 3}His zinc finger structure. Based on the structures determined and on the previous works, the structure-function relationship on the heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase is discussed.

  7. D-cycloserine, sarcosine and D-serine diminish the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fu-Yung; Lee, Yung-Shuan; Cherng, Chianfang G; Cheng, Ling-Yi; Chang, Wan-Ting; Chuang, Jia-Ying; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Yu, Lung

    2013-06-01

    Reactivation of cocaine-associated memories plays a critical role in reinstating the cocaine-seeking behavior and causing relapse. Cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was used as a behavioral paradigm indicative of cocaine-associated memory and repeated cocaine-free preference tests served as a behavioral procedure to retrieve such a memory in this study. Since D-cycloserine was reported to eradicate drug-associated memories, two other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists were assessed for their efficacy on facilitating the extinction of cocaine-induced CPP. Although D-cycloserine (30 mg/kg) abolished cocaine (10 mg/kg)-induced CPP, sarcosine (300 and 600 mg/kg) and D-serine (600 mg/kg) diminished the expression of such a cocaine memory. Sarcosine (600 mg/kg) and D-serine (600 mg/kg) did not affect the storage of this cocaine memory. It was of interest to note that D-cycloserine facilitated the extinction of cocaine-induced CPP in a fast and early-onset manner, while sarcosine and D-serine decreased cocaine-induced CPP expression in a delay-onset manner. D-cycloserine (30 mg/kg), D-serine (600 mg/kg) and sarcosine (600 mg/kg) did not affect the consolidation of cocaine (5 mg/kg)-induced CPP. Finally, sarcosine (at 600 mg/kg/day for 3 consecutive days) and D-serine (at 600 mg/kg/day for 3 consecutive days) did not produce observable aversive effect associated with their administration in a conditioned place aversion paradigm. Likewise, a similar dosing regimen of sarcosine or D-serine did not cause evident activity-impairing effect. In addition to D-cycloserine treatment, our results indicate that long-term treatment with D-serine and sarcosine may afford a therapeutic advance in suppressing the expression of cocaine-associated memory. PMID:21106609

  8. Kinetics of the reversible reaction of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-) with sarcosine salt in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qunyang; Fang, Mengxiang; Yu, Hai; Maeder, Marcel

    2012-10-25

    Aqueous sarcosine salts are fast carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents suitable for use in postcombustion CO(2) capture in coal-fired power plants. We have developed a detailed reaction scheme including all the reactions in the sarcosine-CO(2)-water system. All unknown rate and equilibrium constants were obtained by global data fitting. We investigated the temperature-dependent rate and equilibrium constants of the reaction between aqueous CO(2) and sarcosine using stopped-flow spectrophotometry, by following the pH changes over the wavelength range 400-700 nm via coupling to pH indicators. The corresponding rate and equilibrium constants ranged from 15.0 to 45.0 °C and were analyzed in terms of Arrhenius, Eyring, and van't Hoff relationships. The rate constant for the reaction between CO(2) and sarcosine to form the carbamate at 25.0 °C is 18.6(6) × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), which is very high for an acyclic amine; its activation enthalpy is 59(1) kJ mol(-1) and the entropy is 33(4) J mol(-1) K(-1). In addition, we investigated the slow reaction between bicarbonate and sarcosine using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and report the corresponding rate and equilibrium constants at 25.0 °C. This rate constant is 5.9 × 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1). PMID:22992127

  9. Structural Characterization of Mutations at the Oxygen Activation Site in Monomeric Sarcosine Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman Jorns, Marilyn; Chen, Zhi-wei; Mathews, F. Scott

    2010-04-30

    Oxygen reduction and sarcosine oxidation in monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) occur at separate sites above the si- and re-faces, respectively, of the flavin ring. Mutagenesis studies implicate Lys265 as the oxygen activation site. Substitution of Lys265 with a neutral (Met, Gln, or Ala) or basic (Arg) residue results in an {approx}10{sup 4}- or 250-fold decrease, respectively, in the reaction rate. The overall structure of MSOX and residue conformation in the sarcosine binding cavity are unaffected by replacement of Lys265 with Met or Arg. The side chain of Met265 exhibits the same configuration in each molecule of Lys265Met crystals and is nearly congruent with Lys265 in wild-type MSOX. The side chain of Arg265 is, however, dramatically shifted (4-5 {angstrom}) compared with Lys265, points in the opposite direction, and exhibits significant conformational variability between molecules of the same crystal. The major species in solutions of Lys265Arg is likely to contain a 'flipped-out' Arg265 and exhibit negligible oxygen activation, similar to Lys265Met. The 400-fold higher oxygen reactivity observed with Lys265Arg is attributed to a minor (<1%) 'flipped-in' Arg265 conformer whose oxygen reactivity is similar to that of wild-type MSOX. A structural water (WAT1), found above the si-face of the flavin ring in all previously determined MSOX structures, is part of an apparent proton relay system that extends from FAD N(5) to bulk solvent. WAT1 is strikingly absent in Lys265Met and Lys265Arg, a feature that may account for the apparent kinetic stabilization of a reductive half-reaction intermediate that is detectable with the mutants but not wild-type MSOX.

  10. Phase diagram and phase transitions in ferroelectric tris-sarcosine calcium chloride and its brominated isomorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. P. P.; Evans, D. M.; Carpenter, M. A.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Scott, J. F.; Straube, U.; Schmidt, V. H.

    2011-03-01

    Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride [(TSCC), (CH3NHCH2COOH)3CaCl2] is a uniaxial ferroelectric (FE) with a displacive second-order phase transition near Tc=130 K. A continuous range of solid solutions can be made by substituting Br for Cl, which lowers Tc to 0 K at ˜72% Br. Such a quantum critical point differs from that in pseudocubic FEs, such as O-18 SrTiO3 or doped KTaO3. For many years, this system was thought to have only two phases, paraelectric and FE, at ambient pressure. However, we find from dielectric and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy that there are four phase transitions in TSCC and in TSCC:Br (for 0 < Br < 40%): Order-disorder of the sarcosine methyl group at 185 K; displacive FE transition at 130 K (in pure TSCC); a second FE transition [previously hypothesized to be antiferroelectric (AFE) but probably not] at 64 K; and a new anomaly at ˜45 K which might be due to a phase transition or to Debye-like freezing of orientational disorder of some part of the sarcosine molecule. The probable sequence of structures is (upon cooling): Pnma with Z=4(D2h16) ambient 500 K > T > 185 K, disordered; Pnma with Z=4(D2h16)185K>T>130K (ordered); Pn21a with Z=4(C2v9)130K>T>64K (FE); P21a (C2h5) with Z =4, 64 K > T > 45 K (not AFE); T < 45 K, unknown structure. A sixth hexagonal structure at high temperatures (>500 K) is hypothesized to be D6h3(P63/mcm) with Z =2, but the samples decompose first at 503 K (230 °C).

  11. Prevention of strychnine-induced seizures and death by the N-methylated glycine derivatives betaine, dimethylglycine and sarcosine.

    PubMed

    Freed, W J

    1985-04-01

    Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) and N,N-dimethylglycine have been reported to have anticonvulsant properties in animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether these compounds can antagonize strychnine-induced seizures when administered intraperitoneally and to compare their effects with those of sarcosine (N-methylglycine) and glycine. Betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine and sarcosine were equipotent in decreasing the incidence of seizures and death, causing a 38 to 72 percent decrease in the incidence of seizures and death at a dosage of 5 mmole/kg. Glycine had no effect. Thus anticonvulsant activity is conferred to glycine by a single N-methylation. PMID:2581277

  12. On the Quest of Dioxygen by Monomeric Sarcosine Oxidase. A Molecular Dynamics Investigation.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    It is reported here on random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations with the 2GF3 bacterial monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX), O2 , and furoic acid in place of sarcosine, solvated by TIP3 H2 O in a periodic box. An external tiny force, acting randomly on O2 , accelerated its relocation, from the center of activation between residue K265 and the si face of the flavin ring of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, to the surrounding solvent. Only three of the four O2 gates previously described for this system along a composite method technique were identified, while two more major O2 gates were found. The RAMD simulations also revealed that the same gate can be reached by O2 along different pathways, often involving traps for O2 . Both the residence time of O2 in the traps, and the total trajectory time for O2 getting to the solvent, could be evaluated. The new quick pathways discovered here suggest that O2 exploits all nearby interstices created by the thermal fluctuations of the protein, not having necessarily to look for the permanent large channel used for uptake of the FADH cofactor. To this regard, MSOX resembles closely KijD3 N-oxygenase. These observations solicit experimental substantiation, in a long term aim at discovering whether gates and pathways for the small gaseous ligands inside the proteins are under Darwinian functional evolution or merely stochastic control operates. PMID:26265568

  13. Analysis of water channels by molecular dynamics simulation of heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Go; Nakajima, Daisuke; Hiroshima, Akinori; Suzuki, Haruo; Yoneda, Shigetaka

    2015-01-01

    A precise 100-ns molecular dynamics simulation in aquo was performed for the heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase bound with a substrate analogue, dimethylglycine. The spatial region including the protein was divided into small rectangular cells. The average number of the water molecules locating within each cell was calculated based on the simulation trajectory. The clusters of the cells filled with water molecules were used to determine the water channels. The narrowness of the channels, the average hydropathy indices of the residues of the channels, and the number of migration events of water molecules through the channels were consistent with the selective transport hypothesis whereby tunnel T3 is the pathway for the exit of the iminium intermediate of the enzyme reaction. PMID:27493862

  14. A stable three-enzyme creatinine biosensor. 1. Impact of structure, function and environment on PEGylated and immobilized sarcosine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Berberich, Jason A; Yang, Lee Wei; Madura, Jeff; Bahar, Ivet; Russell, Alan J

    2005-03-01

    The determination of creatinine levels in biological fluids is an increasingly important clinical requirement. Amperometric biosensors have been developed based on a three-enzyme system which converts creatinine to amperometrically measurable hydrogen peroxide. The development of the amperometric creatinine biosensor has been slow due the complexity of the three-enzyme system. This paper, the first of three, discusses the chemical modification of sarcosine oxidase and the immobilization and stabilization of this enzyme using polyurethane prepolymers. Sarcosine oxidase was completely inactivated after modification using poly(ethylene glycol) activated with isocyanate. The addition of a competitive inhibitor during enzyme modification was effective in protecting the enzyme from inactivation. Computational analysis of the structure of sarcosine oxidase suggests that there is a lysine in the active site that may be hyper-reactive. The enzyme was irreversibly immobilized using polyurethane prepolymers and retained significant activity. The enzyme's half-life at 37 degrees C increased from seven days to more than 50 days after immobilization. PMID:16701794

  15. Photometric determination of copper with N-(dithiocarboxy)sarcosine after preconcentration with amberlite xad-2 resin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y

    1980-12-01

    The copper(II) chelate of N-(dithiocarboxy)sarcosine (DTCS) is sorbed on a column of Amberlite XAD-2 resin from a pH-7 phosphate solution (0.1M) and stripped with a pH-9.0 ammonia solution (0.2M) in 60% methanol. The absorbance of the eluted chelate is measured at 432 nm against water. Sodium nitrilotriacetate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and EDTA can be used to mask interfering metal ions other than mercury(II), the resulting complexes not being sorbed on the resin. The mercury(II) chelate of DTCS is also sorbed on and stripped from the column along with the copper chelate, but does not interfere in the photometric determination of copper, because it is colourless. The recovery of copper(II) is quantitative from test solutions (50-500 ml) of any salinity up to that of sea-water. Concentration factors of up to about 20 are obtained. The method is highly selective for copper and can be applied to its determination in sea-water. PMID:18962798

  16. Use of crude extract of lentil plant (Lens culinaris Medikus) in peroxidase-based analyses: fast kinetic determination of hydrogen peroxide and sarcosine in urine.

    PubMed

    Pérez Galende, Patricia; Manzano Muñoz, Teresa; Roig, Manuel G; García de María, Cándido

    2012-11-01

    Peroxidase-catalysed reactions are used in a wide variety of analytical applications, most of them based on the final quantification of hydrogen peroxide. Clinical tests for glucose, cholesterol, creatine, creatinine or uric acid in blood or urine and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for pesticides, hepatitis or acquired immune deficiency syndrome are good examples of such applications. The most widely used and commercially available peroxidase for biotechnological processes and analytical applications is horseradish peroxidase followed, although in much lower proportion, by soybean peroxidase. The high commercial interest in peroxidases has led to the search for new sources of these enzymes. This work describes the analytical use of lentil plant peroxidase (LPP), which is a new peroxidase extracted from lentil plants (Lens culinaris Medikus); an abundant post-harvest agricultural waste in the area of Castilla y León (Spain). A procedure for the quantification of hydrogen peroxide in urine is first proposed using crude extract of lentil plant instead of the purified enzyme. This procedure is then applied to the determination of sarcosine; a natural amino acid that has attracted considerable interest in clinical diagnostics since urinary sarcosine was proposed and later questioned as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Under the action of sarcosine oxidase, sarcosine is oxidized by molecular oxygen to give glycine, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide that is quantified according to the previously proposed procedure. The limit of detection for both hydrogen peroxide and sarcosine is around 5 × 10(-7) M. In the determination of sarcosine, the high selectivity of the overall enzymatic reaction, the simple sample treatment and instrumentation, the high-sample throughput and the use of LPP in the plant extract instead of the purified enzyme provide a rapid and inexpensive procedure with characteristics very suitable for routine analysis in a clinical laboratory. PMID

  17. Synergistic effects of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and glutamic acid in inhibition assembly against copper corrosion in acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yinzhe; Zhang, Daquan; Zeng, Huijing; Xie, Bin; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2015-11-01

    A self-assembled multilayer (SAM) from sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (SLS) and glutamic acid (GLU) is formed on copper surface. Its inhibition ability against copper corrosion is examined by electrochemical analysis and weight loss test. In comparison to SAM formed by just SLS or GLU, a synergistic effect is observed when the coexistence of SLS and GLU in SAM. The SLS/GLU SAM has an acicular multilayer structure, and SAM prepared under the condition of 5 mM SLS and 1 mM GLU shows the best protection efficiency. PM6 calculation reveals that the synergistic effect stems from interactions between SLS, GLU and cupric ions.

  18. Kinetics of O2 Entry and Exit in Monomeric Sarcosine Oxidase via Markovian Milestoning Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Anthony; Yu, Tang-Qing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Abrams, Cameron F

    2016-06-14

    The flavoenzyme monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) catalyzes a complex set of reactions currently lacking a consensus mechanism. A key question that arises in weighing competing mechanistic models of MSOX function is to what extent ingress of O2 from the solvent (and its egress after an unsuccessful oxidation attempt) limits the overall catalytic rate. To address this question, we have applied to the MSOX/O2 system the relatively new simulation method of Markovian milestoning molecular dynamics simulations, which, as we recently showed [ Yu et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015 , 137 , 3041 ], accurately predicted the entry and exit kinetics of CO in myoglobin. We show that the mechanism of O2 entry and exit, in terms of which possible solvent-to-active-site channels contribute to the flow of O2, is sensitive to the presence of the substrate-mimicking competitive inhibitor 2-furoate in the substrate site. The second-order O2 entry rate constants were computed to be 8.1 × 10(6) and 3.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for bound and apo MSOX, respectively, both of which moderately exceed the experimentally determined second-order rate constant of (2.83 ± 0.07) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for flavin oxidation by O2 in MSOX. This suggests that the rate of flavin oxidation by O2 is likely not strongly limited by diffusion from the solvent to the active site. The first-order exit rate constants were computed to be 10(7) s(-1) and 7.2 × 10(6) s(-1) for the apo and bound states, respectively. The predicted faster entry and slower exit of O2 for the bound state indicate a longer residence time within MSOX, increasing the likelihood of collisions with the flavin isoalloxazine ring, a step required for reduction of molecular O2 and subsequent reoxidation of the flavin. This is also indirectly supported by previous experimental evidence favoring the so-called modified ping-pong mechanism, the distinguishing feature of which is an intermediate complex involving O2, the flavin, and the oxidized

  19. AMPA Receptor–mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuang-Ti; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Wu, Ching-Hsiang; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wei, I-Hua; Huang, Chih-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR–mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights – A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian

  20. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  1. Glycine- and sarcosine-based models of vanadate-dependent haloperoxidases in sulfoxygenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Wikete, Cornelia; Wu, Pingsong; Zampella, Giuseppe; De Gioia, Luca; Licini, Giulia; Rehder, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Reaction of R-styreneoxide with glycine-tert-butylester yielded amino alcohols of the general formula NR1R2R3, where R1 = CH2COOtBu and R2 = R3 = 2-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl (H2LA); R2 = 2-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl and R3 = 1-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl (H2LB); R2 = H and R3 = 2-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl (HLC); and R2 = H and R3 = 1-phenyl-2-hydroxyethyl (HLD). The corresponding reaction with sarcosine-tert-butylester and subsequent hydrolysis provided the zwitterion +NH(CH3){CH2CHPh(OH)}(CH2CO2-), HLE* (asterisk refers to unprotected carboxylate). Reaction of these ligands with VO(OiPr)3 in CH2Cl2 gave the oxovanadium(V) complexes [VOL(OiPr)2] and [VOL2(OiPr)] (for LC and LD) or, when reacted in the presence of MeOH, [VOL'(OMe)], where L' represents the methyl ester of LA, LB, and LE. The crystal and molecular structures of R-HLC, S-HLD, R,S-HLE* x H2O, and lambda-[VO(R,S-LB')OMe] have been determined. The complex [VOLB'(OMe)] contains vanadium in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal array (tau = 0.72), the oxo group in the equatorial plane, and methoxide and N in the apical positions, and thus, it structurally models the active center of vanadate-dependent haloperoxidases. The structure and the bonding parameters, including a particularly long d(V-N) of 2.562 A, are backed up by DFT calculations. The isolated oxovanadium(V) complexes and the in situ systems L + VO(OiPr)3 catalyze the oxidation, by cumylhydroperoxide HO2R', of prochiral sulfides (MeSPh, MeSp-Tol, PhSBn) to chiral sulfoxides plus some sulfone. The best results with respect to enantioselectivity (enantiomeric excess (ee) = 38%) were obtained with the system VO(OiPr)3/LA, and the best selectivity with respect to sulfoxide (100%) was obtained with [VOLA(OiPr)]. The reaction with the hexacoordinated [VO(OMe)(HOMe)LD*] was very slow. Oxidation of PhSBn is faster than that of MeSPh and MeSpTol. Turn-over numbers are up to 60 mol of sulfoxide mol-1 of catalyst h-1 (-20 degrees C). The unspectacular ee apparently is a

  2. One-pot glovebox-free synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly of novel amphiphilic poly(sarcosine-b-caprolactone) diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Saide; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Qiguo; Wu, Wenzhuo; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Cheng; Guo, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Novel amphiphilic polypeptoid-polyester diblock copolymers based on poly(sarcosine) (PSar) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are synthesized by a one-pot glovebox-free approach. In this method, sarcosine N-carboxy anhydride (Sar-NCA) is firstly polymerized in the presence of benzylamine under N(2) flow, then the resulting poly(sarcosine) is used in situ as the macro-initiator for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone using tin(II) octanoate as a catalyst. The degree of poly-merization of each block is controlled by various feed ratios of monomer/initiator. The diblock copolymers with controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distributions (Đ(M) < 1.2) are characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and size-exclusion chromatography. The self-assembly behavior of PSar-b-PCL in water is investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy. DLS results reveal that the diblock copolymers associate into nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameters (D(H)) around 100 nm in water, which may be used as drug delivery carriers. PMID:25283643

  3. Strong Negative Interference by Calcium Dobesilate in Sarcosine Oxidase Assays for Serum Creatinine Involving the Trinder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuzhi; Hou, Li’an; Cheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Tianjiao; Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Xia, Liangyu; Qi, Zhihong; Qin, Xuzhen; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Qian; Liu, Li; Chi, Shuling; Hao, Yingying; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The vasoprotective drug calcium dobesilate is known to interfere with creatinine (Cr) quantifications in sarcosine oxidase enzymatic (SOE) assays. The aim of this study was to investigate this interference in 8 different commercially available assays and to determine its clinical significance. In in vitro experiments, interference was evaluated at 3 Cr levels. For this, Cr was quantified by SOE assays in pooled serum supplemented with calcium dobesilate at final concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 μg/mL. Percent bias was calculated relative to the drug-free specimen. For in vivo analyses, changes in serum concentrations of Cr, cystatin C (CysC; a renal function marker), and calcium dobesilate were monitored in healthy participants of group I before and after oral calcium dobesilate administration. In addition, variations in interference were also examined among different SOE assays using serum obtained from healthy participants of group II. Lastly, Cr levels from the 10 patients treated with calcium dobesilate were measured using 4 SOE assays and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) for comparison. Our in vitro analyses indicated that the presence of 8 μg/mL calcium dobesilate resulted in a −4.4% to −36.3% reduction in Cr serum concentration compared to drug-free serum for 8 SOE assays examined. In vivo, Cr values decreased relative to the baseline level with increasing drug concentration, with the lowest Cr levels obtained at 2 or 3 hours after drug administration in participants of group I. The observed Cr concentrations for participants in group II were reduced by −28.5% to −3.1% and −60.5% to −11.6% at 0 and 2 hours after administration related to baseline levels. The Cr values of 10 patients measured by Roche, Beckman, Maker, and Merit Choice SOE assays showed an average deviation of −20.0%, −22.4%, −14.2%, and −29.6%, respectively, compared to values obtained by LC

  4. Supplementation of Antipsychotic Treatment with the Amino Acid Sarcosine Influences Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Parameters in Left Frontal White Matter in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system in the brain, has a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The frontal white matter (WM) is partially composed of axons from glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and glia with glutamatergic receptors. The natural amino acid sarcosine, a component of a normal diet, inhibits the glycine type 1 transporter, increasing the glycine level. Thus, it modulates glutamatergic transmission through the glutamatergic ionotropic NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor, which requires glycine as a co-agonist. To evaluate the concentrations of brain metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left frontal WM, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy was used. Twenty-five patients randomly chosen from a group of fifty with stable schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) and dominant negative symptoms, who were receiving antipsychotic therapy, were administered 2 g of sarcosine daily for six months. The remaining 25 patients received placebo. Assignment was double blinded. 1H-NMR spectroscopy (1.5 T) was performed twice: before and after the intervention. NAA, Glx and mI were evaluated as Cr and Cho ratios. All patients were also assessed twice with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results were compared between groups and in two time points in each group. The sarcosine group demonstrated a significant decrease in WM Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho ratios compared to controls after six months of therapy. In the experimental group, the final NAA/Cr ratio significantly increased and Glx/Cr ratio significantly decreased compared to baseline values. Improvement in the PANSS scores was significant only in the sarcosine group. In patients with schizophrenia, sarcosine augmentation can reverse the negative effect of glutamatergic system overstimulation, with a simultaneous beneficial increase of NAA

  5. Supplementation of Antipsychotic Treatment with the Amino Acid Sarcosine Influences Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Parameters in Left Frontal White Matter in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system in the brain, has a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The frontal white matter (WM) is partially composed of axons from glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and glia with glutamatergic receptors. The natural amino acid sarcosine, a component of a normal diet, inhibits the glycine type 1 transporter, increasing the glycine level. Thus, it modulates glutamatergic transmission through the glutamatergic ionotropic NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor, which requires glycine as a co-agonist. To evaluate the concentrations of brain metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left frontal WM, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy was used. Twenty-five patients randomly chosen from a group of fifty with stable schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) and dominant negative symptoms, who were receiving antipsychotic therapy, were administered 2 g of sarcosine daily for six months. The remaining 25 patients received placebo. Assignment was double blinded. ¹H-NMR spectroscopy (1.5 T) was performed twice: before and after the intervention. NAA, Glx and mI were evaluated as Cr and Cho ratios. All patients were also assessed twice with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results were compared between groups and in two time points in each group. The sarcosine group demonstrated a significant decrease in WM Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho ratios compared to controls after six months of therapy. In the experimental group, the final NAA/Cr ratio significantly increased and Glx/Cr ratio significantly decreased compared to baseline values. Improvement in the PANSS scores was significant only in the sarcosine group. In patients with schizophrenia, sarcosine augmentation can reverse the negative effect of glutamatergic system overstimulation, with a simultaneous beneficial increase of NAA

  6. Enhancement of soluble expression of codon-optimized Thermomicrobium roseum sarcosine oxidase in Escherichia coli via chaperone co-expression.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yanjun; Feng, Shoushuai; Xin, Yu; Yang, Hailin; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-20

    The codon-optimized sarcosine oxidase from Thermomicrobium roseum (TrSOX) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and its soluble expression was significantly enhanced via the co-expression of chaperones. With the assistance of whole-genome analysis of T. roseum DSM 5159, the sox gene was predicated and its sequence was optimized based on the codon bias of E. coli. The TrSOX gene was successfully constructed in the pET28a plasmid. After induction with IPTG for 8h, SDS-PAGE analysis of crude enzyme solutions showed a significant 43 kDa protein band, indicating SOX was successfully expressed in E. coli. However, the dark band corresponding to the intracellular insoluble fraction indicated that most of TrSOX enzyme existed in the inactive form in "inclusion bodies" owing to the "hot spots" of TrSOX. Furthermore, the co-expression of five different combinations of chaperones indicated that the soluble expression of TrSOX was greatly improved by the co-expression of molecular chaperones GroES-GroEL and DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE-GroES-GroEL. Additionally, the analysis of intramolecular forces indicated that the hydrophobic amino acids, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds were favorable for enhancing the interaction and stability of TrSOX secondary structure. This study provides a novel strategy for enhancing the soluble expression of TrSOX in E. coli. PMID:26626227

  7. Development of a Highly Specific IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Bartonella henselae Using Refined N-Lauroyl-Sarcosine-Insoluble Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Kondou, Kaori; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tokuda, Nobuko; Shirasawa, Bungo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    The conventional anti-Bartonella henselaeIgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) methods for diagnosing cat scratch disease (CSD) remain poor in both sensitivity and specificity. We sought to develop an IgM-ELISA with improved accuracy in the serodiagnosis of CSD by exploring the antigens that are most suitable for an ELISA. We prepared 5 different protein antigens: antigen I (sonicatedB. henselaewhole-cell antigen), antigen II (N-lauroyl-sarcosine-insoluble antigen), antigen III (processed sarcosine-soluble antigen), and antigen IV and antigen V (sarcosine-insoluble and sarcosine-soluble antigens refined by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography). The IgM antibodies in the sera of 47 patients with clinically suspected CSD (24 definite, 23 suspected) and of 85 healthy individuals were examined by ELISAs using the 5 antigens, and the results were compared with those of an IgM indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IgM-IFA). In a reference panel, which consisted of 5 positive and 5 negative sera, antigen I and antigen III failed to distinguish between the two statuses, whereas the other three antigens succeeded in distinguishing between them. When the cutoff value was set at the 98th percentile of the ELISA index for healthy individuals, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA for the 24 cases of definite CSD was 54%, whereas the sensitivities of the IgM-ELISAs with antigen II, IV, and V were 75%, 83%, and 75%, respectively. The sensitivities of these three IgM-ELISAs for all 47 of the clinically suspected cases were 49%, 64%, and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA was 28%. These results indicate that the refined sarcosine-insoluble proteins (antigen IV), which possessed the highest specificity among the 5 antigens, are the most appropriate for developing an IgM-ELISA for the highly specific serodiagnosis of CSD. PMID:26865692

  8. Supplementation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine – GlyT1 inhibitor – causes changes of glutamatergic (1)NMR spectroscopy parameters in the left hippocampus in patients with stable schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Podgórski, Michał; Kałużyńska, Olga; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka; Grzelak, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system of the brain, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory and cognitive functions and rich in glutamatergic neurons, is a natural object of interest in studies on psychoses. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter (GlyT-1) inhibitor influences the function of NMDA receptor and glutamate-dependent transmission. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of sarcosine on metabolism parameters in the left hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia. Assessments were performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy (1.5T). Fifty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), with dominant negative symptoms, in stable clinical condition and stable antipsychotics doses were treated either with sarcosine (n=25) or placebo (n=25). Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated within groups and between two groups before and after 6-month intervention. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In the sarcosine group, after 6-month treatment, we found significant decrease in hippocampal Glx/Cr (Glx-complex of glutamate, glutamine and GABA, Cr-creatine) and Glx/Cho (Cho-choline), while N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), Cr and Cho parameters remained stable along the study and also did not differ significantly between both groups. This is the first study showing that a pharmacological intervention in schizophrenia, particularly augmentation of the antypsychotic treatment with sarcosine, may reverse the pathological increase in glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus. The results confirm involvement of glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and demonstrate beneficial effects of GlyT-1 inhibitor on the metabolism in the hippocampus and symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26306650

  9. Creatine is a scavenger for methylglyoxal under physiological conditions via formation of N-(4-methyl-5-oxo-1-imidazolin-2-yl)sarcosine (MG-HCr).

    PubMed

    Löbner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Following incubation of methylglyoxal and creatine under physiological conditions, N-(4-methyl-5-oxo-1-imidazolin-2-yl)sarcosine (MG-HCr) was isolated and identified by NMR and mass spectrometry. Due to its rapid formation, MG-HCr represents a specific product following "scavenging" of methylglyoxal by creatine. Using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, MG-HCr was analyzed in urine samples of healthy volunteers. Daily MG-HCr excretion of nonvegetarians ranged from 0.35 to 3.84 μmol/24 h urine (median: 0.90 μmol/24 h urine) and of vegetarians from 0.11 to 0.31 μmol/24 h urine (median: 0.19 μmol/24 h urine), indicating that formation of MG-HCr in vivo is influenced by the dietary intake of creatine. The trapping of methylglyoxal by creatine may delay the formation of advanced glycation compounds in vivo and, therefore, could be of special importance in situations in which the body has to deal with pathophysiologically increased amounts of dicarbonyl compounds ("carbonyl stress"), for instance in diabetic patients. PMID:25655840

  10. The sprout inhibitor 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene induces the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors KRP1 and KRP2 in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suppression of sprout growth is critical for the long-term storage of potato tubers. 1,4-dimethylenapthlene (DMN) is a new class of sprout control agent but the metabolic mode of action for this compound has yet to be elucidated. Changes in transcriptional profiles of potato tubers treated with ...

  11. Promoting Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  12. Promoting Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechanic, David

    1990-01-01

    Argues that culture change or modification of the social structure is necessary for effective health promotion because health behavior is closely tied to basic group structures and processes. Examines the health attitudes of Mormons, low income and minority groups, and developing Islamic nations, emphasizing attitudes towards education and women.…

  13. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  14. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice. PMID:18372870

  15. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  16. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the...

  17. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  18. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  19. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  20. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  1. Act To Promote Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

  2. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  3. Health Promotion Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…

  4. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  5. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  6. 50 Practical Promotion Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeyski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)

  7. Homeopathy: promotion versus evidence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2006-01-01

    Homeopathy is a biologically implausible form of treatment. The best clinical evidence available to date fails to support its effectiveness. Nevertheless, it is gaining in popularity. One reason for this is that, at least in the UK, it is being promoted by influential people. PMID:19442345

  8. Pseudorevertants of a lac promoter mutation reveal overlapping nascent promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Karls, R; Schulz, V; Jovanovich, S B; Flynn, S; Pak, A; Reznikoff, W S

    1989-01-01

    Four pseudorevertants of a -10 region lacP mutation were isolated. Three of these mutations were found to activate nascent promoters. These mutations were: a -2 G/C----A/T change (-2A) promoting transcription at position +11, a +1 A/T----T/A change (+1T) promoting transcription initiation at position +13, and a +10 C/G----A/T change (+10A) promoting transcription initiation at a complex series of positions. The fourth mutation [a -12 T/A----A/T change (-12A)] promotes transcription initiation at -1. The promoters activated by mutations -12A, -2A and +1T resembled the canonical sigma 70 promoter sequences. The +10A promoter activity is also dependent upon the sigma 70 holoenzyme but can not be readily assigned to a specific promoter sequence. Images PMID:2499870

  9. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  10. Human Promoters Are Intrinsically Directional

    PubMed Central

    Duttke, Sascha H.C.; Lacadie, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Glass, Christopher K.; Corcoran, David L.; Benner, Christopher; Heinz, Sven; Kadonaga, James T.; Ohler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Divergent transcription, in which reverse-oriented transcripts occur upstream of eukaryotic promoters in regions devoid of annotated genes, has been suggested to be a general property of active promoters. Here we show that the human basal RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and core promoter are inherently unidirectional, and that reverse-oriented transcripts originate from their own cognate reverse-directed core promoters. In vitro transcription analysis and mapping of nascent transcripts in cells revealed that sequences at reverse start sites are similar to those of their forward counterparts. The use of DNase I accessibility to define proximal promoter borders revealed that up to half of promoters are unidirectional and that unidirectional promoters are depleted at their upstream edges of reverse core promoter sequences and their associated chromatin features. Divergent transcription is thus not an inherent property of the transcription process, but rather the consequence of the presence of both forward- and reverse-directed core promoters. PMID:25639469

  11. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences. PMID:12336781

  12. Promoter propagation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Matus-Garcia, Mariana; Nijveen, Harm; van Passel, Mark W J

    2012-11-01

    Transcriptional activation or 'rewiring' of silent genes is an important, yet poorly understood, phenomenon in prokaryotic genomes. Anecdotal evidence coming from experimental evolution studies in bacterial systems has shown the promptness of adaptation upon appropriate selective pressure. In many cases, a partial or complete promoter is mobilized to silent genes from elsewhere in the genome. We term hereafter such recruited regulatory sequences as Putative Mobile Promoters (PMPs) and we hypothesize they have a large impact on rapid adaptation of novel or cryptic functions. Querying all publicly available prokaryotic genomes (1362) uncovered >4000 families of highly conserved PMPs (50 to 100 long with ≥80% nt identity) in 1043 genomes from 424 different genera. The genomes with the largest number of PMP families are Anabaena variabilis (28 families), Geobacter uraniireducens (27 families) and Cyanothece PCC7424 (25 families). Family size varied from 2 to 93 homologous promoters (in Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus). Some PMPs are present in particular species, but some are conserved across distant genera. The identified PMPs represent a conservative dataset of very recent or conserved events of mobilization of non-coding DNA and thus they constitute evidence of an extensive reservoir of recyclable regulatory sequences for rapid transcriptional rewiring. PMID:22933716

  13. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  14. Promoter occlusion: transcription through a promoter may inhibit its activity.

    PubMed

    Adhya, S; Gottesman, M

    1982-07-01

    Induction of prophage lambda inhibits the expression of the gal operon from its cognate promoters. The effect is observed only in cis, and is due to frequent transcription of the gal promoter region by RNA polymerase molecules initiating upstream at the prophage PL promoter. The frequency of transcription initiation at PL is some 30 times greater than that at the gal promoter, Pg1. PL is one of the strongest procaryotic promoters. This "promoter occlusion" is essentially complete when the distance between gal and PL is small (less than or equal to 10 kb); and when PL is fully active (that is, in the absence of the cl or cro repressors). We discuss the possibility that promoter occlusion at two lambda promoters, Pint and PR', might play a role in the sequential expression of viral functions. PMID:6217898

  15. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  16. Promoting women's health.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    1991-01-01

    The male-dominated medical establishment continues to make health promotion policies for women. Women must have access to a more accurate information base about women's health and the link between their health and socioeconomic roles. They must be full partners in formulating and implementing health promotion strategies. Yet, such a database does not exist due to systemic bias in research. For example, research shows alcoholism affects men and women differently, but prevention and treatment strategies and evaluation of their outcomes do not take this into account. Further, men do not understand subjective aspects of female conditions. In addition, even though women provide most care in our society, health promotion policies do not incorporate their knowledge. Moreover, care of the sick can damage the health of the care giver. Statistics on women's health are lacking, e.g., exhaustion and depression as consequences of child care and housework, especially among poor women. Developed countries continue to use maternal mortality as a means of measuring reproductive hazard, but maternal death is a rarity. In fact, a reproductive mortality rate would be more applicable, which would include deaths from abortions, pregnancy, and contraception. Besides, birth control has real disadvantages, e.g., a painful medical procedure is needed to insert IUDs and they increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Paid employment has positive and negative effects depending on whether women are alone or have a partner and have children, their income, and educational level. Women in industry face considerable health hazards, e.g., textile workers at increased risk of several lung diseases. Appropriate expenditure on health and social services and sound economic policies at the central level will benefit women's health. Besides, when society values and supports all aspects of women's work and roles, women's health will achieve its potential. PMID:1817541

  17. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  18. TUMOR PROMOTION IN RAT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An initiation promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTase)-positive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-promoting activity of phe...

  19. TAp73 promotes anabolism

    PubMed Central

    Amelio, Ivano; Antonov, Alexey A.; Catani, Maria Valeria; Massoud, Renato; Bernassola, Francesca; Knight, Richard A.; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic adaptation has emerged as a hallmark of cancer and a promising therapeutic target, as rapidly proliferating cancer cells adapt their metabolism increasing nutrient uptake and reorganizing metabolic fluxes to support biosynthesis. The transcription factor p73 belongs to the p53-family and regulates tumorigenesis via its two N-terminal isoforms, with (TAp73) or without (ΔNp73) a transactivation domain. TAp73 acts as tumor suppressor, at least partially through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and through regulation of genomic stability. Here, we sought to investigate whether TAp73 also affects metabolic profiling of cancer cells. Using high throughput metabolomics, we unveil a thorough and unexpected role for TAp73 in promoting Warburg effect and cellular metabolism. TAp73-expressing cells show increased rate of glycolysis, higher amino acid uptake and increased levels and biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA. Moreover, we report an extensive TAp73-mediated upregulation of several anabolic pathways including polyamine and synthesis of membrane phospholipids. TAp73 expression also increases cellular methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), possibly influencing methylation and epigenetics, and promotes arginine metabolism, suggestive of a role in extracellular matrix (ECM) modeling. In summary, our data indicate that TAp73 regulates multiple metabolic pathways that impinge on numerous cellular functions, but that, overall, converge to sustain cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25514460

  20. Tryptophan promotes charitable donating

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between serotonin (5-HT) and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP), the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others. PMID:25566132

  1. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  3. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  4. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion..., including domestic and international markets, and to stimulate sales of peanuts....

  7. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Shalvi, Shaul; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2011-01-25

    Human ethnocentrism--the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups--creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. Experiments 1 and 2 used the Implicit Association Test to assess in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Experiment 3 used the infrahumanization task to assess the extent to which humans ascribe secondary, uniquely human emotions to their in-group and to an out-group. Experiments 4 and 5 confronted participants with the option to save the life of a larger collective by sacrificing one individual, nominated as in-group or as out-group. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate "love drug" or "cuddle chemical" and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence. PMID:21220339

  8. Environmental Health Promotion: Bridging Traditional Environmental Health and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…

  9. Health-promoting schools: an opportunity for oral health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159

  10. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  11. Health promotion: awarding good practice.

    PubMed

    Davison, Heather; Griffiths, John

    2010-05-01

    Dr Heather Davison, Director of Development at the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH), and John Griffiths, Programme Manager for the Health-Promoting Workforce, provide an overview of the RSPH's Health-Promoting Organization Awards--highlighting the achievements of the 2009 winners while learning for the future. PMID:20642127

  12. Promoting Creativity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…

  13. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  14. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  15. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed. PMID:14748317

  16. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  17. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  18. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising, sales... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1206.17 Section 1206.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion...

  2. Regulation of Rad51 promoter.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher M; Li, Hongjie; Xie, Li; Mao, Zhiyong; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination protein Rad51 is overexpressed in the majority of human cancers. This correlates with therapy resistance and decreased patient survival. We previously showed that constructs containing Rad51 promoter fused to a reporter gene are, on average, 850-fold more active in cancer cells than in normal cells. It is not well understood what factors and sequences regulate the Rad51 promoter and cause its high activity in cancerous cells. Here we characterized regulatory regions and examined genetic requirements for oncogenic stimulation of the Rad51 promoter. We identified specific regions responsible for up- and downregulation of the Rad51 promoter in cancerous cells. Furthermore, we show that Rad51 expression is positively regulated by EGR1 transcription factor. We then modeled the malignant transformation process by expressing a set of oncoproteins in normal human fibroblasts. Expression of different combinations of SV40 large T antigen, oncogenic Ras and SV40 small T antigen resulted in step-wise increase in Rad51 promoter activity, with all the 3 oncoproteins together leading to a 47-fold increase in expression. Cumulatively, these results suggest that Rad51 promoter is regulated by multiple factors, and that its expression is gradually activated as cells progress toward malignancy. PMID:24781030

  3. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally....

  4. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally....

  5. Creating and Promoting a Natural History Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belben, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the value of developing and promoting a natural history library by school library media specialists. Topics include benefits to students; promoting outdoor education; recommended reading for high school students; using technology; and other aids to promote outdoor education. (LRW)

  6. Health promotion: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I

    1986-01-01

    The first part of this paper reviews the work of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe undertaken to clarify the relevance of health promotion for all member states and regions. This work led to a definition of "health" as the ability to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health promotion was considered to 1) involve the population as a whole in the context of everyday lives, 2) be directed towards action on the determinants of health, 3) combine diverse but complementary methods or approaches, 4) aim for effective and concrete public participation, and 5) involve health professionals. Areas covered by health promotion activities include 1) access to health, 2) development of an environment conductive to health, 3) strengthening of social networks and social supports, 4) promoting positive health behavior and appropriate coping strategies, and 5) increasing knowledge and disseminating information. The next section of the paper traces the development of the concept of health promotion from its roots in health education, and the third section presents a brief history of public health to contextualize this development. The differences between the old and new approaches to public health are presented (the new role of the health sector is to ensure access to health, create advocacy for health, and move beyond health care through intersectoral action and public participation), and the new "forcefield" of public health that emerges from a conceptualization of health promotion is described. This forcefield, illustrated as a triangle linking healthy public policy, health promotion, and community action, works at all levels and is the framework for the development of appropriate strategies. It is concluded that in many cases public health will have to be reorganized as will the health care system as a whole. Health must be viewed as a social project linked to political responsibilities not as a medical

  7. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  8. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  9. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  10. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  11. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  12. DNA signals at isoform promoters

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional heterogeneity is extensive in the genome, and most genes express variable transcript isoforms. However, whether variable transcript isoforms of one gene are regulated by common promoter elements remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isoform promoters of one gene have separated DNA signals for transcription and translation initiation. We found that TATA box and nucleosome-disfavored DNA sequences are prevalent in distinct transcript isoform promoters of one gene. These DNA signals are conserved among species. Transcript isoform has a RNA-determined unstructured region around its start site. We found that these DNA/RNA features facilitate isoform transcription and translation. These results suggest a DNA-encoded mechanism by which transcript isoform is generated. PMID:27353836

  13. DNA signals at isoform promoters.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional heterogeneity is extensive in the genome, and most genes express variable transcript isoforms. However, whether variable transcript isoforms of one gene are regulated by common promoter elements remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isoform promoters of one gene have separated DNA signals for transcription and translation initiation. We found that TATA box and nucleosome-disfavored DNA sequences are prevalent in distinct transcript isoform promoters of one gene. These DNA signals are conserved among species. Transcript isoform has a RNA-determined unstructured region around its start site. We found that these DNA/RNA features facilitate isoform transcription and translation. These results suggest a DNA-encoded mechanism by which transcript isoform is generated. PMID:27353836

  14. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 2: Health Promotion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…

  15. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  16. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  17. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  19. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  20. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  5. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  6. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  9. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  10. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  11. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  12. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  17. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  18. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  19. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion....

  2. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  3. When Promoting Democracy Is Counterproductive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esfandiari, Haleh; Litwak, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    The United States has begun a $75-million program to promote democracy by supporting Iranian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). That program, coupled with loose talk about regime change from members of Congress, commentators close to the administration, and individuals within the administration, has fed a sense of vulnerability and paranoia…

  4. Health Promotion: A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert, Ed.; Kickbusch, Ilona, Ed.

    Health promotion redirects thinking about health by: reasserting its social and political aspects; ensuring the people the power to define their own health concerns; and placing health more clearly in the context of other aims in life. This compilation of 41 articles in 8 sections attempts to document this process of redirection of thought. The…

  5. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  6. Promoting Metacognition in Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol W.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…

  7. Promoting Community Cohesion in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew B.; McDaid, Maggie; Potter, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Following serious disturbances in some northern cities in England in 2001, concerns about possible rising inter-communal tension have led to a statutory duty to promote community cohesion being placed on schools. Inspectors from the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) are required to make judgements in the leadership and management section…

  8. Promoting local management in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  9. Promoting Effective Communications with Paraeducators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Anna Lou; And Others

    This conference presentation on promoting effective communications with paraeducators working in special education consists of 13 distinct text items. The items deal with: (1) definition of paraeducators and the roles of teachers in working with paraeducators in inclusive classrooms; (2) the importance of teacher-paraeducator communication; (3)…

  10. Promoting Diversity in Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Oscar C.

    2003-01-01

    The challenge every college, university, and state higher education coordinating board has is changing demographics. In most states, minorities are becoming majorities, and the importance of gaining an understanding of other cultures becomes much more evident. To promote diversity in academic leadership, educators must recognize that the college…

  11. Promoting Intellectual Growth in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2002-01-01

    Article discusses problems associated with promoting intellectual growth in adulthood. Defines characteristics of intelligent behavior as incorporating individual attainment of Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (RICH). Presents the RICH theory as a way to define and address the goals of intelligent enhancement. (JDM)

  12. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  13. Promoting a Lifetime of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzaglia, Adelle; Karvonen, Meagan; Drasgow, Erik; Stoxen, Craig C.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote inclusion for individuals with severe disabilities first establishes the principle of normalization, then describes conditions and practices that reflect this principle and foster inclusion across the life span. These include universal design, person-centered planning, self-determination, and positive behavior…

  14. Mutual Benefits in Promoting Bequests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Charles W., III

    1979-01-01

    Encouragement of wills and bequests is the backbone of a good planned giving program. Methods of promotion, types of will gifts, tax aspects, identification of potential donors, a simple bequest program, program evaluation, and the need for continuity and patience are discussed. (MLW)

  15. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  16. Promoting Discussions in ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers who work with English as a Second Language (ESL) students, struggle with promoting discussion during guided reading. When ESL students are asked comprehension questions during group discussions and throughout the reading of a book, often teachers receive minimal feedback. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify…

  17. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  18. Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda

    2015-01-01

    Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…

  19. Promoting Education among TANF Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marie

    1998-01-01

    This document examines issues related to promoting education among teenage recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The document begins with background information about the provisions of recent federal legislation affecting TANF recipients under age 20. The following are among the 16 policy and management issues considered in…

  20. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  1. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbihl, R.

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  2. Promoting the exotic pet practice.

    PubMed

    Harris, Don J

    2005-09-01

    The marketing and promotion of an exotic pet veterinary practice allows the use of strategies that are not necessarily available in other veterinary disciplines. The advantage that an exotics practice enjoys is that it is able to capitalize not only on the unique nature of the species being attended but also on the specialized features of the hospital itself that make it specifically appropriate in caring for exotic pets. Before marketing, however, comes the responsibility that the practice live up to the claims made in promotional materials. A practice cannot ethically be presented as an "exotics" practice if it is nothing more than a dog and cat facility that is willing to attend to exotic pets. It is the competence of the veterinary staff and the appropriateness of the facility that determines the suitability of the practice for exotics management. PMID:16129354

  3. Engineered Promoters for Potent Transient Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Ideses, Diana; Tikotzki, Ravid; Shir-Shapira, Hila; Shefi, Orit; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    The core promoter, which is generally defined as the region to which RNA Polymerase II is recruited to initiate transcription, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression. The core promoter consists of different combinations of several short DNA sequences, termed core promoter elements or motifs, which confer specific functional properties to each promoter. Earlier studies that examined the ability to modulate gene expression levels via the core promoter, led to the design of strong synthetic core promoters, which combine different core elements into a single core promoter. Here, we designed a new core promoter, termed super core promoter 3 (SCP3), which combines four core promoter elements (the TATA box, Inr, MTE and DPE) into a single promoter that drives prolonged and potent gene expression. We analyzed the effect of core promoter architecture on the temporal dynamics of reporter gene expression by engineering EGFP expression vectors that are driven by distinct core promoters. We used live cell imaging and flow cytometric analyses in different human cell lines to demonstrate that SCPs, particularly the novel SCP3, drive unusually strong long-term EGFP expression. Importantly, this is the first demonstration of long-term expression in transiently transfected mammalian cells, indicating that engineered core promoters can provide a novel non-viral strategy for biotechnological as well as gene-therapy-related applications that require potent expression for extended time periods. PMID:26872062

  4. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region. PMID:18372876

  5. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part. PMID:8244725

  6. [Health promotion and communication strategy].

    PubMed

    Moreau, D

    2000-03-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the evolution of knowledge in health communication. Theorists suggest interesting solutions to improve messages related to health, but practitioners are asking for the means to put them to use. In health communication, then, efforts must be made to apply theory to practice. Nurses, working with other professionals, should be encouraged to engage in research aimed at improving communication strategies in health promotion. Interdisciplinary co-operation is key. PMID:11143661

  7. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  8. Physical characteristics in eucaryotic promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Bensimhon, M; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Ehrlich, R; Reiss, C

    1983-01-01

    For a series of wild type and mutated eucaryotic gene prelude sequences (mainly "promoters" of SV40 early gene (Benoist and Chambon, Nature 290, 304 (1981); Moreau et al., Nuc. Acids Res. 9, 6047 (1982)) and of Herpes Simplex Virus TK gene (McKnight and Kingsbury, Science 217, 316 (1982)), in vivo promoter activity and local stability (denaturability) have been correlated. In agreement with the conclusions drawn in these papers, the correlation points to three major eucaryotic promoter elements and loci: (i) enzyme enabling by an enhancer sequence; SV40 and Moloney Sarcoma Virus enhancers have a striking stability homology; (ii) enzyme activation, occurring 50-70 b.p. upstream the cap site in a high stability domain; the enzyme apparently deactivates exponentially upon moving away to trap site; (iii) enzyme positioning at trap site, 30 +/- 5 b.p. upstream the cap site. The trap site contains the TATA box, or, when absent, other low stability domains downstream the activator. The number and occupancy of cap sites may depend on the stability and size of the trap site-cap site couple and its distance from the activator. PMID:6306592

  9. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  10. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  11. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  12. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  13. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising....

  14. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  15. Promoting spiritual health in home healthcare.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston

    2008-06-01

    This article explores how clinicians can promote patient and family caregiver spiritual health. After a review of pertinent theory and research, clinical implications are identified, including appropriate goals for clinicians with regard to spiritual health promotion. PMID:18562823

  16. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  19. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  20. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... action, including paid advertising and public relations that presents a favorable image for honey...

  1. Health promotion capacity mapping: the Korean situation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eun Woo; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2007-06-01

    Ten years ago the Republic of Korea enacted the National Health Promotion Act, setting the stage for health promotion action in the country. A National Health Promotion Fund was established, financed through tobacco taxes, which is now one of the largest in the world. However, despite abundant financial resources, the infrastructure needed to plan, implement, coordinate and evaluate health promotion efforts is still underdeveloped. Currently, health promotion capacity mapping efforts are emerging in Korea. Two international capacity mapping tools have been used to assess the Korean situation, namely HP-Source and the Health Promotion Capacity Profile, which was developed prior to the sixth Global Conference of Health Promotion, held in August 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand. The article summarizes and discusses the results of the capacity mapping exercise, highlights its challenges and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of health promotion capacity mapping. PMID:17341492

  2. 7 CFR 1208.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... raspberries to the general public and the food industry for the purpose of improving the competitive...

  3. 7 CFR 1208.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... raspberries to the general public and the food industry for the purpose of improving the competitive...

  4. Nodal Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Tanya; Ye, Gang; Liang, Yao-Yun; Fu, Guodong; Xu, Guoxiong; Peng, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Nodal is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Recent studies in ovarian, breast, prostate, and skin cancer cells suggest that Nodal also regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in cancer cells. However, it appears to exert both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting effects, depending on the cell type. To further understand the role of Nodal in tumorigenesis, we examined the effect of Nodal in glioblastoma cell growth and spheroid formation using U87 cell line. Treatment of U87 with recombinant Nodal significantly increased U87 cell growth. In U87 cells stably transfected with the plasmid encoding Nodal, Smad2 phosphorylation was strongly induced and cell growth was significantly enhanced. Overexpression of Nodal also resulted in tight spheroid formation. On the other hand, the cells stably transfected with Nodal siRNA formed loose spheroids. Nodal is known to signal through activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) and ALK7 and the Smad2/3 pathway. To determine which receptor and Smad mediate the growth promoting effect of Nodal, we transfected siRNAs targeting ALK4, ALK7, Smad2, or Smad3 into Nodal-overexpressing cells and observed that cell growth was significantly inhibited by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3 siRNAs. Taken together, these findings suggest that Nodal may have tumor-promoting effects on glioblastoma cells and these effects are mediated by ALK4, ALK7, and Smad3. PMID:22645523

  5. Natural Selection Promotes Antigenic Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Christopher J.; Ros, Vera I. D.; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes’ that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections

  6. Health promotion through forgiveness intervention.

    PubMed

    Recine, Ann C; Stehle Werner, Joan; Recine, Louis

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer evidence-based forgiveness interventions clinically useful to nurses in holistic health promotion for individuals, families, and communities. Forgiveness interventions are developed and described within four approaches inspired by midrange nursing theorists who have adapted their theories from Bandura's Social Learning Theory and Frankl's Theory of Meaning. Interventions are also assimilated from a comprehensive review of theoretical and research literature. The four interventional approaches include persuasive information, vicarious experience, awareness of physiological reactions, and enactive attainment. Barriers to implementation are discussed as well as ways to individualize the interventions. PMID:19182268

  7. Immune cell promotion of metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Takanori; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the major cause of death from cancer, and immunotherapy and chemotherapy have had limited success in reversing its progression. Data from mouse models suggest that the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells to tumours protects metastatic cancer cells from surveillance by killer cells, which nullifies the effects of immunotherapy and thus establishes metastasis. Furthermore, in most cases, tumour-infiltrating immune cells differentiate into cells that promote each step of the metastatic cascade and thus are novel targets for therapy. In this Review, we describe how tumour-infiltrating immune cells contribute to the metastatic cascade and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies to target these cells. PMID:25614318

  8. Nonpharmacologic techniques for promoting sleep.

    PubMed

    Cole, Roger J

    2005-04-01

    Athletes could benefit from simple, self-administered, nonpharmacologic techniques for promoting sleep onset. A wealth of physiologic evidence and limited clinical data support several potential methods that might be conveniently applied at or near bedtime. These include inverted posture, skin warming/core cooling, motor relaxation, sensory withdrawal/masking, breathing techniques, and cognitive relaxation. Each holds promise as a possible element of a comprehensive sleep management program, but all need further investigation to confirm their efficacy or to determine optimal methods of application. PMID:15892928

  9. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign...

  14. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional material. 33.8... DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source...

  15. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.640 Section 314.640... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being... materials, including promotional labeling as well as advertisements, intended for dissemination...

  16. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.550 Section 314.550... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.550 Promotional materials. For drug products being considered... the agency for consideration during the preapproval review period copies of all promotional...

  17. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  18. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  19. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  20. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  1. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon...

  2. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  3. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  4. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  5. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  6. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1221.23 Section 1221.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23...

  9. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Promotional material. 33.8... DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source...

  10. The epidemiology of drug promotion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M

    1977-01-01

    A survey was conducted on the promotion of 28 prescription drugs in the form of 40 different products marketed in the United States and Latin America by 23 multinational pharmaceutical companies. Striking differences were found in the manner in which the identical drug, marketed by the identical company or its foreign affiliate, was described to physicians in the United States and to physicians in Latin America. In the United States, the listed indications were usually few in number, while the contraindications, warnings, and potential adverse reactions were given in extensive detail. In Latin America, the listed indications were far more numerous, while the hazards were usually minimized, glossed over, or totally ignored. The differences were not simply between the United States on the one hand and all the Latin American countries on the other. There were substantial differences within Latin America, with the same global company telling one story in Mexico, another in Central America, a third in Ecuador and Colombia, and yet another in Brazil. The companies have sought to defend these practices by contending that they are not breaking any Latin American laws. In some countries, however, such promotion is in clear violation of the law. The corporate ethics and social responsibilities concerned here call for examination and action. PMID:856741

  11. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  12. Synthetic promoter design for new microbial chassis

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, James; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    The judicious choice of promoter to drive gene expression remains one of the most important considerations for synthetic biology applications. Constitutive promoter sequences isolated from nature are often used in laboratory settings or small-scale commercial production streams, but unconventional microbial chassis for new synthetic biology applications require well-characterized, robust and orthogonal promoters. This review provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for synthetic promoter discovery and design, including molecular methodologies, such as saturation mutagenesis of flanking regions and mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, as well as the less familiar use of computational and statistical analyses for de novo promoter design. PMID:27284035

  13. Synthetic promoter design for new microbial chassis.

    PubMed

    Gilman, James; Love, John

    2016-06-15

    The judicious choice of promoter to drive gene expression remains one of the most important considerations for synthetic biology applications. Constitutive promoter sequences isolated from nature are often used in laboratory settings or small-scale commercial production streams, but unconventional microbial chassis for new synthetic biology applications require well-characterized, robust and orthogonal promoters. This review provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges for synthetic promoter discovery and design, including molecular methodologies, such as saturation mutagenesis of flanking regions and mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, as well as the less familiar use of computational and statistical analyses for de novo promoter design. PMID:27284035

  14. Health Promotion in Small Business

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Kira; Stinson, Kaylan; Scott, Kenneth; Tenney, Liliana; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence regarding the adoption and efficacy of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) in small businesses. Methods Peer-reviewed research articles were identified from a database search. Included articles were published before July 2013, described a study that used an experimental or quasiexperimental design and either assessed adoption of WHPPs or conducted interventions in businesses with fewer than 500 employees. A review team scored the study’s rigor using the WHO-adapted GRADEprofiler “quality of evidence” criteria. Results Of the 84 retrieved articles, 19 met study inclusion criteria. Of these, only two met criteria for high rigor. Conclusions Fewer small businesses adopt WHPPs compared with large businesses. Two high-rigor studies found that employees were healthier postintervention. Higher quality research is needed to better understand why small businesses rarely adopt wellness programs and to demonstrate the value of such programs. PMID:24905421

  15. Promoting research in rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Steve

    In response to informal discussions at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., a dinner colloquium was held December 5, 1988, in San Francisco. Our purpose was to explore ways of promoting basic research in rock deformation, for which no professional organization exists that spans the full range of research interests. In spite of an informal distribution of announcements of the meeting, 54 people attended.Rock deformation is the materials science of the crystalline and amorphous materials that make up the solid Earth. As such, it includes not only the physical processes responsible for brittle and ductile deformation but also the important chemical processes that influence time-dependent inelastic deformation. Consequently, there is a continuing need to engage interest and collaboration from materials scientists, mineral physicists, metallurgists, surface chemists, and geochemists in the study of the inelastic mechanical behavior of these complex materials.

  16. Towards a relational health promotion.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard. PMID:25080467

  17. Vessel Noise Promotes Hull Fouling.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Wilkens, Serena; McDonald, Justin I; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Fouling of submerged vessel hulls due to the rapid settlement of algae and invertebrates is a longstanding and costly problem. It is widely thought that the presence of extensive vacant surfaces on vessel hulls is responsible for the rapid attachment and growth of biofouling. We investigated whether noise from vessels in port could also be involved in promoting the settlement and growth of common biofouling organisms on vessel hulls. Three important biofouling species exhibited significantly faster development and settlement and better survival when exposed to vessel noise compared with control species. The extent of these responses appeared to vary in relation to the intensity of the vessel noise and may help to explain differences in biofouling observed on vessel hulls. PMID:26611073

  18. Farmers' paintings promote family planning.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Longyan Prefecture in West Fujian has a long and noble tradition of folk painting. The local authorities have made use of all forms of art, including folk painting, to promote the implementation of the family planning program. Folk painters in Longyan Prefecture have fully displayed their talent in producing numerous paintings to increase the population awareness of the public, depict people's keenness to respond to calls by the government for practicing family planning, and show the progress they have made in integrating family planning with economic development in rural areas. Most painters are farmers, while some are grassroots government officials working in towns and townships. They applied this ancient form of art to serving the great cause of controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in the country. Selected paintings were exhibited first in Fujian Province and then in Beijing, and have won several awards. Some of them were shown in Britain, America, Denmark, and the Philippines. PMID:12291692

  19. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  20. Do Online Gossipers Promote Brands?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized. PMID:23276259

  1. Do online gossipers promote brands?

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized. PMID:23276259

  2. Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. Conclusion Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the

  3. Tumor promotion: models and assay systems.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, D J; Yamasaki, H

    1990-01-01

    Tumor promotion is defined operationally from two-stage models of experimental carcinogenesis. It is, therefore, in a strict sense, possible to identify tumor promoters only from such models. The development and use of in vitro two-stage cell transformation assays was a logical extension toward in vitro short-term testing for tumor promoters. Another approach is to apply mechanistic knowledge of the tumor promotion process in developing end points for such assays. In this context, we have been examining the role of blocked gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in tumor promotion, using in vitro and in vivo systems. Many promoters have been shown to block GJIC in vitro; our studies support the idea that inhibition of GJIC does play an important role in the promotion stage of BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation. In animal studies, we have shown that the rat liver tumor promoter phenobarbital can decrease the level of expression of the 32 Kd gap junction protein gene specifically in liver upon systemic exposure in rats. Further examination of the role of GJIC in tumor promotion is indeed warranted. Also, deployment of in vitro GJIC and transformation assay systems should provide useful short-term tests for detecting tumor promoting activity of environmental chemicals. PMID:1973858

  4. Insights into the control of geminiviral promoters.

    PubMed

    Borah, B K; Zarreen, F; Baruah, G; Dasgupta, I

    2016-08-01

    Geminiviruses constitute one of the largest groups of plant viruses, having characteristic twinned geminate particles encapsidating small circular single-stranded DNA molecules. Geminiviral promoters are generally located within the intergenic region, although promoters have also been detected within the genes. Similarly, the geminivirus-associated betasatellite also harbours a promoter element for driving the expression of its only ORF. These regulatory elements of geminiviral and satellite origins have been subject of great interest to develop heterologous gene expression modules. Geminiviral promoter and regulatory elements show a complex regulation that is mediated by several host as well as viral proteins. Here, the structural and functional features of geminiviral and satellite promoters are discussed along with their regulation by plant and viral proteins. Although generalization in many cases is difficult and demands further studies, a pattern is seen to emerge on the regulation of the promoters. PMID:27183330

  5. Analyzing Synthetic Promoters Using Arabidopsis Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Stracke, Ralf; Thiedig, Katharina; Kuhlmann, Melanie; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a transient protoplast co-transfection method that can be used to quantitatively study in vivo the activity and function of promoters and promoter elements (reporters), and their induction or repression by transcription factors (effectors), stresses, hormones, or metabolites. A detailed protocol for carrying out transient co-transfection assays with Arabidopsis At7 protoplasts and calculating the promoter activity is provided. PMID:27557761

  6. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any program utilizing public relations, advertising or other means devoted to educating consumers... demand for fluid milk products. (b) Advertising, which means any advertising or promotion...

  7. Career development resource: promotion to associate professor.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary; Hollands, Celeste

    2012-07-01

    This will most likely be the first time through the promotion and tenure process for the faculty member. The faculty member is responsible for meeting with the department chair and/or division chief on a regular basis to determine if she is on the right time line to successfully achieve promotion to associate professor. A physician will begin seriously preparing her portfolio for promotion to associate professor about 5 to 6 years out of training, at which time she will have some considerable experience running a practice and managing her time. However, the planning process for promotion should begin immediately upon starting the first academic position. PMID:22704714

  8. Safety belt promotion: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G D; Moffit, P B

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide practitioners a rationale and description of selected theoretically based approaches to safety belt promotion. Theory failure is a threat to the integrity and effectiveness of safety belt promotion. The absence of theory driven programs designed to promote safety belt use is a concern of this paper. Six theoretical models from the social and behavioral sciences are reviewed with suggestions for application to promoting safety belt use and include Theory of Reasoned Action, the Health Belief Model, Fear Arousal, Operant Learning, Social Learning Theory, and Diffusion of Innovations. Guidelines for the selection and utilization of theory are discussed. PMID:3276342

  9. Exploiting Nucleotide Composition to Engineer Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Mauceli, Evan; Ernst, Wolfgang; Baumann, Martina; Biagi, Tara; Swofford, Ross; Russell, Pamela; Zody, Michael C.; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Grabherr, Reingard M.

    2011-01-01

    The choice of promoter is a critical step in optimizing the efficiency and stability of recombinant protein production in mammalian cell lines. Artificial promoters that provide stable expression across cell lines and can be designed to the desired strength constitute an alternative to the use of viral promoters. Here, we show how the nucleotide characteristics of highly active human promoters can be modelled via the genome-wide frequency distribution of short motifs: by overlapping motifs that occur infrequently in the genome, we constructed contiguous sequence that is rich in GC and CpGs, both features of known promoters, but lacking homology to real promoters. We show that snippets from this sequence, at 100 base pairs or longer, drive gene expression in vitro in a number of mammalian cells, and are thus candidates for use in protein production. We further show that expression is driven by the general transcription factors TFIIB and TFIID, both being ubiquitously present across cell types, which results in less tissue- and species-specific regulation compared to the viral promoter SV40. We lastly found that the strength of a promoter can be tuned up and down by modulating the counts of GC and CpGs in localized regions. These results constitute a “proof-of-concept” for custom-designing promoters that are suitable for biotechnological and medical applications. PMID:21625601

  10. WHO Health Promotion Glossary: new terms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don

    2006-12-01

    The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community. PMID:16963461

  11. Behavioural medicine in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kopp, M

    1999-01-01

    Behavioural medicine is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field that integrates the physiological and psychosocial aspects of human behaviour and applies them to prevention. In the early stage of chronic non-infectious illnesses of great epidemiological significance the most important risk factors are the reversible psychophysiological regulation disturbances. According to the behavioural medicine model depressive symptomatology, hopelessness, anxiety, non-adaptive ways of coping, dysfunctional attitudes are common risk factors in the background of self-destructive behavioural disturbances, such as smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and suicidal behaviour. The basic link between physiological and psychological phenomena is the decision making process, the cognitive appraisal, evaluation of the given situation, which is very subjective and depends on the socialization process. The modern civilised way of life continuously creates situations in which we experience loss of control, and therefore the psychological and physiological balance can only be obtained with great difficulty. Especially under conditions of sudden cultural and socioeconomic transition strengthening adaptive ways of coping and preventing emotional disturbances are fundamental in health promotion. PMID:10943647

  12. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  13. Can hospital promotional activities be more ethical?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Xie, Qiong; Shao, Zhexin

    2014-01-01

    At present, there exist a lot of violations of medical ethics in advertising and promotional activities, which have been infringing the rights of patients. Therefore, the ethical criteria should be established as soon as possible to regulate the hospital promotional activities, to regain the trust of people. PMID:24948998

  14. Promotion to Middle Management: Some Practitioners' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Campbell, Felicity

    2003-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with head teachers, department heads, and middle managers in British primary, secondary, and special schools (4 of each school) regarding teacher promotion to middle management. Head teachers considered excellent practice a promotion requirement. Teachers were interested in middle management in order to influence teaching…

  15. Promoting people's health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, P

    1998-01-01

    Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education. PMID:12349582

  16. Marketing and Promotion of Library Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Julie

    As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library services. This paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources. It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising the profile of the library.

  17. Promoting Tech Schools within Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a number of promotional events and practices that the author's school engages in. The author hopes that his school's experiences will serve as an inspiration and useful model for other "Tech Directions" readers. There are many methods for successfully promoting one's tech program. Two key strategies are: (1) Connect in…

  18. Promoting Transformative Learning through Reading Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggan, Chad; Cranton, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report on research into the role of fiction in promoting transformative learning in higher education settings. Participants were 131 undergraduate and graduate students from two universities in the United States. To determine the type of learning promoted by reading fiction, we performed qualitative analyses on participants'…

  19. A Liberal Arts Health Promotion Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a university campus health promotion program that also trained family practice residents in health promotion skills. The core course emphasized stress management, aerobic conditioning, interpersonal relationship skills, and nutrition. Pre- and posttesting indicated most respondents believed the course had some lasting effect on their…

  20. Linking Core Promoter Classes to Circadian Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, Pål O.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in transcription are generated by rhythmic abundances and DNA binding activities of transcription factors. Propagation of rhythms to transcriptional initiation involves the core promoter, its chromatin state, and the basal transcription machinery. Here, I characterize core promoters and chromatin states of genes transcribed in a circadian manner in mouse liver and in Drosophila. It is shown that the core promoter is a critical determinant of circadian mRNA expression in both species. A distinct core promoter class, strong circadian promoters (SCPs), is identified in mouse liver but not Drosophila. SCPs are defined by specific core promoter features, and are shown to drive circadian transcriptional activities with both high averages and high amplitudes. Data analysis and mathematical modeling further provided evidence for rhythmic regulation of both polymerase II recruitment and pause release at SCPs. The analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic view of core promoters and their link to circadian mRNA expression in mouse and Drosophila, and thus reveals a crucial role for the core promoter in regulated, dynamic transcription. PMID:27504829

  1. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  2. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  3. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  4. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to...

  5. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  6. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  7. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  8. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  9. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  10. Composing a Tumor Specific Bacterial Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Deyneko, Igor V.; Kasnitz, Nadine; Leschner, Sara; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Systemically applied Salmonella enterica spp. have been shown to invade and colonize neoplastic tissues where it retards the growth of many tumors. This offers the possibility to use the bacteria as a vehicle for the tumor specific delivery of therapeutic molecules. Specificity of such delivery is solely depending on promoter sequences that control the production of a target molecule. We have established the functional structure of bacterial promoters that are transcriptionally active exclusively in tumor tissues after systemic application. We observed that the specific transcriptional activation is accomplished by a combination of a weak basal promoter and a strong FNR binding site. This represents a minimal set of control elements required for such activation. In natural promoters, additional DNA remodeling elements are found that alter the level of transcription quantitatively. Inefficiency of the basal promoter ensures the absence of transcription outside tumors. As a proof of concept, we compiled an artificial promoter sequence from individual motifs representing FNR and basal promoter and showed specific activation in a tumor microenvironment. Our results open possibilities for the generation of promoters with an adjusted level of expression of target proteins in particular for applications in bacterial tumor therapy. PMID:27171245

  11. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  12. Linking Core Promoter Classes to Circadian Transcription.

    PubMed

    Westermark, Pål O

    2016-08-01

    Circadian rhythms in transcription are generated by rhythmic abundances and DNA binding activities of transcription factors. Propagation of rhythms to transcriptional initiation involves the core promoter, its chromatin state, and the basal transcription machinery. Here, I characterize core promoters and chromatin states of genes transcribed in a circadian manner in mouse liver and in Drosophila. It is shown that the core promoter is a critical determinant of circadian mRNA expression in both species. A distinct core promoter class, strong circadian promoters (SCPs), is identified in mouse liver but not Drosophila. SCPs are defined by specific core promoter features, and are shown to drive circadian transcriptional activities with both high averages and high amplitudes. Data analysis and mathematical modeling further provided evidence for rhythmic regulation of both polymerase II recruitment and pause release at SCPs. The analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic view of core promoters and their link to circadian mRNA expression in mouse and Drosophila, and thus reveals a crucial role for the core promoter in regulated, dynamic transcription. PMID:27504829

  13. 77 FR 26413 - Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... HOUSE, May 1, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-10968 Filed 5-3-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ...;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012 Promoting International... United States of America, and in order to promote international regulatory cooperation, it is...

  14. Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence Network (PREVNet) involves Canadian researchers and national organizations working to promote healthy relationships and prevent bullying. In this paper, we provide the rationale for establishing PREVNet, a description of the work of the network, and an assessment of the success of PREVNet.…

  15. School Worksite Health Promotion: An Interdependent Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Danny J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined the relationship between social support, barriers, locus of control, and involvement of school health promotion team members in school health promotion activities. Subjects perceived greater support for implementing CPR/first aid, alcohol/drug programs, and speeches on health topics and lower support for healthy snacks, advisory groups,…

  16. Effective Promotion in a Greater Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, J. Terence

    Community colleges offering or contemplating offering television-based courses will be successful in promotional efforts if the fundamental, philosophical purpose is built upon a need for expanding current educational services to a population thus far unaffected by on-campus programs. Efforts in promoting television courses should be made so that…

  17. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to consumers coupons which are redeemable at a retail...

  18. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  19. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  20. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  1. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception...

  2. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use...

  3. Promoting Learning. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Kate

    This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…

  4. Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes. Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure. PMID:24401081

  5. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  6. Health-Promoting Behaviours in Conservatoire Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutz, Gunter; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on health-promoting behaviours in students from two conservatoires, the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM, Manchester, UK; n =199) and the Royal College of Music (RCM, London, UK; n = 74). The research questions concern (a) the levels and types of health-promoting behaviours among performance students and (b) the association…

  7. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars. PMID:10113338

  8. Transcription Factor Binding Site Positioning in Yeast: Proximal Promoter Motifs Characterize TATA-Less Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Ionas; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The availability of sequence specificities for a substantial fraction of yeast's transcription factors and comparative genomic algorithms for binding site prediction has made it possible to comprehensively annotate transcription factor binding sites genome-wide. Here we use such a genome-wide annotation for comprehensively studying promoter architecture in yeast, focusing on the distribution of transcription factor binding sites relative to transcription start sites, and the architecture of TATA and TATA-less promoters. For most transcription factors, binding sites are positioned further upstream and vary over a wider range in TATA promoters than in TATA-less promoters. In contrast, a group of ‘proximal promoter motifs’ (GAT1/GLN3/DAL80, FKH1/2, PBF1/2, RPN4, NDT80, and ROX1) occur preferentially in TATA-less promoters and show a strong preference for binding close to the transcription start site in these promoters. We provide evidence that suggests that pre-initiation complexes are recruited at TATA sites in TATA promoters and at the sites of the other proximal promoter motifs in TATA-less promoters. TATA-less promoters can generally be classified by the proximal promoter motif they contain, with different classes of TATA-less promoters showing different patterns of transcription factor binding site positioning and nucleosome coverage. These observations suggest that different modes of regulation of transcription initiation may be operating in the different promoter classes. In addition we show that, across all promoter classes, there is a close match between nucleosome free regions and regions of highest transcription factor binding site density. This close agreement between transcription factor binding site density and nucleosome depletion suggests a direct and general competition between transcription factors and nucleosomes for binding to promoters. PMID:21931670

  9. Promoter architectures and developmental gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Vanja; Lenhard, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Core promoters are minimal regions sufficient to direct accurate initiation of transcription and are crucial for regulation of gene expression. They are highly diverse in terms of associated core promoter motifs, underlying sequence composition and patterns of transcription initiation. Distinctive features of promoters are also seen at the chromatin level, including nucleosome positioning patterns and presence of specific histone modifications. Recent advances in identifying and characterizing promoters using next-generation sequencing-based technologies have provided the basis for their classification into functional groups and have shed light on their modes of regulation, with important implications for transcriptional regulation in development. This review discusses the methodology and the results of genome-wide studies that provided insight into the diversity of RNA polymerase II promoter architectures in vertebrates and other Metazoa, and the association of these architectures with distinct modes of regulation in embryonic development and differentiation. PMID:26783721

  10. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  11. Synthetic promoter libraries for Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Rytter, Jakob Vang; Helmark, Søren; Chen, Jun; Lezyk, Mateusz Jakub; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-03-01

    The ability to modulate gene expression is an important genetic tool in systems biology and biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate that a previously published easy and fast PCR-based method for modulating gene expression in lactic acid bacteria is also applicable to Corynebacterium glutamicum. We constructed constitutive promoter libraries based on various combinations of a previously reported C. glutamicum -10 consensus sequence (gngnTA(c/t)aaTgg) and the Escherichia coli -35 consensus, either with or without an AT-rich region upstream. A promoter library based on consensus sequences frequently found in low-GC Gram-positive microorganisms was also included. The strongest promoters were found in the library with a -35 region and a C. glutamicum -10 consensus, and this library also represents the largest activity span. Using the alternative -10 consensus TATAAT, which can be found in many other prokaryotes, resulted in a weaker but still useful promoter library. The upstream AT-rich region did not appear to affect promoter strength in C. glutamicum. In addition to the constitutive promoters, a synthetic inducible promoter library, based on the E. coli lac-promoter, was constructed by randomizing the 17-bp spacer between -35 and -10 consensus sequences and the sequences surrounding these. The inducible promoter library was shown to result in β-galactosidase activities ranging from 284 to 1,665 Miller units when induced by IPTG, and the induction fold ranged from 7-59. We find that the synthetic promoter library (SPL) technology is convenient for modulating gene expression in C. glutamicum and should have many future applications, within basic research as well as for optimizing industrial production organisms. PMID:24458563

  12. Health promotion in Canada: 1986 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Riley, Barbara L

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion in Canada between 1986 and 2006 is characterized by three major eras: Health Promotion in the Limelight, 1986-1992, Health Promotion Behind the Scenes, 1993-2003, and Health Promotion Restaged, 2003-2006. These eras are illustrated using the Canadian Heart Health Initiative as an example. The first era, backed by strong federal government leadership and support, was a progressive time of developing concepts, collaborations and infrastructure for health promotion across the country. Despite significant progress, by the end of this era, health promotion was neither sufficiently developed nor funded to make it a cornerstone of the health system. In addition, the emphasis was heavily biased towards changing individual behaviour. In the second era, health promotion continued to develop in pockets across the country and debates within the field intensified. However, these events went largely unnoticed and massive overall cuts at federal and provincial levels of government made acute care a much higher priority than health promotion. The third era, mostly shaped by fears linked to public health threats, saw a restaging of health promotion through efforts to strengthen public health infrastructure. Nevertheless, at the end of this era, the necessary intersectoral partnerships (such as in health, housing, education, food, income) remained scarce, and little progress was made to decrease health inequalities. The Canadian Heart Health Initiative was implemented over the same time period as the three eras. Its legacy includes collegial relationships across various levels of government and with non-government organizations, a culture that values pan-Canadian initiatives, and support for integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. It remains to be seen how quickly it will be possible to advance the vision of health promotion conceived during the Limelight Era in Canada. PMID:18372871

  13. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  14. Data describing the effect of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms on promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Tei, Shoin; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2016-06-01

    This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), -906 T/C, -809 G/A, -616G/C, and -521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits. PMID:27115024

  15. Overview of tumor promotion in animals.

    PubMed

    Slaga, T J

    1983-04-01

    Our present understanding of two-stage carcinogenesis encompasses almost four decades of research. Evidence for chemical promotion or cocarcinogenesis was first provided by Berenblum, who reported that a regimen of croton oil (weak or noncarcinogenic) applied alternately with small doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mouse skin induced a larger number of tumors than BP alone. Subsequently, Moltram found that a single subcarcinogenic dose of BP followed by multiple applications of croton oil could induce a large number of skin tumors. These investigations as well as a number of others, such as Boutwell, Van Duuren and Hecker, were responsible in defining many important aspects of the initiation and promotion of two-stage carcinogenesis. The initiation stage in mouse skin requires only a single application of either a direct-acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen and is essentially an irreversible step which as data suggests probably involves a somatic cell mutation. The promotion stage in mouse skin can be accomplished by a wide variety of weak or noncarcinogenic agents and is initially reversible later becoming irreversible. Current information suggests that skin tumor promoters are not mutagenic but bring about a number of important epigenetic changes, such as epidermal hyperplasia, and an increase in polyamines, prostaglandins and dark basal keratinocytes as well as other embryonic conditions. Recently, tumor promotion in mouse skin was shown to consist of at least two stages, in which each stage can be accomplished by either a known promoter or a weak or nonpromoting agent. Some of the important characteristics of the first stage of promotion are: (1) only one application of a first-stage promoter, such as phorbol ester tumor promoters, calcium ionophore A23187, hydrogen peroxide and wounding is needed; (2) the action is partially irreversible; (3) an increase in dark basal keratinocytes and prostaglandins is important; and (4) such an increase can be inhibited by

  16. Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Pátek, Miroslav; Holátko, Jiří; Busche, Tobias; Kalinowski, Jörn; Nešvera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transcription initiation is the key step in gene expression in bacteria, and it is therefore studied for both theoretical and practical reasons. Promoters, the traffic lights of transcription initiation, are used as construction elements in biotechnological efforts to coordinate ‘green waves’ in the metabolic pathways leading to the desired metabolites. Detailed analyses of Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters have already provided large amounts of data on their structures, regulatory mechanisms and practical capabilities in metabolic engineering. In this minireview the main aspects of promoter studies, the methods developed for their analysis and their practical use in C. glutamicum are discussed. These include definitions of the consensus sequences of the distinct promoter classes, promoter localization and characterization, activity measurements, the functions of transcriptional regulators and examples of practical uses of constitutive, inducible and modified promoters in biotechnology. The implications of the introduction of novel techniques, such as in vitro transcription and RNA sequencing, to C. glutamicum promoter studies are outlined. PMID:23305350

  17. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses. PMID:26524912

  18. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    PubMed

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming. PMID:23183382

  19. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  20. Solar cooking in India--Promotion aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, R.P.; Rajagopal, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes efforts to promote the use of solar cookers in India. The advantages of the cookers are presented followed by a description of solar cooking research, education activities, and government programs to promote use of solar energy. Major constraints to solar use are discussed and these include a range of situations: adapting cookers for various types of food preparation; safety factors in leaving cookers outside; weather problems; and expense of equipment. The author concludes with a list of recommendations to promote more efficient use of non-conventional energy sources.

  1. A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.

  2. Promoting Physical Activity among Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A

    2016-01-01

    Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827

  3. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  4. Developing health promoting practices: a transformative process.

    PubMed

    Hartrick, G

    1998-01-01

    For health care professionals to successfully make the transition from disease care to health promotion requires a reorientation of how such professionals think and behave in their practice. This paper describes a multidisciplinary team's transition from disease care to health promotion. The research was conducted to learn what is involved in developing health promotion practices and the major changes practitioners experience as they shift from disease care to health promotion. A large, acute care institution and public health agency collaborated to address the needs of families and children with asthma, allergies, and eczema, with the goal of changing the focus from inpatient care to ambulatory or community-based care. A team of 5 nurses, 1 physiotherapist, 1 respiratory technologist, and 1 nutritionist was formed to undertake the initiative. PMID:9805341

  5. Initiation complex structure and promoter proofreading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Huang, Xuhui; Kornberg, Roger D

    2011-07-29

    The initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II is a multistage process. X-ray crystal structures of transcription complexes containing short RNAs reveal three structural states: one with 2- and 3-nucleotide RNAs, in which only the 3'-end of the RNA is detectable; a second state with 4- and 5-nucleotide RNAs, with an RNA-DNA hybrid in a grossly distorted conformation; and a third state with RNAs of 6 nucleotides and longer, essentially the same as a stable elongating complex. The transition from the first to the second state correlates with a markedly reduced frequency of abortive initiation. The transition from the second to the third state correlates with partial "bubble collapse" and promoter escape. Polymerase structure is permissive for abortive initiation, thereby setting a lower limit on polymerase-promoter complex lifetime and allowing the dissociation of nonspecific complexes. Abortive initiation may be viewed as promoter proofreading, and the structural transitions as checkpoints for promoter control. PMID:21798951

  6. Ethical dilemmas in workplace health promotion.

    PubMed

    Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P

    1986-05-01

    In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented. PMID:3749011

  7. Health promotion: challenges revealed in successful practices

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640

  8. Promoting Community Health Resources: Preferred Communication Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...

  9. Promoting Interactivity in Physics Lecture Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, David E.; Manivannan, Kandiah

    1996-01-01

    Presents techniques aimed at promoting a higher level of student-faculty interaction and active student participation in the learning process in introductory physics lecture classes. Discusses group problem solving, the use of flash cards, and assessment. (JRH)

  10. Responsible Assertive Behavior Promotes Effective Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1983-01-01

    Assertive behavior promotes the development of mutually satisfying relationships, with none of the disadvantages of passive or aggressive behavior. Because of the interpersonal and organizational benefits, managers should encourage assertive behavior throughout their organizations. (SK)

  11. The Causes and Costs of Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Lu Ann W.; McGrath, Loraine G.

    1983-01-01

    Minimizing the stress that nurses experience after a promotion requires an understanding of the factors associated with moving up the managerial ladder. Knowing these factors, nursing administrators can plan their programs to support their managers in transition. (SSH)

  12. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    MedlinePlus

    ... based, actionable, and easy to use. News & Media Prevention Policy Matters Blog Public Health 3.0: A ... with us About Us The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) plays a vital role ...

  13. The future of growth-promoting therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Ron G

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has been in use for 50years in children with short stature. Recent developments suggest that our traditional approaches to growth-promoting therapy will be challenged in the following areas. PMID:26654694

  14. Promoting consumer empowerment through entrepreneurship: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    In order to promote life control, this proposal suggests strategies to help people who use community mental health services to access small loans or "microcredit" for entrepreneurship in self-help groups. PMID:17269274

  15. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings.

    PubMed

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E; Kumpfer, Karol L; Merrill, Ray M; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  16. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  17. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  7. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  8. Nurses and Teachers: Partnerships for Green Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…

  9. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., sales promotion, and consumer education with respect to the use of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, and... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion §...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  11. Studies on the mechanism of skin tumor promotion: evidence for several stages in promotion. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Nelson, K.; Gleason, G.L.

    1980-06-01

    The effects of nonpromoting and weakly promoting diterpenes on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) were investigated. When phorbol and phorbol 12,13-diacetate (both nonpromoting) were given simultaneously with TPA after 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) initiation in female mice, they had no effect on TPA promotion. However, the nonpromoter 4-O-methyl-TPA and the weak promoter mezerein were found to inhibit TPA promotion in a dose-dependent manner when given simultaneously with TPA. Because mezerein was found to be an effective inhibitor of TPA promotion when given simultaneously and because it induces many biological responses similar to those to TPA, the capacity of mezerein to act as an incomplete promoter in a two-stage promotion protocol was also investigated. The results suggest that although mezerein by itself is a weak promotor and mimics TPA in many biochemical and morphological effects it is a potent second-stage promoter in a two-stage promotion regimen.

  12. Characterizing yeast promoters used in Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Hu, Shenglin; Zhu, Songli; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2015-10-01

    Fermentation at higher temperatures can potentially reduce the cooling cost in large-scale fermentation and reduce the contamination risk. Thus, the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which can grow and ferment at elevated temperatures, is a promising biotechnological tool for future applications. However, the promoters used in K. marxianus are not well characterized, especially at elevated temperatures, which is important in efficient metabolic pathway construction. In this study, six constitutive promoters (P(TDH3), P(PGK), and P(ADH1) from both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. marxianus) were evaluated in K. marxianus through the heterologous expression of the KlLAC4, GUSA, and SH BLE genes at various temperatures, with various carbon sources and oxygen conditions. The expression was evaluated at the transcription and protein level using real-time PCR and protein activity determination to eliminate the effect of heterologous protein stability. While the transcription of all the promoters decreased at higher temperatures, the order of their promoting strength at various temperatures with glucose as the carbon source was P(KmPGK) > P(KmTDH3) > P(ScPGK) > P(ScTDH3) > P(KmADH1) > P(ScADH1). When glycerol or xylose was supplied as the carbon source at 42 °C, the order of promoter strength was P(KmPGK) > P(ScPGK) > P(KmADH1) > P(ScADH1) > P(ScTDH3) > P(KmTDH3). The promoter activity of P TDH3 decreased significantly, while the promoter activity of both of the P(ADH1) promoters increased. Oxygen conditions had non-significant effect. The results of this study provide important information for fine-tuned pathway construction for the metabolic engineering of K. marxianus. PMID:26164057

  13. Anatomy of Escherichia coli σ70 promoters

    PubMed Central

    Shultzaberger, Ryan K.; Chen, Zehua; Lewis, Karen A.; Schneider, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    Information theory was used to build a promoter model that accounts for the −10, the −35 and the uncertainty of the gap between them on a common scale. Helical face assignment indicated that base −7, rather than −11, of the −10 may be flipping to initiate transcription. We found that the sequence conservation of σ70 binding sites is 6.5 ± 0.1 bits. Some promoters lack a −35 region, but have a 6.7 ± 0.2 bit extended −10, almost the same information as the bipartite promoter. These results and similarities between the contacts in the extended −10 binding and the −35 suggest that the flexible bipartite σ factor evolved from a simpler polymerase. Binding predicted by the bipartite model is enriched around 35 bases upstream of the translational start. This distance is the smallest 5′ mRNA leader necessary for ribosome binding, suggesting that selective pressure minimizes transcript length. The promoter model was combined with models of the transcription factors Fur and Lrp to locate new promoters, to quantify promoter strengths, and to predict activation and repression. Finally, the DNA-bending proteins Fis, H-NS and IHF frequently have sites within one DNA persistence length from the −35, so bending allows distal activators to reach the polymerase. PMID:17189297

  14. Implementation of Mexico's Health Promotion Operational Model.

    PubMed

    Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Lucero; Rivero, Lilia; Ochoa, Jorge; Stanford, Adriana; Latinovic, Ljubica; Rueda, Gretel

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing profound health reform, extending health insurance to previously uninsured populations and changing the way health care services are delivered. Legislation enacted in 2003 and implemented in 2004 mandated funding and infrastructure that will allow 52% of Mexico's population to access medical care at no cost by 2010. This ambitious social reform has not been without challenges, particularly financial sustainability. Health promotion, because of its potential to prevent or delay chronic diseases and injuries and their associated costs, is a key component of health care reform. In 2006, the Ministry of Health's General Directorate of Health Promotion developed the Health Promotion Operational Model. Based on Ottawa Charter functions, the model integrates health promotion activities within the overall health care system. The main goal of this model is to build strong human capital and to improve organizational capacity for health promotion starting at the local level by training health care personnel to implement health promotion activities. Organizational development workshops started in 2006, and implementation plans in all 32 Mexican states were in place by end of 2008. PMID:19080038

  15. [Modifications of gene expression by tumor promoters].

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhao, Q; Guo, S; Zhao, M; Cheng, S

    1995-02-01

    The modifications of gene expression by tumor promoters were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. The results of slot blot hybridizations showed that tumor promoter TPA induced c-fos and c-myc expressions in mouse fibroblast cell line BALB/3T3 and rat liver, decreased the levels of Rb RNA in BALB/3T3 cell line and of alpha 1-I3 RNA in rat liver. It was also demonstrated that tumor promoter phenobarbital influenced c-fos and c-myc expressions and decreased alpha 1I3 mRNA level in rat liver during a long term experiment. Phenobarbital was found to have no effect on c-fos and c-myc expressions in rat liver during a short experiment. Tumor promoters induced the expressions of c-fos and c-myc which were positively-related to cancer formation and inhibited the expressions of Rb and alpha 1-I3 which were negatively-related to cancer formation. This implied that tumor promotion played an important role in cancer development and tumor promoters exerted their effects selectively according to the attributes of different genes. PMID:7540119

  16. Functional dissection of the lck proximal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J M; Forbush, K A; Perlmutter, R M

    1992-01-01

    The lck gene encodes a protein tyrosine kinase that participates in lymphocyte-specific signal transduction pathways. Previous studies have established that lck transcription is regulated by two distinct promoter elements termed proximal (or 3') and distal (or 5'). The proximal promoter is active almost exclusively in thymocytes and becomes inactive later during T-cell maturation. To dissect the mechanisms responsible for lck gene regulation, we generated transgenic animals bearing 5' truncations in the proximal promoter element. Sequences between -584 and +37 with respect to the proximal promoter transcription start site act to direct tissue-specific and temporally correct transcription of either a tagged version of the lck gene itself or a heterologous reporter sequence (lacZ). This region contains binding sites for at least five distinct nuclear proteins, of which one is found only in cells that support proximal lck promoter activity and a second appears only in nonexpressing cells. Interestingly, the transcribed region of the lck gene contains positive control elements that can substantially boost expression from minimal (-130 bp) proximal promoter constructs. These results provide a basis for the biochemical dissection of transcriptional regulators that act at defined points during T-cell development. Images PMID:1588967

  17. The rcsA promoter of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii features a low-level constitutive promoter and an EsaR quorum-sensing-regulated promoter.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Aurelien L; von Bodman, S B

    2006-06-01

    The upstream region of the Pantoea stewartii rcsA gene features two promoters, one for constitutive basal-level expression and a second autoregulated promoter for induced expression. The EsaR quorum-sensing repressor binds to a site centered between the two promoters, blocking transcription elongation from the regulated promoter under noninducing conditions. PMID:16740966

  18. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  19. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  20. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

  1. Efficient chimeric plant promoters derived from plant infecting viral promoter sequences.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sefali; Ranjan, Rajiv; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we developed a set of three chimeric/hybrid promoters namely FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt incorporating different important domains of Figwort Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FSgt, -270 to -60), Mirabilis Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (MSgt, -306 to -125) and Peanut Chlorotic Streak Caulimovirus full-length transcript promoter (PFlt-, -353 to +24 and PFlt-UAS, -353 to -49). We demonstrated that these chimeric/hybrid promoters can drive the expression of reporter genes in different plant species including tobacco, Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and spinach. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 4.2, 1.5 and 1.2 times stronger GUS activities compared to the activity of the CaMV35S promoter, respectively, in tobacco protoplasts. Protoplast-derived recombinant promoter driven GFP showed enhanced accumulation compared to that obtained under the CaMV35S promoter. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 3.0, 1.3 and 1.0 times stronger activities than the activity of the CaMV35S² (a modified version of the CaMV35S promoter with double enhancer domain) promoter, respectively, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var. Samsun NN). Alongside, we observed a fair correlation between recombinant promoter-driven GUS accumulation with the corresponding uidA-mRNA level in transgenic tobacco. Histochemical (X-gluc) staining of whole transgenic seedlings and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green™ treated floral parts expressing the GUS under the control of recombinant promoters also support above findings. Furthermore, we confirmed that these chimeric promoters are inducible in the presence of 150 μM salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Taken altogether, we propose that SA/ABA inducible chimeric/recombinant promoters could be used for strong expression of gene(s) of interest in crop plants. PMID:24178585

  2. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase contacts outside the -10 promoter element are not essential for promoter melting.

    PubMed

    Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Heyduk, Tomasz

    2005-11-18

    We examined the relative affinity of model promoter constructs for binding Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. Model promoter constructs were designed to mimic DNA structures characteristic for different steps of transcription initiation. DNA duplexes in which a chemical cross-link was introduced just downstream from -10 hexamer to prevent DNA melting upon RNAP binding were used to mimic RNAP-promoter contacts in a closed complex. Fork junction DNA molecules with double-stranded/single-stranded junction between -11 and -10 position were used to study interactions of RNA polymerase with DNA in open complex. The -35 and -10 promoter regions were found to be equally important for the initial RNAP binding. The recognition of -35 promoter region was independent of structural context of the model promoter fragment. In contrast, free energy of RNAP binding to -10 hexamer was highly dependent on DNA structure. The relative importance of -10 region for sequence-specific interaction with the polymerase was the lowest for constructs mimicking closed complex and the highest for the constructs mimicking open complex. The relative importance of region -10 was also dependent on the presence of -35 consensus element indicating a communication between different DNA binding determinants of polymerase during open complex formation. Short double-stranded promoter fragments comprising only -35 and -10 or only -10 consensus elements underwent melting in a complex with polymerase indicating that the core of promoter melting activity of the polymerase is localized to a very small subset of all promoter-polymerase contacts. PMID:16169843

  3. TERT promoter mutations in melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Nagore, Eduardo; Heidenreich, Barbara; Rachakonda, Sívaramakrishna; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Soriano, Virtudes; Frank, Christoph; Traves, Victor; Quecedo, Esther; Sanjuan-Gimenez, Josefa; Hemminki, Kari; Landi, Maria Teresa; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Despite advances in targeted therapies, the treatment of advanced melanoma remains an exercise in disease management, hence a need for biomarkers for identification of at-risk primary melanoma patients. In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of TERT promoter mutations in primary melanomas. Tumors from 300 patients with stage I/II melanoma were sequenced for TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations. Cumulative curves were drawn for patients with and without mutations with progression-free and melanoma-specific survival as outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effect of the mutations on survivals. Individually, presence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations associated with poor disease-free and melanoma-specific survival with modification of the effect by the rs2853669 polymorphism within the TERT promoter. Hazard ratio (HR) for simultaneous occurrence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations for disease-free survival was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.4) and for melanoma-specific survival 5.8 (95% CI 1.9-18.3). The effect of the mutations on melanoma-specific survival in noncarriers of variant allele of the polymorphism was significant (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-15.2) but could not be calculated for the carriers due to low number of events. The variant allele per se showed association with increased survival (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). The data in this study provide preliminary evidence that TERT promoter mutations in combination with BRAF/NRAS mutations can be used to identify patients at risk of aggressive disease and the possibility of refinement of the classification with inclusion of the rs2853669 polymorphism within TERT promoter. PMID:26875008

  4. Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Choong-Min; Farag, Mohamed A.; Hu, Chia-Hui; Reddy, Munagala S.; Wei, Han-Xun; Paré, Paul W.; Kloepper, Joseph W.

    2003-01-01

    Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Some bacterial strains directly regulate plant physiology by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones, whereas others increase mineral and nitrogen availability in the soil as a way to augment growth. Identification of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth promotion has been limited in part by the understanding of how plants respond to external stimuli. With an increasing appreciation of how volatile organic compounds signal plants and serve in plant defense, investigations into the role of volatile components in plant–bacterial systems now can follow. Here, we present chemical and plant-growth data showing that some PGPR release a blend of volatile components that promote growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. In particular, the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin were released exclusively from two bacterial strains that trigger the greatest level of growth promotion. Furthermore, pharmacological applications of 2,3-butanediol enhanced plant growth whereas bacterial mutants blocked in 2,3-butanediol and acetoin synthesis were devoid in this growth-promotion capacity. The demonstration that PGPR strains release different volatile blends and that plant growth is stimulated by differences in these volatile blends establishes an additional function for volatile organic compounds as signaling molecules mediating plant–microbe interactions. PMID:12684534

  5. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells. PMID:21790010

  6. Localization and regulation of bacteriophage Mu promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, S.F. ); Howe, M.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Mu promoters active during the lytic cycle were located by isolating RNA at various times after induction of Mu prophages, radiolabeling it by capping in vitro, and hybridizing it to Mu DNA fragments on Southern blots. Signals were detected from four new promoters in addition to the previously characterized P{sub e} (early), P{sub cM} (repressor), and P{sub mom} (late) promoters. A major signal upstream of C was first observed at 12 min and intensified thereafter with RNA from cts and C amber but not replication-defective prophages; these characteristics indicate that this signal arises from a middle promoter, which we designate P{sub m}. With 20- and 40-min RNA, four additional major signals originated in the C-lys, F-G-I, N-P, and com-mom regions. These signals were missing with RNA from C amber and replication-defective prophages and therefore reflected the activity of late promoters, one of which we presume was P{sub mom}. Uninduced lysogens showed weak signals from five regions, one from the early regulatory region, three between genes B and lys, and one near the late genes K, L, and M. The first of these probably resulted from P{sub cM} activity; the others remain to be identified.

  7. Doxorubicin enhances nucleosome turnover around promoters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Kemp, Christopher J; Henikoff, Steven

    2013-05-01

    Doxorubicin is an anthracycline DNA intercalator that is among the most commonly used anticancer drugs. Doxorubicin causes DNA double-strand breaks in rapidly dividing cells, although whether it also affects general chromatin properties is unknown. Here, we use a metabolic labeling strategy to directly measure nucleosome turnover to examine the effect of doxorubicin on chromatin dynamics in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines derived from genetically defined mice. We find that doxorubicin enhances nucleosome turnover around gene promoters and that turnover correlates with gene expression level. Consistent with a direct action of doxorubicin, enhancement of nucleosome turnover around promoters gradually increases with time of exposure to the drug. Interestingly, enhancement occurs both in wild-type cells and in cells lacking either the p53 tumor suppressor gene or the master regulator of the DNA damage response, ATM, suggesting that doxorubicin action on nucleosome dynamics is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint. In addition, another anthracycline drug, aclarubicin, shows similar effects on enhancing nucleosome turnover around promoters. Our results suggest that anthracycline intercalation promotes nucleosome turnover around promoters by its effect on DNA topology, with possible implications for mechanisms of cell killing during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23602475

  8. Nucleosomal promoter variation generates gene expression noise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher R.; Boeger, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Gene product molecule numbers fluctuate over time and between cells, confounding deterministic expectations. The molecular origins of this noise of gene expression remain unknown. Recent EM analysis of single PHO5 gene molecules of yeast indicated that promoter molecules stochastically assume alternative nucleosome configurations at steady state, including the fully nucleosomal and nucleosome-free configuration. Given that distinct configurations are unequally conducive to transcription, the nucleosomal variation of promoter molecules may constitute a source of gene expression noise. This notion, however, implies an untested conjecture, namely that the nucleosomal variation arises de novo or intrinsically (i.e., that it cannot be explained as the result of the promoter’s deterministic response to variation in its molecular surroundings). Here, we show—by microscopically analyzing the nucleosome configurations of two juxtaposed physically linked PHO5 promoter copies—that the configurational variation, indeed, is intrinsically stochastic and thus, a cause of gene expression noise rather than its effect. PMID:25468975

  9. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  10. Pharmacological Repression of PPARγ Promotes Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Boregowda, Siddaraju V.; Asteian, Alice; Hughes, Travis S.; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben; Corzo, Cesar A.; Khan, Tanya M.; Novick, Scott J.; Park, HaJeung; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Phinney, Donald G.; Bruning, John B.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipogenesis and the pharmacological target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin sensitizers. Activation of PPARγ by TZDs promotes adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation, contributing to their associated adverse effects on bone. Recently we reported the development of PPARγ antagonist SR1664, designed to block the obesity induced phosphorylation of serine 273 (S273) in the absence of classical agonism, to derive insulin sensitizing efficacy with improved therapeutic index. Here we identify the structural mechanism by which SR1664 actively antagonizes PPARγ, and extend these findings to develop the inverse agonist SR2595. Treatment of isolated bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with SR2595 promotes induction of osteogenic differentiation. Together these results identify the structural determinants of ligand mediated PPARγ repression, and suggest a therapeutic approach to promote bone formation. PMID:26068133

  11. Adolescent Resilience: Promotive Factors That Inform Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Eisman, Andria B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Miller, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Resilience theory provides a framework for studying and understanding how some youths overcome risk exposure and guides the development of interventions for prevention using a strengths-based approach. In this article, we describe basic concepts of the theory, such as promotive factors, and distinguish assets and resources that help youths overcome the negative effects of risk exposure. We also present three models of resilience theory—compensatory, protective, and challenge—and review empirical research on three promotive factors—ethnic identity, social support, and prosocial involvement—that include individual, family, and community levels of analysis and have modifiable qualities for informing interventions. Finally, we present examples of how research findings from the three promotive factors can be translated into interventions to enhance youth development. PMID:24288578

  12. Promotional literature: how do we critically appraise?

    PubMed

    Shetty, V V; Karve, A V

    2008-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of new and generic drugs coming into the market. The busy practitioner obtains the information from various sources, of which promotional literature forms an important source. The promotional literature provided by the pharmaceutical companies cannot be entirely relied upon; moreover, very few physicians are equipped with the skills of critically appraising it. The new drug should be relevant to the clinician's practice in terms of population studied, the disease and the need for new treatment. The methodology of the study should be carefully judged to determine the authenticity of the evidence. The new drug should be preferred over the existing one if it offers clear advantages in terms of safety, tolerability, efficacy and price. Critical appraisal of promotional literature can provide valuable information to the busy physician to practice evidence-based medicine. PMID:18626173

  13. Ottawa to Bangkok: changing health promotion discourse.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine

    2007-03-01

    The discourse of the 2005 Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World represents a radical departure from that of the Ottawa Charter that, in 1986, staked a place for the health promotion field in mainstream public health. Via a critical analysis of the discourse in these two Charters, this paper illustrates a shift from a 'new social movements' discourse of ecosocial justice in Ottawa to a 'new capitalist' discourse of law and economics in Bangkok. The Bangkok Charter's content may identify 'actions, commitments and pledges required to address the determinants of health in a globalized world through health promotion', but this paper shows how its discourse works to naturalize and perpetuate many of detrimental determinants associated with 'globalization'. PMID:17015407

  14. [Health promotion in the Pankararu indigenous community].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health. PMID:23032334

  15. Universal light-switchable gene promoter system

    DOEpatents

    Quail, Peter H.; Huq, Enamul; Tepperman, James; Sato, Sae

    2005-02-22

    An artificial promoter system that can be fused upstream of any desired gene enabling reversible induction or repression of the expression of the gene at will in any suitable host cell or organisms by light is described. The design of the system is such that a molecule of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome is targeted to the specific DNA binding site in the promoter by a protein domain that is fused to the phytochrome and that specifically recognizes this binding site. This bound phytochrome, upon activation by light, recruits a second fusion protein consisting of a protein that binds to phytochrome only upon light activation and a transcriptional activation domain that activates expression of the gene downstream of the promoter.

  16. In vivo Characterization of plant promoter element interaction using synthetic promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short directly-repeated (DR) DNA enhancer elements of plant viral origin were analyzed for their ability, both individually and in combination, to influence in vivo transcription when inserted upstream from a minimal CaMV35S promoter. Synthetic promoters containing multiple copies and/or combinatio...

  17. The Commelina yellow mottle virus promoter is a strong promoter in vascular and reproductive tissues.

    PubMed

    Medberry, S L; Lockhart, B E; Olszewski, N E

    1992-02-01

    Commelina yellow mottle virus (CoYMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects the monocot Commelina diffusa. Although CoYMV and cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV; another double-stranded DNA virus) probably replicate by a similar mechanism, the particle morphology and host range of CoYMV place it in a distinct group. We present evidence that a prompter fragment isolated from CoYMV confers a tissue-specific pattern of expression that is different from that conferred by the CaMV 35S promoter. When the CoYMV promoter is used to drive expression of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in stably transformed tobacco plants, beta-glucuronidase activity occurs primarily in the phloem, the phloem-associated cells, and the axial parenchyma of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Activity is also detected throughout the anther, with highest activity in the tapetum. In contrast, the CaMV 35S promoter is active in most cell types. The CoYMV promoter is a strong promoter, and when the activity of the CoYMV promoter is compared with that of a duplicated CaMV 35S promoter, it is 30% as active in tobacco suspension cells and up to 25% as active in maize suspension cells. These properties of the CoYMV promoter make it potentially useful for high-level expression of engineered genes in vascular cells. PMID:1633493

  18. A Menagerie of Promotional Characters: Promoting Food to Children through Food Packaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Design: Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Setting: Three Australian…

  19. Patient Education and Health Promotion: Clinical Health Promotion--The Conceptual Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraher, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents a model linking health promotion, health education, and patient education. The bases for distinctions between health education, patient education, and clinical health promotion are examined. The linking elements of the model are patient role, relationships adopted, and focus of the encounter; i.e., disease process vs. disease management.…

  20. Beyond Grade Retention and Social Promotion: Promoting the Social and Academic Competence of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Pletcher, Sarah M. W.; Graydon, Kelly; Schnurr, Britton L.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Kundert, Deborah K.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, amidst the current context emphasizing educational standards and accountability, the practice of grade retention has increased. The call for an end to social promotion has generated a variety of recommendations and legislation regarding promotion policies. This context has served as a catalyst for numerous debates regarding…

  1. Synthetic plan promoters as a tool for characterizing the function of individual promoter elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short direct-repeat (DR) DNA enhancer elements from plant viral intergenic regions were analyzed for their ability, both individually and in combination, to influence transcription when inserted upstream from a minimal CaMV35S promoter. Synthetic promoters containing multiple copies and/or combinat...

  2. Alternative promoters of gene MAGE4a

    SciTech Connect

    De Plaen, E.; Naerhuyzen, B.; De Smet, C.

    1997-03-01

    Gene MAGE-4 (HGMW-approved symbol MAGE4) is expressed in several types of tumors, but not in normal tissues, except testis and placenta. The 5{prime} end of this gene contains eight homologous exons spread over a 5.8-kb region. These exons are alternatively spliced to a unique second exon and a unique third exon, which encodes a protein of 317 amino acids. The analysis of transcripts found in testis, placenta, and a sarcoma cell line showed that each of the alternative first exons is used in at least one of these tissues. Various regions of the promoter of the fifth alternative exon (1.5) were cloned in a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the constructs were transfected in a sarcoma cell line that expresses MAGE-4. Two Ets motifs located between positions -70 and -29 relative to the transcription start site were found to drive 55% of the promoter activity. A region containing an Sp1 consensus binding site located upstream of the two Ets motifs was found to be responsible for 44% of the transcriptional activity. MAGE-4a promoters 1.4 and 1.6, which also contain the Sp1 and the two Ets binding motifs, supported a level of transcription comparable to that of promoter 1.5, whereas promoter 1.1, which contains only one Ets binding site, was sixfold less active. In line with observations made with gene MAGE-1 (HGMW-approved symbol MAGE1), we found that promoter 1.5 stimulated a high level of transcription in a melanoma cell line that does not express MAGE-4. This suggests that the tumor-specific expression of MAGE genes is not determined by the presence of specific transcription factors. 26 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Promoting intestinal adaptation by nutrition and medication.

    PubMed

    Neelis, E G; Olieman, J F; Hulst, J M; de Koning, B A E; Wijnen, R M H; Rings, E H H M

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate goal in the treatment of short bowel syndrome is to wean patients off parenteral nutrition, by promoting intestinal adaptation. Intestinal adaptation is the natural compensatory process that occurs after small bowel resection. Stimulating the remaining bowel with enteral nutrition can enhance this process. Additionally, medication can be used to either reduce factors that complicate the adaptation process or to stimulate intestinal adaptation, such as antisecretory drugs and several growth factors. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the best nutritional strategies and medication that best promote intestinal adaptation. PMID:27086889

  4. 22-Oxocholestanes as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Zeferino-Diaz, Reyna; Hilario-Martinez, J Ciciolil; Rodriguez-Acosta, Maricela; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A

    2015-06-01

    The spirostanic steroidal side-chain of diosgenin and hecogenin was modified to produce 22-oxocholestane derivatives. This type of side-chain was obtained in good yields through a straightforward four-step pathway. These compounds show potent brassinosteroid-like growth promoting activity evaluated via the rice lamina joint inclination bioassay. This is the first report of steroidal skeletons bearing the 22-oxocholestane side-chain and preserving the basic structure (A-D rings) from their corresponding parent compounds acting as plant growth promoters. PMID:25795152

  5. Promoting regular physical activity in pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-06-01

    Patients with chronic respiratory diseases are usually physically inactive, which is an important negative prognostic factor. Therefore, promoting regular physical activity is of key importance in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving the quality of life in this population. A current challenge to pulmonary rehabilitation is the need to develop strategies that induce or facilitate the enhancement of daily levels of physical activity. Because exercise training alone, despite improving exercise capacity, does not consistently generate similar improvements in physical activity in daily life, there is also a need to develop behavioral interventions that help to promote activity. PMID:24874131

  6. 5 CFR 335.103 - Agency promotion programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency promotion programs. 335.103 Section 335.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.103 Agency promotion programs. (a) Merit promotion plans. Except as otherwise...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  13. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  14. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  15. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  16. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  17. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  18. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the...

  19. Solving the Problem of Promoting Distance Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Paul Alan

    2007-01-01

    Promoting services is a conundrum for any organization. This is especially true for an academic library promoting distance library services. Systems thinking, process mapping, team learning, and diffusion of information practices offer ways of thinking about promoting services that help those involved find novel ways to approach promoting distance…

  20. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  1. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  2. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  3. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  4. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  5. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  6. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  7. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  8. Characteristics of a strong promoter from figwort mosaic virus: comparison with the analogous 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus and the regulated mannopine synthase promoter.

    PubMed

    Sanger, M; Daubert, S; Goodman, R M

    1990-03-01

    A segment of DNA from the genome of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) strain M3 possesses promoter activity when tested in electroporated protoplasts from, and transgenic plants of, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc. The 1.1 kb DNA segment, designated the '34S' promoter, is derived from a position on the FMV genome comparable to the position on the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) genome containing the 35S promoter. The 34S and 35S promoters show approximately 63% nucleotide homology in the TATA, CCACT, and -18 to +1 domains, but in sequences further upstream the homology drops below 50%. Promoter activities were estimated using beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II reporter gene systems. The activity of the 34S promoter segment approximates that of the 35S promoter in both protoplast transient expression assays and in stably transformed tobacco plants. Truncation of 5' sequences from the 34S promoter indicates that promoter strength depends upon DNA sequences located several hundred nucleotides upstream from the TATA box. In leaf tissue the 34S promoter is 20-fold more active than the mannopine synthase (MAS) promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA. The 34S promoter lacks the root-specific and wound-stimulated expression of the MAS promoter, showing relatively uniform root, stem, leaf, and floral activities. PMID:2102823

  9. Healthy Schools Promotion: An Experience in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erawan, Prawit

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of health education in schools has been operated continuously in Thailand with expecting to enhance a healthy society based on the definition of health under the new trend "A comprehensive and integrated health and social dimensions of body, mind and soul into a lifestyle linked and interrelated the human relationship with a…

  10. Novel proteinase inhibitor promotes resistance to insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) and its protein are identified in response to insect feeding on B. vulgaris seedlings. BvSTI is cloned into an expression vector with constitutive promoter and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess BvSTI’s ability to ...

  11. DISSECTION OF PLANT PROMOTER FUNCTION IN VIVO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combinatorial interactions between MYB and transcription HLH factors are required for the regulation of several important processes in plants. Protein-DNA binding and transient expression experiments established a modular structure for several maize flavonoid biosynthetic gene promoters, in which h...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of...

  15. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  16. School Health Promotion and Teacher Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…

  17. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of...

  19. Our Foundation: Understanding and Promoting Youth Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Examines how libraries can encourage and increase youth access to information. Discusses the role of the school library media center; law, illegal information, and censorship; parental rights; information policy; and promoting youth access before a challenge occurs in the library. (AEF)

  20. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  1. Symposium Promotes Technological Literacy through STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havice, Bill; Marshall, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a symposium which promotes technological literacy through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The three-day symposium titled, "The Anderson, Oconee, Pickens Symposium on Teaching and Learning STEM Standards for the 21st Century," was held August 4-6, 2008 at the Tri-County Technical College (TCTC)…

  2. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating children in…

  3. Promoting Self-Expression in Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraldi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Self-expression is a key concept for sociological studies on childhood since it is the cue for children's self-socialization and agency. Hence promoting children's agency and social participation requires their self-expression to be facilitated in their interaction with adults. The analysis in this article of a set of interactions in Italian…

  4. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef... advertising, to advance the image and desirability of beef and beef products with the express intent of improving the competitive position and stimulating sales of beef and beef products in the marketplace....

  5. Physical Activity Promotion and School Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.; Payne, V. Gregory

    1999-01-01

    This report examines school physical education (PE) and how it can be an important part of the national physical activity promotion effort. Section 1 introduces the issue of youth activity and PE, noting that schools and universities must reintroduce daily, quality physical activity as a key component of comprehensive education. Section 2…

  6. Evaluating, Developing, and Promoting Community College Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank

    1983-01-01

    Offers a model for hiring, developing, and promoting staff which endeavors to synthesize numerous concepts used by business and industry in their human resources development programs. Presents a 23-item checklist for the model and proposes that it be used by community colleges to reach affirmative action goals. (DMM)

  7. Why We Need to Stop Promoting Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollard, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Book displays have always been an important part of the library field. However, despite all the time and effort, children do not read them. In this article, the author stresses the need to stop promoting reading. Instead, she encourages library media specialists to help children find reading material they will be eager to read.

  8. Promoting Dignity: The Ethical Dimension of Health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, David R

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the limitations of a strict scientific account of the causes of unhealthy behaviors, based on the standards promoted in evidence-based medicine, where randomized controlled trials are seen to provide the gold standard for establishing the validity of different explanations. The article critiques this account based on its disputed assumption that human free will does not exist, and thus, human autonomy and moral responsibility are an illusion. By denying human autonomy, the naturalistic paradigm also denies the possibility of human dignity. In contrast, the article describes and explains a humanistic account of human agency where human beings are characterized by the capacity to choose how to live their lives based on values that matter. Based on this humanistic framework, the article explains why dignity is an essential dimension of human health and well-being and describes key research challenges in moving the field of health promotion in a more humanistic direction. The article concludes with the recommendation to expand the goal of health promotion beyond physical fitness and to reorient the methods of research toward articulating values that matter and promoting human dignity. PMID:26861794

  9. Promoting Reasoning through the Magic V Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.; Widjaja, Wanty; Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning in mathematics plays a critical role in developing mathematical understandings. In this article, Bragg, Loong, Widjaja, Vale & Herbert explore an adaptation of the Magic V Task and how it was used in several classrooms to promote and develop reasoning skills.

  10. Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United…

  11. A Rural Citizens Health Promotion Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Mary; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a health promotion demonstration project which addressed the health problem of hypertension, as related to variables of excercise, weight, blood pressure measurement and reduction, medication compliance, and nutritional practices. Participants (N=18) were senior citizens who were associated with a small, rural, predominantly…

  12. Promoting Mental Model Building in Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ian; Barker, Miles; Jones, Alister

    2003-01-01

    While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding of…

  13. Health Promotion and the Costs of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Alan H.

    1989-01-01

    As industry, individuals, and insurance providers realize the benefits of disease prevention, the demand for information and services will grow. Health promotion activities should be tapered to individual needs and resource requirements of the institution planning the program. Programs should include screening procedures to identify underlying…

  14. Promoting Diversity in Early Child Care Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Michal; Kankesan, Tharsni; Zhang, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are aware of differences in the race and abilities of the people around them. Given this awareness it is important to promote children's acceptance of diversity in the preschool period. The goals of this study were to assess the extent to which child care centres provide diversity instruction through classroom activities,…

  15. Strengthening "School" in School Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight new and existing research on school characteristics that are essential elements in building the capacity of school communities to implement whole school approaches to mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: Through an overview of recent research and writing the need for a…

  16. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  17. Engaging Students: Promoting Mutual Support and Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Stella; Haigney, Di

    2009-01-01

    Prenskey (2005) asserted that a major problem within education is not that the information being taught lacks "relevance" to students lives, but that there is a lack of engagement with educational tasks. When attempting to engage classes, tutors are aiming to draw students into learning activities--to involve them--and thus promote active learning…

  18. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles with Schoolwide Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virgilio, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Schoolwide events to promote healthy lifestyles include fitness field day; family-fitness night; geography run; school health fair; morning and evening stretches and workouts; Jump Rope for Heart, Hoops for Heart, and Step for Heart; All Children Exercising Simultaneously; holiday classics; neighborhood fitness trail; morning and evening workouts;…

  19. Multirepressor Control Systems For Efficient Promoter Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, James E.; Chen, Wilfred

    1995-01-01

    Report presents numerical-simulation study, based on molecular-level mathematical models, to evaluate effectiveness of eight different configurations of repressor synthesis control of cloned-product-gene expression initiated from promoter/operator genetic sequence. In study, both single- and dual-repressor situations considered, using genetically structured molecules for lac and IPR promotor/operator in example calculations.

  20. A Market Case Study of Telecourse Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Market Facts, Washington, DC.

    A study was undertaken in 1981 to evaluate the telecourse campaign supported through the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). This report contains a summary of promotional strategies used in six selected markets and an evaluation of the effectiveness of these strategies. The objectives of the study…

  1. Promoting Paired Placements in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    The use of paired placements and collaborative practice is promoted by many university-school partnerships that train teachers in England. This paper reviews the recent literature on the subject and then focuses on some small scale research within initial teacher education in one large university-school partnership. That partnership works with…

  2. Promoting Reading and Writing in Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister

    1997-01-01

    Notes Head Start's obligation to promote literacy skills; presents pertinent strategies: (1) encourage families to talk with and read to children; (2) read to children every day; (3) create a print-rich environment; and (4) infuse reading and writing activities throughout the curriculum. Discusses importance of focusing on language and literacy…

  3. Promoting Acceptance To Prevent Discipline Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beane, Allan L.; Jacobs, Martin J.; Miller, Thomas W.

    The purpose of this study was to use three public school action research teams to identify the most desirable, feasible, and effective system-centered strategies, peer-centered strategies, personnel-centered strategies, and child-centered strategies for promoting a sense of belonging. One hundred and sixty four strategies were examined. Eight…

  4. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... that employ Full Service Intelligent Mail barcodes (IMb). The total value of the promotion will be... Periodicals, and Package Services Bound Printed Matter Flats (collectively, Qualifying Mail). Id. at 3. To be.... Pricing Class of mail authority (%) First-Class Mail 0.077 Standard Mail 0.158 Periodicals 0.244...

  5. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  6. Parent Involvement, Business Partnerships Promote Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Danny D.

    1994-01-01

    To tap the resources, knowledge, and expertise of parents, a West Virginia middle school initiated a parent-involvement program in fall 1992. The parents created their own program, the Red Apple Corps, which planned and promoted a back-to-school day, a birthday bulletin board, a tutoring program, a school pride award, and the school newspaper.…

  7. Promotion and resignation in employee networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Linyan; Wan, Xue-Song; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Enterprises have put more and more emphasis on data analysis so as to obtain effective management advices. Managers and researchers are trying to dig out the major factors that lead to employees' promotion and resignation. Most previous analyses are based on questionnaire survey, which usually consists of a small fraction of samples and contains biases caused by psychological defense. In this paper, we successfully collect a data set consisting of all the employees' work-related interactions (action network, AN for short) and online social connections (social network, SN for short) of a company, which inspires us to reveal the correlations between structural features and employees' career development, namely promotion and resignation. Through statistical analysis, we show that the structural features of both AN and SN are correlated and predictive to employees' promotion and resignation, and the AN has higher correlation and predictability. More specifically, the in-degree in AN is the most relevant indicator for promotion, while the k-shell index in AN and in-degree in SN are both very predictive to resignation. Our results provide a novel and actionable understanding of enterprise management and suggest that to enhance the interplays among employees, no matter work-related or social interplays, can be helpful to reduce staffs' turnover risk.

  8. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  9. Entomology: Promoting Creativity in the Science Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Behiye B.

    2013-01-01

    A class activity has been designed to help fourth grade students to identify basic insect features as a means of promoting student creativity while making an imaginary insect model. The 5Es (Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend [or Elaborate], and Evaluate) learning cycle teaching model is used. The 5Es approach allows students to work in small…

  10. Worksite Health Promotion. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostby, Jan M.

    This bibliography is a selection of citations dealing with various aspects of worksite health promotion. The first section contains general interest publications found in popular newspapers and magazines. The second section contains citations and abstracts taken from the Food and Nutrition Information Center. This section includes reference…

  11. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  12. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  13. Pediatric Interventions To Promote Picture Book Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needlman, Robert; And Others

    Pediatricians can play a role in promoting family literacy. Boston City Hospital has developed a model program that integrates family literacy into pediatric primary care, and has designed a program of research to evaluate its effects. The program has three components. In the waiting room, volunteers model for parents how to listen, question,…

  14. Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…

  15. Promoting Student Engagement in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundick, Matthew J.; Quaglia, Russell J.; Corso, Michael J.; Haywood, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Much progress has been made toward a greater understanding of student engagement and its role in promoting a host of desirable outcomes, including academic outcomes such as higher achievement and reduced dropout, as well as various well-being and life outcomes. Nonetheless, disengagement in our schools is widespread. This may…

  16. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  17. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  18. Promoting Academic Success among Latino Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R., Jr.; DeGarmo, David S.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    This article describes results from the Oregon Latino Youth Survey, which was designed to identify factors that promote or hinder academic success for Latino middle school and high school youngsters. The study samples included a total of 564 Latino and non-Latino students and parents. Analyses showed that Latino students reported a high frequency…

  19. 20 Ways To Promote Phonemic Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Angela; Conderman, Greg

    2002-01-01

    This article presents 20 activities to promote phonemic awareness in students, including teaching nursery rhymes, playing the "I Spy" game using initial sounds of words, creating a sound box, having students sort picture cards based on initial sounds, playing phoneme deletion games, and having students clap and count syllables. (Contains 4…

  20. Marketing and Promoting Literacy with Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This report offers practical suggestions for literacy practitioners and program administrators on how to use webinar and webcasting technologies to promote and market literacy. The report is divided into sections on how to use webinars for learners, for staff and volunteers and to engage the general community. A checklist of tips to use on the day…

  1. Promoting Integrity through Standards of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Arminio, Jan

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) has developed and promulgated standards of practice for quality programs and services. The standards are designed intentionally to promote student learning and developmental outcomes through a self-assessment process. CAS has coalesced professional…

  2. MERIT RATING FOR SALARY INCREASES AND PROMOTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOLIN, JOHN G.; MUIR, JOHN W.

    DEMANDS FOR QUALITY EDUCATION HAVE EMPHASIZED THE NEED FOR OBJECTIVE MERIT RATING OF TEACHERS FOR PROMOTION AND SALARY INCREASES. THE STUDY REVIEWS MERIT-RATING LITERATURE, ANALYZES RATING SCALES AND PROCEDURES, AND MAKES RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING MERIT PROGRAMS. THE WRITERS CONCLUDE THAT A COMBINATION OF SUPERORDINATE, PEER,…

  3. Strengthen Context To Enhance Health Promotion Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…

  4. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  5. Promoting the Spiritual Development of Sick Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, Pat; Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers whether there are aspects of spiritual pedagogy specific to the education of children who are sick and asks how these concerns are to be addressed. The context of the enquiry is England and Wales where the promotion of the spiritual development of children is a legislative requirement. The focus of the study is on sick…

  6. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  7. Does Religious Education Promote Good Community Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchard, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The aims of religious education (RE) as a curriculum subject are contested and under constant review. One particular aim widely promoted by policymakers, practitioners and other stakeholders is that RE distinctively among curriculum subjects, prepares future citizens for life in a religiously and culturally diverse society. I support the view that…

  8. Using the Internet To Promote Your Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of camps having a World Wide Web site and tips for choosing a Web provider. Offers recommendations for creating a Web page, including determining a goal, outlining content, choosing a graphic style and colors, testing the Web design, and promoting the Web site in camp brochures. Includes sample Web sites and Web resources.…

  9. Developing Partnerships to Promote Local Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…

  10. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  11. "Concreteness Fading" Promotes Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that educators should avoid concrete instantiations when the goal is to promote transfer. However, concrete instantiations may benefit transfer in the long run, particularly if they are "faded" into more abstract instantiations. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to learn a mathematical concept in one of three…

  12. Nectarine promotes longevity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative damage and gradual decline of physiology function with age, and is modulated by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Functional fruits are thought to be ideal candidates for promoting longevity and healthspan due to their high contents of polypheno...

  13. Health promotion viewed in a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect critically on the current health promotion initiatives targeting overweight individuals in Western countries. The paper's methodological approach is to draw on analytical findings from my and other sociologists' empirical work on how the problems of overweight people are being defined in various settings in Denmark, England, Australia and the US. I try to illustrate how health promotion targeting overweight individuals can not only be seen as a project aimed at securing longer lives and fewer illnesses for people carrying excess fat but also a moral project that, in a more general sense, aims to tell people how they ought to live their lives. I link this moral aspect of health promotion to a) the medicalization tendency in current Western society (e.g. a growing pharmaceutical industry and its economic interest in transforming the human condition of being overweight into a treatable disorder) and b) the strong focus on individual risk today. One of the main arguments in the paper is that health in relation to overweight is primarily defined from a biomedical perspective that praises certain physical measurements of the body, as well as dominant societal values such as  self-responsibility and self-control, and that a combination of biomedicine and these dominating values can lead to health promotion becoming a problematic moral endeavour. PMID:25416571

  14. Promoting screening mammography: insight or uptake?

    PubMed

    Keen, John D

    2010-01-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force has emphasized individualized decision-making regarding participation in screening mammography for women ages 40 to 49. Positive public opinion regarding screening mammography is understandable given that screening advocates have heavily promoted the slogan "early detection saves lives" while ignoring screening harms. The goal of mammography screening advocates is to increase screening participation or uptake. The purpose of this paper is to promote physician and patient insight by presenting the age-related benefit and harms of screening. At age 50, routine screening saves approximately 1 woman per 1000 over 10 years. The life-saving proportion of screen-detected cancers is 5%, which means mammograms must detect 21 cancers to save one life. Almost half of screen-detected cancers represent pseudo-disease and would never become symptomatic yet alone lethal during a woman's lifetime. Consequently, 40- and 50-year-old women are 10 times more likely to experience overdiagnosis and overtreatment than to have their lives saved. Analysis of events and outcomes per single screening round for women ages 40 to 49 show that approximately 9600 screening mammograms, 960 diagnostic exams, and 90 to 140 biopsies are required to save one life. Given the substantial harms of screening, advocates should refocus their priority from promoting uptake to promoting insight. PMID:21057074

  15. Promoting Active Involvement in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…

  16. Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

  17. Waging a Battle to Promote Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Suzanne Liacos

    2010-01-01

    As advocates for reading, librarians cannot help but love a reading program. In this article, the author talks about the Battle of the Books, a reading enrichment program that had been in place since 1996. Battle of the Books promotes reading among middle school students by offering interesting books and a trivia-type competition. The author…

  18. Directors of Health Promotion and Education

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welcome to the Directors of Health Promotion and Education (DHPE) News & Updates more &amp;amp; ... 15/2016 » 10/16/2016 18th Annual Health Education Advocacy Summit 3/22/2017 » 3/24/2017 ...

  19. PASS: Promoting Academic Student Success. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kenneth; Sonner, Bruce

    Active between 1993 and 1996, the Promoting Academic Student Success (PASS) Program was aimed at reducing the high percentage of failure experienced by academic probation students at Corning Community College (New York). These students typically came from non supportive environments, possessed academic deficiencies, and suffered from feelings of…

  20. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  1. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  2. Environmental Health Promotion: Progress and Future Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…

  3. Promoting Mathematical Discourse: Learning from Classroom Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouchehri, Azita; Enderson, Mary C.

    1999-01-01

    Recommends that mathematics instruction should promote student discourse by orchestrating situations in which each individual's thinking is challenged and asking students to clarify and justify ideas. Provides a vignette of a heterogeneously grouped seventh-grade mathematics class to illustrate the process of mathematical discourse. (ASK)

  4. Simulations Promote Understanding of Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caren; Mandell, Colleen

    1989-01-01

    Presented are suggestions for simulations for students in grades 3-12, designed to promote an understanding of how individuals with handicaps cope and adapt to their disability. Simulation ideas include toothbrushing while blindfolded and dressing with socks covering the hands. A participant's reaction form and an observer's reaction form are…

  5. Promoting Physical Activity in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Joel; Lindsay, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Douglas M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The principle barriers preventing health care professionals from promoting physical activity include an incomplete understanding of the evidence linking physical activity and health, difficulty in translating research findings into a feasible and efficacious clinical intervention, resistance to adopting a preventive orientation, and concerns about the risks of physical activity. Low level activities likely provide benefit with little risk. PMID:21229089

  6. Promoting Sex Education for a Healthy Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitsev, G. K.; Zaitsev, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The increased rates of deviations in sexual behavior among young people and the number of divorces among young married families provide evidence of the urgent relevance of valeological/health-promoting sex education for the young people of Russia. This article discusses scientific and practical experience from the implementation of program…

  7. Building Community for Effective Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.; Engstrom, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Health promotion on campuses has two audiences or targets: individuals and the community. Through strategies of leadership, consensus development, and community service, college and university communities cannot only change social norms, but more critically, found and nurture a flexible, gentle network of caring and connectedness that pulls people…

  8. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.550 Section 314.550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Accelerated Approval of New Drugs for Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses §...

  9. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.640 Section 314.640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible...

  10. Promoting wellness of peer providers through coaching.

    PubMed

    Brice, George H; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Gill, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Peer wellness coaching is workforce innovation that empowers individuals with mental and substance use disorders to achieve recovery. This article briefly describes how this approach can help peer providers develop self-care skills to improve job tenure and promote satisfaction. Promising results of this new approach are presented. PMID:24102840

  11. How Parents Can Promote School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofany, Vincent L.

    1982-01-01

    The president of the National Safety Council suggests ways that parents can promote school bus safety, with emphasis on preventing accidents outside the bus. Parents can explain safety rules to their children and work with their parent teacher associations and school administrators to plan and enforce safety regulations. (PP)

  12. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... initial publication of the advertisement....

  13. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... initial publication of the advertisement....

  14. Promoting Active Lifestyles--A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Deb; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of articles that address the theme of promoting active lifestyles through education. Some topics are facilities and equipment, how fear plays a part in limiting participation in physical activity, working with disabled as well as aging persons, the use of water activities, and instructor accountability. (GLR)

  15. Mental Health Promotion Education in Multicultural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2003-01-01

    A mental health promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mental health and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  16. Method for promoting Michael addition reactions

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Pankaj V.; Vietti, David E.; Whitman, David William

    2010-09-21

    Homogeneously dispersed solid reaction promoters having an average particle size from 0.01 .mu.m to 500 .mu.m are disclosed for preparing curable mixtures of at least one Michael donor and at least one Michael acceptor. The resulting curable mixtures are useful as coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.

  17. Engineering of core promoter regions enables the construction of constitutive and inducible promoters in Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Li, Teng; Ji, Weiyue; Wang, Qiuyue; Zhang, Haoqian; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Lou, Chunbo; Ouyang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Halomonas strain TD01, a newly identified halophilic bacterium, has proven to be a promising low-cost host for the production of chemicals. However, genetic manipulation in Halomonas sp. is still difficult due to the lack of well-characterized and tunable expression systems. In this study, a systematic, efficient method was exploited to construct both a constitutive promoter library and inducible promoters. Porin, a highly expressed protein in Halomonas TD01, was first identified from the Halomonas TD01 proteome. Subsequent study of the intergenic region upstream of porin led to the identification of a core promoter region, including -10 and -35 elements. By randomizing the sequence between the -35 and -10 elements, a constitutive promoter library was obtained with 310-fold variation in transcriptional activity; an inducible promoter with a >200-fold induction was built by integrating a lac operator into the core promoter region. As two complementary expression systems, the constitutive and inducible promoters were then employed to regulate the biosynthetic pathway of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Halomonas TD01, demonstrating the usefulness of the expression systems, furthermore, they could be applied in future metabolic engineering of Halomonas TD strains, and the systematic method used in this study can be generalized to other less-characterized bacterial strains. PMID:26332342

  18. Institutional Barriers and Strategies to Health Promotion: Perspectives and Experiences of Cape Verdean Women Health Promoters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promoters are critical resources in improving health care access and in providing culturally-responsive health education and interventions to members of medically underserved communities. Little is known about the barriers that impede their health-promoting practices and the strategies used to overcome these barriers. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters to examine their perspectives on barriers and strategies to health promotion. Results Findings revealed how their health promotion practice is influenced by a host of institutional barriers, including insufficient program funding, restrictive institutional policies, and a lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate health resources. Adaptive and resistant strategies used to counterbalance these barriers included forming supportive internal and external alliances, having a good mentor, and “making noise.” Discussion A complete and effective model of health promotion must embrace not only individual-level factors, but also macro-level factors, thus emphasizing the need for institutional change to enhance health-promoting practices. PMID:18307042

  19. TERT Promoter Mutations in Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Ali S; Alsaadi, Rawan; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Sadiq, Bakr Bin

    2016-06-01

    Two mutations (C228T and C250T) in the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have recently been described in different types of cancer including follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer (TC). In this paper, we reviewed the rates of these mutations in different types and subtypes of TC, their association with a number of clinical and histopathological features and outcome of TC, and their potential diagnostic and prognostic roles in TC. The overall rate of these mutations in TC is about 14 % with least prevalence in the well-differentiated subtypes of papillary thyroid cancer (10-13 %). Their rates increase significantly with increasing aggressiveness of TC reaching about 40 % in the undifferentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers. There is also clear association with increasing age of patients at the time of diagnosis of TC. The evidence is compelling but with some conflicting results for associations between TERT promoter mutations and tumor size, extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastases, high tumor TNM stage, BRAF (V600E) mutation, recurrence, and mortality. A couple of studies reported a potential diagnostic role for TERT promoter mutations in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology of fine needle aspiration biopsy. These studies showed 100 % specificity but very low sensitivity of 7-10 %. The sensitivity increases significantly when TERT promoter mutation testing is combined with other gene mutations, particularly BRAF (V600E) and RAS mutations. Although TERT promoter mutations seem to play significant roles in the pathogenesis of TC, the mechanisms by which they contribute to carcinogenesis remain elusive and future work is needed to fully assess the roles, interactions, and impact of these mutations on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics of TC. PMID:26902827

  20. Developing a promotional strategy: important questions for social marketing.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L

    2007-10-01

    Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative. PMID:17982003

  1. The Realities of Management Promotion. An Investigation of Factors Influencing the Promotion of Managers in Three Major Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Marian N.; Ohlott, Patricia J.

    Promotions, particularly management promotions, play an important role in organizations. Despite their importance for both individuals and organizations, little is known about how and why most promotions occur. This publication presents findings of a study that examined 64 promotions that occurred in three Fortune 500 companies from 1986-89. The…

  2. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Design Systematic review. Data sources Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled “before and after” experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Results Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of “environmentally friendly” modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Conclusions Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to

  3. Cloning of a marine cyanobacterial promoter for foreign gene expression using a promoter probe vector

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Koji; Hatano, Naoaki; Tatara, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    A marine cyanobacterial promoter was cloned to allow efficient foreign gene expression. This was carried out using chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) as a marker protein. For rapid and simple measurement of CAT activity, a method based on a fluorescently labeled substrate was improved by utilizing HPLC equipped with a flow-through fluorescent spectrophotometer. This method was used in conjunction with a newly constructed promoter probe vector. Cyanobacterial transformants, harboring plasmid containing a cloned 2-kbp marine cyanobacterial genomic fragment, showed a 10-fold higher CAT activity, compared with that achieved using the kanamycin-resistant gene promoter. From the sequence analysis of the cloned fragment, a putative promoter region was found. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  5. Promoters of Escherichia coli versus Promoter Islands: Function and Structure Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Panyukov, Valeriy V.; Ozoline, Olga N.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of bacterial genes takes place under the control of RNA polymerase with exchangeable σ-subunits and multiple transcription factors. A typical promoter region contains one or several overlapping promoters. In the latter case promoters have the same or different σ-specificity and are often subjected to different regulatory stimuli. Genes, transcribed from multiple promoters, have on average higher expression levels. However, recently in the genome of Escherichia coli we found 78 regions with an extremely large number of potential transcription start points (promoter islands, PIs). It was shown that all PIs interact with RNA polymerase in vivo and are able to form transcriptionally competent open complexes both in vitro and in vivo but their transcriptional activity measured by oligonucleotide microarrays was very low, if any. Here we confirmed transcriptional defectiveness of PIs by analyzing the 5′-end specific RNA-seq data, but showed their ability to produce short oligos (9–14 bases). This combination of functional properties indicated a deliberate suppression of transcriptional activity within PIs. According to our data this suppression may be due to a specific conformation of the DNA double helix, which provides an ideal platform for interaction with both RNA polymerase and the histone-like nucleoid protein H-NS. The genomic DNA of E.coli contains therefore several dozen sites optimized by evolution for staying in a heterochromatin-like state. Since almost all promoter islands are associated with horizontally acquired genes, we offer them as specific components of bacterial evolution involved in acquisition of foreign genetic material by turning off the expression of toxic or useless aliens or by providing optimal promoter for beneficial genes. The putative molecular mechanism underlying the appearance of promoter islands within recipient genomes is discussed. PMID:23717391

  6. Promotion Assistance Tool for Mobile Phone Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intraprasert, P.; Jatikul, N.; Chantrapornchai, C.

    In this paper, we propose an application tool to help analyze the usage of a mobile phone for a typical user. From the past usage, the tool can analyze the promotion that is suitable for the user which may save the total expense. The application consists of both client and server side. On the server side, the information for each promotion package for a phone operator is stored as well as the usage database for each client. The client side is a user interface for both phone operators and users to enter their information. The analysis engine are based on KNN, ANN, decision tree and Naïve Bayes models. For comparison, it is shown that KNN and decision outperforms the others.

  7. Highlighting relatedness promotes prosocial motives and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pavey, Louisa; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sparks, Paul

    2011-07-01

    According to self-determination theory, people have three basic psychological needs: relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Of these, the authors reasoned that relatedness need satisfaction is particularly important for promoting prosocial behavior because of the increased sense of connectedness to others that this engenders. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated relatedness, autonomy, competence, or gave participants a neutral task, and found that highlighting relatedness led to higher interest in volunteering and intentions to volunteer relative to the other conditions. Experiment 2 found that writing about relatedness experiences promoted feelings of connectedness to others, which in turn predicted greater prosocial intentions. Experiment 3 found that relatedness manipulation participants donated significantly more money to charity than did participants given a neutral task. The results suggest that highlighting relatedness increases engagement in prosocial activities and are discussed in relation to the conflict and compatibility between individual and social outcomes. PMID:21521720

  8. Cu(II) Promotes Amyloid Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. PMID:26129772

  9. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion. PMID:21297902

  11. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote critical thinking. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) from 1933 to 2002 for literature related to critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, questioning, and various critical-thinking pedagogic techniques. Data Synthesis: The development of critical thinking has been the topic of many educational articles recently. Numerous instructional methods exist to promote thought and active learning in the classroom, including case studies, discussion methods, written exercises, questioning techniques, and debates. Three methods—questioning, written exercises, and discussion and debates—are highlighted. Conclusions/Recommendations: The definition of critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, and different teaching strategies are featured. Although not appropriate for all subject matter and classes, these learning strategies can be used and adapted to facilitate critical thinking and active participation. PMID:16558680

  12. Health Promoting Hospitals Model in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YAGHOUBI, Maryam; JAVADI, Marzieh; BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; RAVANGARD, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitals are the central entity of each health care system and Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) was launched by WHO in 1988. However, there has not been any accurate and detailed model for establishing a HPH in Iran up to now. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors affecting the establishment of a health promoting hospital in Iran using factor analysis method. Methods: This applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Iran in four steps. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used for determining factors affecting the establishment of a HPH. Results: Society (0.97) and Policy (0.74) had the highest regression weights (effects) and management had the lowest one. Conclusion: Community assessment was the most important dimension of proposed conceptual model for establishing a HPH. PMID:27141499

  13. Promoting breastfeeding at a migrant health center.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S A; Kaufman, M

    1988-01-01

    A program to promote breastfeeding was introduced at a migrant health center in North Carolina. Strategies for promoting breastfeeding as a feeding method particularly suited to the migrant lifestyle were identified and implemented. Donated layettes were used to encourage attendance of prenatal patients at a class on breastfeeding. Women planning to breastfeed were given cards to alert the delivering hospital of their intention. These hospitals were provided with bilingual flipcharts to use in communicating with non-English speaking patients. Of the 158 women who came to the center for one or more prenatal visits, 101 attended a class or received individual counseling on breastfeeding; during this 13-month period, 52 per cent of 64 women who attended the class were breastfeeding at time of their hospital discharge (Mexican-Americans 60%, Black Americans 44%). In a comparison of similar ethnic distribution, the corresponding rate was 10%. PMID:3354735

  14. Promoting Adult Pertussis Vaccination in the Workplace.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Bainum, Jennifer L; Beckstrand, Renea L; Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Saunders, Brooke

    2016-06-01

    Vaccines are an important disease prevention strategy among individuals of all age groups. Despite the success of vaccinations in preventing communicable diseases, adults, in particular, often have sub-optimal vaccination rates. Consequently, some vaccine-preventable diseases, such as pertussis, are still on the rise in the United States despite the availability of the Tdap vaccine. As most adults can be found in the workplace, occupational and environmental health nurses are in a unique position to encourage employers to promote adequate Tdap vaccination among their employees. As specific resources regarding Tdap vaccination are lacking, the Pertussis Prevention Toolkit was developed to help occupational health nurses promote Tdap vaccination in the workplace. PMID:27217084

  15. Using franking machine messages to promote health.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J

    1988-01-01

    Over a 12-month period, the Oxfordshire Health Unit experimented with the addition of four different health promotion messages to all franked mail leaving the unit. Each message was evaluated by enclosing a return questionnaire in a sample of the mail. More than half the respondents read the messages (before seeing the questionnaire). Of all those who read the messages, 40 per cent said they would take some action as a result. Four out of five people thought the idea a good one. Using the evaluation results--including observed differences between the messages--some guidelines were created on the use of this relatively cost-effective form of health promotion. PMID:10288143

  16. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technolo gy has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the bum criterion from 15 cm (6 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for ASTM G 124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior- of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-bum thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  17. Promoter analysis of influenza virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Parvin, J D; Palese, P; Honda, A; Ishihama, A; Krystal, M

    1989-01-01

    Influenza virus polymerase, which was prepared depleted of viral RNA, was used to copy small RNA templates prepared from plasmid-encoded sequences. Template constructions containing only the 3' end of genomic RNA were shown to be efficiently copied, indicating that the promoter lay solely within the 15-nucleotide 3' terminus. Sequences not specific for the influenza virus termini were not copied, and, surprisingly, RNAs containing termini identical to those from plus-sense cRNA were copied at low levels. The specificity for recognition of the virus sense promoter was further defined by site-specific mutagenesis. It was also found that increased levels of viral protein were required in order to catalyze both the cap endonuclease-primed and primer-free RNA synthesis from these model templates, as well as from genomic-length RNAs. This finding indicates that the reconstituted system has catalytic properties very similar to those of native viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. Images PMID:2585601

  18. Food for creativity: tyrosine promotes deep thinking.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; de Haan, Annelies M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that creative people sometimes use food to overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration, but empirical support for this possibility is still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is promoted by the food supplement L-Tyrosine (TYR)-a biochemical precursor of dopamine, which is assumed to drive cognitive control and creativity. We found no evidence for an impact of TYR on divergent thinking ("brainstorming") but it did promote convergent ("deep") thinking. As convergent thinking arguably requires more cognitive top-down control, this finding suggests that TYR can facilitate control-hungry creative operations. Hence, the food we eat may affect the way we think. PMID:25257259

  19. Promoting Institutional Change Through Bias Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Molly; Devine, Patricia G.; Isaac, Carol; Manwell, Linda Baier; Ford, Cecelia E.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Fine, Eve; Sheridan, Jennifer Thurik

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and others conclude that institutional transformation is required to ensure equal opportunities for the participation and advancement of men and women in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Such transformation requires changing the habitual attitudes and behaviors of faculty. Approaching implicit bias as a remediable habit, we present the theoretical basis and conceptual model underpinning an educational intervention to promote bias literacy among university faculty as a step toward institutional transformation regarding gender equity. We describe the development and implementation of a Bias Literacy Workshop in detail so others can replicate or adapt it to their setting. Of the 220 (167 faculty and 53 nonfaculty) attendees from the initial 17 departments/divisions offered this workshop, all 180 who completed a written evaluation found the workshop at least “somewhat useful” and 74% found it “very useful.” Over 68% indicated increased knowledge of the workshop material. Of the 186 participants who wrote a commitment to engage in new activities to promote gender equity, 87% incorporated specific workshop content. Twenty-four participants were interviewed 4–6 months after attending the workshop; 75% of these not only demonstrated increased bias awareness, but described plans to change—or had actually changed—behaviors because of the workshop. Based on our sample of faculty from a Midwestern university, we conclude that at least one third of STEMM faculty who are invited will attend a 2.5-hr Bias Literacy Workshop, that nearly all will find it useful, and that most will complete a written commitment to promoting gender equity. These findings suggest that this educational intervention may effectively promote institutional change regarding gender equity. PMID:22822416

  20. Management strategies for promoting successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bear, K; Tigges, B B

    1993-06-01

    Clinicians can promote a successful breastfeeding experience by providing support, anticipatory guidance and practical information. This article presents the components of early follow-up and guidelines for assessment. Management strategies for common problems are discussed, such as nipple soreness, cracked nipples, plugged ducts and mastitis, insufficient infant weight gain, perceived inadequacy of milk supply, breast-milk jaundice, sexual adjustment and failure at breastfeeding. Breastfeeding guidelines for employed mothers and adoptive mothers are indicated. PMID:8341432

  1. Promoting health literacy with orofacial myofunctional patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Hope C

    2007-11-01

    The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society. PMID:18942479

  2. Toward a post-Charter health promotion.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    The past 25 years have seen enormous shifts in the environmental, political, economic and social landscapes that condition people's abilities to be healthy. Climate change is now a reality. China, India, Brazil and other 'developing' countries are emerging as new axes of political and economic power. Global capitalism has become increasingly predatory and crisis ridden, a result of unregulated and irresponsible greed of unimaginable scale. The elite response has been the increased erosion of the health and other social protection policies of redistribution that characterized the first-world run-up to the Ottawa Charter. These new realities challenge health promoters in ways unforeseen a quarter century ago. It is imperative that local determinants of health, to which health promoters give their attention, be traced to broader, even global levels of determinants. Support for groups acting at these levels should become a fundamental practice tenet. So, too, should advocacy for the social state, in which progressive taxation and hefty social investment blunt the health inequalities created by unfettered markets. As environmental and economic insecurities and inequalities increase in many of the world's countries, so does the risk of xenophobia and conflict. The roots of racism are complex; but weeding them out becomes another health promotion practice of the new millennium. There are some hopeful signs of health promoting political change, much of it emanating now from countries in the global South; but the threat of a return to health behaviourism in the face of the new global pandemic of chronic disease is real and must be confronted. PMID:22080072

  3. [Health promotion actions in a prison environment].

    PubMed

    Dechet, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Prisoners must be able to benefit from the same level of healthcare as the general population. With this objective in mind, nurses from the consultations and outpatient care unit (UCSA) of La Santé prison in Paris take part in the development of health promotion actions. Active participation methods are favoured in order to encourage prisoners to become involved in protecting their health. PMID:22489423

  4. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  5. Promoting positive outcomes in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Troia, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    Obese patients are seen in every practice setting. Obesity is a chronic disease that may lead to physical and emotional problems, which may have an impact on the social and psychological functioning of the patient. With appropriate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative precautions; monitoring; and restructuring the environment to promote care and safety, the incidence of poor surgical outcomes can be minimized. This paper will address the significance of obesity, related diseases, and proper care of the obese patient. PMID:12035338

  6. Advertising and promotion of smokeless tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Ernster, V L

    1989-01-01

    This paper is focused on the approaches used to advertise and promote smokeless tobacco products during the early to mid-1980s. These included traditional motifs that featured rugged-looking masculine models in sporting and outdoor settings as well as an expanded white-collar appeal. Smokeless tobacco was not affected by the ban on broadcast advertising of cigarettes that went into effect in 1971, and, until 1986, both print and broadcast media were used to advertise it. Promotional activities ranged from sponsorship of sporting events to offers for clothing bearing smokeless tobacco product logos. Despite the claims of manufacturers that advertising and promotional efforts were not targeted to youth, smokeless tobacco companies sponsored tobacco-spitting contests with teenage participants, a college marketing program, and college scholarships. In efforts that appeared designed to bolster their public image in the face of growing concern over the consequences of smokeless tobacco use by young people, companies like U.S. Tobacco Company contributed to major social programs, including, ironically, alcohol- and drug-abuse prevention programs. Spurred by public health groups, federal legislation was passed in 1986 that banned television and radio advertising of smokeless tobacco products and required manufacturers to include warning labels on their products on the potential health hazards of smokeless tobacco use. PMID:2654652

  7. Urban issues in health promotion strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, L C; Snell, E; McGinnis, M

    2000-01-01

    The powerful influence of behavioral choices on health status is well established. The implications and challenges for urban populations are formidable. Understanding urban environments will better prepare health promotion professionals to deal effectively with the forces affecting health-related behaviors. In thinking about urban health promotion in the United States, researchers often distinguish between 2 frameworks; one contending with urbanization, which affects most of us, and another contending with inner-city environments, where many of the deepest needs are. Urbanization confers both benefits and liabilities, but the single greatest challenge for health promotion may lie in reestablishing positive social connections. In contrast, 2 key features of the inner-city environment may be the negative ecological forces within neighborhoods and the lack of control over one's fate. Too often, prescriptions for the inner city stereotype its problems and ignore its strengths. For the inner city, important foundation stones for the future include ways to build on these strengths through positive connections and increased community control through coalition building. PMID:10846502

  8. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research. PMID:24670764

  9. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  10. Mental health promotion: guidance and strategies.

    PubMed

    Kalra, G; Christodoulou, G; Jenkins, R; Tsipas, V; Christodoulou, N; Lecic-Tosevski, D; Mezzich, J; Bhugra, D

    2012-02-01

    Public mental health incorporates a number of strategies from mental well-being promotion to primary prevention and other forms of prevention. There is considerable evidence in the literature to suggest that early interventions and public education can work well for reducing psychiatric morbidity and resulting burden of disease. Educational strategies need to focus on individual, societal and environmental aspects. Targeted interventions at individuals will also need to focus on the whole population. A nested approach with the individual at the heart of it surrounded by family surrounded by society at large is the most suitable way to approach this. This Guidance should be read along with the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) Guidance on Prevention. Those at risk of developing psychiatric disorders also require adequate interventions as well as those who may have already developed illness. However, on the model of triage, mental health and well-being promotion need to be prioritized to ensure that, with the limited resources available, these activities do not get forgotten. One possibility is to have separate programmes for addressing concerns of a particular population group, another that is relevant for the broader general population. Mental health promotion as a concept is important and this will allow prevention of some psychiatric disorders and, by improving coping strategies, is likely to reduce the burden and stress induced by mental illness. PMID:22197146

  11. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  12. Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Norhanom, A. W.; Yadav, M.

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codiaeum variegatum (L) Bl, Euphorbia atoto and Exocoecaria agallocha, EBV-inducing activity was observed when the plant extracts were tested at low concentrations of between 0.2 and 1.2 micrograms ml-1 in cell culture. This observation warrants attention from the regular users of these plants because regular use of plants with tumour-promoting activity could well be an aetiological factor for the promotion of tumours among rural Malaysian Malays. PMID:7710943

  13. Do remittances promote financial development in Africa?

    PubMed

    Karikari, Nana Kwasi; Mensah, Sam; Harvey, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    The paper seeks to establish whether or not remittances promoted financial developments and explore the traceable causality between remittances and financial developments in some countries in Africa. We examine the association between remittances received and how they affect the availability of credit to private sector, bank deposits intermediated by financial institutions and money supply. We also question whether the development in the financial sector causes higher levels or otherwise of remittances received. This paper uses data on remittance flows to 50 developing countries in Africa from 1990 to 2011 to explore the nexus. The study uses fixed effects and random effect estimations as well as Vector Error Correction Model method on the panel data. The study shows that remittances promote certain aspects of financial development to some extent and better financial system foster receipts of remittances. The effect of causality is seen in the short run and not in the long-run. The study alludes to literature that remittances could promote financial development in the short run and the development of the financial sector helps increase the propensity to remit via formal channels. PMID:27398284

  14. Health promotion: private voluntary organisations in action.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J P

    1998-01-01

    Since the country's independence in 1947, India has come a long way in its efforts to improve health services. One initiative taken by the Government is the involvement of private voluntary organizations (PVOs) in the health promotion activity. Several grant-in-aid schemes have been initiated, whereby PVOs obtain government funding for the provision of services and the promotion of health and family welfare activities. The US Agency for International Development has supported the government in this endeavor. Keeping these in mind, Tamil Nadu Voluntary Health Association, a state-level association of voluntary health organizations such as hospitals, dispensaries and community-based health organizations, worked out a proposal for support and collaboration with the Government of India. This association aims to promote health through networking and coordinating with voluntary organizations, strengthening of nongovernmental organization activities, collection and dissemination of relevant information, lobbying, campaigning and liaisoning for health issues. This article highlights the experience of the Association in conceiving and carrying out its proposal/project. In particular, it describes the planning and implementation of the Integrated Project for Development of Primary Health Care and Women's Welfare in Tamil Nadu as well as the achievements of the project. The main goal of this project is to coordinate with various levels of health services to improve the health status of rural Tamil Nadu. PMID:12349576

  15. Noisy signaling through promoter logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstung, Moritz; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the influence of noisy transcription factor signals on cis-regulatory promoter elements. These elements process the probability of binary binding events analogous to computer logic gates. At equilibrium, this probability is given by the so-called input function. We show that transcription factor noise causes deviations from the equilibrium value due to the nonlinearity of the input function. For a single binding site, the correction is always negative resulting in an occupancy below the mean-field level. Yet for more complex promoters it depends on the correlation of the transcription factor signals and the geometry of the input function. We present explicit solutions for the basic types of AND and OR gates. The correction size varies among these different types of gates and signal types, mainly being larger in AND gates and for correlated fluctuations. In all cases we find excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. We also study the E. coli Lac operon as an example of an AND NOR gate. We present a consistent mathematical method that allows one to separate different sources of noise and quantifies their effect on promoter occupation. A surprising result of our analysis is that Poissonian molecular fluctuations, in contrast to external fluctuations, do no contribute to the correction.

  16. TERT promoter mutations in primary liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Nault, Jean-Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing has drawn the genetic landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma and several signaling pathways are altered at the DNA level in tumors: Wnt/β-catenin, cell cycle regulator, epigenetic modifier, histone methyltransferase, oxidative stress, ras/raf/map kinase and akt/mtor pathways. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process starting with the exposure to different risk factors, followed by the development of a chronic liver disease and cirrhosis precede in the vast majority of the cases the development of HCC. Several lines of evidence have underlined the pivotal role of telomere maintenance in both cirrhosis and HCC pathogenesis. TERT promoter mutations were identified as the most frequent genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma with an overall frequency around 60%. Moreover, in cirrhosis, TERT promoter mutations are observed at the early steps of hepatocarcinogenesis since they are recurrently identified in low-grade and high-grade dysplastic nodules. In contrast, acquisition of genomic diversity through mutations of classical oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CTNNB1, ARID1A…) occurred only in progressed HCC. In normal liver, a subset of HCC can derived from the malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). In HCA, CTNNB1 mutations predispose to transformation of HCA in HCC and TERT promoter mutations are required in most of the cases as a second hit for a full malignant transformation. All these findings have refined our knowledge of HCC pathogenesis and have pointed telomerase as a target for tailored therapy in the future. PMID:26336998

  17. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  18. Chondroitin Sulfate Promotes Activation of Cathepsin K*

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Peter A.; Huang, Lingyi; Zhuo, Ya; Lu, Jun; Bahnck, Carolyn; Stachel, Shawn J.; Carroll, Steve S.; Duong, Le T.

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK), a major lysosomal collagenase produced by osteoclasts, plays an important role in bone resorption. Evidence exists that the collagenase activity of CatK is promoted by chondroitin sulfate (CS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan. This study examines the role of CS in facilitating CatK activation. We have demonstrated that chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4-S) promotes autoprocessing of the pro-domain of CatK at pH ≤ 5, leading to a fully matured enzyme with collagenase and peptidase activities. We present evidence to demonstrate this autoactivation process is a trans-activation event that is efficiently inhibited by both the covalent cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and the reversible selective CatK inhibitor L-006,235. During bone resorption, CatK and C4-S are co-localized at the ruffled border between osteoclast bone interface, supporting the proposal that CatK activation is accomplished through the combined action of the acidic environment together with the presence of a high concentration of C4-S. Formation of a multimeric complex between C4-S and pro-CatK has been speculated to accelerate CatK autoactivation and promote efficient collagen degradation. Together, these results demonstrate that CS plays an important role in contributing to the enhanced efficiency of CatK collagenase activity in vivo. PMID:24958728

  19. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  20. Regulation of Internal Promoters in a Zinc-Responsive Operon Is Influenced by Transcription from Upstream Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Mauro; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Camargo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (also known as Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120), a zinc-responsive operon (all4725-all4721) has been described, which contains 4 distinct promoters. The two most upstream ones bind Zur with high affinity, whereas the other two do not or do so with a very low affinity. In this paper, a detailed characterization of the four promoters is presented, showing that all four were induced by metal depletion, and they were constitutively derepressed in a zur mutant, despite the two downstream promoters not being direct targets for this regulator. Crucially, induction by metal depletion of the two downstream promoters was abrogated when transcription initiated at the upstream promoters was interrupted by a polar insertion midway in the operon. In contrast, insertion of a nitrogen-responsive promoter at a roughly similar position provoked the two downstream promoters to adopt a regulatory pattern mimicking that of the inserted promoter. Thus, regulation of the two downstream promoters is apparently influenced by transcription from promoters upstream. Evidence is presented indicating that the activity of the two downstream promoters is kept basal in Anabaena by repression. A regulatory model compatible with these results is proposed, where promoters controlled by repression in bacterial operons may be subjected to a hierarchical regulation depending on their position in the operon. According to this model, internal promoters may respond to stimuli governing the activity of promoters upstream by an indirect regulation and to specific stimuli by a direct regulation. PMID:23316045