Science.gov

Sample records for kudzu pueraria lobata

  1. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  2. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  3. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  4. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  5. Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on the expansion and size of kudzu (pueraria lobata) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sasek, T.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of kudzu were grown at 350, 675, or 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ in controlled-environment chambers. At elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations, maximum leaf expansion rates were approximately 40% greater, leaves were fully expanded several days sooner, fully expanded leaves were larger at each leaf position, and leaf production rates were increased 12%. Peak starch accumulation was much greater in plants grown at elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations. Total xylem water potentials were higher (less negative) at full hydration, and osmotic potentials were decreased (more negative) by CO/sub 2/ enrichment. At 1000 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/, leaf trigger pressure was twice that at 350 ..mu..l/L CO/sub 2/. Results suggest that leaf expansion rates and leaf expansivity may have been increased due to higher trigger pressure at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The potential for successful seedling establishment may be enhanced as the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration continues to rise, increasing kudzu invasiveness.

  6. Isoflavonoids production in callus culture of Pueraria tuberosa, the Indian kudzu.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Kamlesh; Goyal, Shaily; Ramawat, K G

    2006-12-01

    Isoflavonoid contents of different plant parts and callus tissues of the Indian Kudzu, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.ex.Willd.) DC are presented. The initial cultures were slow growing, associated with browning of the tissues. The production of four isoflavonoids (puerarin, genistin, genistein and daidzein) in the callus cultures of P. tuberosa was studied by manipulating the plant growth regulators and sucrose concentration in the medium. Organogenesis was not recorded in callus on any of these treatments. Tuber and stem accumulated puerarin, a glycoside of daidzein, at high amounts, 0.65% and 0.054% respectively. However, the daidzein content of the callus tissues grown on Murashige and Skoog medium containing BA (20.9 microM) and sucrose (60 gl(-1)) was significantly higher (0.056%) than in vivo plant material (0.02%) and other comparable culture systems like Genista and Pueraria lobata. PMID:17176676

  7. [Study on decocting conditions for Pueraria lobata Ohui in qiweibaizhu bage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y H; Zhang, L Z

    1989-04-01

    Taking the puerarin content---the chief constituent of Pueraria lobata---as the index in the mixed decoction of Pueraria lobata etc, we have adopted the method of orthogon al experiment to explore the best decocting conditions for Pueraria lobata. The results show that a better way to decoct Pueraria lobata is to cut the root into slices of 0.4-0.7 cm, and water 12-15 times the weight of the root and decoct for 30 minutes. It makes no big difference whether the root is soaked or not. PMID:2505803

  8. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking. PMID:25745227

  9. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii. PMID:17202681

  10. Kudzu--Wonder Weed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a high climbing, exceedingly vigorous vine with twining stems (no tendrils or aerial holdfasts). The plant, introduced from the Orient and currently found in southeastern United States, has been known to choke valuable strands of trees, short electrical wires, and even creep up the sides of high rise buildings. Although…

  11. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4'-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4'-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4'-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  12. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  13. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  14. Kudzu Suppression by Herbicides in Two-Year Field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicides are currently the principle means of halting the spread of kudzu (Pueraria montana var lobata) and reclaiming kudzu-infested lands. The efficacy of several herbicides on this invasive weed has been well-established, but these chemicals can be prohibitively expensive, come with significan...

  15. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) Invasion Doubles Emissions of Nitric Oxide, a Precursor to Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Wu, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plants can increase rates of nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, fluxes of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluxes of the ozone precursor nitric oxide (NO). Invasion by the nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) across millions of hectares in the southeastern United States could be contributing to increased ozone concentrations. Ozone formation in the Southeast is broadly limited by atmospheric NO concentrations, so perturbations to the N cycle by kudzu have the potential to increase ozone concentrations in the region. At three sites in Madison County, Georgia, kudzu invasion increased rates of net N mineralization by up to an order of magnitude and rates of net nitrification and soil pools of NO3- and NO2- by up to 500%. Emissions of NO from soils invaded by kudzu averaged 2.81 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1, significantly higher than emissions from soil dominated by native vegetation, which averaged 1.24 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1. Emissions of N2O display a trend towards increasing under kudzu invasion, but N2O emissions at these sites were three orders of magnitude smaller than emissions of NO. Atmospheric chemical modeling suggests that these higher NO emissions could increase ozone concentrations in the region by up to 2 ppb. We propose that kudzu invasion in the southeastern United States represents a novel threat to air quality and could increase the frequency with which federal ozone standards are exceeded.

  16. Interaction of the bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucarria and glyphosate for kudzu control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spore and mycelial formulations of the bioherbicidal fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (MV) were tested alone and in combination with glyphosate for control of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) under greenhouse and field conditions in naturally-infested sites at Lexington and Eden, MS. Control of kudzu increased...

  17. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Jonathan E.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm−2 h−1). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control. PMID:20479252

  18. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract. PMID:26677717

  19. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata. PMID:27097408

  20. The Potential Use of Kudzu as a Biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, tremendous effort has been put forth to identify plants with potential to be used as biofuels. Kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi), while native to the Orient, has proliferated as an invasive weed throughout the Southern U.S. It is currently at or near the top of invasive species lists ...

  1. Effect of invader litter chemistries on soil organic matter compositions: consequences of Polygonum cuspidatum and Pueraria lobata invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharayil, N.; Tamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fixation during photosynthesis forms the precursor of all organic carbon in soil and the predominant source of energy that drives soil microbial processes; hence the molecular identity of the fixed carbon could influence the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). Due to their high resource acquisition and resource use efficiencies, some invasive plants can input disproportionately high quantities of litter that are qualitatively distinctive, and this could influence the accrual of organic carbon and overall carbon cycling in invaded habitats. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. Japanese knotweed produces low litter abundant in polyphenols which selectively hinders microbially mediated decomposition and re-synthesis; whereas kudzu produces low C:N, high quality litter that can stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 5-cm intervals and from inside and outside 15 to 20 year old stands of the invasive species. The novelty of our study was that both of our study species were invading into soils of contrasting substrate qualities relative to the invading litter quality. The molecular composition of carbon in the soils and the degradation stage of the SOM were assessed with a biomarker approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the source of biomolecules (plant or microbes). Stability of SOM fractions was assessed through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, serving as a proxy of biological degradation, followed by stable isotope analysis. Fungal communities dominated the uppermost soils under knotweed whereas kudzu litter suppressed fungal biomass in the top 10-cm. In constrast, increase in active microbial biomass C

  2. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  3. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3'-, 4'- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4'- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3'-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3'-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  4. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

  5. [Rapid discriminant analysis of sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix based on vertical and horizontal surfaces].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Du, Min; Pan, Xiao-ning; Zhao, Na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) was used as rapid analysis method to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. NIR spectra of the cross-sectional and longitudinal selection of samples were acquired. Principal component analysis was conducted. The samples were randomly selected. The different pretreatment methods were compared. Discriminant models were established for every type of spectra to calculate the recognition rate. The orthogonal test and nonparametric test were used to test data normality. The result showed that absorbance values of different sections were different due to the different structure, and the raw spectra were analyzed by PCA method. The result founded that the cumulative contribution rate was arrived at 99.2% while the PC numbers were arrived at 3. The pretreatment method based on the MSC + 1D + Savitzky-Golay was the best to establish the model. For the 50 models constructed with cross-section and longitudinal spectra and total spectra, the recognition rate were (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (95.3 ± 0.65)%, respectively, and no difference was observed. The NIR method could be used to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. PMID:26591520

  6. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-01-01

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products. PMID:25751785

  7. Large scale purification of puerarin from Puerariae Lobatae Radix through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguang, Xin-Cheng; Guo, Yu-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Puerarin is the major isoflavone of Puerariae Lobatae Radix. A method for large scale purification of puerarin was developed through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis. The adsorption properties of six macroporous resins (D101, S-8, H103, X-5, HPD600, AB-8) were compared through the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherms. Results showed that H103 resin had the best adsorption rate and capacity. The mass transfer zone motion model was further used for analyzing the fixed bed adsorption of H103 resin. Its length of mass transfer zone with 2mg/ml of puerarin in water and 10% ethanol at flow rate of 10ml/min were 41.6 and 47.5cm, while the equilibrium adsorption capacity was 165.03 and 102.88mg/g, respectively. By using 75% ethanol, puerarin could be well desorbed from the resin with recovery of 97.4%. Subsequently, H103 resin was successfully used for puerarin purification from Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The content of total isoflavones and puerarin in the resin adsorption product were 69.25% and 41.78%, respectively, which were about three times increased compared to the crude extract. Then, the product was hydrolyzed by 2.5M HCl at 90°C for 1h. Puerarin with purity of 90% and a byproduct daidzein with purity of 78% were obtained. PMID:25553536

  8. Rapid kudzu eradication and switchgrass establishment though herbicide, bioherbicide and integrated programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the most important and visible weeds in the Southeatern U.S. is the exotic invasive vine, kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Efforts to eradicate it typically involve many years of application of restricted-use pesticides. Recent availability of effective, non-restricted use pesticides and...

  9. Comparative susceptibility of kudzu accessions from Southeastern United States to infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first discovered in the United States (U.S.), in the fall of 2004. The potential for economic loss in the U.S. hinges largely on whether or not the pathogen can readily survive winters in the absence of soybean. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata...

  10. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  11. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  12. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Fang, Shih-Hua; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Hsiu, Su-Lan; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chi, Ying-Chang; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC(0-t) by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats. PMID:15936791

  13. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  14. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3′-, 4′- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4′- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3′-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3′-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  15. Mechanism of acid tolerance in a rhizobium strain isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhang; Jian-ping, Gu; Shi-qing, Wei; Ze-yang, Zhou; Chao, Zhang; Yongxiong, Yu

    2011-06-01

    The Rhizobium sp. strain PR389 was isolated from the root nodules of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, which grows in acidic (pH 4.6) yellow soil of the Jinyun Mountains of Beibei, Chongqing, China. While rhizobia generally have a pH range of 6.5-7.5 for optimum growth, strain PR389 grew in a liquid yeast extract - mannitol agar medium at pH 4.6, as well as in a pH 4.1 soil suspension, suggesting acid tolerance in this specific strain of rhizobium . However, at pH 4.6, the lag phase before vigorous growth was 40 h compared with 4 h under neutral conditions (pH 7.0). For PR389, the generation time after the lag phase remained the same at different pH levels despite the different durations of the lag phase. Except in the pH 4.4 treatment, the pH of the culturing media increased from 4.6, 4.8, 5.0, and 5.5 to neutral and slightly alkaline after 70 h of culture. Chloramphenicol was added to determine if protein production was involved in the increasing pH process. Chloramphenicol significantly inhibited PR389 growth under acid stress but had little effect under neutral conditions. Proton flux measured during a short acid shock (pH 3.8) revealed that this strain has an intrinsic ability to prevent H(+) from entering cells when compared with acid-sensitive rhizobia. We propose that the mechanism for acid tolerance in PR389 involves both intracellular and extracellular processes. When the extracellular pH is lower than pH 4.4, the cell membrane blocks hydrogen from entering the cell. When the pH exceeds 4.4, the rhizobium strain has the ability to raise the extracellular pH, thereby, potentially decreasing the toxicity of aluminum in acid soil. PMID:21635219

  16. Acute effect of high-dose isoflavones from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi on lipid and bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Joon; Jun, Hee-jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Hoang, Minh Hien; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the acute metabolic effects of isoflavones from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (IPL) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. After 4 weeks of IPL feeding at 500 mg/day/kg body weight (OVX500), plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were significantly higher (+25%, p < 0.05), whereas plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower in OVX mice (-15%, p < 0.05) compared with controls. Abdominal adipose tissue weight was marginally reduced in IPL-fed groups compared with OVX controls and the plasma levels of liver enzymes were unchanged. In addition, IPL significantly inhibited the reduction of bone mineral density in the femurs of OVX mice (OVX200, +22%; OVX500, +26%; p < 0.05) compared with controls after 4 weeks of IPL feeding. In quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis the expression of aromatase was significantly suppressed and SULT1E1 was increased by IPL feeding, showing that IPL feeding may not alter the risk for breast cancer in mice. Our results suggest that IPL could ameliorate menopausal symptoms in mice. Further studies will confirm the effects of IPL in humans. PMID:22422661

  17. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4′,7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4′-O-mono-glucosides, and 4′,7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4′-O- and 4′,7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4′ and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4′-O-glucosides and 4′,7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  18. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  19. Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Myoung; Yoon, Mi Sook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at 1,000 μg/mL was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or 500 μg/mL PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein β and α mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26191386

  20. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight intercept traps operated from 17 May 2010 to 31 May 2011 in a kudzu field near Athens, GA showed three peaks of adult flight activity suggesting there are two generations per year on kudzu. Vine samples examined for eggs from April 2010 to April 2011 and June to October 2011 showed two periods of oviposition activity in 2010, which coincided with the peaks in adult activity. In 2011, the second period of oviposition began on or before 24 June and then egg abundance declined gradually thereafter until late August when we recovered <2 eggs/0.5 m of vine. Samples of the five nymphal instars and adults on vines did not show similar trends in abundance. Adults did not lay eggs on the various legume species tested in 2010 in a no-choice test possibly because the cages were too small. In the 2011 field host range experiments conducted in a kudzu field by using 12 legume species, M. cribraria preferentially oviposited on kudzu over soybean, Glycine max Merrill., but they still laid 320 eggs per plant on soybean. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. and Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don had 122.2 and 108.4 eggs per plant, respectively. Kudzu and soybean were the only species M. cribraria completed development on. Plots protected from M. cribraria feeding by biweekly insecticide applications had 32.8% more kudzu biomass than unprotected plots. Our results show that M. cribraria has a significant impact on kudzu growth and could help suppress this pest weed. PMID:22525058

  1. Parsing polyphyletic Pueraria: Delimiting distinct evolutionary lineages through phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Cagle, William

    2016-11-01

    Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere). PMID:27495827

  2. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26319677

  3. Identification of the absorptive constituents and their metabolites in vivo of Puerariae Lobatae Radix decoction orally administered in WZS-miniature pigs by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-Le; Wang, Ying-Feng; Yang, Dong-Hui; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Liang, Jing; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) was used to analyze and identify the absorptive constituents and their metabolites in drug-containing urine of Wuzhishan (WZS)-miniature pigs administered with Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) decoction. With the accurate mass measurements (<5 ppm) and effective MS(2) fragment ions, 96 compounds, including eight original constituents and 88 metabolites, were identified from the drug-containing urine. Among these, 64 metabolites were new ones and their structures can be categorized into five types: isoflavones, puerols, O-desmethylangolensins, equols and isoflavanones. In particular, puerol-type constituents in PLR were first proved to be absorptive in vivo. Meanwhile, the metabolic pathways of PLR in vivo were investigated. On the basis of relative content of the identified compounds, 13 major metabolites accounting for approximately 50% of the contents, as well as their corresponding 12 prototype compounds, were determined as the major original absorptive constituents and metabolites of PLR in vivo. The HPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS technique proved to be powerful for characterizing the chemical constituents from the complicated traditional Chinese medicine matrices in this research. PMID:23760803

  4. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  5. Simultaneous determination of ten active components in traditional Chinese medicinal products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qi; Sun, Lan; Zhao, Run-Huai; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to facilitate the quality control of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a new and simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 10 active components in these products has been developed. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C(18) column eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile with gradient elution. The eluent was monitored by a photodiode array UV detector at a wavelength of 250 nm for Gegen components including puerarin, daidzein 8-C-apiosyl-glucoside, daidzin and daidzein, and at 270 nm for Danshen components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIa. Excellent chromatographic separation was achieved for all studied compounds with good linearity (r(2)> 0.999) over the studied concentration ranges. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of the 10 studied compounds in commercially available products containing both Gegen and Danshen. The TCM product samples were extracted by sonication with a mixture of methanol:water (80:20) containing 0.5% acetic acid. Extraction recoveries for all studied compounds were in the range of 96.01-106.18%. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 7.25 and 5.44%, respectively, for all studied compounds. The developed method has not only proved to be effective in the simultaneous determination of the 10 components, but also provides a convenient quality control approach for TCM products containing both Gegen and Danshen. PMID:18438756

  6. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  7. Dual high-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of minor and major constituents directly from the crude extract of Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Qinglei, Sun; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2015-02-27

    The crude methanol extract of Pueraria lobata was investigated by dual high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition and radical scavenging profiling combined with hyphenated HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Direct analysis of the crude extract without preceding purification was facilitated by combining chromatograms from two analytical-scale HPLC separations of 120 and 600 μg on-column, respectively. High-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiles were obtained after microfractionation of the eluate in 96-well microplates. This allowed full bioactivity profiling of individual peaks in the HPLC chromatogram of the crude methanol extract. Subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis allowed identification of 21 known compounds in addition to two new compounds, i.e., 3'-methoxydaidzein 8-C-[α-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 6″-O-malonyl-3'-methoxydaidzin, as well as an unstable compound tentatively identified as 3'-de-O-methylpuerariafuran. PMID:25679337

  8. Light and CO sub 2 effects on photosynthesis and growth in Kudzu

    SciTech Connect

    Schweder, M.; Bowes, G. ); Cure, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata Willd.) was grown for 28 days under four permutations of light (1,500 or 450 {mu}mol quanta m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) and CO{sub 2} (700 or 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}). Total biomass and leaf area were up to 55% and 52% respectively greater in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. When measured at the growth CO{sub 2} concentration, photosynthetic rates showed little reduction over the 28 day period, and remained up to 29% higher in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. Under high light, soluble protein was 27% greater in the plants grown at high CO{sub 2}. Neither light nor CO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the initial or total rubisco activities. However, phosphoribulokinase activity was decreased under the high CO{sub 2} treatments. These data indicate that photosynthesis in kudzu shows little acclimation when grown at elevated CO{sub 2}.

  9. Impact of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in functional toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ERα, ERβ) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm function are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ERβ, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm function implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems. PMID:25828059

  10. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  11. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, T.P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  12. Kudzu response to foliar applied herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical control is presently the most cost-effective means to control kudzu, however, many of the herbicides labeled for kudzu control have substantial non-target toxicity, poor selectivity, high cost, long soil persistence, high soil mobility and / or high use rates. The present study evaluated ot...

  13. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  14. Compatability of a Biological Control Agent with Herbicides for Control of Invasive Plant Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kudzu, Pueraria montana var lobata, is an exotic invasive weed that is difficult to control with available products and management practices. The fungal pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, is being developed as a bioherbicide for kudzu and other invasive vines. This biological control agent might be...

  15. Antiprotozoal activity of Neurolaena lobata.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Passreiter, C M; Cáceres, A; Kubelka, W

    2001-06-01

    Extracts, fractions and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. (Asteraceae), a traditional medicinal plant from Guatemala, were tested in vitro against Leishmania spp. promastigotes, Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and epimastigotes and Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. The ethanol extract inhibited the parasite growth of L. mexicana, T. cruzi and T. vaginalis significantly. The pure germacranolides 1 and a mixture of 2 and 3, isolated from the ethonal extract, were highly active against L. mexicana and T. cruzi. PMID:11406857

  16. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, cause of soybean rust, on Neonotoniz wightii in Paraquay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the cause of soybean rust, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in South America in the district of Itapúa in Paraguay in March, 2001. The disease is now widespread in soybean production areas in South America on soybean and kudzu (Pueraria lobata). On March 15, 2006, l...

  17. Interactions of Quinclorac with a bioherbicidal strain of Myrothecium verrucaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our laboratory, the fungus, Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (IMI Accession No. 3601690) (MV), is being developed as a bioherbicide for kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi] and other invasive weeds. We have found that spore and mycelial formulations of MV exhibit relatively rapid bioher...

  18. Myrothecium verrucaria as a Bioherbicide, and Strategies to Reduce Its Non-Target Risks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted on a Myrothecium verrucaria (MV) strain, originally isolated from sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), that exhibits bioherbicidal activity against kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi] and several other weeds. Treatments of MV plus the surfactant Silwet L-77 caused 100% mortali...

  19. Puerarin, isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.), protects against diabetic nephropathy by attenuating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Zheng, Ni; Chen, Zhaoni; Huang, Wansu; Liang, Tao; Kuang, Hai

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of puerarin (PR) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as 24-hour urine protein levels were effectively ameliorated in DN mice treated with PR (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day). Furthermore, PR treatment markedly resulted in down-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in kidney. Interestingly, the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased by PR. An improvement in kidney tissue damage could be observed after PR administration. Further ultrastructural investigation revealed a dramatically ameliorative effect of PR on mitochondrial damage. Meanwhile, the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and alpha subunit of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) expressions were significantly up-regulated at protein level by PR administration in renal cortex. However, the protein expression of nuclear-factor kappa B (NF-κB) was down-regulated in PR groups. Our present study demonstrates the hypoglycemic and renal protective effects of PR in DN mice, which support its anti-diabetic property. PR exerts its renal protection effect probably via the mechanism of attenuating SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway for renal protection. PMID:27317894

  20. Population census of Megacopta cribraria in kudzu in Georgia, USA, 2013-2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kudzu bug populations, predators, and parasitoid and fungal infection rates in 7 kudzu patches were censused from 2013 through 2016 in north-central and southern Georgia. Within these sites, the terminal growth where most eggs are oviposited of 25 randomly selected kudzu vines at the patch edge, fr...

  1. Water stress, temperature, and light effects on isoprene emission and photosynthesis of Kudzu leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Loreto, F. )

    1993-05-01

    Kudzu (Pueraia lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 30[degrees]C developed only after the leaf bad reached full expansion and was not maximal until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in temperature and photon flux density (up to 3000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1]). For unstressed plants, 20 % of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene at 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1]. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress rate but isoprene emission increased up to five times the prestress rate. At 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 35[degrees]C, 67% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene eight days after water stress. For some leaves the rate of isoprene emission exceeded 500 nmol[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1], substantially higher than ever reported before. Leaves of plants grown at less than 20[degrees]C did not make isoprene until an inductive treatment was given. Withholding water from plants or keeping leaves at 30[degrees]C induced isoprene emission. The observation of rapid and dramatic changes in the rate of isoprene emission from leaves in response to water stress and temperature may indicate that isoprene emission improves the ability of plants to cope with these conditions. With the new information on temperature and water stress effects on isoprene emission we speculate on possible reasons for isoprene emission from plants.

  2. Comparative Feeding and Development of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera Noctuidae) on Kudzu and Soybean Foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, K.A.; Orr, D.B.

    2000-04-10

    Kudzu is a close relative of soybean and is a widely distributed exotic weed in the southern U.S. The biology of the soybean looper was studied to better understand the foraging behavior of this species on kudzu. Insects feeding on kudzu had higher mortality, longer development and lower pupal weights than those fed on soybean. Foliage consumption did not differ between treatments and nutritional quality between soybean and kudzu did not differ. In an oviposition test, females readily used kudzu if it was the only species available, but when soybean was provided more eggs were deposited on soybean.

  3. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26525177

  4. Management of kudzu by the bioherbicide, Myrothecium verrucaria, herbicides and integrated control programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replicated field plots were established and monitored for two years to evaluate management practices for kudzu. The bioherbical plant pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, several herbicides and a variety of integrated control programs achieved a high level of kudzu suppression, although no system test...

  5. Variability of sesquiterpene lactones in Neurolaena lobata of different origin.

    PubMed

    Passreiter, C M; Aldana, B E

    1998-06-01

    Leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. originating from Guatemala, were analyzed using HPLC for their qualitative and quantitative sesquiterpene lactone contents. Significant differences in the individual amounts of neurolenins and furanoheliangolides were found between four natural populations. When plants were cultivated on proving fields at two different localities in Guatemala, their sesquiterpene lactone patterns matched the natural population, but differed quantitatively. The meaning of these differences for the use of N. lobata in traditional medicine and its cultivation is discussed. PMID:17253261

  6. A comparative survey of leguminous plants as sources of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P B; Duke, J A; Brielmann, H; Boik, J; Hoyt, J E

    1997-01-01

    Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented soybean miso, had genistein levels < 400 mg.kg-1 dry weight. Concentrations of over 1 g.kg-1 dry weight and 0.95 g.kg-1 dry weight of the anticancer metabolite, daidzein, were found in the stems of the fava bean (Vicia faba) and roots of kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), respectively. From this survey, our results indicate that the legumes, lupine (Lupinus spp.), fava bean, (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and psoralea (Psoralea corylifolia), are excellent food sources for both genistein and daidzein. Miso, a fermented soybean product, is also a rich source of both isoflavones. PMID:9395689

  7. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  8. Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Adjunctive Alternative Medicine (Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata) in High-Risk Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Woo, K. S.; Yip, Thomas W. C.; Chook, Ping; Kwong, S. K.; Szeto, C. C.; Li, June K. Y.; Yu, Alex W. Y.; Cheng, William K. F.; Chan, Thomas Y. K.; Fung, K. P.; Leung, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM), renal impairment (RI), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G) have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%), DM (62.2%), or RI (30%) were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent dilation, FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured by ultrasound. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences in Windows 16.0. Results. Their mean age was 55 ± 8 years, and 74.4% were male. After 12 months of adjunctive therapies and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hematological, glucose, and creatinine profiles in both placebo and D&G groups. FMD improved significantly during D&G (P = 0.0001) and less so after placebo treatment (P = 0.001). There was a mild but significant decrease in carotid IMT after D&G (P < 0.001) but no significant changes after placebo. A trend of better improvement in FMD after higher versus lower D&G dosages was seen. D&G were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events or blood biochemistry changes. Conclusion. D&G adjunctive treatment was well tolerated and significantly improved atherogenesis in high-risk hypertensive patients, with potential in primary atherosclerosis prevention. PMID:23533460

  9. Kudzu Root Extract Does Not Perturb the Sleep/Wake Cycle of Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Maclean, Robert Ross; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives According to ancient Chinese medicine, kudzu root has been used as an ingredient to treat alcohol intoxication for centuries. Kudzu root extract is effective at reducing alcohol intake in animals and in humans, both in a natural-settings laboratory environment and on an outpatient basis. In dependent populations, withdrawal from alcohol is associated with disturbed sleep. These disturbances to the quantity and quality of sleep likely impact relapse to drinking. Many medications used to treat alcohol dependence also affect sleep. Therefore, as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence, the impact of kudzu root extract on the sleep/wake cycle is an important aspect of its effectiveness. Design This double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial tested the effects of kudzu root extract on the sleep/wake cycles of moderate drinkers. Results Kudzu extract had no effect on any of the sleep parameters measured, including sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total time asleep per night, number of waking episodes, time awake per episode, number of moving minutes, number of sleep episodes, time asleep per episode, and number of immobile minutes. Conclusions These data suggest that the administration of kudzu root extract does not disturb sleep/wake cycles of moderate drinkers, and as such its utility as an adjunct treatment for alcohol dependence remains free of any potential side-effects on sleep. PMID:22010780

  10. Neurolaena lobata L. promotes wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramlogan, Surrin; Chalapathi Rao, AV; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The leaves of the Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae) plant are used to control diabetes and heal wounds and infections. Aim: The ethanolic extract of N. lobata leaf was evaluated for its ability to heal inflicted wounds in rats using the excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six each. Test group animals were treated topically with an ethanolic extract of N. lobata (1:1 with petroleum jelly, 100 mg/kg/day). Standard and control group animals were treated with mupirocin and petroleum jelly, respectively. Treatment was given for 13 days and the wound area was measured on alternate days. Parameters of healing assessed were the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization and hydroxyproline content. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavanoids. Extract-treated animals exhibited 87% reduction in the wound area over 13 days when compared with the control (78%) and standard (83%) groups (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the epithelialization period was noticed with the extract-treated test group animals compared with the controls and the standard group animals (P < 0.008). The hydroxyproline content of the extract-treated animals was higher (230.5 ± 42.1) when evaluated against the control and (79.0 ± 32.2) and the standard (115.0 ± 44.5) groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increase in the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content with decrease in epithelialization time in extract-treated animals support further evaluation of N. lobata as a pharmacotherapy for wound healing. PMID:25143886

  11. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata.

    PubMed

    François, G; Passreiter, C M; Woerdenbag, H J; Van Looveren, M

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous and lipophilic extracts of Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), obtained from Guatemala, were tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Moreover, sesquiterpene lactones, of the germacranolide and furanoheliangolide type, isolated from N. lobata, were shown to be active against P. falciparum in vitro. In addition to their antiplasmodial activity, their cytotoxic effects on human carcinoma cell lines were evaluated. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:8657743

  12. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae) is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight) had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:22607721

  13. Energy from aquatic plant wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemma sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 days to an average of 23 days and produced 0.14-0.28 cu m CH4/kg (dry weight) (2.3-4.5 cu ft/lb) from mature filters. The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimum balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  14. Inhibitory effects of salviae miltiorrhizae radix (danshen) and puerariae lobatae radix (gegen) in carbachol-induced rat detrusor smooth muscle contractility

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Willmann; Teong, Ivy Wen Jia; Koon, Johnny Chi Man; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2012-01-01

    Both danshen (D) and gegen (G) have proven relaxant effects on vascular smooth muscle, thus their potential bladder inhibitory effects have impending interests in urology. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the novel effects of D and G on detrusor smooth muscle contractility. Urothelium-intact (+UE) and urothelium-denuded (-UE) detrusor strips were isolated from the rat. Isometric tension was measured using a myograph system. Carbachol (CCh) was used to pre-contract the detrusor strips prior to stepwise relaxation by adding extracts of D, G, and a DG (7:3) formulation. Tonic relaxation level and phasic contractile activity under the herbal treatments were analyzed. There was no difference in the herbal effects between +UE and -UE strips. D alone induced a much smaller relaxation than G alone or DG. G alone also suppressed phasic amplitude but not phasic frequency while DG suppressed both parameters. D and G acted synergistically to yield the observed effects on detrusor smooth muscle. The findings showed that the DG formulation were able to relax the detrusor as well as suppress phasic contractions, both actions important in maintaining normal bladder filling and urine storage processes. Hence DG may have new application in the management of bladder disorders. PMID:22461955

  15. Inhibitory effects of salviae miltiorrhizae radix (danshen) and puerariae lobatae radix (gegen) in carbachol-induced rat detrusor smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Liang, Willmann; Teong, Ivy Wen Jia; Koon, Johnny Chi Man; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2012-01-01

    Both danshen (D) and gegen (G) have proven relaxant effects on vascular smooth muscle, thus their potential bladder inhibitory effects have impending interests in urology. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the novel effects of D and G on detrusor smooth muscle contractility. Urothelium-intact (+UE) and urothelium-denuded (-UE) detrusor strips were isolated from the rat. Isometric tension was measured using a myograph system. Carbachol (CCh) was used to pre-contract the detrusor strips prior to stepwise relaxation by adding extracts of D, G, and a DG (7:3) formulation. Tonic relaxation level and phasic contractile activity under the herbal treatments were analyzed. There was no difference in the herbal effects between +UE and -UE strips. D alone induced a much smaller relaxation than G alone or DG. G alone also suppressed phasic amplitude but not phasic frequency while DG suppressed both parameters. D and G acted synergistically to yield the observed effects on detrusor smooth muscle. The findings showed that the DG formulation were able to relax the detrusor as well as suppress phasic contractions, both actions important in maintaining normal bladder filling and urine storage processes. Hence DG may have new application in the management of bladder disorders. PMID:22461955

  16. Proteome analysis of Pueraria mirifica tubers collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-06-01

    Pueraria mirifica-derived tuberous powder has been long-term consumed in Thailand as female hormone-replacement traditional remedies. The protein profiles of tubers collected in different seasons were evaluated. Phenol extraction, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry were employed for tuberous proteome analysis. Out of the 322 proteins detected, over 59% were functionally classified as being involved in metabolism. The rest proteins were involved in defense, protein synthesis, cell structure, transportation, stress, storage, and also unidentified function. The proteins were found to be differentially expressed with respect to harvest season. Importantly, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone synthase, cytochrome p450, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in the biosynthesis pathway of bioactive isoflavonoids, were most abundantly expressed in the summer-collected tubers. This is the first report on the proteomic patterns in P. mirifica tubers in relevant with seasonal variation. The study enlights the understanding of variance isoflavonoid production in P. mirifica tubers. PMID:26940377

  17. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min). After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs) and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages. PMID:20836891

  18. Host acceptance tests of parasitoids from Indian Paratachardina lobata on the invasive lobate lac scale in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive lobate lac scale identified as Paratachardina lobata (Hemiptera: Keriidae), native to southern India and Sri Lanka, is a severe threat to native and economic plants in southern Florida. Four parasitoid species, from southern India associated with Paratachardina lobata, were tested in qu...

  19. Field Evaluation of a Kudzu/Cottonseed Oil Formulation on the Persistence of the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant extract (kudzu) was tested as a UV protectant for SeMNPV, with and without the addition of an oil/emulsifier (cottonseed oil/lecithin) formulation. Aqueous and oil emulsion formulations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), nucleopolyhedrovirus SeMNPV were applied to collards an...

  20. A Standardized Kudzu Extract (NPI-031) Reduces Alcohol Consumption in Non Treatment-Seeking Male Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Scott E.; Penetar, David; Su, Zhaohui; Geaghan, Thomas; Maywalt, Melissa; Tracy, Michael; Rodolico, John; Palmer, Christopher; Ma, Zhongze; Lee, David Y.-W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized kudzu extract (NPI-031) reduced alcohol drinking by men and women in a natural setting. The present study was conducted in non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers to assess the safety and efficacy of four weeks of kudzu extract in an outpatient setting. METHOD This randomized between-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved two weeks of baseline, four weeks of treatment and two weeks of follow-up. Seventeen men (21–33 years) who reported drinking 27.6 ± 6.5 drinks/week with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence took either kudzu extract (250 mg isoflavones, t.i.d.) or matched placebo on a daily basis. They reported alcohol consumption and desire to use alcohol using a wrist actigraphy device; twice weekly laboratory visits were scheduled to monitor medication adherence and adverse events. RESULTS Medication adherence was excellent and there were no adverse events, changes in vital signs, blood chemistry, renal or liver function. There was no effect on alcohol craving, but kudzu extract significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed each week by 34–57%, reduced the number of heavy drinking days and significantly increased the percent of days abstinent and the number of consecutive days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS A standardized formulation of kudzu extract produced minimal side effects, was well-tolerated and resulted in a modest reduction in alcohol consumption in young non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Additional studies using treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent persons will be necessary to determine the usefulness of this herbal preparation in reducing alcohol use in other populations. PMID:23070022

  1. Screening and isolation of potential lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors from five Chinese medicinal herbs: Soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Yang, Xiaojing; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yuchi; Liu, Chunming

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and severe disability worldwide. Flavonoids have been extensively used in the treatment of ischemic stroke by reducing lactate dehydrogenase levels and thereby enhancing blood perfusion to the ischemic region. Here, we used ultrafiltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry for the rapid screening and identification of flavonoids from five Chinese medicinal herbs: soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali. Using PC12 cells as a suitable in vitro model of toxicity, cell viability was quantitated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results showed that the extracts of soybean and the six major components, namely, acetyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidiain, glycitin, genistin, and acetylcitin; the extract of R. pueraria and its main component daidzein; the extract of F. pueraria and its three major components, tectorigenin, tectoridin, and tectorigenin-7-O-xylosylglucosid; and the extract of R. belamcandae and its main component, tectoridin, were strong lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Also, the components of R. astragali showed no bioactivity. These findings indicate that the ultrafltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry method could be utilized in rapid screening and separation of bioactive compounds from a complex matrix. PMID:27059876

  2. Hydrology of a zero-order Southern Piedmont watershed through 45 years of changing agricultural land use. Part 1. Monthly and seasonal rainfall-runoff relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endale, Dinku M.; Fisher, Dwight S.; Steiner, Jean L.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported runoff from small agricultural watersheds over sufficiently long period so that the effect of different cover types on runoff can be examined. We analyzed 45-yrs of monthly and annual rainfall-runoff characteristics of a small (7.8 ha) zero-order typical Southern Piedmont watershed in southeastern United States. Agricultural land use varied as follows: 1. Row cropping (5-yrs); 2. Kudzu ( Pueraria lobata; 5-yrs); 3. Grazed kudzu and rescuegrass ( Bromus catharticus; 7-yrs); and 4. Grazed bermudagrass and winter annuals ( Cynodon dactylon; 28-yrs). Land use and rainfall variability influenced runoff characteristics. Row cropping produced the largest runoff amount, percentage of the rainfall partitioned into runoff, and peak flow rates. Kudzu reduced spring runoff and almost eliminated summer runoff, as did a mixture of kudzu and rescuegrass (KR) compared to row cropping. Peak flow rates were also reduced during the kudzu and KR. Peak flow rates increased under bermudagrass but were lower than during row cropping. A simple process-based 'tanh' model modified to take the previous month's rainfall into account produced monthly rainfall and runoff correlations with coefficient of determination ( R2) of 0.74. The model was tested on independent data collected during drought. Mean monthly runoff was 1.65 times the observed runoff. Sustained hydrologic monitoring is essential to understanding long-term rainfall-runoff relationships in agricultural watersheds.

  3. Energy from vascular plant wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemna sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 d to an average of 23 d and produced 0.14 to 0.22 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (2.3 to 3.6 ft/sup 3//lb) from mature filters for the 3 aquatic species. Kudzu required an average digestion time of 33 d and produced an average of 0.21 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (3.4 ft/sup 3//lb). The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimal balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  4. Pueraria tuberosa: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Pandit, Subrata; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2014-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC is a perennial herb commonly known as 'vidarikanda', distributed throughout south east Asia. The plant's tuber is widely used in ethanomedicine as well as in traditional systems of medicine, particularly in ayurveda. It has been used in various ayurvedic formulations as restorative tonic, antiaging, spermatogenic and immune booster and has been recommended for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, fertility disorders, menopausal syndrome, sexual debility and spermatorrhoea. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, mostly isoflavonoids such as puerarin, genistein, daidzein, tuberosin and so on have been identified in the tuber. In vivo and in vitro studies have provided the support against traditional demands of the tuber as spermatogenic, immune booster, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and brain tonic. However, further studies are required to define the active phytochemical compositions and to validate its clinical utilisation in the herbal formulations for human uses. This review provides an overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. tuberosa. This review also provides plausible hypotheses about how various isoflavones particularly puerarin, genistein and daidzein, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the therapeutic potential against a wide range of ailments. PMID:24980468

  5. Discovery of a Potent Anti-Yeast Triterpenoid Saponin, Clematoside-S from Urena lobata L.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Ling; Liao, Ying; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yi-Na; Gao, Hong; Gao, Bo; Xu, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Urena lobata has been used as a traditional medicinal plant in India and China. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity and isolated the active compound from the leaves of U. lobata. The 80% ethanol extract from U. lobata leaves showed an effective anti-yeast activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains. Using a combination of chromatographic methods, (−)-trachelogenin (1) and clematoside-S (2) were isolated from this plant for the first time, and their chemical structure was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data analysis. In addition, 1 was found to be inactive against all of the test microorganisms in the antimicrobial assay, whereas 2 exhibits a specific anti-yeast activity against S. cerevisiae strains with diameter of inhibition zones in the range from 11 to 20 mm. Furthermore, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values of 2 against S. cerevisiae strains were detected to be in the ranges of 0.61 to 9.8 μg/mL and 2.42 to 9.8 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of 2 with a specific anti-yeast activity. The above result suggests the potential application of U. lobata to be used as a natural anti-yeast agent in food preservation. PMID:25739085

  6. HOST PLANT RANGE OF LOBATE LAC SCALE, PARATACHARDINA LOBATA, IN FLORIDA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lobate lac scale (Paratacharidina lobata) is a serious pest of woody native and ornamental plants in Florida and the Bahamas. This insect, which is native to India and Sri Lanka, was known to attack many plants the number of plants it attacked in Florida was unknown. Field observation and field ...

  7. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  8. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  9. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-01

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity. PMID:12670155

  10. Analysis of functional and numerical responses of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris when reared on kudzu bug, Megacopta cribaria (Hemiptera: Plataspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined solder bug (Podisus maculiventris) is a predatory insect that feeds on a wide array of species. The immatures of this predatory species have five instars. All stages are predatory except for the 1st instar nymphs. Kudzu bugs (Megacopta cribaria) are shield bugs that are deemed a pest of ...

  11. Macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal effects of Neurolaena lobata, a Guatemalan medicinal plant, on Brugia pahangi.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Y; Kamachi, T; Yanagi, T; Cáceres, A; Maki, J; Aoki, Y

    2005-03-01

    Twelve extracts of 11 Guatemalan medicinal plants were initially screened in vitro for potential macrofilaricidal activity against Brugia pahangi, a lymphatic dwelling filarial worm, using concentrations from 125 to 1000 microg ml(-1) of each extract that could be dissolved in the culture medium. Of 12 extracts used, the ethanol extract of leaves of Neurolaena lobata showed the strongest activity against the motility of adult worms. Subsequently, the extract of N. lobata was extensively examined in vitro for macro- and micro-filaricidal effects using a series of concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50 and 10 microg ml(-1). The effects were assessed by worm motility, microfilarial release by female worms and a MTT assay. The effect on the motility of adult worms was observed in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The time required to stop motility of both sexes of adult worms was 6 h at 500 microg ml(-1), 24 h at 250 microg ml(-1), and 3 days for females and 4 days for males at 100 microg ml(-1). The movement of females ceased at 4 days at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1) whereas the motility of males was only reduced. The loss of worm's viability was confirmed by the MTT assay and was similar to the motility results. These concentrations, including 10 microg ml(-1), prevented microfilarial release by females in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Concentrations higher than 100 microg ml(-1) even induced mortality of the microfilariae. The present study suggested that the ethanol extract of Neurolaena lobata has potential macro- and micro-filaricidal activities. PMID:15831109

  12. Influence of environmental factors on the germination of Urena lobata L. and its response to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Awan, Tahir Hussain; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Sta Cruz, Pompe C

    2014-01-01

    Urena lobata is becoming a noxious and invasive weed in rangelands, pastures, and undisturbed areas in the Philippines. This study determined the effects of seed scarification, light, salt and water stress, amount of rice residue, and seed burial depth on seed germination and emergence of U. lobata; and evaluated the weed's response to post-emergence herbicides. Germination was stimulated by both mechanical and chemical seed scarifications. The combination of the two scarification methods provided maximum (99%) seed germination. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light (65%) compared with when seeds were kept in the dark (46%). Sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM and osmotic potential ranging from 0 to -1.6 MPa affected the germination of U. lobata seeds significantly. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of the maximum germination was -0.1 MPa; however, some seeds germinated at -0.8 MPa, but none germinated at -1.6 MPa. Seedling emergence and biomass increased with increase in rice residue amount up to 4 t ha(-1), but declined beyond this amount. Soil surface placement of weed seeds resulted in the highest seedling emergence (84%), which declined with increase in burial depth. The burial depth required for 50% inhibition of maximum emergence was 2 cm; emergence was greatly reduced (93%) at burial depth of 4 cm or more. Weed seedling biomass also decreased with increase in burial depth. Bispyribac-sodium, a commonly used herbicide in rice, sprayed at the 4-leaf stage of the weed, provided 100% control, which did not differ much with 2,4-D (98%), glyphosate (97%), and thiobencarb + 2,4-D (98%). These herbicides reduced shoot and root biomass by 99-100%. PMID:24658143

  13. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Germination of Urena lobata L. and Its Response to Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Tahir Hussain; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Cruz, Pompe C. Sta.

    2014-01-01

    Urena lobata is becoming a noxious and invasive weed in rangelands, pastures, and undisturbed areas in the Philippines. This study determined the effects of seed scarification, light, salt and water stress, amount of rice residue, and seed burial depth on seed germination and emergence of U. lobata; and evaluated the weed's response to post-emergence herbicides. Germination was stimulated by both mechanical and chemical seed scarifications. The combination of the two scarification methods provided maximum (99%) seed germination. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light (65%) compared with when seeds were kept in the dark (46%). Sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM and osmotic potential ranging from 0 to −1.6 MPa affected the germination of U. lobata seeds significantly. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of the maximum germination was −0.1 MPa; however, some seeds germinated at −0.8 MPa, but none germinated at −1.6 MPa. Seedling emergence and biomass increased with increase in rice residue amount up to 4 t ha−1, but declined beyond this amount. Soil surface placement of weed seeds resulted in the highest seedling emergence (84%), which declined with increase in burial depth. The burial depth required for 50% inhibition of maximum emergence was 2 cm; emergence was greatly reduced (93%) at burial depth of 4 cm or more. Weed seedling biomass also decreased with increase in burial depth. Bispyribac-sodium, a commonly used herbicide in rice, sprayed at the 4-leaf stage of the weed, provided 100% control, which did not differ much with 2,4-D (98%), glyphosate (97%), and thiobencarb + 2,4-D (98%). These herbicides reduced shoot and root biomass by 99–100%. PMID:24658143

  14. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 μM. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species. PMID:26669106

  15. Symbiotic N 2 -Fixation Estimated by the (15) N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m(2) of (15)N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  16. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  17. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  18. Herbal remedies for alcoholism: promises and possible pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, David H; Keung, Wing-Ming; Rezvani, Amir H; Massi, Maurizio; Lee, David Y W

    2003-02-01

    This review summarizes the findings of the effects on alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring rats of extracts or purified compounds from two of the most promising herbs: kudzu (Pueraria lobata) and St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum). It is a summary of a symposium presented at the 2002 RSA meeting in San Francisco. The meeting organizers/co-chairs were David Overstreet and Wing-Ming Keung. The presentations were (1) Introduction to the symposium, by David Y. W. Lee and David H. Overstreet; (2) Effects of daidzin on alcohol intake-search for mechanisms of action, by Wing-Ming Keung; (3) Long-term suppressive effects of puerarin on alcohol drinking in rats, by David Overstreet and David Y. W. Lee; (4) St. John's Wort extract reduces alcohol intake in FH and P rats, by Amir Rezvani and David Overstreet; and (5) extracts reduce alcohol intake in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats, by Maurizio Massi. PMID:12605067

  19. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  20. Sesquiterpenes from Neurolaena lobata and their antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Lajter, Ildikó; Vasas, Andrea; Béni, Zoltán; Forgo, Peter; Binder, Markus; Bochkov, Valery; Zupkó, István; Krupitza, Georg; Frisch, Richard; Kopp, Brigitte; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-03-28

    Five new sesquiterpenes, neurolobatin A (1), neurolobatin B (2), 5β-hydroxy-8β-isovaleroyloxy-9α-hydroxycalyculatolide (3), 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4), and 3β-acetoxy-8β-isovaleroyloxyreynosin (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata. The structures were established by means of a combined spectroscopic data analysis, including ESIMS, APCI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Neurolobatin A (1) and B (2) are unusual isomeric seco-germacranolide sesquiterpenes with a bicyclic acetal moiety, compounds 3 and 4 are unsaturated epoxy-germacranolide esters, and compound 5 is the first eudesmanolide isolated from the genus Neurolaena. The isolated compounds (1-5) were shown to have noteworthy antiproliferative activities against human tumor cell lines (A2780, A431, HeLa, and MCF7). The anti-inflammatory effects of 1-5, evaluated in vitro using LPS- and TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression inhibitory assays, revealed that all these compounds strongly down-regulated the LPS-induced production of IL-8 protein, with neurolobatin B (2) and 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4) being the most effective. PMID:24476550

  1. Sesquiterpenes from Neurolaena lobata and Their Antiproliferative and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Five new sesquiterpenes, neurolobatin A (1), neurolobatin B (2), 5β-hydroxy-8β-isovaleroyloxy-9α-hydroxycalyculatolide (3), 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4), and 3β-acetoxy-8β-isovaleroyloxyreynosin (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata. The structures were established by means of a combined spectroscopic data analysis, including ESIMS, APCI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Neurolobatin A (1) and B (2) are unusual isomeric seco-germacranolide sesquiterpenes with a bicyclic acetal moiety, compounds 3 and 4 are unsaturated epoxy-germacranolide esters, and compound 5 is the first eudesmanolide isolated from the genus Neurolaena. The isolated compounds (1–5) were shown to have noteworthy antiproliferative activities against human tumor cell lines (A2780, A431, HeLa, and MCF7). The anti-inflammatory effects of 1–5, evaluated in vitro using LPS- and TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression inhibitory assays, revealed that all these compounds strongly down-regulated the LPS-induced production of IL-8 protein, with neurolobatin B (2) and 3-epi-desacetylisovaleroylheliangine (4) being the most effective. PMID:24476550

  2. Needle-like grains across growth lines in the coral skeleton of Porites lobata.

    PubMed

    Motai, Satoko; Nagai, Takaya; Sowa, Kohki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Kawano, Jun

    2012-12-01

    The skeletal texture and crystal morphology of the massive reef-building coral Porites lobata were observed from the nano- to micrometer scale using an analytical transmission electron microscope (ATEM). The skeletal texture consists of centers of calcification (COCs) and fiber area. Fiber areas contain bundles of needle-like aragonite crystals that are elongated along the crystallographic c-axis and are several hundred nanometers to one micrometer in width and several micrometers in length. The size distribution of aragonite crystals is relatively homogeneous in the fibers. Growth lines are observed sub-perpendicular to the direction of aragonite growth. These growth lines occur in 1-2 μm intervals and reflect a periodic contrast in the thickness of an ion-spattered sample and pass through the interior of some aragonite crystals. These observations suggest that the medium filled in the calcification space maintains a CaCO₃-supersaturated state during fiber growth and that a physical change occurs periodically during the aragonite crystals of the fiber area. PMID:23041294

  3. Antiulcerogenic effect of a hydroalcoholic extract and its organic fractions of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.BR.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, J S; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Souza Brito, A R

    2000-07-01

    Neurolaena lobata is a species used widely in Caribbean folk medicine to treat gastric pain and ulcers. The hexane (HxF), chloroform (ClF) and aqueous (H2OF) fractions of a hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of N. lobata aerial parts were investigated for their ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric mucosa. In the stress-induced gastric model the HE, HxF and ClF fractions produced a significant reduction of gastric lesion formation by 48, 70 and 52%, respectively. HE, HxF and ClF fractions (41, 57 and 51%, respectively) also reduced significantly the gastric lesions induced by the combination of indomethacin and bethanechol, and the ulcers induced by HCl/ethanol solution by 77, 86 and 83%, respectively (P < 0.05). The pylorus-ligature experiment demonstrated that the HE, HxF and ClF fractions changed significantly the gastric juice parameters, such as pH values (increases to 5.4, 4.9 and 4.8, respectively) and acid output (decreased by 4.6, 5.8 and 6.2 mEq mL(-1) 4h respectively) and gastric content (increased by 400, 410 and 390 mg, respectively) in animals. In the animals pre-treated orally with the HxF fraction, prostaglandin synthesis was increased significantly, by 104%, and free mucus production was increased by 54 % in the gastric mucosa (P < 0.001). The H2OF did not exhibit activity in any of the experimental models assayed. The data suggest that the HE and mainly the HxF of fractions from N. lobata present a significant anti-ulcer effect when assessed in these ulcer-induced models. Although the mechanism underlying this antiulcerogenic effect remains unknown, it seems to be related to an increased activity of the defensive mechanisms of the stomach, such as prostaglandin synthesis and mucus production. PMID:10969721

  4. Temporal variations of macroborers in massive Porites lobata on Moorea, French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrot-Clausade, M.; Hutchings, P.; Richard, G.

    1992-09-01

    Massive colonies of Porites lobata on the barrier reef of Tiahura, Moorea, can be divided into four categories: living colonies, colonies consisting of 50% live coral and 50% dead skeleton, 100% dead coral and colonies which have been reduced to a basal plate. Replicate samples of each of these colony types were collected in the same vicinity of the barrier reef during October 1987. The macroborers were extracted, identified, counted and their volumes determined by displacement. Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that three different boring communities occur within these four categories of Porites colonies. Live colonies are characterised by only 3 species, the bivalve, Lithophaga laevigata; the vermetid Dendropoma maximun; and the non boring serpulid polychaete Spirobranchus. The completely dead colonies contain up to 17 boring species, with five to six individuals per 100 cm. Sipunculans are the dominant bioeroders with the most abundant species being Aspidosiphon elegans, sp A and sp B. Colonies of Porites which have been reduced to basal plates contain up to 18 boring species of which the bivalve Lithophaga hanleyana and the sipunculan Aspidosiphon sp. B are the most abundant. The cumulative volume of CaCO3 lost by boring activity increases from 0.1 cm3 per 100 cm3 in a completely dead Porites colony to 1.4 cm3 per 100 cm3 in the residual basal plates of Porites. These can be extrapolated to minimum losses of 14.2 kg m-3. We suggest that rates of boring increase with the time which has elapsed since the death of the colony and the dominant agents of boring also change with increasing age of the coral structure. There are significant additional losses of 5.25 kg m-3 CaCO3 caused by grazing echinoids and scarids.

  5. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light. PMID:25714076

  7. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  8. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-23

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) concentration of 2.35 {mu}M. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  9. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, S.; Agarwal, T.; Singothu, S.; Samal, A.; Banerjee, I.; Pal, K.; Pramanik, K.; Ray, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK – 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot+ and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  10. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors.

    PubMed

    Asthana, S; Agarwal, T; Singothu, S; Samal, A; Banerjee, I; Pal, K; Pramanik, K; Ray, S S

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK - 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot(+) and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  11. Neurotherapeutic Effects of Pueraria mirifica Extract in Early- and Late-Stage Cognitive Impaired Rats.

    PubMed

    Anukulthanakorn, Kanya; Parhar, Ishwar S; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Kitahashi, Takashi; Watanbe, Gen; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-06-01

    We determined the neurotherapeutic effects of Pueraria mirifica extract (PME) and pure puerarin (PU) in comparison with 17β-estradiol (E2 ) in early- and late-stage cognitive impaired rats. Rats were ovariectomized (OVX), kept for 2 and 4 months to induce early- and late-stage cognitive impairment, respectively, and divided into four groups that were treated daily with (i) distilled water, (ii) 100 mg/kg of PME, (iii) 7 mg/kg of PU, and (iv) 80 µg/kg of E2 for 4 months. The estrogen deficiency symptoms of OVX rats were abrogated by treatment with E2 or PME, but not by treatment with PU. The mRNA level of genes associated with amyloid production (App and Bace1) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (Tau4) were upregulated together with the level of impaired cognition in the 2- and 4-month OVX rats. Treatment with E2 reduced the level of cognitive impairment more than that with PME and PU, and 2-month OVX rats were more responsive than 4-month OVX rats. All treatments down-regulated the Bace1 mRNA level in 2-month OVX rats, while PU and PME also decreased the App mRNA level in 2- and 4-month OVX rats, respectively. Only PU suppressed Tau4 expression in 2-month OVX rats. Thus, PME and PU elicit neurotherapeutic effects in different pathways, and earlier treatment is optimal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26915634

  12. Protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae on retinal neuronal damage in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dai; Yang, Fang; Cheng, Hongke; Liu, Chao; Sun, Ming; Wu, Kaili

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae (TFF) on retinal neural cells in diabetic mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to generate type I diabetes in a murine model, as indicated by blood glucose levels ≥11.1 mmol/l. TFF was administered intragastrically at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day. After 10 weeks of administration, the mice were euthanized, and the eyes were dissected. Retinal histology was examined, and the thickness of the retina was measured. Ultrastructural changes in the retinal ganglion cells and capillary basement membrane were observed with electron microscopy. Apoptosis of retinal neural cells was determined with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assay. Bax and Bcl-2 expression in the retinal tissues was determined with immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. Results Compared with the diabetic mice, the blood glucose level decreased (p<0.01) and the bodyweight increased (p<0.05) in the 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF-treated groups. The thickness of the retina significantly increased (p<0.01), and the retinal capillary basement membrane (BM) thickness was reduced in the 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF-treated diabetic mice (DM). The 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF treatments also attenuated the diabetes-induced apoptosis of retinal neural cells. Consistent with these effects, TFF treatment decreased the Bax expression level and, concurrently, increased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. Conclusions TFF attenuated diabetes-induced apoptosis in retinal neurons by inhibiting Bax expression and increasing the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax, which suggests that TFF might prevent retinal neuronal damage in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24146535

  13. Comparison of Puerariae Radix and its hydrolysate on stimulation of hyaluronic acid production in NHEK cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is present in high concentrations in the intercellular spaces of the epidermis and the connective tissues of the dermis. It is associated with many beneficial biological activities including water retention, maintenance of various cellular functions, and skin homeostasis. Puerariae Radix (PR), a Chinese herb and a popular food in Asia, is used for various medicinal purposes including anti-hypertension, anti-angina pectoris and anti-dipsotropic. PR is rich in isoflavone glycosides like genistin and daidzin as soya. In this study, Bifidobactericum breve CCRC 14061 and CCRC 11846 were used for the fermentation of PR; moreover, acid was used to hydrolyze PR decoction. Genistein and daidzein in the hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The HA production in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) was measured after 48 hours incubation with PR and its hydrolysate, respectively. HA was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and retinoic acid was used as the positive control. After fermentation with Bifidobactericum breve, the contents of daidzein and genistein were increased 785% and 1,010% by CCRC 14061, and 192% and 406% by CCRC 11846, respectively, whereas after acid hydrolysis, only daidzein was increased by 990%. The production of HA in NHEK was increased after incubation with the fermentation product of CCRC 14061, acid hydrolysate, PR decoction and retinoic acid (22+/- 0.2%), whereas no increase of HA concentration was found after incubation with the fermentation product of CCRC 11846. Furthermore, the PR hydrolysate stimulated the HA production of NHEK, and the effect was dose-dependent (18.6%-83.9%). In conclusion, PR preparations would stimulate HA production in NHEK cells which might be used as a new cosmetic ingredient in moisturizers and an anti-aging agent. PMID:20128051

  14. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent. PMID:25063049

  15. Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Reyn M; Kim, Catherine J S; Tracy, Allison M; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-15

    Sewage pollution threatens the health of coastal populations and ecosystems, including coral reefs. We investigated spatial patterns of sewage pollution in Puako, Hawaii using enterococci concentrations and δ(15)N Ulva fasciata macroalgal bioassays to assess relationships with the coral disease Porites lobata growth anomalies (PGAs). PGA severity and enterococci concentrations were high, spatially variable, and positively related. Bioassay algal δ(15)N showed low sewage pollution at the reef edge while high values of resident algae indicated sewage pollution nearshore. Neither δ(15)N metric predicted PGA measures, though bioassay δ(15)N was negatively related to coral cover. Furthermore, PGA prevalence was much higher than previously recorded in Hawaii and the greater Indo-Pacific, highlighting Puako as an area of concern. Although further work is needed to resolve the relationship between sewage pollution and coral cover and disease, these results implicate sewage pollution as a contributor to diminished reef health. PMID:26781454

  16. Antinociceptive effect in mice of a hydroalcoholic extract of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. and its organic fractions.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, J S; Paulo, M Q; Hiruma Lima, C A; Souza Brito, A R

    1998-12-01

    An infusion of the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. (Compositae-Asteraceae) is used in Caribbean folk medicine to treat several kinds of pain. In this investigation we studied the acute oral toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the plant and the antinociceptive effect of the extract and of its hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions, given orally, in nociception and inflammatory models in mice. No signs of toxicity were observed for oral doses up to 5000 mg kg(-1) in mice. Morphine hydrochloride (100 mg kg(-1)), dipyrone sodium (200 mg kg(-1)), the hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg kg(-1)), and its chloroform- and hexane-partitioned fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in mice (100, 95, 47, 62 and 60% inhibition, respectively when compared with the negative control). In the hot-plate test in mice, morphine hydrochloride, the chloroform- and hexane-partitioned fractions, but not the hydroalcoholic extract, resulted in a significant latency increase in all observation times. In the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in mice, pretreatment of the animals with naloxone significantly reversed the analgesic effect of morphine, but not that of the hydroalcoholic extract or of its hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions. Finally, administration of the hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) had a significant anti-oedematogenic effect on carrageenan-induced oedema in mice. These data show that the hydroalcoholic extract of N. lobata and, in particular, its partitioned fractions have significant analgesic properties when assessed through these pain models. Their antinociceptive effect might be the result of interference with the inflammatory process. PMID:10052860

  17. Hard coral (Porites lobata) extracts and homarine on cytochrome P450 expression in Hawaiian butterflyfishes with different feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Aileen; Johnson, Amber; Gochfeld, Deborah; Slattery, Marc; Ostrander, Gary K; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Dietary specialists tend to be less susceptible to the effects of chemical defenses produced by their prey compared to generalist predators that feed upon a broader range of prey species. While many researchers have investigated the ability of insects to detoxify dietary allelochemicals, little research has been conducted in marine ecosystems. We investigated metabolic detoxification pathways in three species of butterflyfishes: the hard coral specialist feeder, Chaetodon multicinctus, and two generalist feeders, Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon kleinii. Each species was fed tissue homogenate of the hard coral Porites lobata or the feeding deterrent compound homarine (found in the coral extract), and the expression and catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-like and CYP2-like enzymes were examined after one-week of treatment. The P. lobata homogenate significantly induced content and catalytic activity of CYP2-like and CYP3A-like forms, by 2-3 fold and by 3-9 fold, respectively, in C. multicinctus. Homarine caused a significant decrease of CYP2-like and CYP3A-like proteins at the high dose in C. kleinii and 60-80% mortality in that species. Homarine also induced CYP3A-like content by 3-fold and catalytic activity by 2-fold in C. auriga, while causing non-monotonic increases in CYP2-like and CYP3A-like catalytic activity in C. multicinctus. Our results indicate that dietary exposure to coral homogenates and the feeding deterrent constituent within these homogenates caused species-specific modulation of detoxification enzymes consistent with the prey selection strategies of generalist and specialist butterflyfishes. PMID:26297807

  18. Molecular clusters size of Puerariae thomsonii radix aqueous decoction and relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Yang, Caimei; Zhang, Kuan; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    The multi-component system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very complicated. The clusters are dynamic aggregates whose molecules are held together by hydrogen-bonded, Van der Waals forces or the opposite charges of particles attract each other. In this paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that molecules form clusters in Pueraria thomsonii Benth (Fenge) water decoction. Four kinds of Fenge water decoction, 0.07 g∙mL-1 (F-1), 0.1 g∙mL-1 (F-2), 0.17 g∙mL-1 (F-3), 0.35 g∙mL-1 (F-4); F-1, average diameter of molecular was about 120 nm; F-2, 195 nm; F-3, 256 nm; and F-4, 480 nm. The molecular size was shown to depend on concentration. Rabbits were given equal does of 2.8 g∙kg-1, to perfuse F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4 in volume of 80 mL, 56 mL, 33 mL, 17 mL, respectively. At 0-180 min to collect 2 mL blood from the rabbit ears middle arteries for metabolism fingerprints, the results show the particle size of molecular is smaller, the absorption of drugs is better instead. The acute blood stasis model rats were treatment with Fenge decoction of 1.5 g∙kg-1 for 14 days, the concentrations of Ang II in plasma were significantly lower in F-1 and F-2 groups than those in model group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), but there were no significantly difference in F-3 and F-4 groups than those in model group (p > 0.05). Despite the molecular aggregation is a common physical phenomenon, it influence on the kind and amount of molecule per unit volume. Molecules morphology influence on the absorption behavior of drugs in vivo therefore is to have an impact on pharmacological function. PMID:26198223

  19. Effect of Pueraria tuberosa tuber extract on chronic foot shock stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, S S; Sur, T K; Debnath, P K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the protective effects of tuberous root extract of Pueraria tuberosa on chronic foot shock stress (CS) induced physiological, neurobehavioral and neuropathological alterations. Male Wistar rats (120-150 g) were divided into seven groups, consisting of ten animals in each. Group I served as normal, group II as positive control, while group III-VII as test drug treated. P tuberosa tuber extract (PTE) was given to rats of groups III-VI at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, while group VII treated with Withania somnifera rhizome extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg) as reference drug. Group II (stress control) received only equivalent volume of distilled water (0.5 ml/100 g) orally. All the drugs were given orally once/day for 14 consecutive days. The last dose was given 1 h before study. Simultaneously, all the animals (except group I) were subjected to 1 h of foot-shock (2 mA) through a grid floor for those 14 days in a standard conditioning chamber with the escape route closed [Chronic stress (CS)]. Thereafter, the rats were placed on open-field and plus maze apparatus for studying the behavioral patterns of them, and the anxiolytic effects of the putative drug. Sexual activities of the animals were also studied. Finally, the animals were sacrificed and their ulcer formation in gastric mucosa was noted. Weights of adrenals and spleen were also taken. Further, plasma corticosterone levels were estimated spectroflurometrically. Results indicated that, CS significantly altered the behavioral patterns, decreased the sexual urge and activities, damaged the gastric mucosal layers, enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and increased adrenal glands and spleen weights. PTE and WSE showed significant anxiolytic activity, protected the gastric mucosa, lowered plasma corticosterone level (indicating HPA axis inhibition) and negated the hypertrophy of adrenals and spleen. PTE also enhanced the sexual urge and activities in

  20. LC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetics study of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma after oral administration of Gegenqinlian decoction and Radix Puerariae extract

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Yuan, Jin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gegenqinlian decoction (GQD) is a famous traditional medicine recipe. It is composed of four herbs including Radix Puerariae (GG), Radix Scutellariae (HQ), Rhizoma Coptidis (HL) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC), which is widely used for treating gastro-intestinal disorders in the clinical practice of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of puerarin and daidzein in rats following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Thus, a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK C18 analytical column (100 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 5 μm) by linear gradient elution, with water (0.1% formic acid)-acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Results: The calibration curves were linear over a range of 7.80-1560 ng/mL for puerarin and 6.30-1260 ng/mL for daidzein. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 13.6% and their average recoveries was in the range of 77.8% and 88.6% for puerarin and was between 76.3 and 86.8% for daidzein, respectively. Conclusion: The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of puerarin and daidzein after oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that puerarin and daidzein from Gegenqinlian Decoction were absorbed more effectively with slower elimination in rat plasma than that from Radix Puerariae extract. These results revealed that as far as the Radix Puerariae extract was concerned, it is very valuable to

  1. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions. PMID:23747054

  2. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T. pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9–2.5% p-distance) to French T. lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7–18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata. PMID:26175612

  4. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD. PMID:25726582

  5. Estrogenic effects of Pueraria mirifica on the menstrual cycle and hormone-related ovarian functions in cyclic female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Trisomboon, Hataitip; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the estrogenic effect of Pueraria mirifica (P. mirifica) on menstrual cycle length and hormone-related ovarian function. Nine normal cyclic monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were separated into 3 groups; each group was force fed with a single dose of 10, 100, and 1,000 mg of P. mirifica. The experimental schedule was separated into the pre-treatment and post-treatment periods. Blood samples were collected on days 3, 9 - 14, 19, 24, 29, and every 10 days until the next menstruation for one and two menstrual cycles during two consecutive periods and assayed for serum levels of gonadotropins and ovarian hormones. The result showed a significant increase in lengths of the follicular phase and total menstrual cycle in monkeys treated with 1,000 mg of P. mirifica, but no change in menstrual cycle length in monkeys treated with 10 and 100 mg of P. mirifica. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, or immunoreactive-inhibin did not change during the first and second menstrual cycles of the post-treatment period for all monkey groups. Our findings demonstrate that although changes in hormonal levels could not be observed in this study, a single dose of 1,000 mg of P. mirifica can disturb ovarian function and menstrual cycle in monkeys. PMID:14745118

  6. Road systems, land use, and related patterns of valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) populations, seedling recruitment, and herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Bill Ahlering

    This research investigates the interactions of road systems and land use on the population dynamics and recruitment of a long-lived tree in Mediterranean climate California. In the case of Valley oak (Quercus lobata), habitat conversion and limited recruitment of new individuals has resulted in widespread declines throughout Santa Barbara County and California. This pattern contrasts with high recruitment rates along roadsides, offering a unique opportunity to examine the effects of roads on the population dynamics of a native species. The pattern of roadside recruits is described, mapped, and a complete survey of the biophysical environment along 109 kilometers of road was conducted. The biophysical factors of the road and road system were of four types: (1) the general roadside environment; (2) the acorn supply; (3) a measure of ungulate deterrence; and, (4) roadside management. Seven individual or aggregate factors were then related to the pattern of seedling and sapling densities along roads. Univariate analysis and regression trees determined that acorn supply and total woody cover within the roadside plots explained 49% of the variation in Valley oak seedling densities. These results support the conclusion that the recruitment pattern is due to the roadsides serving as refugia from browsers (cattle and deer). The change in Valley oak populations within roadsides, croplands, rangelands, and urban/suburban lands over a 59 year period is examined using georeferenced aerial photos from 1938 and 1997. While population per capita growth rates were less than one (declining) within both rangelands and croplands, rates were greater than one (increasing) in urban/suburban populations. While roadside growth rates were even higher than those in urban/suburban areas, high variance resulted in a rate neither positive nor negative. Finally, seedlings were planted along roadsides and within adjacent grazed and ungrazed uplands to test browsing pressure. Seedlings within

  7. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF. PMID:26935150

  8. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients. PMID:26815435

  9. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility. PMID:25069970

  10. Declinol, a Complex Containing Kudzu, Bitter Herbs (Gentian, Tangerine Peel) and Bupleurum, Significantly Reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Scores in Moderate to Heavy Drinkers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Steven; Han, David; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; William Downs, B; Madigan, Margaret A; Giordano, John; Beley, Thomas; Jones, Scott; Barh, Debmayla; Simpatico, Thomas; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Schoenthaler, Stephen; Ellison, David; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However not all of the anti-alcohol properties of diadzin are due to inhibition of ALDH-2. This is in agreement with our earlier work showing significant interaction effects of both pyrozole (ALDH-2 inhibitor) and methyl-pyrozole (non-inhibitor) and ethanol’s depressant effects. Moreover, it has been suggested that selective ALDH 2 inhibitors reduce craving for alcohol by increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition there is significant evidence related to the role of the genetics of bitter receptors (TAS2R) and its stimulation as an aversive mechanism against alcohol intake. The inclusion of bitters such as Gentian & Tangerine Peel in Declinol provides stimulation of gut TAS2R receptors which is potentially synergistic with the effects of Kudzu. Finally the addition of Radix Bupleuri in the Declinol formula may have some protective benefits not only in terms of ethanol induced liver toxicity but neurochemical actions involving endorphins, dopamine and epinephrine. With this information as a rationale, we report herein that this combination significantly reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores administered to ten heavy drinkers (M=8, F=2; 43.2 ± 14.6 years) attending a recovery program. Specifically, from the pre-post comparison of the AUD scores, it was found that the score of every participant decreased after the intervention which ranged from 1 to 31. The decrease in the scores was found to be statistically significant with the p-value of 0.00298 (two-sided paired

  11. Thermotolerance of leaf discs from four isoprene-emitting species is not enhanced by exposure to exogenous isoprene

    PubMed

    Logan; Monson

    1999-07-01

    The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 &mgr;L L-1 in compressed air or 21 &mgr;L L-1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 &mgr;mol photons m-2 s-1 in an N2 atmosphere, 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21 &mgr;L L-1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf thermotolerance. PMID:10398717

  12. Thermotolerance of Leaf Discs from Four Isoprene-Emitting Species Is Not Enhanced by Exposure to Exogenous Isoprene1

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Barry A.; Monson, Russell K.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of exogenously supplied isoprene on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were examined in leaf discs of four isoprene-emitting plant species, kudzu (Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi.), velvet bean (Mucuna sp.), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), and pussy willow (Salix discolor Muhl). Isoprene, supplied to the leaves at either 18 μL L−1 in compressed air or 21 μL L−1 in N2, had no effect on the temperature at which minimal fluorescence exhibited an upward inflection during controlled increases in leaf-disc temperature. During exposure to 1008 μmol photons m−2 s−1 in an N2 atmosphere, 21 μL L−1 isoprene had no effect on the thermally induced inflection of steady-state fluorescence. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry decreased sharply as leaf-disc temperature was increased; however, this decrease was unaffected by exposure of leaf discs to 21 μL L−1 isoprene. Therefore, there were no discernible effects of isoprene on the occurrence of symptoms of high-temperature damage to thylakoid membranes. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isoprene enhances leaf thermotolerance. PMID:10398717

  13. Puerarin enhances adipocyte differentiation, adiponectin expression, and antioxidant response in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Dong-Ho; Park, Cheon-Seok; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2010-01-01

    Puerarin, a major isoflavone glycoside from Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata), has been reported to exert antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects and thus have pharmacological actions in the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the effects of puerarin on the changes of key gene expression associated with adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity and link to cellular antioxidant response pathways. Puerarin treatment significantly enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes accompanying increased lipid accumulation and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity. At a molecular level, puerarin upregulated mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target genes, an adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) and GLUT4. Puerarin also caused a significant increase in mRNA level of adiponectin, an important insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine that is downregulated in insulin-resistant and diabetic states. In addition, treatment with puerarin was found to upregulate mRNA levels of G6PDH, glutathione reductase, and catalase, all of which are important for endogenous antioxidant responses. These data suggest that the hypoglycemic effects of puerarin can be attributed to the upregulation of PPARγ and its downstream target genes, GLUT4 and adiponectin expression, leading to increased glucose utilization. Puerarin may also be effective in preventing the rise of oxidative stress during adipocyte differentiation by increasing endogenous antioxidant responses. PMID:20806284

  14. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes. PMID:17390809

  15. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  16. The dichloromethane extract of the ethnomedicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibits NPM/ALK expression which is causal for anaplastic large cell lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christine; Popescu, Ruxandra; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Laimer, Daniela; Heider, Susanne; Seelinger, Mareike; Diaz, Rene; Wallnöfer, Bruno; Egger, Gerda; Hassler, Melanie; Knöfler, Martin; Saleh, Leila; Sahin, Emine; Grusch, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Dolznig, Helmut; Frisch, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Kopp, Brigitte; Krupitza, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates extracts of Neuolaena lobata, an anti-protozoan ethnomedicinal plant of the Maya, regarding its anti-neoplastic properties. Firstly, extracts of increasing polarity were tested in HL-60 cells analyzing inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis induction. Secondly, the most active extract was further tested in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines of human and mouse origin. The dichloromethane extract inhibited proliferation of HL-60, human and mouse ALCL cells with an IC50 of ~2.5, 3.7 and 2.4 µg/ml, respectively and arrested cells in the G2/M phase. The extract induced the checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 and perturbed the orchestrated expression of the Cdc25 family of cell cycle phosphatases which was paralleled by the activation of p53, p21 and downregulation of c-Myc. Importantly, the expression of NPM/ALK and its effector JunB were drastically decreased, which correlated with the activation of caspase 3. Subsequently also platelet derived growth factor receptor β was downregulated, which was recently shown to be transcriptionally controlled by JunB synergizing with ALK in ALCL development. We show that a traditional healing plant extract downregulates various oncogenes, induces tumor suppressors, inhibits cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis of malignant cells. The discovery of the 'Active Principle(s)' is warranted. PMID:23135783

  17. Protein expression and genetic structure of the coral Porites lobata in an environmentally extreme Samoan back reef: Does host genotype limit phenotypic plasticity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barshis, D.J.; Stillman, J.H.; Gates, R.D.; Toonen, R.J.; Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which coral reef ecosystems will be impacted by global climate change depends on regional and local differences in corals' susceptibility and resilience to environmental stressors. Here, we present data from a reciprocal transplant experiment using the common reef building coral Porites lobata between a highly fluctuating back reef environment that reaches stressful daily extremes, and a more stable, neighbouring forereef. Protein biomarker analyses assessing physiological contributions to stress resistance showed evidence for both fixed and environmental influence on biomarker response. Fixed influences were strongest for ubiquitin-conjugated proteins with consistently higher levels found in back reef source colonies both pre and post-transplant when compared with their forereef conspecifics. Additionally, genetic comparisons of back reef and forereef populations revealed significant population structure of both the nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial genomes of the coral host (FST = 0.146 P < 0.0001, FST = 0.335 P < 0.0001 for rDNA and mtDNA, respectively), whereas algal endosymbiont populations were genetically indistinguishable between the two sites. We propose that the genotype of the coral host may drive limitations to the physiological responses of these corals when faced with new environmental conditions. This result is important in understanding genotypic and environmental interactions in the coral algal symbiosis and how corals may respond to future environmental changes. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  19. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ping; Xu, Youdong; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  20. Soil transfers from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) stands increase ectomycorrhizal diversity and alter root and shoot growth on valley oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Berman, J T; Bledsoe, C S

    1998-02-01

    Soils from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) riparian areas of the Cosumnes River Nature Conservancy Preserve near Sacramento, California were added to growth medium of valley oak seedlings grown in a greenhouse or in agricultural fields at Cosumnes which probably once supported valley oak trees and are now replanted with native riparian vegetation or allowed to revegetate naturally. Agricultural field soil from the Cosumnes River Preserve was presumed to be low or lacking in ectomycorrhizal inoculum. The study was designed to (1) determine whether valley oak stand soil transfer could cause mycorrhizal infection on valley oak seedlings in an agricultural field and in a greenhouse, (2) describe ectomycorrhizal morphological types formed on valley oak seedlings, and (3) determine whether seedling growth is enhanced more by transfer of natural valley oak stand soil than agricultural field soil. In the field study, transfer of forest soil increased average ectomycorrhizal diversity (2.4 types) more than transfer of agricultural field soil (1.2 types). Valley oak seedlings were responsive to ectomycorrhizal infection in the field study. With increase in mycorrhizal infection there was an increase in shoot growth at the expense of root growth. In the greenhouse study, both percent mycorrhizal infection and mycorrhizal diversity were increased more by transfer of oak forest and woodland soils than agricultural field soil. Eight morphotypes occurred on seedlings in forest and woodland soils but only three morphotypes in agricultural soil. This result strongly suggests that the agricultural field also harbors ectomycorrhizal propagules but forest and woodland soils support a more abundant and diverse ectomycorrhizal flora. PMID:24578047

  1. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the (34)S isotopic ion is drastically affected by (13)C2 and (18)O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ((12)C(x)(1)H(y)(16)O(z)(32)S(13)C2(18)O, (12)C(x+2)(1)H(y)(16)O(z+1)(34)S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS(n)). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field. PMID:26423627

  3. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  4. New legume hosts of Phakopsora pachyrhizi based on greenhouse evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first found on Glycine max in the continental U.S. in 2004, and subsequently on Pueraria lobata, Desmodium tortuosum, and three Phaseolus species in the field. The pathogen has been reported to occur on over 150 legume species worldwid...

  5. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  6. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin. PMID:24626737

  7. Plant Growth Under Light Emitting Diode Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Daniel John

    Plant growth under light emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated to determine if LEDs would be useful to provide radiant energy for two plant processes, photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Photosynthesis of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) was measured using photons from LEDs to answer the following: (1) Are leaves able to use red LED light for photosynthesis? and (2) Is the efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light equal to that of continuous light? In 175 Pa CO _2, or in response to changes in CO _2,<=af photosynthesis and ATP status were the same in LED as in white xenon arc light. In 35 Pa CO_2, photosynthesis was 10% lower in LED than in xenon arc light due to lowered stomatal conductance. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in pulsed light was equal to continuous light, even when pulses were twice as bright as sunlight. Xanthophyll pigments were not affected by these bright pulses. Photomorphogenesis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and transformed tobacco and tomato (expressing oat phytochrome-A) was assessed by growing plants under red LED lamps in an attempt to answer the following: (1) What is the developmental response of non-transformed and transformed tobacco to red LED light? and (2) Can tomato plants that grow tall and spindly in red LED light be made to grow short by increasing the amount of phytochrome-A? The short phenotype of transformed tobacco was not evident when plants were grown in LED light. Addition of photons of far-red or blue light to red light resulted in short transformed tobacco. Tomato plants grew three times as tall and lacked leaf development in LED versus white light, but transformed tomato remained short and produced fruit under LED light. I have determined that the LED photons are useful for photosynthesis and that the photon efficiency of photosynthesis is the same in pulsed as in continuous light. From responses of tobacco, I

  8. All Wrapped Up in Kudzu and Other Ecological Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Cummo, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Introduces activities to reinforce the concept of and problems involved with introduced, nonnative or alien species. Provides seven vignettes about seven different plant and animal species that have become or currently are near ecological disasters. (CCM)

  9. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

  10. Plant litter chemistry and microbial priming regulate the accrual, composition and stability of soil carbon in invaded ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Mioko; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2014-07-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration, as an ecosystem property, may be strongly influenced by invasive plants capable of depositing disproportionately high quantities of chemically distinct litter that disrupt ecosystem processes. However, a mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate soil C storage in invaded ecosystems remains surprisingly elusive. Here, we studied the impact of the invasion of two noxious nonnative species, Polygonum cuspidatum, which produces recalcitrant litter, and Pueraria lobata, which produces labile litter, on the quantity, molecular composition, and stability of C in the soils they invade. Compared with an adjacent noninvaded old-field, P. cuspidatum-invaded soils exhibited a 26% increase in C, partially through selective preservation of plant polymers. Despite receiving a 22% higher litter input, P. lobata-invaded Pinus stands exhibited a 28% decrease in soil C and a twofold decrease in plant biomarkers, indicating microbial priming of native soil C. The stability of C exhibited an opposite trend: the proportion of C that was resistant to oxidation was 21% lower in P. cuspidatum-invaded soils and 50% higher in P. lobata-invaded soils. Our results highlight the capacity of invasive plants to feed back to climate change by destabilizing native soil C stocks and indicate that environments that promote the biochemical decomposition of plant litter would enhance the long-term storage of soil C. Further, our study highlights the concurrent influence of dominant plant species on both selective preservation and humification of soil organic matter. PMID:24720813

  11. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica. PMID:26047489

  12. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  13. Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923

  14. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica. PMID:26047489

  15. Near term climate projections for invasive species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species pose important conservation issues separately, and should be examined together. We used existing long term climate datasets for the US to project potential climate change into the future at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the climate change scenarios generally available. These fine scale projections, along with new species distribution modeling techniques to forecast the potential extent of invasive species, can provide useful information to aide conservation and invasive species management efforts. We created habitat suitability maps for Pueraria montana (kudzu) under current climatic conditions and potential average conditions up to 30 years in the future. We examined how the potential distribution of this species will be affected by changing climate, and the management implications associated with these changes. Our models indicated that P. montana may increase its distribution particularly in the Northeast with climate change and may decrease in other areas. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. At the Atlanta site (226B) it was found that bulk color composites for October 15, 1972, and April 13, 1973, can be interpreted together to disclose the location of the perennial Kudzu vine (Pyeraria lobata). Land managers concerned with Kudzu eradication could use ERTS-1 to inventory locations over 200 meters (660 feet) square. Microdensitometer data collected on ERTS-1 Bulk photographic products for the Manitou test site (226C) have shown that the 15-step gray-scale tablets are not of systematic equal values corresponding to 1/14 the maximum radiant energy incident on the MSS sensor. The gray-scale values present a third-order polynomial function rather than a direct linear relationship. Although data collected on step tablets for precision photographic products appear more discrete, the density variation within blocks in almost as great as variations between blocks. These system errors will cause problems when attempting to analyze radiometric variances among vegetation and land use classes.

  17. Progress on the pharmacological research of puerarin: a review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Yong; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary pharmacological research has demonstrated that puerarin, the most important phytoestrogen extracted from Pueraria lobata(Willd.) Ohwi, has protecting functions on the cardiovascular system, nervous system, osteoporosis, liver injury, and inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Most of these research studies focused on inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis through regulating various bioactivators and signal pathways. Among these, superoxide dismutase (SOD), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB are of great importance. The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in PubMed and Elsevier SDOL published from 1959 to 2013, and the search term used was "puerarin". PMID:24969520

  18. Identifying bioactive components in natural products through chromatographic fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Xu, Qing-Song; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Chau, Foo-Tim

    2015-04-22

    Bioactive component identification is a crucial issue in search for new drug leads. We provide a new strategy to search for bioactive components based on Sure Independence Screening (SIS) and interval PLS (iPLS). The method, which is termed as SIS-iPLS, is not only able to find out the chief bioactive components, but also able to judge how many components should be there responsible for the total bioactivity. The method is totally "data-driven" with no need for prior knowledge about the unknown mixture analyzed, therefore especially suitable for effect-directed work like bioassay-guided fractionation. Two data sets, a synthetic mixture system of twelve components and a suite of Radix Puerariae Lobatae extracts samples, are used to test the identification ability of the SIS-iPLS method. PMID:25819786

  19. [Progress on cardiovascular protections and mechanism research of puerarin].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-yong

    2015-06-01

    Puerarin is one of the most important effective components of Pueraria lobata which exhibited classic estrogen-like biological activities and had remarkable cardiovascular protections in vivo and in vitro experiments. These protections of puerarin are mainly exhibited on improving the myocardial cells membrane potential and arrhythmia based on effecting the Na+, K+ , and Ca2+ channels,resisting myocardial fibrosis damage, diastolic effect on blood vessels, promoting angiogenesis, resisting calcification and atherosclerosis, improving blood flow, antiplatelet aggregation, reducing lipid and resisting diabetes. The main mechanisms are to improve the membrane potential and reduce cardiovascular damage caused by inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and the main regulated signal pathways are the PI3K/Akt, the NF-kappa B and the caspases. PMID:26591509

  20. Puerarin: a review of pharmacological effects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Hong; Peng, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Puerarin is the major bioactive ingredient isolated from the root of the Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, which is well known as Gegen (Chinese name) in traditional Chinese medicine. As the most abundant secondary metabolite, puerarin was isolated from Gegen in the late 1950s. Since then, its pharmacological properties have been extensively investigated. It is available in common foods and is used in alternative medicine. It has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes and diabetic complications, osteonecrosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, endometriosis, and cancer. The beneficial effects of puerarin on the various medicinal purposes may be due to its wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as vasodilation, cardioprotection, neuroprotection, antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammation, alleviating pain, promoting bone formation, inhibiting alcohol intake, and attenuating insulin resistance. However, the direct molecular mechanisms and targets remain unclear. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological effects of puerarin. PMID:24339367

  1. Conformational analysis of argiopine molecule obtained from Argiope lobata spider venom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godjayev, Niftali M.; Aliyeva, Irade N.; Akyüz, Sevim; Aliyev, Cevanşir I.

    1995-05-01

    The conformational behavior of argiopine, the molecule that blocks the glutamate-activated ion channels of the central nervous system in mammals, was investigated by theoretical conformational analysis. Realization of two types of structures, i.e. the pseudocyclic structure, formed by the hydrogen bonds between residues at the opposite ends of the molecule, and the entirely stretched-out structure, were shown to be possible for an isolated molecule. The molecular structure of argiopine essentially depends on the conditions in which the molecule functions.

  2. A new invasive species in maryland: the biology and distribution of kudzu bug, megacopta cribraria (fabricius) (femiptera: plataspidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relaxation of trade restrictions in the 1960s and 70s led to an unintended exchange of invasive insect species as well as manufactured goods between the United States and its new trade partners. Consequently, the number of exotic insect pests accidently entering and taking up residence in the U...

  3. Growing Embedded Librarians Like Kudzu: How the Embedded Extension Service Creates More Embedded Librarians without Creating New Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrain, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In an era of exploding online enrollment and tight budgets, Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) struggles to meet the needs of online students. CPCC librarians went one step towards solving that problem in 2009-2010 by launching an embedded librarian program. CPCC's program became so successful that it struggled to meet demand. In 2013,…

  4. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods. PMID:15453588

  5. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  6. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  8. Inhibitory effect of puerarin on vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by oxidised low-density lipoprotein via suppressing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and PCNA expression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanwu; Liu, Kai; Bo, Sun; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Chunsheng; Ren, Liqun

    2016-02-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, has been shown to process antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and anti-hyperglycemic activities in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects and the possible mechanisms of puerarin in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). VSMCs were cultured and pretreated with different concentrations of puerarin (0, 1, 10, 50 µM) before stimulated by ox-LDL (50 µg/mL). Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of puerarin on cell cycle. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 were detected by western blotting analysis. The results indicated that puerarin significantly inhibited VSMCs proliferation induced by ox-LDL and phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Furthermore, puerarin also blocked the ox-LDL-induced cell-cycle progression at G1/S-interphase and down-regulated the expression of PCNA of VSMCs. The results suggest puerarin inhibits ox-LDL-induced proliferation of VSMCs by suppressing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and PCNA expression. PMID:27004373

  9. Online screening of nitric oxide scavengers in natural products using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ting; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule with extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO scavengers have the potential to treat inflammation, septic shock and other related diseases, and numerous examples have been chemically synthesized or isolated from natural products. The chemical diversity of natural products, however, means that a huge effort is necessary to efficiently screen and identify bioactive compounds, especially NO scavengers. In this article, we propose an effective analytical method to screen for NO scavengers in three natural products using an online system that couples high performance liquid chromatography with tandem diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD). Eighteen compounds from radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and green tea displayed significant NO scavenging activity whereas components of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi had no discernable activity. The structures of the active compounds were elucidated using Agilent Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS system. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships indicated that, in flavonoids, a 2,3-double bond and a 3-H atom or a 3-OH group are essential for activity. In tannins, poly-hydroxyl groups are important for NO scavenging activity. Method validation indicated that the newly developed method is both reliable and repeatable. The online method that we present provides a simple, rapid and effective way to identify and characterize NO scavengers present in natural products. PMID:26607316

  10. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD. PMID:26511841

  11. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  12. Ten Years' Research on a Cardiovascular Tonic: A Comprehensive Approach—From Quality Control and Mechanisms of Action to Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping-Chung; Koon, Chi-Man; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Chook, Ping; Cheng, William King-Fai; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Kwok, Timothy Chi-Yui; Woo, Kam-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mortality arising from cardiovascular pathologies remains one of the highest. Maintenance of cardiovascular health therefore remains a universal concern. Interventional therapies and medications have made impressive advances, but preventive measures would be of the same importance. Method. Ten years' search for a simple herbal formula has resulted in a two-herb combination, consisting of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The formula has been studied extensively on cardiovascular biological platforms and then put on three clinical trials. Results. In the laboratory, the formula was found to have the biological effects of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-foam cell formation on vascular endothelium, and vasodilation. Clinical trials using ultrasonic carotid intima thickness as a surrogate marker showed very significant benefits. No significant adverse effects were encountered. Conclusion. It is therefore recommended that the herbal formula could be used as an adjuvant therapy in cardiac patients under treatment or as a preventive agent among the susceptible. PMID:24324512

  13. Effects of a multi-herbal extract on type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An aqueous extract of multi-hypoglycemic herbs of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, Pueraria lobata, Dioscorea batatas Decaisne, Rehmannia glutinosa, Amomum cadamomum Linné, Poncirus fructus and Evodia officinalis was investigated for its anti-diabetic effects in cell and animal models. Methods Activities of PPARγ agonist, anti-inflammation, AMPK activator and anti-ER stress were measured in cell models and in db/db mice (a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes). Results While the extract stimulated PPARγ-dependent luciferase activity and activated AMPK in C2C12 cells, it inhibited TNF-α-stimulated IKKβ/NFkB signaling and attenuated ER stress in HepG2 cells. The db/db mice treated with the extract showed reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, improved postprandial glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity and significantly decreased plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Conclusion The aqueous extract of these seven hypoglycemic herbs demonstrated many therapeutic effects for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in cell and animal models. PMID:21375727

  14. Amelioration effects of traditional Chinese medicine on alcohol-induced fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Young; Choung, Se-Young

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats. TCM consists of Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Alisma orientale, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Pueraria lobata. METHODS: The rats were separated randomly into five groups. One (the CD group) was fed a control diet for 10 wk, another (the ED group) fed an ethanol-containing isocaloric liquid diet for 10 wk, and the last three (the TCM group) were fed an ethanol-containing isocaloric liquid diet for 10 wk and dosed orally with TCM (222 mg/kg•d, TCM222; 667 mg/kg•d, TCM667; and 2 000 mg/kg•d, TCM2000, respectively) weekly during the last 4 wk. RESULTS: ED group developed fatty liver according to lipid profile and liver histological findings. Compared with the control group, liver/body weight, serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), liver TG and TC, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic aminotran-sferase (AST) significantly increased in the ED group. Whereas, in the rats administered with TCM, liver/body weight, serum TG and TC, liver TG and TC, serum ALT and AST were significantly decreased, and the degree of hepatic lipid droplets was markedly improved compared with those in the ED group. CONCLUSION: TCM treatment causes significant reduction in alcohol-induced lipid hepatic accumulation, reversing fatty liver and liver damage, and can be used as a remedy for alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:16222745

  15. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P < 0.05) in the rainiest months than in the less rainy season, which resulted in 20% less predicted weight gain by growing steers (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sorghum grain was required to increase milk production and growth by 25 or 50% per animal, respectively, but this strategy was less profitable than current forage-only diets. Greater productivity of land and labor from higher stocking indicated greater net margins for beef production, but not for milk. This study suggested that more intensive beef production by judicious fertilization of grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  16. Diffusion-based process for carbon dioxide uptake and isoprene emission in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors by photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Fiona K; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis for the generation of fuels and chemicals from cyanobacteria and microalgae offers the promise of a single host organism acting both as photocatalyst and processor, performing sunlight absorption and utilization, as well as CO(2) assimilation and conversion into product. However, there is a need to develop methods for generating, sequestering, and trapping such bio-products in an efficient and cost-effective manner that is suitable for industrial scale-up and exploitation. A sealed gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor was designed and applied for the photosynthetic generation of volatile isoprene (C(5)H(8)) hydrocarbons, which operates on the principle of spontaneous diffusion of CO(2) from the gaseous headspace into the microalgal or cyanobacterial-containing aqueous phase, followed by photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation and isoprene production by the transgenic microorganisms. Volatile isoprene hydrocarbons were emitted from the aqueous phase and were sequestered into the gaseous headspace. Periodic replacement (flushing) of the isoprene (C(5)H(8)) and oxygen (O(2)) content of the gaseous headspace with CO(2) allowed for the simultaneous harvesting of the photoproducts and replenishment of the CO(2) supply in the gaseous headspace. Reduction in practice of the gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor is offered in this work with a fed-batch and a semi-continuous culturing system using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 heterologously expressing the Pueraria montana (kudzu) isoprene synthase (IspS) gene. Constitutive isoprene production was observed over 192 h of experimentation, coupled with cyanobacterial biomass accumulation. The diffusion-based process in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors has the potential to be applied to other high-value photosynthetically derived volatile molecules, emanating from a variety of photosynthetic microorganisms. PMID:21830206

  17. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Other Intestinal Parasites in Young Children in Lobata Province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance of the present results highlights that it is crucial to strength surveillance on intestinal pathogens. PMID:24846205

  18. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-15

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress.

  19. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  20. In vitro and in vivo antitumour activities of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside on human lung carcinoma A549 cell line via the induction of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ti; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Context Pueraria lobata (Leguminoseae) shows cytotoxic effects against cancer cells; however, its active components remain unclear. Objective This study investigated the antitumour activity of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside (POS) on the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. Materials and methods The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM) in vitro, and xenograft nude mice were established to evaluate the antitumour effect of POS (at 40 mg/kg/d) in vivo by 15 days intraperitoneal injection (ip). To explore its mechanism of action, flow cytometry was performed to determine the pro-apoptotic effect of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM). Subsequently, the expression of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax in A549 cells were determined. Results POS showed significant cytotoxicity toward A549 cells (p < 0.05) by inducing apoptosis. Treatment with POS significantly upregulated the levels of caspase-3 (p < 0.01), caspase-7 (p < 0.01), caspase-9 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.01) in A549 cells, and Bcl-2 was downregulated (p < 0.01). Additionally, the in vivo animal study showed that POS significantly inhibited tumour growth in A549 cells (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study demonstrated the POS has significant antitumour activities. The mechanisms are related to increased levels of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9 and Bax, and reduced levels Bcl-2. PMID:26730946

  1. [Study on anti-hyperlipidemia mechanism of high frequency herb pairs by molecular docking method].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-di; He, Yu-su; Chen, Xi; Tao, Ou; Li, Gong-Yu; Zhang, Yan-ling

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely clinical effect in treating hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism still need to be explored. Based on consulting Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010), all the lipid-lowering Chinese patent medicines were analyzed by associated rules data mining method to explore high frequency herb pairs. The top three couplet medicines with high support degree were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Crataegi Fructus, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Crataegi Fructus, and Polygoni Multiflori Radix-Crataegi Fructus. The 20 main ingredients were selected from the herb pairs and docked with 3 key hyperlipidemia targets, namely 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α ) and niemann-pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) to further discuss the molecular mechanism of the high frequency herb pairs, by using the docking program, LibDock. To construct evaluation rules for the ingredients of herb pairs, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between computed and initial complexes was first calculated to validate the fitness of LibDock models. Then, the key residues were also confirmed by analyzing the interactions of those 3 proteins and corresponding marketed drugs. The docking results showed that hyperin, puerarin, salvianolic acid A and polydatin can interact with two targets, and the other five compounds may be potent for at least one of the three targets. In this study, the multi-target effect of high frequency herb pairs for lipid-lowering was discussed on the molecular level, which can help further researching new multi-target anti-hyperlipidemia drug. PMID:26591535

  2. The cardioprotective effect of danshen and gegen decoction on rat hearts and cardiomyocytes with post-ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix) and Gegen (Puerariae Lobatae Radix) have been used for treating heart disease for several thousand years in China. It has been found that a Danshen and Gegen decoction (DG) exhibiting an anti-atherosclerosis effect, which improves the patients’ heart function recovery. Pre-treatment with DG was reported to have protective effects on myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the present study, we aim to investigate the post-treatment effect of DG on ischemic-reperfusion injuries ex vivo or in vitro and the underlying mechanisms involved. Methods The rat heart function in an ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) model was explored by examining three parameters including contractile force, coronary flow rate and the release of heart specific enzymes within the heart perfusate. In vitro model of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R), the protective effect of DG on damaged cardiomyocytes was investigated by examining the cell structure integrity, the apoptosis and the functionality of mitochondria. Results Our results showed that DG significantly improved rat heart function after I/R challenge and suppressed the release of enzymes by damaged heart muscles in a dose-dependent manner. DG also significantly inhibited the death of cardiomyocytes, H9c2 cells, with a H/R challenge. It obviously decreased cell apoptosis, protected the mitochondrial function and cell membrane skeleton integrity on H9c2 cells. The cardio-protection was also found to be related to a decrease in intracellular calcium accumulation within H9c2 cells after I/R challenge. Conclusion The potential application of DG in treating rat hearts with an I/R injury has been implied in this study. Our results suggested that DG decoction could act as an anti-apoptotic and anti-ion stunning agent to protect hearts against an I/R injury. PMID:23228089

  3. Involvements of calcium channel and potassium channel in Danshen and Gegen decoction induced vasodilation in porcine coronary LAD artery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Koon, Chi Man; Chan, Judy Yuet Wa; Lau, Kit Man; Kwan, Y W; Fung, Kwok Pui

    2012-09-15

    Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix) and Gegen (Puerariae Lobatae Radix) have been widely used in treating cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a Danshen and Gegen decoction (DG) on the vascular reactivity of a porcine isolated coronary artery and the underlying mechanisms involved. Porcine coronary rings were precontracted with 15 nM U46619. The involvement of endothelium-dependent mechanisms was explored by removing the endothelium; the involvement of potassium channels was investigated by the pretreatment of the artery rings with various blockers, and the involvement of the calcium channels was investigated by incubating the artery rings with Ca²⁺-free buffer and priming them with high [K⁺] prior to adding CaCl₂ to elicit contraction. The involvement of Ca²⁺ sensitization was explored by evaluating the Rho-activity expression. The results revealed that DG elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation on a U46619-precontracted coronary artery ring. These relaxation responses were not altered by the pretreatment of inhibitors of endothelium-related dilator synthases, cGMP and cAMP pathway inhibitors, potassium channel (BK(Ca), SK(Ca), K(V) and K(ATP)) blockers and endothelium removal. The K(IR) channel blocker BaCl₂ only slightly attenuated the DG-induced relaxation. However, the Ca²⁺-induced artery contraction was inhibited by DG. Additionally, the expression of the phosphorylated myosin light chain was inhibited by DG whereas the activity of RhoA was not affected. Therefore, DG could be a useful cardioprotective agent for vasodilation in patients who have hypertension. PMID:22889578

  4. Acute treatment with Danshen-Gegen decoction protects the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury via the redox-sensitive PKCɛ/mK(ATP) pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po Yee; Wong, Sze Man; Leung, Hoi Yan; Leong, Pou Kuan; Chen, Na; Zhou, Limin; Zuo, Zhong; Lam, Philip Y; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-08-15

    Danshen-Gegen (DG) decoction, an herbal formulation comprising Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Radix Puerariae Lobatae, is prescribed for the treatment of coronary heart disease in Chinese medicine. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that DG decoction can reduce the extent of atherosclerosis. In the present study, using an ex vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, we investigated the myocardial preconditioning effect of an aqueous DG extract prepared from an optimized weight-to-weight ratio of Danshen and Gegen. Short-term treatment with DG extract at a daily dose of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 days protected against myocardial I/R injury in rats. The cardioprotection afforded by DG pretreatment was paralleled by enhancements in mitochondrial antioxidant status and membrane structural integrity, as well as a decrease in the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca²⁺-stimulated permeability transition in vitro, particularly under I/R conditions. Short-term treatment with the DG extract also enhanced the translocation of PKCɛ from the cytosol to mitochondria in rat myocardium, and this translocation was inhibited by α-tocopherol co-treatment with DG extract in rats. Short-term DG treatment may precondition the myocardium via a redox-sensitive PKCɛ/mK(ATP) pathway, with resultant inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition through the opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels. Our results suggest that clinical studies examining the effectiveness of DG extract given prophylactically in affording protection against myocardial I/R injury would be warranted. PMID:21855786

  5. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth forms. Results of

  6. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

  7. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of irisolidone and its main metabolites in rat plasma determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhe; Qi, Wen; Xu, Liangyu; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2015-11-15

    Irisolidone, a major isoflavone found in Pueraria lobata flowers, exhibits a wide spectrum of bioactivities, while its metabolic pathways and the pharmacokinetics of its metabolites in vivo have not been investigated yet. In the present study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) method was employed to investigate the metabolic pathways of irisolidone and the pharmacokinetics of its main metabolites in rats, after a single 100mg/kg oral dose of irisolidone. Protein precipitation method was used to prepare plasma samples. A total of 15 metabolites included irisolidone were detected and tentatively identified based on the mass spectral fragmentation patterns, elution order or confirmed using available reference standards. The pharmacokinetics of the main metabolites included three glucuronide metabolites tectorigenin-7-O-glucuronide (Te-7G), 6-hydroxybiochanin A-6-O-glucuronide (6-OH-BiA-6G), irisolidone-7-O-glucuronide (Ir-7G), and three sulfate metabolite tectorigenin-7-O-sulfate-4'-O-sulfate (Te-7S-4'S), tectorigenin-7-O-sulfate (Te-7S) and irisolidone-7-O-sulfate (Ir-7S), and aglycone tectorigenin (Te), and irisolidone (Ir) were evaluated. The plasma concentrations reached maximal values of 0.297μmol/L at 10.3h for Te-7S-4'S, 0.199μmol/L at 21.7h for Te-7G, 0.154μmol/L at 8.00h for Te-7S, 4.10μmol/L at 15.3h for 6-OH-BiA-6G, 10.7μmol/L at 9.71h for Ir-7G, 0.918μmol/L at 11.3h for Te, 0.150μmol/L at 8.67h for Ir-7S, and 0.843μmol/L at 9.67h for Ir, respectively. Since the total plasma concentrations of conjugated metabolites were much higher than that of the irisolidone aglycone, an extensive phase II metabolism plays an important role in the pharmacokinetics of irisolidone in vivo. PMID:26465087

  9. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  10. Puerarin attenuates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells through the JNK- and Akt-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongdong; Mu, Shuai; Zhao, Danyang; Wang, Guangbin; Chen, Zhiguang; Ren, Hongfei; Fu, Qin

    2015-08-01

    Puerarin is an active component of Pueraria lobata, which is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of puerarin on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts in vitro. The effects of puerarin on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced cell apoptosis were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and found that the viability of hFOB1.19 cells was significantly increased following exposure to between 10(-6) and 10(-10) M puerarin, with a maximal anti-apoptotic effect at a concentration of 10(-8) M. In addition, compared with the control group, puerarin upregulated the transcription and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 and downregulated B-cell-associated X protein in the hFOB1.19 cells. Puerarin attenuated the DEX-induced release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase-3, and treatment with puerarin inhibited the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in the hFOB1.19 cells. Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partly eliminated the protective effect of puerarin on DEX-induced apoptosis, and puerarin combined with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed DEX-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent than in the cells treated with SP600125 alone. These results suggested that the JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways mediate the inhibitory effects of puerarin on apoptosis in the hFOB1.19 cells. In conclusion, puerarin prevented DEX-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells via inhibition of the JNK pathway and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the cells, dependent on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These results support puerarin as a promising target in the treatment of GC-induced osteoporosis. PMID:26101183

  11. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  12. Goji

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much. Some of these products include danshen, ginger, Panax ginseng, turmeric, valerian, and others.Herbs and ... much. Some of these products include bitter melon, ginger, goat's rue, fenugreek, kudzu, willow bark, and others.

  13. [Intestinal absorption of different combinations of active compounds from Gegenqinlian decoction by rat single pass intestinal perfusion in situ].

    PubMed

    An, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yi-Zhu; Xu, Ran-Chi; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2012-12-01

    The aim is to study the intestinal absorption of different combinations of active compounds out of Gegenqinlian decoction. Rat single pass intestinal perfusion model with jugular vein cannulated was used. Samples were obtained continuously from the outlet perfusate and the mesenteric vein. The levels of puerarin, daidzin, liquilitin, baicalin, wogonoside, jatrorrhizine, berberine and palmatine were determined by LC-MS/MS and their permeability coefficients were calculated. The results showed that Glycyrrhiza could promote the absorption of the active ingredients in Pueraria which is the monarch herb; meanwhile, Pueraria also played a role in promoting the absorption of liquilitin. Based on the Gegenqinlian decoction and the different combinations experiments, the results concerning the absorption of baicalin and wogonoside were as follows. For baicalin, Pueraria and Glycyrrhiza could promote its absorption and the effect of Pueraria was more obvious. For wogonoside, Pueraria could also promote its absorption, while Glycyrrhiza played a opposite role. Pueraria and Glycyrrhiza both played a part in promoting the absorption of jateorhizine, berberine and palmatine, the effective compounds in Coptis. PMID:23460978

  14. Intercropping Tropical Vine Legumes and Maize for Silage in Temperate Climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize silage is used extensively in American dairy rations. Increasing protein content would enhance maize silage quality. This study examined nine forage legume species (Austrian winter pea, common bean, cowpea, lablab, scarlet runner bean, sesbania, sunn hemp, tropical kudzu, and velvet bean) gr...

  15. Physiological specialization of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates on soybean in the United States from 2006 to 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, cause of soybean rust, represents a classic case of a pathogen introduction that became established to a new geographical region on a perennial overwintering host (kudzu). The objective of our study was to classify the pathogenic variation in P. pachyrhizi isolates collected f...

  16. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera:Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lugys Spp. Diet²

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for biological control of a variety of pests. The objectives of this study were isolate and identify the fungus from Kudzu bugs and determine its infectivity comparing with two highly pathogenic isolates including the Mississipp...

  17. From Asian curiosity to eruptive American pest: Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and prospects for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug or bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is native to Asia where it appears to be widely distributed (although the taxonomy is not entirely clear), but is infrequently a pest of legumes. This bug appeared in 2009 in the southeastern United States, where it is closely associa...

  18. Effects of surfactants on conidial germination of Myrothecium verrucaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myrothecium verrucaria has been employed as a unique biological control agent because it is highly effective against several annual and perennial weeds, including red vine, trumpet creeper, redroot pigweed, kudzu, hempsesbania and sicklepod. Although aerial conidia of M. verrucaria are hydrophilic, ...

  19. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    PubMed

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²). PMID:27376335

  20. Submerged Culture of a Mycelial Formulation of a Bioherbicidal Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria with Mitigated Mycotoxin Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361390) was shown to be highly efficacious in controlling the exotic invasive weed kudzu. The mycelium can be rapidly (48 h) produced in several media including soy flour-cornmeal medium. HPLC analyses revealed that the mycelial formu...

  1. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac; Wellington, Gerrard M; Fox, George E; Toonen, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence, principal component analysis (PCA) of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs. PMID:25674364

  2. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits

    PubMed Central

    Wellington, Gerrard M.; Fox, George E.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence, principal component analysis (PCA) of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs. PMID:25674364

  3. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future Tenses" (Lucia Lobata); "Revisiting…

  4. Hybridization and Introgression in a Sympatric Pair of Oak Species (Fagaceae) Studied with Morphology and Chloroplast and Nuclear SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chloroplast and nuclear SSR markers and morphology were used to study hybridization and introgression between Quercus douglasii and Q. lobata, two sympatric oak species native to California. Chloroplast SSR markers provided strong evidence of gene exchange via ongoing introgression between these sp...

  5. Case Studies Due to Invasive Plants on the Vegetation Retardation Succession in Landslide Areas of Shimen reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Shin-Hwei

    2014-05-01

    The steep terrain and the fragile geology in Taiwan have caused large landslides in the reservoir watershed in the season with typhoons and heavy rain. Management, restoration strategies, and vegetation succession mechanism of landslide areas are distinct due to different attributes and locations of landslide areas. Aiming at 50 landslide areas in Shihmen reservoir watershed from 2004 to 2012, because of the Typhoon Aere occurred in 2004, this study clusters with the primary vegetation data and ortho image, and discusses the primary vegetation type in landslide areas. The successive management engineering in the watershed and the case data in Sule and Shaluntzu are analyzed the vegetation development and plant competition to evaluate the plant succession mechanism and the vegetation restoration results for the reference of successive design of vegetation engineering in landslide areas. The result shows that Shaluntzu area used invasive plants Rhodesgrass and Rhodesian kudzu when slope land vegetation restoration and secondary planting seedlings. Rhodesian kudzu has property of binding plant and causes for vegetation death. Currently, cutting down Rhodesian kudzu to reduce its interference is the most effective prevention and management method. Carefully choose the pre-grass species for vegetation in the have to carry out artificial vegetation restoration area, and continue to monitor the status currently. It would increase biodiversity for slope land due to select the indicator species of vegetation restoration and know successional trends of invasive plant species.

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones from neurolaena oaxacana

    PubMed

    Passreiter; Sandoval-Ramirez; Wright

    1999-08-01

    Twelve sesquiterpene lactones, two new (1 and 2) and 10 known neurolenin-type germacranolides and furanoheliangolides (3-12) were isolated from Neurolaena oaxacana, and their structures were elucidated by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The chemotaxonomic importance of these findings is discussed. As N. lobata is used against dysenteries, neurolenin B (4) and a mixture of the neurolenins C (5) and D (6) were tested against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis. PMID:10479310

  7. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-01-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host. PMID:23762518

  8. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity. PMID:9741882

  9. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-05-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host. PMID:23762518

  10. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    PubMed Central

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  11. Flavonoids and Age Related Disease: Risk, benefits and critical windows

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, JK; Carlson, SH; Wyss, JM

    2010-01-01

    Plant derived products are consumed by a large percentage of the population to prevent, delay and ameliorate disease burden; however, relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these traditional health products, especially when taken in concert with pharmaceutical agents. The flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites that are common in the diet and appear to provide some health benefits. While flavonoids are primarily derived from soy, many are found in fruits, nuts and more exotic sources, e.g., kudzu. Perhaps the strongest evidence for the benefits of flavonoids in diseases of aging relates to their effect on components of the metabolic syndrome. Flavonoids from soy, grape seed, kudzu and other sources all lower arterial pressure in hypertensive animal models and in a limited number of tests in humans. They also decrease the plasma concentration of lipids and buffer plasma glucose. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant actions, central nervous system effects, gut transport alterations, fatty acid sequestration and processing, PPAR activation and increases in insulin sensitivity. In animal models of disease, dietary flavonoids also demonstrate a protective effect against cognitive decline, cancer and metabolic disease. However, research also indicates that the flavonoids can be detrimental in some settings and, therefore, are not universally safe. Thus, as the population ages, it is important to determine the impact of these agents on prevention/attenuation of disease, including optimal exposure (intake, timing/duration) and potential contraindications. PMID:20181448

  12. Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield Response to Injury by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Roberts, P M

    2016-02-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an invasive member of the family Plataspidae originating from Asia. Since its discovery in Georgia in 2009, its distribution has increased to 13 southern and eastern states. In the United States, M. cribraria is bivoltine and has two primary developmental hosts, kudzu and soybean. Here, we evaluated the yield response of soybean to M. cribraria feeding injury in relation to planting date and soybean maturity group. The study contained four replicated trials in Griffin, Tifton, and Midville, GA, in 2012 and 2013. Four planting dates from April to July, served as the whole plot of a split-plot design with maturity group five and seven soybean and insecticide (lambda-cyhalothrin) randomized within planting date. Egg masses, nymphs, and adults were enumerated weekly to biweekly until soybean reached maturity. Two generations were observed in April and May plantings, but only one generation was evident in June and July soybean plantings. Insecticide-protected plots had consistently higher yields than unprotected plots. Grain yield was greatest in the May planting and lowest in the July planting. Season-long feeding by M. cribraria reduced grain yield in April, May, and June plantings but not in the July planting. Maturity group and planting date had significant effects on yield components in most comparisons. This study indicated that early-planted soybean are at greater risk of yield loss from M. cribraria injury compared with later-planted soybean. PMID:26511984

  13. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    DONG, XIAN-HUI; GAO, WEI-JUAN; KONG, WEI-NA; XIE, HONG-LIN; PENG, YAN; SHAO, TIE-MEI; YU, WEN-GUO; CHAI, XI-QING

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited Aβ plaque accumulation, reversed Aβ burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD. PMID:25780429

  14. Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Yusakul, Gorawit; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2016-04-01

    Immunogen quality is one important factor that contributes to desirable antibody characteristics. Highly specific antibodies against miroestrol can be used to develop a quality control immunoassay for Pueraria candollei products. In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays. PMID:26563142

  15. Diversity in skeletal architecture influences biological heterogeneity and Symbiodinium habitat in corals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Denise M; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Fan, Tung-Yung; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lee, Raymond W; Sogin, Emilia; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-10-01

    Scleractinian corals vary in response to rapid shifts in the marine environment and changes in reef community structure post-disturbance reveal a clear relationship between coral performance and morphology. With exceptions, massive corals are thought to be more tolerant and branching corals more vulnerable to changing environmental conditions, notably thermal stress. The typical responses of massive and branching coral taxa, respectively, are well documented; however, the biological and functional characteristics that underpin this variation are not well understood. We address this gap by comparing multiple biological attributes that are correlated with skeletal architecture in two perforate (having porous skeletal matrices with intercalating tissues) and two imperforate coral species (Montipora aequituberculata, Porites lobata, Pocillopora damicornis, and Seriatopora hystrix) representing three morphotypes. Our results reveal inherent biological heterogeneity among corals and the potential for perforate skeletons to create complex, three-dimensional internal habitats that impact the dynamics of the symbiosis. Patterns of tissue thickness are correlated with the concentration of symbionts within narrow regions of tissue in imperforate corals versus broad distribution throughout the larger tissue area in perforate corals. Attributes of the perforate and environmentally tolerant P. lobata were notable, with tissues ∼5 times thicker than in the sensitive, imperforate species P. damicornis and S. hystrix. Additionally, P. lobata had the lowest baseline levels of superoxide and Symbiodinium that provisioned high levels of energy. Given our observations, we hypothesize that the complexity of the visually obscured internal environment has an impact on host-symbiont dynamics and ultimately on survival, warranting further scientific investigation. PMID:23992772

  16. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia. PMID:11482789

  17. Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

    1998-12-01

    Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

  18. [Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].

    PubMed

    Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O

    1996-08-01

    Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity. PMID:9246360

  19. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  20. Low-input cropping for Acid soils of the humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Benites, J R

    1987-12-11

    A low-input cropping system has been developed at Yurimaguas, Peru, to serve as a transition technology between shifting and continuous cultivation for acid soils of the humid tropics. Principal features are slash-and-burn clearing, rotation of acid-tolerant upland rice and cowpea cultivars, maximum residue return, no tillage, and no lime or fertilizer applications. When yields decline as a result of increasing weed pressure and nutrient deficiencies, a kudzu fallow is grown for 1 year. Subsequent options include fertilizer-based continuous cultivation, pastures, or agroforestry. The system preserves some agroecosystem diversity and contributes toward a sustainable level of production and income for farmers in humid tropical regions. PMID:17784289

  1. Glycation of β-lactoglobulin and antiglycation by genistein in different reactive carbonyl model systems.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yanghui; Li, Xiaoming; Zheng, Tiesong; Lv, Lishuang

    2015-09-15

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are formed in β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) glycation systems via the Maillard reaction, have been implicated in diabetes-related long-term complications. In the present study, we found that reaction conditions, including temperature, time, pH, reactant type and molar ratio of beta-lg to a sugar/MGO/GO, can significantly affect the formation of AGEs. Using SDS-PAGE, we further demonstrated that genistein, a natural isoflavone found in a number of plants including soybeans and kudzu, can efficiently inhibit cross-links of the glycated β-lg, and suppress the formation AGEs in a dose-dependent manner by trapping reactive dicarbonyl compounds. The products formed from genistein and methylglyoxal (MGO) in the β-lg-MGO assay were analyzed using LC/MS. Both mono-MGO and di-MGO adducts of genistein were detected with this method. PMID:25863607

  2. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  3. Bioherbicidal activity from washed spores of Myrothecium verrucaria.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Mark A; Boyette, C Douglas; Hoagland, Robert E

    2012-05-01

    The fungal plant pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, is highly virulent to several important weed species and has potential utility as a bioherbicide. However the production of macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins by this fungus presents significant safety concerns. It was discovered that trichothecenes are removed from M. verrucaria spores by repeated washes with water. These washed spores retained bioherbicidal efficacy against kudzu when tested in field trials and on sicklepod when tested under greenhouse conditions. Changes in the growth medium combined with washing spores with water resulted in greater than 95% reduction in roridin A and verrucarin A. Washing spores reduced trichothecene concentrations in spore preparations with no significant effect on plant biomass reduction, thus demonstrating the possibility of M. verrucaria formulations with improved safety to researchers, producers and applicators. PMID:22806015

  4. Release of phenols by plant roots and their potential importance as substrates for PCB-degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.S.; Hedge, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    A comparison of the amount of phenols released into the soil by different plant species showed major differences. Total phenols recovered in the leachate following a single flush ranged from a low of 0.09 {mu}g morin equivalents per g of dry sand for indian grass and big blue stem to a high of 0.38 {mu}g morin equivalents per g sand for crabapple. From the values observed for total phenols, the plant species examined can be grouped into the following categories: (1) Low: big blue stem, cottonwood, eupatorium, indian grass, stephanandra, and sumac; (2) Moderate: asparagus, barberry, kudzu, licorice, mulberry, osage orange, perennial sunflower, rose, staghorn, sumac, and tall fescue; (3) High: crabapple. The relationship of these concentrations to microbial growth will be discussed.

  5. Rheology of lyocell solutions from different cellulosic sources and development of regenerated cellulosic microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuopan

    2003-10-01

    The primary goals of the study were to develop manufactured cellulosic fibers and microfibers from wood pulps as well as from lignocellulosic agricultural by-products and to investigate alternative cellulosic sources as raw materials for lyocell solutions. A protocol was developed for the lyocell preparation from different cellulose sources. The cellulose sources included commercial dissolving pulps, commercial bleached hardwood, unbleached hardwood, bleached softwood, unbleached softwood, bleached thermomechanical pulp, unbleached thermomechanical pulp, bleached recycled newsprint, unbleached recycled newsprint, bagasse and kudzu. The rheological behavior of solutions was characterized. Complex viscosities and effective elongational viscosities were measured and the influences of parameters such as cellulose source, concentration, bleaching, and temperature were studied. One-way ANOVA post hoc tests were carried out to identify which cellulose sources have the potential to produce lyocell solutions having similar complex viscosities to those from commercial dissolving pulps. Lyocell solutions from both bleached and unbleached softwood and hardwood were classified as one homogenous subset that had the lowest complex viscosity. Kudzu solutions had the highest complex viscosity. The results showed the potential to substitute DP 1457 dissolving pulp with unbleached recycled newsprint pulps, to substitute DP 1195 dissolving pulp with bleached and unbleached thermomechanical pulps, to substitute DP 932 dissolving pulp with bleached thermomechanical pulps or bleached recycled newsprint pulps, to substitute DP 670 dissolving pulp with bagasse. Lyocell fibers were produced from selected solutions and were treated to produce microfibers. Water, sulfuric acid solutions and sodium hydroxide solutions were used. The treatment of lyocell fibers in 17.5% NaOH solutions for five minutes at 20°C successfully broke the fibers into fibrils along fiber axis. The diameters of the

  6. Interaction Between Daidzein and Hesperetin on Antispasmodic Action in Isolated Sensitized and Non-sensitized Guinea-Pig Tracheas.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chung-Hung; Chang, Tsu-Ya; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi is frequently prescribed for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis, and cough. It contains daidzein and hesperetin, selective inhibitors of family 3 (PDE3), and 4 (PDE4) of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. In passively sensitized human airways, allergen-induced contraction was reported to be inhibited only by the simultaneous inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4, but not by single inhibition of either isozyme. Therefore, we are interested in investigating the interaction between daidzein and hesperetin on their antispasmodic effects in the isolated sensitized and non-sensitized guinea-pig tracheas, to clarify the difference between these two tissues, because effects of TCM prescription on patients with or without allergic asthma are often different. Guinea-pigs were sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) into legs. After sensitization, the baseline and cumulative OVA-induced contractions of the sensitized trachea were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. In the same way, the histamine (30 μM)-induced tonic contraction of non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea was recorded. The isobole method was used to analyze the antagonism and synergism between daidzein and hesperetin. The isoboles showed antagonism between daidzein and hesperetin on baseline relaxant effect and OVA (100 μg/ml)-induced contraction in the sensitized guinea-pig trachea. In contrast, the isobole showed synergism between daidzein and hesperetin on the relaxant effect of histamine-induced tonic contraction in non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea. These results suggest that the combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis and cough is effective in patients without, but might show little effect in patients with allergic asthma. PMID:27064479

  7. Interaction Between Daidzein and Hesperetin on Antispasmodic Action in Isolated Sensitized and Non-sensitized Guinea-Pig Tracheas

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chung-Hung; Chang, Tsu-Ya; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi is frequently prescribed for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis, and cough. It contains daidzein and hesperetin, selective inhibitors of family 3 (PDE3), and 4 (PDE4) of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. In passively sensitized human airways, allergen-induced contraction was reported to be inhibited only by the simultaneous inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4, but not by single inhibition of either isozyme. Therefore, we are interested in investigating the interaction between daidzein and hesperetin on their antispasmodic effects in the isolated sensitized and non-sensitized guinea-pig tracheas, to clarify the difference between these two tissues, because effects of TCM prescription on patients with or without allergic asthma are often different. Guinea-pigs were sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) into legs. After sensitization, the baseline and cumulative OVA-induced contractions of the sensitized trachea were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. In the same way, the histamine (30 μM)-induced tonic contraction of non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea was recorded. The isobole method was used to analyze the antagonism and synergism between daidzein and hesperetin. The isoboles showed antagonism between daidzein and hesperetin on baseline relaxant effect and OVA (100 μg/ml)-induced contraction in the sensitized guinea-pig trachea. In contrast, the isobole showed synergism between daidzein and hesperetin on the relaxant effect of histamine-induced tonic contraction in non-sensitized guinea-pig trachea. These results suggest that the combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis and cough is effective in patients without, but might show little effect in patients with allergic asthma. PMID:27064479

  8. Comparative structural morphometry and elemental composition of three marine sponges from western coast of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Maushmi S; Shah, Bhaumik

    2014-04-01

    Three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata, Cliono lobata, and Spirastrella pachyspira from the western coastal region of India were compared for their morphometry, biochemical, and elemental composition. One-way analysis of variance was applied for spicule morphometry results. Length, width, and length:width ratio were calculated independently. The ratio of length:width varied from 35 to 42 among the grown samples, which remained in the range of 10-22 in young sample at the beginning of studies. However, no significant change was observed in spicule width compared to length. Elemental compositions of marine sponges were determined by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the spicules of all the three sponges were mostly composed of O (47-56%) and Si (30-40%), whereas Al (14.33%) was only detected in the spicules of C. lobata. Apart from these, K, Ni, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, and S were additionally detected in all the three samples. Presence of heavy metals in the sponges was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Results showed that iron was present in a large amount in samples, followed by zinc, lead, and copper. PMID:24500946

  9. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  10. Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Piniak, Gregory A

    2007-10-01

    This study used non-invasive pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure the maximum fluorescence yield (F(v)/F(m)) of two Hawaiian scleractinian coral species exposed to short-term sedimentation stress. Beach sand or harbor mud was applied to coral fragments in a flow-through aquarium system for 0-45 h, and changes in F(v)/F(m) were measured as a function of sediment type and length of exposure. Corals were monitored for up to 90 h to document recovery after sediment removal. Sediment deposition significantly decreased F(v)/F(m) in both species and was a function of sediment type and time. Corals that received sediment for 30 h or more had the greatest reduction in yield and exhibited little recovery over the course of the experiment. Harbor mud caused a greater reduction in Porites lobata yield than beach sand, whereas both sediment types had equally deleterious effects on Montipora capitata. Colony morphology and sediment type were important factors in determining yield reduction--P. lobata minimized damage from coarse sand grains by passive sediment rejection or accumulation in depressions in the skeleton, and fluorescence yield decreased most in corals exposed to sticky harbor mud or in colonies with flattened morphologies. Species-specific differences could not be tested due to differences in colony morphology and surface area. PMID:17568664

  11. Effects of two sediment types on the fluorescence yield of two Hawaiian scleractinian corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piniak, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study used non-invasive pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure the maximum fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm) of two Hawaiian scleractinian coral species exposed to short-term sedimentation stress. Beach sand or harbor mud was applied to coral fragments in a flow-through aquarium system for 0-45 h, and changes in Fv/Fm were measured as a function of sediment type and length of exposure. Corals were monitored for up to 90 h to document recovery after sediment removal. Sediment deposition significantly decreased Fv/Fm in both species and was a function of sediment type and time. Corals that received sediment for 30 h or more had the greatest reduction in yield and exhibited little recovery over the course of the experiment. Harbor mud caused a greater reduction in Porites lobata yield than beach sand, whereas both sediment types had equally deleterious effects on Montipora capitata. Colony morphology and sediment type were important factors in determining yield reduction-P. lobata minimized damage from coarse sand grains by passive sediment rejection or accumulation in depressions in the skeleton, and fluorescence yield decreased most in corals exposed to sticky harbor mud or in colonies with flattened morphologies. Species-specific differences could not be tested due to differences in colony morphology and surface area. ?? 2007.

  12. Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. W.; Veron, J. E. N.; Wellington, G. M.

    1996-06-01

    coralline algae are dominant (5 40% cover) from 0.5 to 7m. Spur and groove features, constructed of alternating frameworks of Pocillopora and Porites, and veneered with crustose coralline algae, are generally well developed around most atoll exposures. Although crustose coralline algae predominate in the breaker zone (with up to 100% cover), a prominent algal ridge is absent with only a slight buildup (ca. 10 cm) to seaward. Frequent grazing by the pufferfish Arothron meleagris results in the removal of large amounts of live tissue and skeleton from Porites lobata. Acanthaster planci is present, but rare. The grazing of large diadematid sea urchins, (2 species each of Diadema and Echinothrix) on dead corals cause extensive erosion in some areas. Large numbers of corals on the 15 18 m terrace had recently suffered partial ( P. lobata, 60 70% maximum of all colonies sampled) or total ( Pocillopora sp., 80% maximum) mortality. The lengths of regenerating knobs and the rates of linear skeletal growth in P. lobata, determined by sclerochronologic analysis, indicated a period of stress during 1987. Massive skeletal growth is significantly higher at intermediate (16 17 m) than shallow (6 8 m) depths with mean extension rates of 1.5 mm yr-1 in P. lobata and 1.4 mm yr-1 in P. minuta at intermediate depths. Skeletal growth in P. lobata was depressed during the 1987 El Nifio event at Clipperton. The branching coral Pocillopora sp. demonstrated high and similar skeletal growth rates at both shallow (25.4 mm yr-1) and intermediate (26.5 mm yr-1) depths. The presence of widely distributed Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals at Clipperton and the Revillagigedo Islands indicates that these NE Pacific Islands probably serve as a stepping stone for dispersal into the far eastern Pacific region.

  13. NMR Study on the Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin with Isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Sandström, Corine; Zhang, Haiyang; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with daidzein and daidzin in D₂O were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. For the β-CD and daidzein system, two types of 1:1 complexes were formed with the daidzein deeply inserted into the CD cavity with different orientations. For the β-CD/daidzin system, a 1:1 complex was formed with the flavonoid part of daidzin entering the CD cavity from the wide rim. The inclusion complexes determined by NMR were constructed using molecular docking. Furthermore, the mixture of puerarin, daidzein and daidzin, which are the major isoflavonoid components present in Radix puerariae, was analyzed by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) alone and upon addition of β-CD in order to mimic chromatographic conditions and compare their binding affinities. PMID:27043500

  14. [Advances in the study of enzymes and transporters-mediated pharmacokinetic mechanism for herb-drug interaction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Ke-xin

    2015-04-01

    With the wide application of Chinese herbal medicine, herb-drug interaction (HDI) has become increasingly prominent. Metabolic enzymes and transporters are the main targets of HDI, because the changes in expression and function of enzymes and transporters can influence the disposition of drugs. Metabolic enzymes are responsible for the metabolic clearance of drugs, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UGT) and sulfotransferases (SULT); transporters widely expressed in the intestine, kidney, liver and brain are involved in the oral absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs. Pueraria, ginkgo, ginseng, St. John's wort and other Chinese herbal medicine often induce a HDI because those herbal medicines combined with chemical medicine are widely used in clinic. The components of herb medicines mentioned above are prone to interact with enzymes and transporters, which often induce a HDI. This paper reviews the advances in the study of enzymes and transporters-mediated pharmacokinetic mechanism of HDI. PMID:26223121

  15. Identification of novel isoprene synthases through genome mining and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ilmén, Marja; Oja, Merja; Huuskonen, Anne; Lee, Sangmin; Ruohonen, Laura; Jung, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Isoprene is a naturally produced hydrocarbon emitted into the atmosphere by green plants. It is also a constituent of synthetic rubber and a potential biofuel. Microbial production of isoprene can become a sustainable alternative to the prevailing chemical production of isoprene from petroleum. In this work, sequence homology searches were conducted to find novel isoprene synthases. Candidate sequences were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and the desired enzymes were identified based on an isoprene production assay. The activity of three enzymes was shown for the first time: expression of the candidate genes from Ipomoea batatas, Mangifera indica, and Elaeocarpus photiniifolius resulted in isoprene formation. The Ipomoea batatas isoprene synthase produced the highest amounts of isoprene in all experiments, exceeding the isoprene levels obtained by the previously known Populus alba and Pueraria montana isoprene synthases that were studied in parallel as controls. PMID:26275749

  16. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using β-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (β-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  17. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro cultures. Both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains of P. falciparum were significantly inhibited by these extracts. Of all dichloromethane extracts, only the S. glauca cortex extract was considered to be toxic to nauplii of A. salina in the brine shrimp test. PMID:9210673

  18. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    PubMed

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-07-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro cultures. Both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains of P. falciparum were significantly inhibited by these extracts. Of all dichloromethane extracts, only the S. glauca cortex extract was considered to be toxic to nauplii of A. salina in the brine shrimp test. PMID:9210673

  19. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacous for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  20. Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between host tree species and ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in structuring ectomycorrhizal communities, but there are only a few studies on host influence of congeneric trees. We investigated ectomycorrhizal community assemblages on roots of deciduous Quercus crassifolia and evergreen Quercus laurina in a tropical montane cloud forest, one of the most endangered tropical forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S rRNA gene. We sampled 80 soil cores and documented high ectomycorrhizal diversity with a total of 154 taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that oak host was significant in explaining some of the variation in ectomycorrhizal communities, despite the fact that the two Quercus species belong to the same red oak lineage (section Lobatae). A Tuber species, found in 23% of the soil cores, was the most frequent taxon. Similar to oak-dominated ectomycorrhizal communities in temperate forests, Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales were diverse and dominant. PMID:19508503

  1. Guatemalan plants extracts as virucides against HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Luis M; Alvarez, Amparo; Bermejo, Mercedes; González, Nuria; Beltrán, Manuela; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Cruz, Sully M; Gaitán, Isabel; del Olmo, Esther; Escarcena, Ricardo; García, Pablo A; Cáceres, Armando; San Feliciano, Arturo; Alcamí, José

    2008-06-01

    Prevention methods to avoid transmission of pathogens, including HIV, are crucial in the control of infectious diseases, not only to block epidemic spread but to avoid long-term treatments leading to emergence of resistances and drug associated side effects. Together with vaccine development, the discovery of new virucidal agents represents a research priority in this setting. In the screening of new compounds with antiviral activity, three Guatemalan plant extracts from Justicia reptans, Neurolaena lobata and Pouteria viridis were evaluated with a classic antiviral assay and were found to inhibit HIV replication. This activity was corroborated by an original recombinant virus assay, leading us to perform a deeper study of the virucidal activity. Active fractions were non-toxic in vitro and also inhibited other enveloped viruses. Moreover, these fractions were able to inhibit the transfer of HIV from dendritic cells (DCs) to lymphocytes, that represents the main way of HIV spread in vivo. PMID:18068962

  2. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. PMID:11448542

  3. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacious for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  4. First discovery of Quercus feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in Central America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Schuster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high taxonomic diversity of oaks in Mexico and Central America, no Quercus feeding Nepticulidae have ever been recorded from the region. Here, we present seven species whose larvae are leaf-miners of Quercus (section Lobatae) in Guatemala. Except Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers 1875), which was previously known from the United States, all other discovered species are new. We describe and name five new species (Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lauta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sublauta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); the remaining new species is described but left unnamed because of lack of adults (i. e. moths and genitalia are described from developed pupae). All seven treated species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia. PMID:25112733

  5. Seaweed-Coral Interactions: Variance in Seaweed Allelopathy, Coral Susceptibility, and Potential Effects on Coral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldo, Roberta M.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70–80% lower, macroalgal cover 4–9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5–15 fold more frequent and 23–67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51–68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  6. Coral reef recovery in the Galápagos Islands: the northernmost islands (Darwin and Wenman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Peter W.; Riegl, Bernhard; Purkis, Samuel; Kerr, Jeremy M.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2015-06-01

    The remote northernmost Galápagos Islands, Darwin and Wenman, exhibited well-developed coral communities in 1975, which were severely degraded during the 1982-1983 El Niño warming event. Mapping of the coral reef at Darwin, herein Wellington Reef, shows it presently to be the largest known structural reef in the Galápagos. It consists of numerous 1- to 3-m-high Porites framework towers or stacks and overlies a carbonate (coral/calcareous sediments) basement. Pre-disturbance Wellington Reef was constructed chiefly by Porites lobata and Pocillopora elegans, and Wenman coral cover was dominated by Pavona clavus and Porites lobata. Subsequent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated robust recovery in spite of ENSO thermal shock events, involving both high and low stressful temperatures that have caused tissue bleaching and mortality. No losses of coral species have been observed. Radiocarbon dating of 1- to 3-m-high poritid framework stacks, from their peaks to bases, revealed modern ages of up to 690 yr. Incremental stack growth rates ranged from 0.15-0.39 to 1.04-2.40 cm yr-1. The former are equivalent to framework accretion rates of 1.5-3.9 m Kyr-1, the latter to coral skeletal growth rates of 1.0-2.4 cm yr-1. Coral recovery in the central and southern Galápagos has been nonexistent to low compared with the northern islands, due chiefly to much higher population densities and destructive grazing pressure of the echinoid Eucidaris galapagensis. Thus, coral reef resistance to ENSO perturbations and recovery potential in the Galápagos are influenced by echinoid bioerosion that varies significantly among islands.

  7. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  8. soil carbon pools within oak forest is endangered by global climate change in central mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Oliva, Felipe; Merino, Agustín; González-Rodriguez, Antonio; Chávez-Vergara, Bruno; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Oyama, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Forest soil represents the main C pool in terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, temperate forest ecosystems play an important role in the C budget among tropical countries, such as Mexico. For example, the temperate forest ecosystem contains higher C contents on average (295 Mg C ha-1) than the soil C associated with other ecosystems in Mexico (between 56 to 287 Mg C ha-1). At a regional scale, oak forest has the highest C content (460 Mg C ha-1) among the forest ecosystem in Michoacán State at Central Mexico. At the local scale, the soil C content is strongly affected by the composition of organic matter produced by the plant species. The oak species are very diverse in Mexico, distributed within two sections: Quercus sensu stricto and Lobatae. The oak species from Quercus s.s. section produced litterfall with lower concentrations of recalcitrant and thermostable compounds than oak species from Lobatae section, therefore the soil under the former species had higher microbial activity and nutrient availability than the soil under the later species. However, the forest fragment with higher amount of oak species from Quercus s.s. section increases the amount of soil C contents. Unfortunately, Quercus species distribution models for the central western region of Mexico predict a decrease of distribution area of the majority of oak species by the year 2080, as a consequence of higher temperatures and lower precipitation expected under climate change scenarios. Additionally to these scenarios, the remnant oak forest fragments suffer strong degradation due to uncontrolled wood extraction and deforestation. For this reason, the conservation of oak forest fragments is a priority to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere. In order to enhance the protection of these forest fragments it is required that the society identify the ecosystem services that are provided by these forest fragments.

  9. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-tolerance, dependence, and cross-addiction to alcohol. The FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Naltrexone is effective to treat alcohol dependence (decreased length and frequency of drinking bouts), but its severe side effects, including withdrawal symptoms, are difficult to overcome. Acamprosate showed efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but two large US trials have failed to confirm the efficacy. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, does not diminish craving, and it causes a peripheral neuropathy. Kudzu is the only natural medication mentioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, but its mechanisms of action are not yet established. It has been recently shown that dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid purified from Hovenia, has unique effects on GABAA receptors and blocks ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic animal models. In this article, we review the role of GABAA receptors in the treatment of AUD and currently available and potentially novel pharmacological agents. PMID:25066321

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca2+ Influx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca2+ influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca2+ hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  11. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-tolerance, dependence, and cross-addiction to alcohol. The FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Naltrexone is effective to treat alcohol dependence (decreased length and frequency of drinking bouts), but its severe side effects, including withdrawal symptoms, are difficult to overcome. Acamprosate showed efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but two large US trials have failed to confirm the efficacy. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, does not diminish craving, and it causes a peripheral neuropathy. Kudzu is the only natural medication mentioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, but its mechanisms of action are not yet established. It has been recently shown that dihydromyricetin, a flavonoid purified from Hovenia, has unique effects on GABAA receptors and blocks ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic animal models. In this article, we review the role of GABAA receptors in the treatment of AUD and currently available and potentially novel pharmacological agents. PMID:25066321

  12. Fine-scale geographical origin of an insect pest invading North America.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

  13. Fine-Scale Geographical Origin of an Insect Pest Invading North America

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

  14. Intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements among women recently diagnosed with breast cancer in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Beatrice A; Cotterchio, Michelle; Curca, Ioan A; Kreiger, Nancy; Harris, Shelley A; Kirsh, Victoria A; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are found in foods such as soy (isoflavones) and flaxseed (lignans), and certain botanical supplements. Their role in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer recurrence and treatment is controversial, and it is unknown how this affects intake among patients. The Ontario Cancer Registry was used to identify 417 population-based breast cancer cases (mean time from diagnosis was 57 days). A questionnaire was mailed to determine intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements in the last 2 mo, changes since diagnosis and differences by ER tumor status or hormonal treatment. Of 278 (67%) respondents, 56% consumed soy foods, 39% consumed isoflavone-rich foods (tofu, soybeans, soy milk, soy nuts), and 70% ate lignan-rich foods, including flaxseed (33%). Only soy milk, flaxseed, and flaxseed bread were commonly consumed more than once/wk. Few patients (4%) took isoflavone (soy, red clover, kudzu, licorice, isoflavones) or lignan/flaxseed supplements. Since diagnosis, 17% started or stopped soy foods (most stopped); this was more prevalent among those receiving hormonal treatment (20%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 14, 26) than not (6%; 95% CI: 1, 12). No other differences by ER status or hormonal treatment were observed. Research is needed to confirm this and to explore influencing factors. PMID:22642930

  15. Puerarin attenuates inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changxing; Wang, Weidong; Jin, Xiaping; Shen, Jianguo; Hu, Weifeng; Jiang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Puerarin is an important active ingredient in the root of kudzu vine due to its pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge of the effect of puerarin in the attenuation of inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis via toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. Arthritis was induced using injection of anti‑type II collagen antibodies. Treatment with puerarin was observed to significantly decrease clinical scoring of the collagen antibody‑induced arthritis and suppress oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in mice. Furthermore, puerarin was demonstrated to inhibit mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase‑9 and protein expression of TLR4 following collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice. The effect of puerarin may be associated with the suppression of NF‑κB activity in collagen antibody‑induced arthritis mice. Furthermore, upregulation of phosphorylated (p)‑Janus kinase 2 and p‑signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein expression was suppressed by puerarin. The results of the present study indicate, for the first time, the effect of puerarin to attenuate inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody‑induced arthritis via TLR4/NF-κB signaling. PMID:27278131

  16. Puerarin Inhibits oxLDL-Induced Macrophage Activation and Foam Cell Formation in Human THP1 Macrophage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Zhai, Zhenhua; Zhou, Hongyu; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaojie; Lin, Yuhan; Li, Weihong; Shi, Yueping; Zhou, Ming-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone derived from Kudzu roots, has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebral vascular diseases in China and other Asian countries. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether puerarin inhibited atherogenic lipid oxLDL-mediated macrophage activation and foam cell formation in human THP1 macrophage. Treatment with oxLDL significantly increased the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, 160%) and interleukin (IL) 1β (13 fold) accompanied by upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 165%) and the ratio of phospho-IκBα/IκBα in THP1 macrophage. Puerarin dose-dependently prevented an increase in oxLDL-induced proinflammatory gene expression with downregulation of TLR4 and the ratio of phospho-IκBα/IκBα. Furthermore, puerarin prevented oxLDL-mediated lipid deposition and foam cell formation associated with downregulation of scavenger receptor CD36. Flow cytometry analysis showed that puerarin reduced the number of early apoptotic cells of macrophages induced by oxLDL. Our results show that puerarin has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects in vitro; the underlying mechanisms may involve the inhibition of TLR4/NFκB pathway and downregulation of CD36 expression. The results from the present study provide scientific evidence and may expand our armamentarium to use puerarin for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:26576421

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  18. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries. PMID:26470234

  19. Action Thresholds for Managing Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Soybean Based on Sweep-Net Sampling.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Roberts, Phillip M; Reisig, Dominic R

    2015-08-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), first discovered in the United States in 2009, has rapidly become a pest of commercial soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, throughout much of the southeast. Because of its recent arrival, management practices and recommendations are not well established. To develop action thresholds, we evaluated insecticide applications targeted at different densities of adults and nymphs determined using the standard 38-cm diameter sweep net sampling method in 12 soybean field trials conducted in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina from 2011 to 2013. Average peak densities of M. cribraria in the untreated controls reached as high as 63.5 ± 11.0 adults per sweep and 34.7 ± 8.0 nymphs per sweep. Insecticide applications triggered at densities of one adult or nymph of M. cribraria per sweep, two adults or nymphs per sweep, and one adult or nymph per sweep, with nymphs present, resulted in no yield reductions in most cases compared with plots that were aggressively protected with multiple insecticide applications. A single insecticide application timed at the R3 or R4 soybean growth stages also resulted in yields that were equivalent to the aggressively protected plots. Typically, treatments (excluding the untreated control) that resulted in fewer applications were more cost-effective. These results suggest that a single insecticide application targeting nymphs was sufficient to prevent soybean yield reduction at the densities of M. cribraria that we observed. PMID:26470324

  20. Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

    2015-03-18

    Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health. PMID:25734537

  1. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  2. Puerarin Induces Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Hypoxic Human Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chan; Chen, Chun; Wang, Zhiyi; Wang, Liangxing; Yang, Lehe; Ding, Minjiao; Ding, Cheng; Sun, Yu; Lin, Quan; Huang, Xiaoying; Du, Xiaohong; Zhao, Xiaowei; Wang, Chuangyi

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy in hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is caused in part by decreased apoptosis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Puerarin, an isoflavone purified from the Chinese medicinal herb kudzu, ameliorates chronic hypoxic PAH in animal models. Here we investigated the effects of puerarin on apoptosis of hypoxic human PASMCs (HPASMCs), and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings HPASMCs were cultured for 24 h in normoxia or hypoxia (5% O2) conditions with and without puerarin. Cell number and viability were determined with a hemacytometer or a cell counting kit. Apoptosis was detected with a TUNEL test, rhodamine-123 (R-123) fluorescence, a colorimetric assay, western blots, immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. Hypoxia inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and promoted HPASMC growth. In contrast, after puerarin (50 µM or more) intervention, cell growth was inhibited and apoptosis was observed. Puerarin-induced apoptosis in hypoxic HPASMCs was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, caspase-9 activation, and Bcl-2 down-regulation with concurrent Bax up-regulation. Conclusions/Significance Puerarin promoted apoptosis in hypoxic HPASMCs by acting on the mitochondria-dependent pathway. These results suggest a new mechanism of puerarin relevant to the management of clinical hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22457823

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  4. The monstering of tamarisk: how scientists made a plant into a problem.

    PubMed

    Chew, Matthew K

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal of biota by humans is a hallmark of civilization, but the results are often unforeseen and sometimes costly. Like kudzu vine in the American South, some examples become the stuff of regional folklore. In recent decades, "invasion biology," conservation-motivated scientists and their allies have focused largely on the most negative outcomes and often promoted the perception that introduced species are monsters. However, cases of monstering by scientists preceded the rise of popular environmentalism. The story of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), flowering trees and shrubs imported to New England sometime before 1818, provides an example of scientific "monstering" and shows how slaying the monster, rather than allaying its impacts, became a goal in itself. Tamarisks' drought and salt tolerance suggested usefulness for both coastal and inland erosion control, and politicians as well as academic and agency scientists promoted planting them in the southern Great Plains and Southwest. But when erosion control efforts in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas became entangled with water shortages, economic development during the Depression and copper mining for national defense during World War Two, federal hydrologists moved quickly to recast tamarisks as water-wasting foreign monsters. Demonstrating significant water salvage was difficult and became subsidiary to focusing on ways to eradicate the plants, and a federal interagency effort devoted specifically to the latter purpose was organized and continued until it, in turn, conflicted with regional environmental concerns in the late 1960s. PMID:19852397

  5. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  6. Coral Pigments: Quantification Using HPLC and Detection by Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottone, Mary C.

    1995-01-01

    Widespread coral bleaching (loss of pigments of symbiotic dinoflagellates), and the corresponding decline in coral reef health worldwide, mandates the monitoring of coral pigmentation. Samples of the corals Porites compressa and P. lobata were collected from a healthy reef at Puako, Hawaii, and chlorophyll (chl) a, peridinin, and Beta-carotene (Beta-car) were quantified using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detailed procedures are presented for the extraction of the coral pigments in 90% acetone, and the separation, identification, and quantification of the major zooxanthellar pigments using spectrophotometry and a modification of the HPLC system described by Mantoura and Llewellyn (1983). Beta-apo-8-carotenal was found to be inadequate as in internal standard, due to coelution with chl b and/or chl a allomer in the sample extracts. Improvements are suggested, which may result in better resolution of the major pigments and greater accuracy in quantification. Average concentrations of peridinin, chl a, and Beta-car in corals on the reef were 5.01, 8.59, and 0.29, micro-grams/cm(exp 2), respectively. Average concentrations of peridinin and Beta-car did not differ significantly between the two coral species sampled; however, the mean chl a concentration in P. compressa specimens (7.81 ,micro-grams/cm(exp 2) was significantly lower than that in P. lobata specimens (9.96 11g/cm2). Chl a concentrations determined spectrophotometrically were significantly higher than those generated through HPLC, suggesting that spectrophotometry overestimates chl a concentrations. The average ratio of chl a-to-peridinin concentrations was 1.90, with a large (53%) coefficient of variation and a significant difference between the two species sampled. Additional data are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding average pigment concentrations in healthy corals and the consistency of the chl a/peridinin ratio. The HPLC pigment concentration values

  7. Mean age, concentrations and usage of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Muhr, J.; Xu, X.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K. C.; Trumbore, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that plants transport, accumulate, and store significant amounts of photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC). However, the temporal dynamics of the NSC pool and its role as energy source, in particular during times of stress, are not well known. Taking advantage of the bomb radiocarbon (14C) tracer, we determined the mean age (here defined as mean time elapsed since C was initially fixed from the atmosphere) of soluble and insoluble NSC pools within the stem and of stem-emitted CO2 in mature, sympatric deciduous and evergreen oaks in California. In 2008, we quantified the 14C content and concentration of soluble and insoluble NSC in up to 20 cm long stem increment cores of sympatric evergreen (Quercus agrifolia, wislizeni) and deciduous (Q. lobata, douglasii) oaks during the wet (deciduous dormant) and dry (deciduous growing) seasons. Samples were taken along a coastal precipitation gradient at five nature reserves. In 2010 and 2011, we monitored the rate and 14C content of CO2 emissions from tree trunks of sympatric evergreen Q. agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata and douglasii at two of the reserves. In all cores, we found that the NSC associated with a given depth averaged several years younger than the structural C (cellulose) in the wood at the same depth. For example, in wood made of structural C fixed before 1950, we detected modern NSC that was clearly fixed during the decades since the testing of atomic weapons in the atmosphere (peak 1950-1960s). These patterns can be explained by a model in which NSC in a given location in the stem is derived from a component that was fixed in the same year as the structural C, mixed with younger NSC that has been transported inward. Despite differences in growth rates, we found no differences in the mean age of NSC pools between life strategies or locations. Within a given stem core increment, there was no difference between the mean age of soluble and insoluble NSC. Concentrations of

  8. Experimental studies of rapid bioerosion of coral reefs in the Galápagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaka-Kudla, M. L.; Feingold, J. S.; Glynn, W.

    1996-06-01

    Experimental carbonate blocks of coral skeleton, Porites lobata (PL), and cathedral limestone (LS) were deployed for 14.8 months at shallow (5 6 m) and deep (11 13m) depths on a severely bioeroded coral reef, Champion Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Sea urchins ( Eucidaris thouarsii) were significantly more abundant at shallow versus deep sites. Porites lobata blocks lost an average of 25.4 kg m-2yr-1 (23.71 m-2yr-1 or 60.5% decrease yr-1). Losses did not vary significantly at depths tested. Internal bioeroders excavated an average of 2.6 kg m-2 yr-1 (2.41 m-2 yr-1 or 0.6% decrease yr-1), while external bioeroders removed an average of 22.8 kg m-2 yr-1). (21.31 m-2 yr-1). or 59.9% decrease yr-1). few encrusting organisms were observed on the PL blocks. Cathedral limestone blocks lost an average of 4.1 kg m-2 yr-1). (1.81 m-2 yr-1). or 4.6% decrease yr-'), also with no relation to depth. Internal bioeroders excavated an average of 0.6 kg m-2 yr-1). (0.31 m-2 yr-1). or 0.7% decrease yr-1). and external bioeroders removed an average of 3.5 kg m-2 yr-1). (1.51 m-2 yr-1). or 3.9% decrease yr-1). from the LS blocks. Most (57.6%) encrustation occurred on the bottom of LS blocks, and there was more accretion on block bottoms in deep (61.4 mg cm-2 yr-1). versus shallow (35.0 mg cm-2 yr-1) sites. External bioerosion reduced the average height of the reef framework by 0.2 cm yr-1). for hard substrata (represented by LS) and 2.3 cm yr-1). for soft substrata (represented by PL). The results of this study suggest that coral reef frameworks in the Galápagos Islands are in serious jeopardy. If rates of coral recruitment do not increase, and if rates of bioerosion do not decline, coral reefs in the Galápagos Islands could be eliminated entirely.

  9. The effect of puerarin against IL-1β-mediated leukostasis and apoptosis in retinal capillary endothelial cells (TR-iBRB2)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xue; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Yun; Zhu, Ling; Zhou, Fanfan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Blood–retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown, the early hallmark of diabetic retinopathy (DR), is thought to depend on retinal inflammation and cell damage. The proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was demonstrated to cause inflammation as well as cell apoptosis during the process of BRB breakdown. This study extensively evaluated the protective effect of puerarin, a major active component extracted from the traditional herb Radix puerariae, against IL-1β-induced cell dysfunction in TR-iBRB2 cells, a retinal capillary endothelial cell line. Methods TR-iBRB2 cells were pretreated with IL-1β (10 ng/ml) for 24 h and then exposed to puerarin (0, 10, 25, and 50 μM) for another 24 h. Leukocyte endothelial adhesion was assessed through a cell-based assay using lymphoblastoid cells. Cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry, and the expression of adhesion molecules and apoptosis-related molecules was assessed with western blot analysis. Results Our data showed that puerarin attenuated IL-1β-mediated leukostasis and cell apoptosis in TR-iBRB2 cells. Furthermore, puerarin strikingly prevented IL-1β-induced molecular events of the upstream and downstream signaling pathways involved in this cellular process. Conclusions These findings may significantly contribute to better understanding of the protective effect of puerarin, in particular for DR, as well as provide novel insights into the potential application of this compound in DR therapy. PMID:25593509

  10. Rapid characterization of chemical constituents and rats metabolites of the traditional Chinese patent medicine Gegen-Qinlian-Wan by UHPLC/DAD/qTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Miao, Wen-juan; Wang, Qing; Bo, Tao; Ye, Min; Qiao, Xue; Yang, Wen-zhi; Xiang, Cheng; Guan, Xiang-yu; Guo, De-an

    2013-01-01

    Gegen-Qinlian-Wan (GQW) is a popular traditional Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. It is composed of four herbal medicines, Puerariae Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-qTOF-MS) was established to characterize the chemical constituents and rats metabolites of GQW. Samples were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus-C(18) column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) by gradient elution using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. On the basis of UV and qTOF high-accuracy mass spectral analysis, a total of 62 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from GQW, including 42 flavonoids, 8 alkaloids, 6 triterpenoids, 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, and 3 other types. Among them, 27 compounds were confirmed by comparing with reference standards. Furthermore, metabolites in rats plasma and urine after oral administration of GQW were also analyzed. A total of 42 compounds were identified, including 29 prototypes and 13 metabolites through metabolic pathways of demethylation, methylation, hydrolysis, sulfate conjugation, and glucuronide conjugation. Glucuronidated flavonoids were the main constituents in the plasma, and were then transformed into aglycones and excreted from urine. This is the first systematic study on the chemical constituents and metabolic profiling of GQW. PMID:23146232

  11. Analysis of trace elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En

    2009-01-01

    The bioactive elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed. These elements in their appropriate dosage range are considered to be beneficial to health. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were applied to determine the concentrations of various elements. Twenty-two Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs, resourced from the traditional high therapeutic quality areas or provinces were selected. Bioactive analysis focused on Lanthanum (La), Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se), especially in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and its associate disorders. The higher elemental concentration herbs, La in: Rhizoma Gastrodiae Elatae, Fructus Crataegi and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. Sr in: Radix Puerariae and Folium Ginkgo Biloba. Zn in: Flos Carthami Tinctorii and Fructus Crataegi. Se in: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Portulaca Oleracea. The results mainly showed that Chinese herbs which are also therapeutic foods may be used as nutritional supplements for preventing and treating elemental deficiency, e.g., hyperlipidemia. More attention in this regard should be paid to herbs that contain La and are traditionally used for regulating cardiovascular disorders. The knowledge of the effects and concentrations of bioactive elements in foods and herbs could guide the selection of Chinese herbs in clinical practice in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine theories. Further studies should also be considered in relation to Sr, Zn and blood regulating herbs, which could prove to be beneficial. PMID:19655402

  12. Excretion of tectoridin metabolites in rat urine and bile orally administrated at different dosages and their inhibitory activity against aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jialin; Wu, Zhizhen; Gao, Jie; Wen, Hao; Wang, Tao; Yuan, Dan

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the urinary and biliary excretion of tectoridin, a major active isoflavonoid found in the flowers of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. and the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. Using UHPLC/Q-TOFMS, seven glucuronides and/or sulfated metabolites and four Phase I metabolites were simultaneously quantified in rat urine after oral administration of tectoridin at 100 and 200 mg/kg. Over a 72-h period, 14.2% and 14.7% of the tectoridin were excreted as eleven metabolites in urine, among which, two major metabolites tectorigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (Te-7G) and tectorigenin accounted for 5.5-5.5% and 4.3-4.4%. Furthermore, the cumulative excretion of four glucuronides and sulfated metabolites in bile accounted for 7.3% and 3.9% of the dose within 60 h, among which, Te-7G and tectorigenin-7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-sulfate (Te-7G-4'S) accounted for 2.3-3.0% and 1.4-3.9%, respectively. The results indicate that the urine was the primary elimination route, and glucuronidation after deglycosylation at C-7 position was the major metabolic pathway of tectoridin in vivo. Moreover, the inhibitory activities of tectoridin and its five metabolites on rat lens aldose reductase were confirmed (IC₅₀: 1.4-15.5 μM), whereas irisolidone-7-O-glucuronide (Ir-7G) and irisolidone showed little activity. PMID:25256063

  13. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  14. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  15. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva D; Gupta, Pooja D; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  16. [Analysis on formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-guang; Tang, Shi-huan; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Fan-yun

    2014-11-01

    In this article we built formula database of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (V2.0). And on this basis, use data mining method such as association rules of the software, to analyze commonly used formula raw materials or materials combination of formula containing Gardeniae Fructus and raw material application having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury. The result shows that of the 71 health food formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus, most used materials are Gardeniae Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Angelica Sinensis Radix, Poria and so on. Commonly used materials combination mostly are Gardeniae Fructus and Lycii Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus and Angelica Sinensis Radix, Gardeniae Fructus and Poria, Gardeniae Fructus and Paeonia. There are nearly 18 healthcare functions of the health food containing Gardeniae Fructus, and most of these are assisted functions to protect chemical liver injury, and then immune modulating function. Of 23 formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury, Gardeniae Fructus usually combined with traditional Chinese medicine which nourishs blood and liver such as Pueraria, Lycii Fructus, Hawthorn, Paeonia and Turnjujube. Analyzing formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus contributes a lot to the further development and utilization. PMID:25850287

  17. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  18. Amelioration of Stroke-Induced Neurological Deficiency by Lyophilized Powder of Catapol and Puerarin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xue, Qiang; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jifen; Fu, Zhifeng; Feng, Binbin; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Catalpol and puerarin are active ingredients isolated from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch and Radix Puerariae, respectively. They are popular in research for their poly-pharmacological effects. This research focused on effect of anti-stroke by lyophilized powder of catalpol and puerarin (C-P) and potential mechanisms. At the beginning of research, C-P was identified and analyzed by HPLC. Neurological function was evaluated by Longa score, neurological complex function score and beam balance score after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) in mice. Infarct volume and water content were evaluated after treatment of C-P. Anti-oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were investigated by ELISA, WB and immunohistochemical stain respectively. With treatment of C-P, neurological deficiency of PMCAO mice was ameliorated. Morphologically, infarct volume and water content in ischemic hemisphere were significantly reduced by C-P. In vivo and in vitro, oxidative stress injury was extenuated by C-P. Meanwhile, Caspase-3 was down-regulated and Bxl-2 was up-regulated by C-P in vivo. In addition, C-P enhanced angiogenesis around the infarct of cortex and neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus (DG). Hence, C-P ameliorated stroke-induced neurological deficiency through its multiple neuroprotections. What's more, this article provides us a novel formula of active ingredients for stroke. PMID:24719562

  19. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  20. Puerarin Attenuated Early Diabetic Kidney Injury through Down-Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Zhang, Xianwen; Cai, Xianfan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Yiping; Deng, Yueyi

    2014-01-01

    Radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese herbal medication, has been used successfully to treat patients with early stage of diabetic nephropathy. However, the underlined mechanism of this renal protective effect has not been determined. In the current study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of puerarin in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We treated STZ-rats with either puerarin or losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, as compared to those treated with vehicle. We found that both puerarin and losartan attenuated kidney hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, proteinuria, and podocyte foot process effacement in STZ rats. In addition, both puerarin and losartan increased expression of podocyte slit diaphragm proteins such as nephrin and podocin. Interestingly, we found that puerarin treatment induced a more pronounced suppression of oxidative stress production and S-nitrosylation of proteins in the diabetic kidneys as compared to losartan treatment. Furthermore, we found that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is known to be activated by oxidative stress and S-nitrosylation of proteins, was also suppressed more extensively by puerarin than losartan. In conclusion, these data provide for the first time the potential mechanism to support the use of puerarin in the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24454919

  1. Interaction of Some Commercial Teas with Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes Linked with Type-2 Diabetes: A Dietary Intervention in the Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O.; Ogidiolu, Funke O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Adedayo, Bukola C.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the inhibitory effect of teas on key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked with type-2 diabetes and their antioxidant properties. Four samples of three brands were used; infusions of green tea (GT), 2 brands of black tea (BT), and a formulated herbal preparation for diabetes (ADT) (white tea, Radix Puerariae, Radix ophiopogonis, hawthorn berry, Chinese yam, and fragrant Solomon seal rhizome) were prepared and subsequently analyzed for their total phenol, ascorbic acid contents, antioxidant properties (2,2-Azizobis (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate) “ABTS” scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property), and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS∗ scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities. PMID:24527218

  2. Interaction of some commercial teas with some carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes linked with type-2 diabetes: a dietary intervention in the prevention of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunruku, Omodesola O; Ogidiolu, Funke O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Adedayo, Bukola C; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the inhibitory effect of teas on key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) linked with type-2 diabetes and their antioxidant properties. Four samples of three brands were used; infusions of green tea (GT), 2 brands of black tea (BT), and a formulated herbal preparation for diabetes (ADT) (white tea, Radix Puerariae, Radix ophiopogonis, hawthorn berry, Chinese yam, and fragrant Solomon seal rhizome) were prepared and subsequently analyzed for their total phenol, ascorbic acid contents, antioxidant properties (2,2-Azizobis (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate) "ABTS" scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property), and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS∗ scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities. PMID:24527218

  3. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose. PMID:23677774

  4. Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, David S; Bakar, Baki B; Hill, Steve J

    2012-01-01

    For decades Malaysia was the world's largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings. PMID:22130476

  5. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels. PMID:12797403

  6. Successful tree planting techniques for drastically disturbed lands: A case study of the propagation planting of container-grown oak and nut trees in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1998-12-31

    Successful tree seedling establishment on drastically disturbed lands is contingent on seven major variables: (1) selection of proper native species, (2) purchase of the best quality planting stock, (3) correct handling of planting stock, (4) correct planting techniques, (5) effective control of competing vegetation, (6) proper soil conditions and preparation, (7) weather. Exotic species should not be planted to avoid past mistakes such as kudzu, Japanese honeysuckle, sericea lespedeza and chestnut blight. A major concern of reclamation specialists and ecosystem restorationists is obtaining high-quality plant materials with the correct provenance. Ecosystem restorationists, reclamation specialists, park managers and private landowners can easily and cheaply propagate native oak or other hardwood species from local parent stock using Whitcomb bottomless containers. Proper seed collection, storage and preparation techniques as well as propagation methods are critical for seedling growth and development into quality air-pruned planting stock. Air-pruned seedlings of local provenance can be outplanted in the fall after one growing season with little transplanting shock while developing extensive root systems prior to soil freezing in winter. Establishment success of container-grown seedlings greatly exceeds that of spring-planted bare-root seedlings. Fall-planted, container-grown seedlings have a decided advantage since their roots continue to grow throughout the fall and much of the winter, enabling them to better withstand summer drought and weedy competitors. Container-grown seedlings also allow a five- to six-month planting season compared to bare-root seedlings` four to six weeks. Since propagation costs are minimal, planters who grow their own save money on the planting stock. Because the quality is higher, home-grown seedlings have greater establishment success, saving labor, time and money. With better survival rates, far fewer trees need be planted as compared

  7. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  8. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmüller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-10-01

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, and NH4+ generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

  9. Puerarin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchu; Mo, Yanzhi; Gong, Jingbo; Li, Zhuang; Peng, Huan; Chen, Jiaxue; Wang, Qichao; Ke, Zhaowen; Xie, Jingtao

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that Diabetes is a high risk of learning and memory deficits. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid extracted from Kudzu roots, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-diabetic properties which are useful in the treatment of various diseases. Recently, Puerarin was found to have the effects on learning and memory performances in humans and animal models. However, up to now, there is no detailed evidence on the effect of Puerarin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD). In this study, we designed to assess the effects of Puerarin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) using a streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model and exploring its potential mechanism. Diabetic rats were treated with Puerarin (100 mg/kg per d) for 7 days. The learning and memory function was evaluated by morris water maze test. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetylase (ChAT), oxidative indicators [malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-a, IL-1β and IL-6) were measured in hippocampus by using corresponding commercial kits. mRNA and Protein levels of Bcl-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR and Westernblot. The results showed that supplementation of Puerarin improved the learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group by the morris water maze test. In addition, Puerarin supplement significantly prevented AChE and MDA activities, increased ChAT and SOD activities, and alleviated the protein level of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the hippocampus compared with the STZ group. Moreover, the pretreatment with Puerarin also significantly increased the Bcl-2 expression. It is concluded that Puerarin possesses neuroprotection to ameliorate cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapototic effects. PMID:26686502

  10. Determination of phytoestrogens in dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D B; Bailey, V; Lloyd, A S

    2008-05-01

    Labelling data quantifying the exact content of individual phytoestrogen analytes in dietary supplements are generally poor. As these products are commonly used in the management of menopause symptoms, any clinical benefits would be dependent on the exact dosage of isoflavones received. Well-established extraction procedures and updated isotope dilution mass spectrometry liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) have been used to accurately quantify the concentrations of ten common isoflavones in 35 dietary supplement samples on sale in the UK, Canada and Italy. Concentration-specific ionization suppression is described for biochanin A and formononetin. All supplements contained phytoestrogens. The soya isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein) were present in all products and the majority also contained the red clover isoflavones (biochanin A, formononetin) and some the Kudzu isoflavones (daidzein, puerarin). The content of total isoflavones per dose ranged from <1 to 53 mg. Trace amounts of coumestrol were found in six products. Other less common analytes, the prenylnaringenins (6-prenylnaringenin, 8-prenylnaringenin, 6,8-diprenylnaringenin) were not found in any of the products. Only 14 of 35 supplements were found to deliver more than or equal to 40 mg day(-1) of aglycone isoflavones, a consensus dose value recognized as delivering therapeutic benefit. Eleven did not match label claims. Six delivered less than 10 mg day (-1) of isoflavones. There has been little improvement in the overall quality of industry labelling in the five years since this was last investigated. Consequently, the public, retailers and healthcare professionals should consider using standardized isoflavone supplements, which are supported by analytical measurements. PMID:18478479

  11. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  12. Interspecific interactions among species of the coral genus Porites from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, B; Sakai, K

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of field established xenogeneic interactions among five Porites species from Sesoko Island, Okinawa, revealed a transitive type of hierarchy as: P. rus >P. cylindrica >P. lobata >P. australiensis>P. lutea. Out of the 111 interspecific encounters studied, in only 5.4% reciprocal interactions were recorded, and in a single case, the opposite directionality of hierarchy was documented. Allogeneic encounters were also observed. A single major effector mechanism, an overgrowth (together with secondary outcomes such as the formation of small points of rejection, bleaching and pink color formation along a narrow peripheral belt of contacting tissues), was the only response in all 10 xenogeneic and 5 allogeneic combinations. In some massive colonies, a long contacting line of up to 50 cm was established. No sign for allelopathy, stand-off or rejection from a distance (i.e., by sweeper tentacles, sweeper polyps) was observed. Results are discussed with the accumulated data on Porites species from different reefs, worldwide, confirming that this genus is commonly lower in the hierarchy of xenogeneic interactions. PMID:16351822

  13. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  14. Effects of frequent fish predation on corals in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayewardene, D.; Donahue, M. J.; Birkeland, C.

    2009-06-01

    The abundance of lesions from fish bites on corals was quantified at nine shallow reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands. There were on average 117 bite scars m-2 on Pocillopora meandrina tissue from the barred filefish Cantherhines dumerilii, 69 bites m-2 on Porites compressa tissue, and 4 bites m-2 on Porites lobata tissue from the spotted puffer Arothron meleagris. Across sites, the frequency of A. meleagris bites on P. compressa per unit area of living coral cover declined exponentially with increasing coral cover. P. compressa nubbins in two size classes (1-2 cm and 4-5 cm) were transplanted onto six study reefs. Nubbins in the small size class were entirely removed by bites from A. meleagris, while nubbins ≥4 cm were only partially consumed, leaving them able to recover. At sites with abundant P. compressa, predation had little effect on transplanted nubbins; at sites where P. compressa comprised less than 5% of living cover, all nubbins were preyed upon. A. meleagris bite lesions on P. compressa were monitored through time and fully recovered in 42 ± 4 days. A model of the risk of over-predation (a second predation event before the first is healed) decreased exponentially with increasing coral cover and increased linearly with increasing lesion healing time. The increased risk of over-predation at low coral cover could indicate an Allee effect limiting the recovery of coral populations if coral cover is substantially reduced by natural or anthropogenic disturbances.

  15. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs. PMID:26334988

  16. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. PMID:1795521

  19. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; López, B; González, S; Berger, I; Tada, I; Maki, J

    1998-10-01

    Extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. Activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. In active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by Artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1-5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). From the plants screened, six showed activity (< or = 2 mg/ml) against bacteria, three against yeasts, five against Microsporum gypseum and five against T. cruzi in vitro and/or in vivo. In vitro and in vivo activity was demonstrated by Neurolaena lobata and Solanum americanum; in vitro or in vivo activity was shown by Acalypha guatemalensis, Petiveria alliacea and Tridax procumbens. Toxicity studies showed that extracts from S. americanum are toxic to A. salina (aqueous, 160 ppm). None showed acute or oral toxicity to mice; S. americanum showed intraperitoneal subacute toxicity. PMID:9849628

  20. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  1. Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography

    PubMed Central

    Tötzke, Christian; Miranda, Tatiana; Konrad, Wilfried; Gout, Julien; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Dawson, Martin; Manke, Ingo; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Cold neutron radiography was applied to directly observe embolism in conduits of liana stems with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this method for studying embolism formation and repair. Potential advantages of this method are a principally non-invasive imaging approach with low energy dose compared with synchrotron X-ray radiation, a good spatial and temporal resolution, and the possibility to observe the entire volume of stem portions with a length of several centimetres at one time. Methods Complete and cut stems of Adenia lobata, Aristolochia macrophylla and Parthenocissus tricuspidata were radiographed at the neutron imaging facility CONRAD at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, with each measurement cycle lasting several hours. Low attenuation gas spaces were separated from the high attenuation (water-containing) plant tissue using image processing. Key results Severe cuts into the stem were necessary to induce embolism. The formation and temporal course of an embolism event could then be successfully observed in individual conduits. It was found that complete emptying of a vessel with a diameter of 100 µm required a time interval of 4 min. Furthermore, dehydration of the whole stem section could be monitored via decreasing attenuation of the neutrons. Conclusions The results suggest that cold neutron radiography represents a useful tool for studying water relations in plant stems that has the potential to complement other non-invasive methods. PMID:23393096

  2. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  3. Sources of plutonium to the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean (1943-1999) identified using a natural coral archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Patric; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Worsfold, Paul; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Choi, Min-Seok

    2011-03-01

    The Pu isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, were determined in annually-banded skeletons of an accurately dated (1943-1999) modern coral ( Porites lobata) from Guam Island to identify historical Pu sources to the tropical Northwest Pacific Ocean. Activity concentrations of 239+240Pu and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios were determined in the dated coral bands using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands and global fallout were identified as the two main sources. The Guam site was dominated by PPG close-in fallout in the 1950s, with an average 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio of 0.315 ± 0.005. In addition, a higher 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio (0.456 ± 0.020) was observed that could be attributed to fallout from the "Ivy Mike" thermonuclear detonation in 1952. The atom ratio decreased in the 1960s and 1970s due to increase in the global fallout with a low 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratio (˜0.18). Recent coral bands (1981-1999) are dominated by the transport of remobilised Pu, with high 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios, from the Marshall Islands to Guam Island along the North Equatorial Current (NEC). This remobilised Pu was estimated to comprise 69% of the total Pu in the recent coral bands, although its contribution was variable over time.

  4. Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic pigments in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, Eric J.; Apprill, Amy M.; Atkinson, Marlin J.; Bidigare, Robert R.

    2006-03-01

    The spectral reflectance of coral is inherently related to the amounts of photosynthetic pigments present in the zooxanthellae. There are no studies, however, showing that the suite of major photosynthetic pigments can be predicted from optical reflectance spectra. In this study, we measured cm-scale in vivo and in situ spectral reflectance for several colonies of the massive corals Porites lobata and Porites lutea, two colonies of the branching coral Porites compressa, and one colony of the encrusting coral Montipora flabellata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. For each reflectance spectrum, we collected a tissue sample and utilized high-performance liquid chromatography to quantify six major photosynthetic pigments, located in the zooxanthellae. We used multivariate multiple regression analysis with cross-validation to build and test an empirical linear model for predicting pigment concentrations from optical reflectance spectra. The model accurately predicted concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c 2, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene, with correlation coefficients of 0.997, 0.941, 0.995, 0.996, 0.980 and 0.984, respectively. The relationship between predicted and actual concentrations was 1:1 for each pigment, except chlorophyll c 2. This simple empirical model demonstrates the potential for routine, rapid, non-invasive monitoring of coral-zooxanthellae status, and ultimately for remote sensing of reef biogeochemical processes.

  5. Reef coralgal assemblages as recorders of paleobathymetry and sea level changes in the Indo-Pacific province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabioch, G.; Montaggioni, L. F.; Faure, G.; Ribaud-Laurenti, A.

    1999-12-01

    The coralgal framework within the outer reef margin of many Indo-Pacific reefs exhibits three main shallow-water communities, the environmental significance of which can be inferred by comparison with their modern counterparts. A community dominated by tabular Acropora gr. hyacinthus/ cytherea with branching Pocillopora damicornis, P. eydouxi, Montipora digitata, occasional domal faviids and mm-thick crusts of the coralline algae Lithophyllum and Mesophyllum (mainly), typical of the 6 - 15 m paleodepth range; a community including robust-branching Acropora gr. danai/ robusta, A. humilis, A. digitifera and subordinate Favia stelligera, Echinopora gemmacea, associated to vermetid gastropods and thick coralline crusts of Hydrolithon cf. onkodes and Neogoniolithon cf. fosliei flourishing in depths less than 6 m; in medium-to-high water-energy settings, a community composed of domal Porites cf. lutea and P. cf. lobata with occasional Acropora gr. danai/ robusta and cm-thick crusts of coralline algae in sheltered habitats in depths less than 10 m. These biological assemblages allow us to determine relationships between reef growth and paleobathymetry and, consequently, to reconstruct regional relative sea-level curves. High water-energy reefal assemblages provide stronger evidence for reconstructing sea-level curves than low-energy buildups, because they have generally been controlled by a keep-up growth mode. Subsiding reef sites seem to be more reliable indicators of sea-level variations because they usually present expanded reef sequences.

  6. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  7. What drives masting? The phenological synchrony hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D; Knops, Johannes M H; Carmen, William J; Pearse, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Annually variable and synchronous seed production, or masting behavior, is a widespread phenomenon with dramatic effects on wildlife populations and their associated communities. Proximally, masting is often correlated with environmental factors and most likely involves differential pollination success and resource allocation, but little is known about how these factors interact or how they influence seed production. We studied masting in the valley oak (Quercus lobata Née), a California endemic tree, and report evidence that phenological synchrony in flowering driven by microclimatic variability determines the size of the acorn crop through its effects on pollen availability and fertilization success. These findings integrate two of the major factors believed to influence seed production in wind-pollinated species-environmental conditions and pollen limitation-by means of a coherent mechanistic hypothesis for how highly variable and synchronized annual seed production is accomplished. We illustrate how, by means of a simulation based on the mechanism proposed here, climate change may influence masting patterns through its effects on environmental variability. PMID:26236903

  8. Biogeography of planktonic and coral-associated microorganisms across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jennifer L; Bowen, Brian W; Rappé, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Factors driving the distribution of marine microorganisms are widely debated and poorly understood. Recent studies show that free-living marine microbes exhibit geographical patterns indicative of limited dispersal. In contrast, host-associated microbes face a different set of dispersal challenges, and hosts may function as habitat 'islands' for resident microbial populations. Here, we examine the biogeographical distributions of planktonic and adjacent coral-associated bacterial communities across the Hawaiian Archipelago, Johnston Atoll (∼1400 km southwest of Hawaii) and American Samoa in the Pacific Ocean and investigate the potential underlying processes driving observed patterns. Statistical analyses of bacterial community structure, determined using a small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based approach, showed that bacterioplankton and coral-associated bacterial communities were distinct, and correlated with geographical distance between sites. In addition, biogeographical patterns of bacterial associates paralleled those of their host coral Porites lobata, highlighting the specificity of these associations and the impact that host dispersal may have on bacterial biogeography. Planktonic and coral-associated bacterial communities from distant Johnston Atoll were shown to be connected with communities from the center of the Hawaiian Archipelago, a pattern previously observed in fish and invertebrates. No significant correlations were detected with habitat type, temperature or depth. However, non-distance-based geographical groupings were detected, indicating that, in addition to dispersal, unidentified environmental factors also affected the distributions of bacterial communities investigated here. PMID:27222221

  9. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident. PMID:22417315

  10. Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Isabel M.; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Ralph, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal microenvironment of corals and the thermal effects of changing flow and radiation are critical to understanding heat-induced coral bleaching, a stress response resulting from the destruction of the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic microalgae. Temperature microsensor measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with uneven surface topography (Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra sinensis) revealed millimetre-scale variations in surface temperature and thermal boundary layer (TBL) that may help understand the patchy nature of coral bleaching within single colonies. The effect of water flow on the thermal microenvironment was investigated in hemispherical and branching corals (Porites lobata and Stylophora pistillata, respectively) in a flow chamber experiment. For both coral types, the thickness of the TBL decreased exponentially from 2.5 mm at quasi-stagnant flow (0.3 cm s−1), to 1 mm at 5 cm s−1, with an exponent approximately 0.5 consistent with predictions from the heat transfer theory for simple geometrical objects and typical of laminar boundary layer processes. Measurements of mass transfer across the diffusive boundary layer using O2 microelectrodes revealed a greater exponent for mass transfer when compared with heat transfer, indicating that heat and mass transfer at the surface of corals are not exactly analogous processes. PMID:21602322

  11. The Sr/Ca-temperature relationship in coralline aragonite: Influence of variability in (Sr/Ca)[sub seawater] and skeletal growth parameters

    SciTech Connect

    de Villiers, S.; Shen, G.T.; Nelson, B.K. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of two of the most likely pitfalls of Sr/Ca thermometry, i.e., the effect of biogenic cycling of Sr vs. Ca in the surface ocean and the effect of variable extension rate on Sr incorporation in coralline aragonite. The authors also report calibration of the Sr/Ca-temperature relationship for three coral species, Porites lobata, Pocillopora eydouxi, and Pavona clavus, collected for the Hawaiian and Galapagos islands. Analyses of seawater samples show significant spatial and depth variability in the Sr:Ca ratio. The uncertainty introduced by this effect is estimated to be <0.2[degrees]C for corals located in tropical oligotrophic waters, and potentially larger for corals located in upwelling areas. Sr/Ca along two different growth axes of a Galapagos Pavona clavus, with annual extension rates of [approximately]6 and 12 mm/y, respectively, indicate an offset of 1-2[degrees]C, with higher Sr/Ca values associated with slower extension rates. The offset observed between the two growth axes may be the result of variations in extension and/or calcification rate. These results are important in determining past sea surface temperatures for reconstruction of paleoclimates.

  12. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Sork, Victoria L.; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures—both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii. Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  13. Evolutionary lessons from California plant phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Gugger, Paul F; Chen, Jin-Ming; Werth, Silke

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography documents the spatial distribution of genetic lineages that result from demographic processes, such as population expansion, population contraction, and gene movement, shaped by climate fluctuations and the physical landscape. Because most phylogeographic studies have used neutral markers, the role of selection may have been undervalued. In this paper, we contend that plants provide a useful evolutionary lesson about the impact of selection on spatial patterns of neutral genetic variation, when the environment affects which individuals can colonize new sites, and on adaptive genetic variation, when environmental heterogeneity creates divergence at specific loci underlying local adaptation. Specifically, we discuss five characteristics found in plants that intensify the impact of selection: sessile growth form, high reproductive output, leptokurtic dispersal, isolation by environment, and the potential to evolve longevity. Collectively, these traits exacerbate the impact of environment on movement between populations and local selection pressures-both of which influence phylogeographic structure. We illustrate how these unique traits shape these processes with case studies of the California endemic oak, Quercus lobata, and the western North American lichen, Ramalina menziesii Obviously, the lessons we learn from plant traits are not unique to plants, but they highlight the need for future animal, plant, and microbe studies to incorporate its impact. Modern tools that generate genome-wide sequence data are now allowing us to decipher how evolutionary processes affect the spatial distribution of different kinds of genes and also to better model future spatial distribution of species in response to climate change. PMID:27432984

  14. Puerarin prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice and inhibits osteoclast formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Si-Yuan; Sheng, Tong; Liu, Lian-Qi; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Liu, Xue-Mei; Ma, Tao; Zheng, Hong; Yan, Yan; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Wang, Xin-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Puerarin (PR), a major isoflavonoid isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Puerariae radix, on bone metabolism and the underlying mechanism of action. The in vivo assay, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX), and the OVX mice were fed with a diet containing low, middle, and high doses of PR (2, 4, and 8 mg·d(-1), respectively) or 17β-estradiol (E2, 0.03 μg·d(-1)) for 4 weeks. In OVX mice, the uterine weight declined, and intake of PR at any dose did not affect uterine weight, compared with the control. The total femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly reduced by OVX, which was reversed by intake of the diet with PR at any dose, especially at the low dose. In the in vitro assay, RAW264.7 cells were used for studying the direct effect of PR on the formation of osteoclasts. PR reduced the formation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multi-nucleated cells in the RAW 264.7 cells induced by receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB Ligand (RANKL). MC3T3-E1 cells were used for studying the effects of PR on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL mRNA expression in osteoblasts. The expression of OPG mRNA and RANKL mRNA was detected by RT-PCR on Days of 5, 7, 10, and 12 after PR exposure. PR time-dependently enhanced the expression of OPG mRNA and reduced the expression of RANKL mRNA in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that PR can effectively prevent bone loss in OVX mice without any hyperplastic effect on the uterus, and the antiosteoporosis activity of PR may be related to its effects on the formation of osteoclasts and the expression of RANKL OPG in osteoblasts. PMID:27114313

  15. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production. PMID:24703358

  16. Tectorigenin Attenuates Palmitate-Induced Endothelial Insulin Resistance via Targeting ROS-Associated Inflammation and IRS-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Gao, Xue-Jiao; Zhou, Ling; Qin, Xiao-Ying; Xie, Guo-Yong; Liu, Kang; Qin, Yong; Liu, Bao-Lin; Qin, Min-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Tectorigenin is a plant isoflavonoid originally isolated from the dried flower of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Although its anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycosemia effects have been well documented, the effect of tectorigenin on endothelial dysfunction insulin resistance involved has not yet been reported. Herein, this study aims to investigate the action of tectorigenin on amelioration of insulin resistance in the endothelium. Palmitic acid (PA) was chosen as a stimulant to induce ROS production in endothelial cells and successfully established insulin resistance evidenced by the specific impairment of insulin PI3K signaling. Tectorigenin effectively inhibited the ability of PA to induce the production of reactive oxygen species and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, tectorigenin presented strong inhibition effect on ROS-associated inflammation, as TNF-α and IL-6 production in endothelial cells was greatly reduced with suppression of IKKβ/NF-κB phosphorylation and JNK activation. Tectorigenin also can inhibit inflammation-stimulated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and restore the impaired insulin PI3K signaling, leading to a decreased NO production. These results demonstrated its positive regulation of insulin action in the endothelium. Meanwhile, tectorigenin down-regulated endothelin-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 overexpression, and restored the loss of insulin-mediated vasodilation in rat aorta. These findings suggested that tectorigenin could inhibit ROS-associated inflammation and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction implicated in insulin resistance through regulating IRS-1 function. Tectorigenin might have potential to be applied for the management of cardiovascular diseases involved in diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:23840461

  17. Puerarin protects against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice: possible role of PARP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Feng, Min; Wang, Xun; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Zhao, Xin; Han, Bing; Ma, Hu-Cheng; Dai, Bo; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis, which is the pathophysiologic process of the liver due to sustained wound healing in response to chronic liver injury, will eventually progress to cirrhosis. Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside derived from the traditional Chinese medicine pueraria, has been reported to have many anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. This study aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on liver function and fibrosis process in mice induced by CCl4. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil(2mL/kg) with or without puerarin co-administration (100 and 200mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily) for four consecutive weeks. As indicated by the ameliorative serum hepatic enzymes and the reduced histopathologic abnormalities, the data collected showed that puerarin can protect against CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Moreover, CCl4-induced development of fibrosis, as evidenced by increasing expression of alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), collagen-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) in liver, were suppressed by puerarin. Possible mechanisms related to these suppressive effects were realized by inhibition on NF-κB signaling pathway, reactive oxygen species(ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. In addition, these protective inhibition mentioned above were driven by down-regulation of PARP-1 due to puerarin because puerarin can attenuate the PARP-1 expression in CCl4-damaged liver and PJ34, a kind of PARP-1 inhibitor, mimicked puerarin's protection. In conclusion, puerarin played a protective role in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis probably through inhibition of PARP-1 and subsequent attenuation of NF-κB, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27318789

  18. Preparation, characterization and in vitro/vivo evaluation of tectorigenin solid dispersion with improved dissolution and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Shuping; Yue, Shanlan; Huang, Qingting; Wang, Wei; Yang, Junyi; Lan, Ke; Ye, Liming

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel amorphous solid dispersion system for tectorigenin (TG). TG is one of isoflavone aglycones extracted from Iris tectorum and flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana, but its poor water solubility and low membrane permeability have severely restricted the clinical application. To increase the aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of TG, we prepared the solid dispersions of tectorigenin (TG-SD) using a simple solvent evaporation process with TG, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and PEG4000 at weight ratio of 7:54:9 after tested in several ratios. The prepared solid dispersions of tectorigenin are duly characterized for drug morphological conversion, in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have indicated the morphological conversion of tectorigenin to amorphous form. In vitro release profiles revealed that the % release of TG-SD was achieved 4.35-fold higher than that of the pure drug after 150 min. The oral bioavailability of the solid dispersion in rats was also increased based on AUC0-t and C max of TG-SD, which were 4.8- and 13.1-fold higher than that of TG crystal, respectively. It is worth noting that physical mixture containing TG, PEG4000 and PVP produced a similar level of oral exposure as TG-SD, suggesting that PEG4000 and PVP were able to enhance bioavailability of TG in rats. However, with the reduction of particle size, TG-SD provided the fastest oral absorption compared to physical mixture and pure drug. These results demonstrated that the efficacy of solid dispersions for the enhancement of TG oral bioavailability was by increasing its aqueous solubility and the solid dispersion formulation could be a viable option for enhancing the oral bioavailability of TG. PMID:25669445

  19. Puerarin partly counteracts the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojie; Mei, Zhigang; Qian, Jingping; Zeng, Yongbao; Wang, Mingzhi

    2013-12-01

    Puerarin, a major isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medical herb radix puerariae (Gegen), has been reported to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and play an anti-inflammatory role in focal cerebral ischemia model rats. Recent findings regarding stroke pathophysiology have recognized that anti-inflammation is an important target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a highly robust neural-immune mechanism for inflammation control. This study was to investigate whether activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be involved in the mechanism of inhibiting the inflammatory response during puerarin-induced cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Results showed that puerarin pretreatment (intravenous injection) reduced the ischemic infarct volume, improved neurological deficit after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and decreased the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in brain tissue. Pretreatment with puerarin (intravenous injection) attenuated the inflammatory response in rats, which was accompanied by janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibition. These observations were inhibited by the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) antagonist α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT). In addition, puerarin pretreatment increased the expression of α7nAchR mRNA in ischemic cerebral tissue. These data demonstrate that puerarin pretreatment strongly protects the brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits the inflammatory response. Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of puerarin may partly be mediated through the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. PMID:25206641

  20. Topography and spatial arrangement of reef-building corals on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica may influence their response to disturbance from bleaching.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M J C

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of factors that are important in reef resilience helps us understand how reefs react following major environmental disturbances such as hurricanes and bleaching. Here we test factors that might have influenced Jamaican reef resilience to, and subsequent recovery from, the 2005 bleaching event, and which might help inform management policy for reefs in the future: reef rugosity and contact of corals with macroalgae. In addition, we test in the field, on Dairy Bull reef, whether aggregated Porites astreoides colonies exhibit enhanced growth when exposed to superior competition from Acopora palmata, as has been found by experiment with the Indo-Pacific corals Porites lobata and the superior competitor Porites rus [Idjadi, J.A., Karlson, R.H., 2007. Spatial arrangement of competitors influences coexistence of reef-building corals. Ecology 88, 2449-2454]. There were significant linear relationships between rugosity and the increase in smallest size classes for Sidastrea siderea, Colpophyllia natans, P. astreoides and Agaricia species, and between rugosity and cover of the branching coral Acropora cervicornis. Linear extension rates of A. cervicornis and radial growth rates of P. astreoides were significantly lower (p<0.025; F>6) when in contact with macroalgae. Aggregated colonies of P. astreoides in contact with one another, one of which was in contact with the faster growing competitor A. palmata showed significantly greater growth rates than with just two aggregated P. astreoides colonies alone. These findings suggest that three dimensional topography and complexity is important for reef resilience and viability in the face of environmental stressors such as bleaching. Our findings also support the idea that aggregated spatial arrangements of corals can influence the outcome of interspecific competition and promote species coexistence, important in times of reef recovery after disturbance. PMID:19819006

  1. Live coral cover may provide resilience to damage from the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum by preventing larval settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, N. E.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Dendropoma maximum is a vermetid gastropod (a sessile tube-forming snail) commonly associated with living corals throughout shallow-water reefs of the Indo-Pacific. Recent work suggests that, once established, this species can adversely affect growth and survival of corals. Here, we test the hypotheses that disturbances to live coral substrates (e.g., creation of bare patches) facilitate successful larval settlement and subsequent population growth of D. maximum, and conversely, that live coral inhibits D. maximum settlement. In the shallow lagoon of Moorea, French Polynesia, we selected patch reefs where D. maximum was either present or absent (to evaluate potential effects of resident adult conspecifics on recruitment) and established focal quadrats on each reef. In each quadrat, we either experimentally removed 50 % of live coral cover or left the quadrat with 100 % live coral cover. In addition, we deployed units of bare substrate (coral rubble) to each reef. We conducted a census of deployed substrates and quadrats after 6 months and found that D. maximum settled irrespective of resident vermetid populations, and only onto nonliving surfaces (i.e., cleared patches in quadrats, coral rubble, and marine epoxy). In laboratory experiments, we exposed larvae of D. maximum to live coral and found species-specific effects on survival of D. maximum larvae. Porites lobata and Pocillopora sp. killed larvae of D. maximum, Porites rus caused weaker mortality, and Millepora sp. had no effect on larval survival. Collectively, these results suggest that D. maximum requires disturbances that create bare patches to successfully settle onto reefs, and that a high cover of living corals contributes resilience to reefs by limiting settlement opportunities of a species known to reduce coral growth and survival.

  2. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  3. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  4. Lobatin B inhibits NPM/ALK and NF-κB attenuating anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomagenesis and lymphendothelial tumour intravasation.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Izabella; Unger, Christine; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Kramer, Nina; Chatruphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Peschel, Andrea; Vasas, Andrea; Lajter, Ildiko; Kain, Renate; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Kenner, Lukas; Hassler, Melanie R; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Bochkov, Valery N; Passreiter, Claus M; Peter-Vörösmarty, Barbara; Mader, Robert M; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Kopp, Brigitte; Zupko, Istvan; Hohmann, Judit; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-01-28

    An apolar extract of the traditional medicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibited the expression of the NPM/ALK chimera, which is causal for the majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). Therefore, an active principle of the extract, the furanoheliangolide sesquiterpene lactone lobatin B, was isolated and tested regarding the inhibition of ALCL expansion and tumour cell intravasation through the lymphendothelium. ALCL cell lines, HL-60 cells and PBMCs were treated with plant compounds and the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 to measure mitochondrial activity, proliferation and cell cycle progression and to correlate the results with protein- and mRNA-expression of selected gene products. Several endpoints indicative for cell death were analysed after lobatin B treatment. Tumour cell intravasation through lymphendothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were investigated analysing NF-κB- and cytochrome P450 activity, and 12(S)-HETE production. Lobatin B inhibited the expression of NPM/ALK, JunB and PDGF-Rβ, and attenuated proliferation of ALCL cells by arresting them in late M phase. Mitochondrial activity remained largely unaffected upon lobatin B treatment. Nevertheless, caspase 3 became activated in ALCL cells. Also HL-60 cell proliferation was attenuated whereas PBMCs of healthy donors were not affected by lobatin B. Additionally, tumour cell intravasation, which partly depends on NF-κB, was significantly suppressed by lobatin B most likely due to its NF-κB-inhibitory property. Lobatin B, which was isolated from a plant used in ethnomedicine, targets malignant cells by at least two properties: I) inhibition of NPM/ALK, thereby providing high specificity in combating this most prevalent fusion protein occurring in ALCL; II) inhibition of NF-κB, thereby not affecting normal cells with low constitutive NF-κB activity. This property also inhibits tumour cell intravasation into the lymphatic system and may provide an option to manage this

  5. Chemical Composition of Fresh and Aged Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. T.; Hamdan, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    It is possible to manipulate the chemical and physical properties of pyrogenic organic matter ('black carbon' or 'biochar') during its production and tailor its composition for intended environmental management applications. In this study biochars made from grass (Tripsacum floridanum), oak (Quercus lobata), and pine (Pinus taeda) at 250 ºC in air and 400 and 650 ºC under N2 were characterized by solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopy and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry. Among the biochars produced, those originating from pine showed distinct characteristics, with greater amounts of oxygenated aromatic clusters after low temperature combustion and more condensed aromatic clusters after higher temperature pyrolysis. Although a mixture of small and large aromatic clusters occurred across the temperature profile, cluster size increased and functionality decreased with increasing combustion temperature (Figure 1). At medium and high temperatures, aromatic clusters of up to 60- carbon aromatic rings inter-connected with small chains dominated the biochars examined. These structures are intermediate in size between the linearly condensed structures and the predominantly condensed aromatic clusters proposed in earlier studies. Field aging of the pure biochars for 15 months decreased the total acid functional group content as determined by Boehm titration, but solid-state 13C-NMR analyses suggested the creation and transformation of a range of functional groups via leaching, oxidation, and addition of microbially-produced organic matter. Similar trends were observed when the biochars were mixed with soils, suggesting that the same biochar aging processes occurred in the soil environment. These findings demonstrate that biochar transformations occur over time through a multitude of processes that are both biochar and soil type-dependent.

  6. Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Jager, Muriel; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2015-04-01

    Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of

  7. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial

  8. Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Vroom, Peter S.; Braun, Cristi L.

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a “healthy” reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  9. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  10. Effects of Coral Reef Benthic Primary Producers on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A.; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J.; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata – Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha – Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia – Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h−1 dm−2), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h−1) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L−1 h−1 dm−2). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef

  11. The effect of within-year variation in acorn crop size on seed harvesting by avian hoarders.

    PubMed

    Pesendorfer, Mario B; Koenig, Walter D

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community. We found that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica), high-quality dispersers that store seeds in the ground, were attracted to, and exhibited increased per capita dispersal rates from, trees with large acorn crops. In contrast, acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), low-quality dispersers that store acorns in trees where they are unlikely to germinate, increased per capita hoarding rates but did not attend trees with large seed crops in higher numbers, suggesting that the two species responded to resources on different spatial scales. Antagonistic interactions within and between species increased with the number of birds attending a tree, resulting in a potential cost for foraging birds, but did not reduce dispersal rates. Using a simulation model, we estimated that trees with large initial crops experienced a greater proportion (77 %) of high-quality seed dispersal events than trees with small crops (62 %). Our findings provide support for a mechanistic link between seed production and foraging behavior of seed dispersers as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis for the functional consequences of variable seed production in hoarder-dispersed trees. PMID:26809620

  12. Application of 1H-NMR metabolomic profiling for reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Sogin, Emilia M; Anderson, Paul; Williams, Philip; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Gates, Ruth D

    2014-01-01

    In light of global reef decline new methods to accurately, cheaply, and quickly evaluate coral metabolic states are needed to assess reef health. Metabolomic profiling can describe the response of individuals to disturbance (i.e., shifts in environmental conditions) across biological models and is a powerful approach for characterizing and comparing coral metabolism. For the first time, we assess the utility of a proton-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach in characterizing coral metabolite profiles by 1) investigating technical, intra-, and inter-sample variation, 2) evaluating the ability to recover targeted metabolite spikes, and 3) assessing the potential for this method to differentiate among coral species. Our results indicate 1H-NMR profiling of Porites compressa corals is highly reproducible and exhibits low levels of variability within and among colonies. The spiking experiments validate the sensitivity of our methods and showcase the capacity of orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) to distinguish between profiles spiked with varying metabolite concentrations (0 mM, 0.1 mM, and 10 mM). Finally, 1H-NMR metabolomics coupled with OPLS-DA, revealed species-specific patterns in metabolite profiles among four reef-building corals (Pocillopora damicornis, Porites lobata, Montipora aequituberculata, and Seriatopora hystrix). Collectively, these data indicate that 1H-NMR metabolomic techniques can profile reef-building coral metabolomes and have the potential to provide an integrated picture of the coral phenotype in response to environmental change. PMID:25354140

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  14. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  15. Application of 1H-NMR Metabolomic Profiling for Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Sogin, Emilia M.; Anderson, Paul; Williams, Philip; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Gates, Ruth D.

    2014-01-01

    In light of global reef decline new methods to accurately, cheaply, and quickly evaluate coral metabolic states are needed to assess reef health. Metabolomic profiling can describe the response of individuals to disturbance (i.e., shifts in environmental conditions) across biological models and is a powerful approach for characterizing and comparing coral metabolism. For the first time, we assess the utility of a proton-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach in characterizing coral metabolite profiles by 1) investigating technical, intra-, and inter-sample variation, 2) evaluating the ability to recover targeted metabolite spikes, and 3) assessing the potential for this method to differentiate among coral species. Our results indicate 1H-NMR profiling of Porites compressa corals is highly reproducible and exhibits low levels of variability within and among colonies. The spiking experiments validate the sensitivity of our methods and showcase the capacity of orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) to distinguish between profiles spiked with varying metabolite concentrations (0 mM, 0.1 mM, and 10 mM). Finally, 1H-NMR metabolomics coupled with OPLS-DA, revealed species-specific patterns in metabolite profiles among four reef-building corals (Pocillopora damicornis, Porites lobata, Montipora aequituberculata, and Seriatopora hystrix). Collectively, these data indicate that 1H-NMR metabolomic techniques can profile reef-building coral metabolomes and have the potential to provide an integrated picture of the coral phenotype in response to environmental change. PMID:25354140

  16. Microstructural evolution and nanoscale crystallography in scleractinian coral spherulites.

    PubMed

    van de Locht, Renée; Verch, Andreas; Saunders, Martin; Dissard, Delphine; Rixen, Tim; Moya, Aurélie; Kröger, Roland

    2013-07-01

    One of the most important aspects in the research on reef-building corals is the process by which corals accrete biogenic calcium carbonate. This process leads to the formation of a mineral/organic composite and it is believed that the development of the nano- and microstructure of the mineral phase is highly sensitive to the growth conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of large-scale (10×30μm) focused ion beam (FIB) prepared lamellae was performed on adult and juvenile scleractinian coral skeleton specimens. This allowed for the investigation of the nano and microstructure and the crystallographic orientation of the aragonite mineral. We found the following microstructural evolution in the adult Porites lobata specimens: randomly oriented nanocrystals with high porosity, partly aligned nanocrystals with high porosity and areas of dense acicular crystals of several micrometers extension, the latter two areas are aligned close to the [001] direction (Pmcn space group). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time the observed microstructure could be directly correlated with the dark/bright bands characteristic of the diurnal growth cycle. We hypothesize that this mineral structure sequence and alignment in the adult specimen is linked to the photosynthetic diurnal cycle of the zooxanthellea regulating the oxygen levels and organic molecule transport to the calcifying medium. These observations reveal a strong control of crystal morphology by the organism and the correlation of the accretion process. No indication for a self-assembly of nanocrystalline units, i.e., a mesocrystal structure, on the micrometer scale could be found. PMID:23685125

  17. Multi-colony calibrations of coral Ba/Ca with a contemporaneous in situ seawater barium record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVigne, Michèle; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Palardy, James E.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    The coral skeleton barium to calcium ratio (Ba/Cacoral), a proxy for seawater barium concentrations (BaSW), has been interpreted as a tracer of upwelling based on the characteristic "nutrient like" depth profile of BaSW. However, in some tropical regions, such as the Gulf of Panamá, substantial influence of terrestrial runoff inputs and differences between the vertical distribution of BaSW and that of the major nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) in the upper water column can complicate the interpretation of Ba/Cacoral as an upwelled nutrient proxy. In the Gulf of Panamá, contemporaneous Ba/Cacoral records from multiple colonies of Porites lobata, Pavona gigantea, and Pavona clavus corals record a nearly twofold change in surface water BaSW as a 20-70% increase in skeletal Ba/Ca with excellent correlation among Ba/Ca records from co-located colonies (r = 0.86-0.99). These results provide, for the first time, an absolute calibration of the coral Ba proxy with a contemporaneous BaSW record. Compiling the Ba/Cacoral records from three co-located colonies of each species into taxon-specific composite regressions reveals strong statistically significant correlations with the BaSW time-series record (p < 0.001). Differences among taxa in regression slope, y-intercept, and average distribution coefficient, as well as a demonstration of the application of the P. clavus calibration to a previously published Ba/Cacoral record, emphasize the necessity of using taxon-specific calibrations to reconstruct changes in BaSW with accuracy. These results support the application of Ba/Cacoral to reconstruct past changes in absolute BaSW concentrations, adding an important tool to the collection of geochemical proxies for reconstructing surface ocean biogeochemical processes in the past.

  18. Twenty years of Western Pacific Warm Pool variability as recorded in a Porites coral from Chuuk Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S. H.; Anderson, D. M.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) is a key aspect of the global climate, exchanging heat and carbon with the atmosphere as well as with the surrounding ocean and the underlying water masses. This region experiences large fluctuations in precipitation and temperature due to interannual oscillations in the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Chuuk Atoll (7°N, 152°E) is centrally located within the Warm Pool and provides an ideal location for studies of WPWP processes. Massive mounding corals have shown to be one of the best paleoclimate proxies, especially in warm, tropical regions because they have the powerful advantage of recording environmental changes in the seawater in which they are growing in their aragonitic skeletons. In addition, they grow relatively quickly in comparison to other marine calcifiers, providing the opportunity to make high-resolution (monthly or better) measurements. Determining the geochemical properties (δ18O, δ13C, Sr/Ca) of the calcium carbonate coral skeletons allows us to reconstruct past oceanic environmental conditions. Using the combination of stable isotope analyses and Sr/Ca measurements of the coral skeletal material, corals greatly contribute to a longer ocean observation record than is available through just the modern instrumental record. Cores from large Porites lobata coral heads were collected from Chuuk Atoll in June 2011 and have undergone stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) and trace element (Sr/Ca) analysis. The KIOST (former KORDI) tropical marine station at Chuuk has been collecting temperature and salinity records for the past several years, making the calibration of geochemical data to temperature or salinity measurements much more accurate than simply using low-resolution model variables. Results covering the last 20 years indicate small annual temperature variations and large deviations in oxygen isotope values corresponding to El Niño years. Results will also be compared to a Porites coral core collected in

  19. Reef-coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Chris; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to identify climate-change thermal-stress refugia for reef corals in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A species distribution modeling approach was used to identify refugia for 12 coral species that differed considerably in their local response to thermal stress. We hypothesized that the local response of coral species to thermal stress might be similarly reflected as a regional response to climate change. We assessed the contemporary geographic range of each species and determined their temperature and irradiance preferences using a k-fold algorithm to randomly select training and evaluation sites. That information was applied to downscaled outputs of global climate models to predict where each species is likely to exist by the year 2100. Our model was run with and without a 1°C capacity to adapt to the rising ocean temperature. The results show a positive exponential relationship between the current area of habitat that coral species occupy and the predicted area of habitat that they will occupy by 2100. There was considerable decoupling between scales of response, however, and with further ocean warming some 'winners' at local scales will likely become 'losers' at regional scales. We predicted that nine of the 12 species examined will lose 24-50% of their current habitat. Most reductions are predicted to occur between the latitudes 5-15°, in both hemispheres. Yet when we modeled a 1°C capacity to adapt, two ubiquitous species, Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora digitifera, were predicted to retain much of their current habitat. By contrast, the thermally tolerant Porites lobata is expected to increase its current distribution by 14%, particularly southward along the east and west coasts of Australia. Five areas were identified as Indian Ocean refugia, and seven areas were identified as Pacific Ocean refugia for reef corals under climate change. All 12 of these reef-coral refugia deserve high-conservation status. PMID:25646684

  20. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  1. The susceptibility and resilience of corals to thermal stress: adaptation, acclimatization or both?

    PubMed

    Weis, Virginia M

    2010-04-01

    Coral reefs are threatened with worldwide decline from multiple factors, chief among them climate change (Hughes et al. 2003; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). The foundation of coral reefs is an endosymbiosis between coral hosts and their resident photosynthetic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) and this partnership (or holobiont) is exquisitely sensitive to temperature stress. The primary response to hyperthermic stress is coral bleaching, which is the loss of symbionts from coral tissues-the collapse of the symbiosis (Weis 2008). Bleaching can result in increased coral mortality which can ultimately lead to severely compromised reef health (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007). Despite this grim picture of coral bleaching and reef degradation, coral susceptibility to stress and bleaching is highly variable (Coles & Brown 2003). There is enormous interest in discovering the factors that determine susceptibility in order to help us predict if and how corals will survive a period of rapid global warming. In this issue, Barshis et al. (2010) examine the ecophysiological and genetic basis for differential responses to stress in Porites lobata in American Samoa. They combine a reciprocal transplant experimental design between two neighbouring, but very different reef environments with state-of-the-art physiological biomarkers and molecular genetic markers for both partners to tease apart the contribution of environmental and fixed influences on stress susceptibility. Their results suggest the presence of a fixed, rather than environmental effect on expression of ubiquitin conjugates, one key marker for physiological stress response. In addition, the authors show genetic differentiation in host populations between the two sites suggesting strong selection for physiological adaptation to differing environments across small geographic distances. These conclusions point the study of coral resilience and susceptibility in a new direction. PMID:20456235

  2. Concentrations and 14C age of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plants store photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC), mainly glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch. NSC fuels processes such as respiration and growth. Research suggests that NSC represents a significant fraction of a plant's annual C budget, but temporal dynamics of NSC are poorly understood. We used concentration and radiocarbon (14C) measurements of NSC to investigate how temporal dynamics of NSC vary with life strategy and throughout a species' range. In Mediterranean environments, oaks have developed two strategies (evergreen and deciduous) to cope with drought. Within California, the uncertainty of annual winter rain increases from north to south. We compared two evergreen and deciduous species: Coastal and Interior live oak (Quercus agrifolia and wislizenii) and Valley and Blue oak (Q. lobata and douglasii). Samples (4 mm cores to 20 cm depth at dbh) were taken in 2008 before leaf-out and fall at five sites which represent an inland to coast temperature gradient from high to low summer temperatures as well as a north- south precipitation gradient. Sugars were isolated by shaking in methanol-water and quantified using a spectrometric micro-plate technique. Starch was isolated by boiling in ethanol followed by HCl digestion and quantified manometrically. 14C contents were measured by AMS. Preliminary findings indicate that in live oaks, winter sugar concentrations are constant throughout the tree and across sites, while 14C concentrations increase towards a tree's center. This suggests that the NSC pool oaks is not well mixed. Future work will elucidate whether plants can access these older NSC stores.

  3. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:27321092

  4. Sedimentologic succession of uplifted coral community, Urvina Bay, Isabela Island, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, M.W.; Hollander, D.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1954, along the west-central coast of Isabela Island, an upward movement of magma suddenly raised Urvina Bay over 6 m and exposed several square kilometers of carbonate deposits covering a young aa lava flow (around 1000 years old). Results from 6 transect lines across the uplift, 30 cores, and 10 trenches describe the sedimentologic and ecologic transition from barren basalt to diverse carbonate sediments with small coral reefs. Along horizontal transects spanning from 0 to 7 m paleowater depth, there is a seaward progression from beaches, mangroves, and basalt to thick deposits (> 1.6 m) of carbonate sands and small coral reefs. Variation in water depth, degree of wave exposure, and irregularity of the aa lava topography provided many microhabitats where coral, calcareous algae, and mollusks settled and grew. Eight hermatypic coral species are found throughout the shelf, and three species (i.e., Pavona clavus, Pocillopora damicornis, and Porites lobata) produced five small, isolated, monospecific, coral-reef frameworks. The vertical section seen in cores and trenches shows that calcium carbonate increased upward, whereas volcanic sediments decreased; however, episodic layers occur with high concentrations of basaltic sands. In vertical samples from the central portion of the shelf, the coral population changed from small, isolated colonies of Psammocora (Plesioseris) superficalis near the basalt basement to large reef-forming colonies of Pocillopora damicornis farther upsection. Reefs of the Galapagos Islands are small and less diverse than most Pacific reefs. Nonetheless, understanding their temporal successional development should throw light on the origin and history of larger oceanic reefs in the Pacific.

  5. [Non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of the host is the main reason behind introduction of the parasite, e. g., nematodes. The introduction of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in Europe in the 1980s resulted in expansion of the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus which soon invaded not only populations of the European eel (A. anguilla), but also other local fish. The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is native to North America. It is the specific host of Strongyloides procyonis and Baylisascaris procyonis. More than 90 species of wild and domestical bird and mammal species, including humans, have been infected with B. procyonis larvae. The larvae enter various organs of paratenic hosts, particularly the central nervous system and eye, causing severe diseases and death. Asthworthius sidemi--a blood-succking, abomasal nematode, a specific parasite of the Asiatic sika deer (Cervus nippon) and sambar deer (C. unicolor)--was first introduced with its hosts into countries adjacent to Poland. A. sidemi is especially dangerous to the European bison (Bison bonasus) which is its new host. The bison populations, in both Białowieza Primaeval Forest and the Bieszczady Mts, sometimes show a 100% prevalence and mass infection intensity. Imported animals, sold in pet shops or available from private breeding firms, often carry non-native parasites. For example, the red-eared tortoise (Trachemys scripta elegans) and Afgan tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii) carry nematodes Angusticaecum holopterum, Tachygonetria lobata and T. robusta. Migratory birds in their wintering grounds are often infected with parasites which are usually not constant components of the native fauna, but sometimes nematodes could find a suitable conditions to complete their life cycle. E.g. Cyathosoma microspiculum, species specific to cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) and previously recorded only from Asia and the Asian-European boudary, was able complete the life cycle in Poland. The increasingly frequent travels to countries with

  6. Sr/Ca in Coral Aragonite: Is Night Carbonate a Good Indicator of Sea Surface Temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, N.; Finch, A. A.

    2002-12-01

    Sr/Ca in coral skeletons has potential as an indicator of past seawater conditions but exhibits geochemical heterogeneity on a small spatial scale (<100 μm) that does not reflect variations in sea surface temperature (SST) or chemistry. Skeletal Sr/Ca is affected by variations in skeletal calcification rate which may be dependent on the photosynthetic activity of the zooxanthellae in coral tissue. The skeleton deposited at night may be unaffected by these variations and may be a more reliable indicator of SST (Cohen et al. 2001). We used secondary ion mass spectrometry with a 10 μm diameter analysis spot to construct records of Sr/Ca in a Porites lobata specimen from Lanakai, Oahu, Hawaii. Analyses were performed on sections cut perpendicular to the growth surface of the coral skeleton, spanning annual bands. Parallel tracks were analysed following fasciculi (composed of acicular crystals deposited during the day) and centres of calcification (composed of fusiform crystals deposited at night). The Sr/Ca of the day and night material follow similar seasonal trends but are offset with night carbonate typically enriched by 0.3-0.4 mmol mol-1. Both profiles are characterised by large Sr fluctuations of 0.4-0.5 mmol mol-1, which are deposited approximately days apart and are superimposed on the general Sr seasonal trend. These fluctuations do not reflect variations in SST but may relate to daily variations in coral calcification or linear extension rate both of which can vary markedly during the day and night. We conclude that night carbonate is affected by kinetic processes and that there are similar challenges in reconstructing SST records from night carbonate as from day carbonate. Cohen AL et al., Kinetic control of skeletal Sr/Ca in a symbiotic coral: implications for the palaeotemperature proxy, Paleoceanography, 16, 20-26, 2001.

  7. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  9. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and Aging in a Flow Reactor in the Forested Southeast US during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Hacker, L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Simoes de Sa, S.; Fry, J.; Ayres, B. R.; Draper, D. C.; Ortega, A. M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Panujoka, A.; Virtanen, A.; Miettinen, P.; Krechmer, J.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Thompson, S.; Yatavelli, L. R.; Stark, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Lechner, M.; Martin, S. T.; Farmer, D.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    compounds were observed when a pine branch was placed in front of the PAM, while oak and kudzu branches resulted in lower enhancement. Processing of ambient air by OH led to significant reductions in the bounce of ambient particles, indicating an effect on their phase.

  10. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  11. Research on plants for fertility regulation in India.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, V P; Dhawan, B N

    1982-09-01

    This present review of Indian plants investigated for fertility regulation includes published literature of the country and unpublished data of the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), located in Lucknow, India. Publications without supportive experimental data have not been included. It is evident from the data presented in the tables that most of the investigators have failed to include the valuable information on the time and place of collection and proper botanical authentication, if conducted, in their publications. The plants evaluated at the Institute do contain this information and their herbaria sheets are available at CDRI. The plants, with part used, type of extract, isolated compound/chromatographic fraction, dose, route and schedule of administration with animal used, and percentage activity are given in tables. The plants are classified according to their activity profile and presented accordingly. Plants for which the hormonal profile or toxicity data have been reported are dealt with under each type of activity. Most of the investigators did not develop the active plants, probably because of inconsistent results in repeat tests or lack of facilities. Major attention has been devoted to identifying plants with interceptive properties. The schedules used are more or less uniform and acceptable. On the basis of preliminary toxicity data, extracts/compounds from "Aristolochia indica," "Artemisia scoparia," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Laccardia lacca," and "Plumbago zeylanica" exclude themselves from consideration for follow-up. Wherever done, the hormonal profiles revealed estrogenic activity in active extracts/fractions/compounds from "Artabotrys odoratissimus," "Datura quercifolia," "Daucus carota," "Embelia ribes," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Pueraria tuberosa" and "Tabernaemontana heyneana." Thus they are not ideal for follow-up. Some more plants can be excluded initially because of low activity or equivocal reports on activity. The remaining

  12. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 < 100 μg/mL. Under this parameter, the following active plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low

  13. δ 11B, Sr, Mg and B in a modern Porites coral: the relationship between calcification site pH and skeletal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2010-03-01

    Sr/Ca, B/Ca, Mg/Ca and δ 11B were determined at high spatial resolution across ˜1 year of a modern Hawaiian Porites lobata coral by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We observe significant variations in B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and δ 11B over short skeletal distances (nominally equivalent to periods of <20 days). This heterogeneity probably reflects variations in the composition of the extracellular calcifying fluid (ECF) from which the skeleton precipitates. Calcification site pH (total scale) was estimated from skeletal δ 11B and ranged from 8.3 to 8.8 (± ˜0.1) with a mean of ˜8.6. Sr/Ca and B/Ca heterogeneity is not simply correlated with calcification site pH, as might be expected if Ca-ATPase activity increases the pH and decreases the Sr/Ca and B(OH) 4-/CO 32- ratios of the ECF. We produced a simple model of the ECF composition and the skeleton deposited from it, over a range of calcium transport and carbonate scenarios, which can account for these observed geochemical variations. The relationship between the pH and Sr/Ca of the ECF is dependent on the concentration of DIC at the calcification site. At higher DIC concentrations the ECF has a high capacity to buffer the [H +] changes induced by Ca-ATPase pumping. Conversely, at low DIC concentrations, this buffering capacity is reduced and ECF pH changes more rapidly in response to Ca-ATPase pumping. The absence of a simple correlation between ECF pH and skeletal Sr/Ca implies that calcification occurred under a range of DIC concentrations, reflecting variations in the respiration and photosynthesis of the coral and symbiotic zooxanthellate in the overlying coral tissues. Our observations have important implications for the use of coral skeletons as indicators of palaeo-ocean pH.

  14. Stable isotope geochemistry of corals from Costa Rica as proxy indicator of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Carriquiry, J.D.; Risk, M.J.; Schwarcz, H.P. )

    1994-01-01

    The authors analyzed the [delta][sup 18]O and [delta][sup 13]C time-series contained in coral skeletons collected from Isla de Cano, Costa Rica, that survived the 1982-1983 El Nino warming event. Coral [delta][sup 18]O give a record of thermal histories with a precision of [approximately]0.5[degrees]C. For this locality, the authors have determined that the average [Delta][delta][sub w] effect in the coral skeletons is equivalent to 33% of the skeletal [delta][sup 18]O range. Therefore, if [delta][sub w] effects are not compensated for, the annual skeletal-[delta][sup 18]O range displays a temperature range of 1[degrees]C lower than actual values. The isotopic record of Porites lobata skeletons shows simultaneous depletions in [sup 18]O and [sup 13]C at skeletal levels corresponding to 1983, coincident with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Therefore, the El Nino event is not only recorded as negative [delta][sup 18]O anomalies in the skeleton, suggesting the warming of ambient waters, but also in the [delta][sup 13]C signal as negative anomalies, indicating coral bleaching. Contrary to the predictions of the [open quotes][sup 13]C-insolation model[close quotes] that the annual carbon isotope variation should be attenuated with depth in proportion to the decrease in light-intensity variation with depth, the authors found a clear trend where [Delta][delta][minus][sup 13]C increases with depth. Coral bioenergetics, which depends on both coral physiology and ecology, may adequately explain the unexpected increase in [delta][sup 13]C range with depth, without contradicting the seasonal character of [delta][sup 13]C variability with the solar irradiance cycle. Although some authors have determined the presence of hiatuses in the skeletal record due to severe stress and growth cessation, in this study it has been found that skeletal growth was not seriously diminished during the El Nino year of 1983.

  15. Analysis of 4999 Online Physician Ratings Indicates That Most Patients Give Physicians a Favorable Rating

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Larry F; Kadry, Bayan; Gammas, Danya; Macario, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background Many online physician-rating sites provide patients with information about physicians and allow patients to rate physicians. Understanding what information is available is important given that patients may use this information to choose a physician. Objectives The goals of this study were to (1) determine the most frequently visited physician-rating websites with user-generated content, (2) evaluate the available information on these websites, and (3) analyze 4999 individual online ratings of physicians. Methods On October 1, 2010, using Google Trends we identified the 10 most frequently visited online physician-rating sites with user-generated content. We then studied each site to evaluate the available information (eg, board certification, years in practice), the types of rating scales (eg, 1–5, 1–4, 1–100), and dimensions of care (eg, recommend to a friend, waiting room time) used to rate physicians. We analyzed data from 4999 selected physician ratings without identifiers to assess how physicians are rated online. Results The 10 most commonly visited websites with user-generated content were HealthGrades.com, Vitals.com, Yelp.com, YP.com, RevolutionHealth.com, RateMD.com, Angieslist.com, Checkbook.org, Kudzu.com, and ZocDoc.com. A total of 35 different dimensions of care were rated by patients in the websites, with a median of 4.5 (mean 4.9, SD 2.8, range 1–9) questions per site. Depending on the scale used for each physician-rating website, the average rating was 77 out of 100 for sites using a 100-point scale (SD 11, median 76, range 33–100), 3.84 out of 5 (77%) for sites using a 5-point scale (SD 0.98, median 4, range 1–5), and 3.1 out of 4 (78%) for sites using a 4-point scale (SD 0.72, median 3, range 1–4). The percentage of reviews rated ≥75 on a 100-point scale was 61.5% (246/400), ≥4 on a 5-point scale was 57.74% (2078/3599), and ≥3 on a 4-point scale was 74.0% (740/1000). The patient’s single overall rating of the

  16. A review of world Diallactiini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Winnertziinae), with the description of six new genera and seventeen new species.

    PubMed

    Jaschhof, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Fossil and extant Diallactiini, which are mycophagous Cecidomyiidae (gall midges), are reviewed globally for the first time. Johnsonomyia Felt, 1908 stat. rev. is restored from synonymy with Haplusia Karsch, 1877 (with Chastomera Skuse, 1888 confirmed as a junior synonym) and both genera are re-defined. Haplusia funebris Plakidas, 2007 and Wyattella lobata Yukawa, 1968 are newly combined in Johnsonomyia. Gynapteromyia Mamaev, 1965 is shown to be a species-rich, almost cosmopolitan genus, which absorbs several of the species previously classified in Haplusia or Chastomera. Gynapteromyia brevipalpis (Mamaev, 1964) comb. nov., G. heteroptera (Mamaev & Spungis, 1980) comb. nov., G. hondrui (Mamaev, 1964) comb. nov., G. indica (Grover, 1971) comb. nov., G. longipalpis (Mamaev, 1964) comb. nov., and G. stricta (Fedotova & Sidorenko, 2005) comb. nov. are all new combinations. †Palaeocolpodia eocenica Meunier, 1904 is considered to be a nomen dubium. Prior to the present study, the tribe Diallactiini contained 28 extant species classified in 6 genera. Previously unworked specimens of Diallactiini gathered by the author in the past 15 years were examined and identified as belonging to 57 different species, all unnamed. From that material, the following new taxa are described: Bruneiplusia gen. nov. (from Brunei), B. kaspraki sp. nov., Gynapteromyia costaricensis sp. nov. (Costa Rica), G. furcata sp. nov. (Costa Rica), G. novaezealandiae sp. nov. (New Zealand), G. tasmanica sp. nov. (Australia), G. temburong sp. nov. (Brunei), G. tenuistylata sp. nov. (Brunei), Haplusia afrotropica sp. nov. (South Africa), Japoplusia gen. nov. (Japan), Jap. honshuensis sp. nov., Johnsonomyia scabra sp. nov. (Costa Rica), John. serrata sp. nov. (South Africa), Loboplusia gen. nov. (Costa Rica), L. zurqui sp. nov., Makrostyles gen. nov. (Costa Rica), Makr. terrifica sp. nov., Mikrostyles gen. nov. (Brunei), Mikr. angustilobata sp. nov., Mikr. latolobata sp. nov., Wahabia gen. nov. (Brunei

  17. Environmental and biotic changes across the Permian Triassic boundary in western Tethys: The Bulla parastratotype, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabegoli, Enzo; Perri, M. Cristina; Posenato, Renato

    2007-01-01

    of Meishan D section. The main decrease in abundance and biodiversity in the Southern Alps coincides with appearance of small oolites with crystalline outer cortex near the basal transgressive tract of the lower Tesero Mbr, a ca. 220 cm sedimentary cycle, that is followed by extension of microbialitic layers alternating with veritable biostromes with brachiopods and byssate bivalves as salient components among the algae. Vacated niches favored evolution of conodonts. Hindeodid conodont biodiversity increased with species developing characteristics of Isarcicella. This interval has been referred to the Changhsingian Late praeparvus Zone and correlated with Bed 27a-b of Meishan D section. The PTB has been identified in the Bulla section at 1.30 m from the base of the Werfen Fm. - with the first appearance of Hindeodus parvus defining the base of the parvus Zone - in a microbialitic layer correlated with Bed 27c of Meishan D section. Around the PTB the major part of the remaining Permian biota disappeared. Gymnocodiacean algae were the last group to undergo extinction within the Triassic layers. Biodiversity dropped severely in the succeeding bioturbated microbialitic interval from which conodonts are absent. More humid climate is reflected in a more sandy marine substrate inhabited by Lingula, Unionites and Claraia. Conodonts recurred in the schizohaline upper part. The succeeding entry of the biozonal markers Isarcicella lobata, Isarcicella staeschei and Isarcicella isarcica allow discrimination of three conodont biozones. The layer with entry of I. staeschei has been aligned with Bed 28 of Meishan D section. The main extinction phase in the western Tethys seems to correspond to a gradual but swift transition from acid-bath to alkaline-bath according to the Deev Jahi model of Heydari and Hassanzadeh [Heydari, E. and Hassanzadeh, J., 2003. Deev Jahi model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: a case for gas hydrates as the main cause of biological crisis on

  18. Sex-associated variations in coral skeletal oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of Porites panamensis in the southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Tena, Rafael A.; Sánchez, Alberto; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Ruvalcaba-Díaz, Angel H.; Balart, Eduardo F.

    2016-05-01

    variables; therefore, variations in skeletal δ13C appear to be driven mainly by metabolic effects. Our results support the hypothesis of a sex-associated difference in skeletal δ18O and δ13C signal, and suggest that environmental conditions and coral growth parameters affect skeletal isotopic signals differently in each sex. Although these findings relate to one gonochoric brooding species, they may have some implications for the more commonly used gonochoric spawning species such as Porites lutea and Porites lobata.