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Sample records for kuru research background

  1. Kuru

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by an infectious protein found in contaminated human brain tissue. Kuru is found among people from New ... The main risk factor for kuru is eating human brain tissue, which can contain the infectious particles.

  2. [Kuru].

    PubMed

    Mori, S

    1997-04-01

    Kuru, the progressive and fatal neurologic disorder which occurred exclusively among natives of the New Guinea Highlands, were reviewed. Early history of kuru investigation, epidemiology, clinical findings, pathological findings, successful transmission with chimpanzees, from unconventional virus to prion hypothesis and the similarities to "variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease" were discussed in the literature. Although the incidence of kuru has markedly declined with the suppression of cannibalism, it is important from a historical perspective because it was the first human transmissible prion disease to be recognized. PMID:9103906

  3. Kuru: genes, cannibals and neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Liberski, Pawel P; Sikorska, Beata; Lindenbaum, Shirley; Goldfarb, Lev G; McLean, Catriona; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Brown, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Kuru was the first human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease identified, occurring in the Fore linguistic group of Papua New Guinea. Kuru was a uniformly fatal cerebellar ataxic syndrome, usually followed by choreiform and athetoid movements. Kuru imposed a strong balancing selection on the Fore population, with individuals homozygous for the 129 Met allele of the gene (PRNP) encoding for prion protein (PrP) being the most susceptible. The decline in the incidence of kuru in the Fore has been attributed to the exhaustion of the susceptible genotype and ultimately by discontinuation of exposure via cannibalism. Neuropathologically, kuru-affected brains were characterized by widespread degeneration of neurons, astroglial and microglial proliferation, and the presence of amyloid plaques. These early findings have been confirmed and extended by recent immunohistochemical studies for the detection of the TSE-specific PrP (PrP). Confocal laser microscopy also showed the concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytic processes at the plaque periphery. The fine structure of plaques corresponds to that described earlier by light microscopy. The successful experimental transmission of kuru led to the awareness of its similarity to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease and formed a background against which the recent epidemics of iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease could be studied. PMID:22249461

  4. Cannibalism, kuru and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses the image and practice of cannibalism in a wide range of studies. It also presents the anthropological research on kuru which led to the proposal that cannibalism had enabled transmission of the infectious agent, as well as doubts about the hypothesis, and the assertion by some that cannibalism as a socially approved custom did not exist. The figure of the cannibal as an icon of primitivism took form in the encounter between Europe and the Americas. Cannibalism was to become the prime signifier of "barbarism" for a language of essentialized difference that would harden into the negative racism of the nineteenth century. Anthropological and medical research now challenge the derogatory image of the cannibal as we learn more about the many past consumers of human flesh, including ourselves. PMID:19618336

  5. Kuru: the first prion disease.

    PubMed

    Liberski, Paweł P; Sikorska, Beata; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Kuru disease is linked with the name of D. Carleton Gajdusek and he was the first to show that this human neurodegenerative disease can be transmitted to chimpanzees and subsequently classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or slow unconventional virus disease. It was first reported to Western world in 1957 by Gajdusek and Vincent Zigas,(1,2) and in 1975 a complete bibliography of kuru was published by Alpers et al.(3) "Kuru" in the Fore language in Papua New Guinea means to shiver from fever and cold. The disease has been found to spread through ritualistic cannibalism and is an invariably fatal cerebellar ataxia accompanied by tremor, choreiform and athetoid movements. Neuropathologically, kuru is characterized by the presence of amyloid "kuru" plaques. PMID:22411241

  6. The changing face of kuru: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The epidemic of kuru is now known to have been transmitted among the Fore by ritual consumption of infected organs from deceased relatives. As cannibalism was suppressed by government patrol officers during the 1950s, most transmission had ceased by 1957, when the kuru research programme first commenced. As predicted in the 1960s, the epidemic has waned, with progressive ageing of kuru-affected cohorts over the years to 2007. The few cases seen in the twenty-first century, with the longest incubation periods, were almost certainly exposed as children prior to 1960. Although the research programme had almost no role in bringing the kuru epidemic to an end, it did provide important knowledge that was to help the wider world in controlling the later epidemics of iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:18672465

  7. Review. Understanding kuru: the contribution of anthropology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2008-11-27

    To understand kuru and solve the problems of its cause and transmission required the integration of knowledge from both anthropological and medical research. Anthropological studies elucidated the origin and spread of kuru, the local mortuary practices of endocannibalism, the social effects of kuru, the life of women and child-rearing practices, the kinship system of the Fore and their willingness to incorporate outsiders into it, the myths, folklore and history of the Fore and their neighbours, sorcery as a powerful social phenomenon and way of explaining the causation of disease, and concepts of the treatment of disease. Many scientists from different disciplines, government officers and others have contributed to this chapter of medical history but it is the Fore people who have contributed the most, through their suffering, their cooperative and reliable witness to kuru, and their participation, in various ways, in the research process itself. PMID:18849287

  8. Review. The changing face of kuru: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Mathews, John D

    2008-11-27

    The epidemic of kuru is now known to have been transmitted among the Fore by ritual consumption of infected organs from deceased relatives. As cannibalism was suppressed by government patrol officers during the 1950s, most transmission had ceased by 1957, when the kuru research programme first commenced. As predicted in the 1960s, the epidemic has waned, with progressive ageing of kuru-affected cohorts over the years to 2007. The few cases seen in the twenty-first century, with the longest incubation periods, were almost certainly exposed as children prior to 1960. Although the research programme had almost no role in bringing the kuru epidemic to an end, it did provide important knowledge that was to help the wider world in controlling the later epidemics of iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:18672465

  9. Understanding kuru: the contribution of anthropology and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lindenbaum, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    To understand kuru and solve the problems of its cause and transmission required the integration of knowledge from both anthropological and medical research. Anthropological studies elucidated the origin and spread of kuru, the local mortuary practices of endocannibalism, the social effects of kuru, the life of women and child-rearing practices, the kinship system of the Fore and their willingness to incorporate outsiders into it, the myths, folklore and history of the Fore and their neighbours, sorcery as a powerful social phenomenon and way of explaining the causation of disease, and concepts of the treatment of disease. Many scientists from different disciplines, government officers and others have contributed to this chapter of medical history but it is the Fore people who have contributed the most, through their suffering, their cooperative and reliable witness to kuru, and their participation, in various ways, in the research process itself. PMID:18849287

  10. Kuru and "new variant" CJD.

    PubMed

    Verdrager, J

    1997-09-01

    Acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans include Kuru (a disease which was associated with ritualistic cannibalism in Papua New Guinea), iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and a newly recognized variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD). Clinical and neuropathological features of nvCJD are reminiscent of Kuru: early and progressive cerebellar ataxia and numerous characteristic Kuru-type amyloid plaques surrounded by spongiform change. In contrast to typical cases of sporadic CJD, Kuru and nvCJD affect young patients. The newly recognized form of CJD has been identified in ten young people in the UK in 1996, approximately 10 years after the beginning of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the UK. Molecular analysis has shown that nvCJD has strain characteristics that are distinct from other types of CJD but similar to those of BSE. In the UK an estimated half a million BSE-infected cows entered the human food chain before the bovine offal ban of 1989. To be effective the oral route probably requires high-infectivity titers which are encountered only in the brain, spinal cord and eyes of naturally infected cows. In patients with Kuru, titers of more than 10(8) infectious doses per gram were reported in the brain tissues. As a result of the estimated very long incubation period of nvCJD (10 to 30 years or more) the predicted nvCJD epidemic will have the shape of a normal distribution curve with a peak expected in 2009. The epidemic may extend until 2030. There is already an example to illustrate such a curve in its descending line: the decline of Kuru deaths following the interruption of ritual cannibalism. PMID:9561604

  11. Kuru

    MedlinePlus

    ... type to also change shape. Other TSEs include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and fatal familial insomnia in humans, bovine spongiform ... and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation Inc. 341 W. 38th Street, Suite ...

  12. Genetic susceptibility, evolution and the kuru epidemic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Simon; Whitfield, Jerome; Poulter, Mark; Shah, Paresh; Uphill, James; Beck, Jonathan; Campbell, Tracy; Al-Dujaily, Huda; Hummerich, Holger; Alpers, Michael P; Collinge, John

    2008-11-27

    The acquired prion disease kuru was restricted to the Fore and neighbouring linguistic groups of the Papua New Guinea highlands and largely affected children and adult women. Oral history documents the onset of the epidemic in the early twentieth century, followed by a peak in the mid-twentieth century and subsequently a well-documented decline in frequency. In the context of these strong associations (gender, region and time), we have considered the genetic factors associated with susceptibility and resistance to kuru. Heterozygosity at codon 129 of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) is known to confer relative resistance to both sporadic and acquired prion diseases. In kuru, heterozygosity is associated with older patients and longer incubation times. Elderly survivors of the kuru epidemic, who had multiple exposures at mortuary feasts, are predominantly PRNP codon 129 heterozygotes and this group show marked Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is most marked in elderly women, but is also significant in a slightly younger cohort of men, consistent with their exposure to kuru as boys. Young Fore and the elderly from populations with no history of kuru show Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. An increasing cline in 129V allele frequency centres on the kuru region, consistent with the effect of selection in elevating the frequency of resistant genotypes in the exposed population. The genetic data are thus strikingly correlated with exposure. Considering the strong coding sequence conservation of primate prion protein genes, the number of global coding polymorphisms in man is surprising. By intronic resequencing in a European population, we have shown that haplotype diversity at PRNP comprises two major and divergent clades associated with 129M and 129V. Kuru may have imposed the strongest episode of recent human balancing selection, which may not have been an isolated episode in human history. PMID:18849290

  13. Kuru and its contribution to medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gajdusek, D. Carleton

    2008-01-01

    The solution of kuru led us to the solution of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and to the elucidation, in humans and other species, of previously unknown mechanisms of infection. These require very close three-dimensional matching, which determines infectious nucleant or prion activity. Evidence for nucleation processes is found widely in the organic and inorganic worlds and in the interactions between them: in the formation of amyloid fibrils; in the biochemistry of silicon; in cave formations deep in the Earth; and in outer space. Kuru in its location in Papua New Guinea has also led to an understanding of the cultural achievements of the Palaeo-Melanesians, with deep roots in human history. PMID:18849284

  14. Kuru: the old epidemic in a new mirror.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Lev G

    2002-07-01

    The kuru epidemic lasted almost a century; it started in 1901-1902, reached epidemic proportions in the mid-1950s, and disappeared in the 1990s. Kuru is the prototype member of a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases. Recent data on the genetics and pathogenesis of TSEs contribute to a better understanding of the documented kuru phenomena, and vice versa, observations made during the kuru epidemic are immensely helpful in understanding the epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease that is currently developing in Europe. The major goal of this review is to identify and illustrate these points. PMID:12270735

  15. Mortuary rites of the South Fore and kuru.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jerome T; Pako, Wandagi H; Collinge, John; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    This paper is part of a wider study to explain the historical spread and changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affect the transmission of kuru. Part of the study has been to look at the mortuary feasts that were the means of transmission of the kuru agent. This paper shows the complexity of Fore eschatology, and the variations and contradictions of human behaviour in relation to mortuary rites and the transmission of kuru. It also confirms that oral ingestion was the primary route of inoculation though some cases of parenteral inoculation may have occurred. The exclusion of alternative routes of transmission is of importance owing to the dietary exposure of the UK and other populations to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. PMID:18849288

  16. The epidemiology of kuru in the period 1987 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    Kuru is an encephalopathy or neuro-degenerative disease found only in the Okapa District of the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. It is always fatal, with a subacute course, on average, of about 12 months from onset to death. In the 9-year period 1987 to 1995 there were 66 deaths from kuru, 17 males and 49 females. The number of deaths per year ranged from 3 to 12. All deaths occurred south of a line drawn through the centre of the kuru region perpendicular to the axis of social change. The mean age at death was 49 years, with a gradual increase in this age with time. The last patient aged in their 20s died in 1987 and the last in their 30s died in 1991. The period shows a waning epidemic, with dramatically fewer deaths than in the early years of epidemiological surveillance 30 years before. Nevertheless, the clinical features and duration of the disease were unchanged. Transmission of kuru stopped by 1960 and patients seen in the period 1987-1995 showed long incubation periods, which in 1995 would have been at least 35 years. The proportion of males was much higher than in the early years; because males were effectively exposed only in childhood their incubation periods were in many cases likely to be over 50 years. The work of the Kuru Surveillance Team in maintaining a rigorous surveillance of kuru epidemiology over this period is described. PMID:16465931

  17. Research. Go8 Backgrounder 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an overall lack of a clear and cohesive research funding policy for higher education which poses real risks in Australia's ability to sustain research excellence and is likely to lead to a decline in Australia's research performance at the international level. This could well lead to a decline in the reputation of…

  18. Genetic studies in relation to kuru: an overview.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, L G; Cervenakova, L; Gajdusek, D C

    2004-06-01

    Kuru is a subacute neurodegenerative disease presenting with limb ataxia, dysarthria, and a shivering tremor. The disease progress to complete motor and mental incapacity and death within 6 to 24 months. Neuropathologically, a typical pattern of neuronal loss, astrocytic and microglial proliferation, characteristic "kuru-type" amyloid plaques, and PrP deposits in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are observed. Kuru is the prototype of a group of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or "prion" diseases, that include hereditary, sporadic and infectious forms. The latest member of this group, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), linked to transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, shows features similar to kuru. Kuru has emerged at the beginning of the 1900s in a small indigenous population of New-Guinean Eastern Highlands, reached epidemic proportions in the mid-1950s and disappeared progressively in the latter half of the century to complete absence at the end of the 1990s. Early studies made infection, the first etiologic assumption, seem unlikely and led to a hypothesis that kuru might be a genetically determined or genetically mediated illness. After transmissibility of kuru had been discovered and all major epidemiologic phenomena adequately explained by the spread of an infectious agent with long incubation period through the practice of cannibalism, the pattern of occurrence still continued to suggest a role for genetic predisposition. Recent studies indicate that individuals homozygous for Methionine at a polymorphic position 129 of the prion protein were preferentially affected during the kuru epidemic. The carriers of the alternative 129Met/Val and 129Val/Val genotypes had a longer incubation period and thus developed disease at a later age and at a later stage of the epidemic. Observations made during the kuru epidemic are helpful in the understanding of the current vCJD outbreak, and vice versa clinical

  19. Kuru: A Journey Back in Time from Papua New Guinea to the Neanderthals’ Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Liberski, Pawel P.

    2013-01-01

    Kuru, the first human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy was transmitted to chimpanzees by D. Carleton Gajdusek (1923–2008). In this review, I briefly summarize the history of this seminal discovery along its epidemiology, clinical picture, neuropathology and molecular genetics. The discovery of kuru opened new windows into the realms of human medicine and was instrumental in the later transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease as well as the relevance that bovine spongiform encephalopathy had for transmission to humans. The transmission of kuru was one of the greatest contributions to biomedical sciences of the 20th century. PMID:25437203

  20. Research Workforce. Go8 Backgrounder 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The demand for workers (employers, self-employed people and employees) having research training extends beyond the researcher workforce itself and is increasing. The research workforce is not uniform but segmented according to disciplines and the economic and sectoral contexts in which researchers work. The growth of cross-disciplinary and…

  1. Background character research for synthetical performance of thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

    2014-05-01

    Background is assumed to be uniform usually for evaluating the performance of thermal imaging systems, however the impact of background cannot be ignored for target acquisition in reality, background character is important research content for thermal imaging technology. A background noise parameter 𝜎 was proposed in MRTD model and used to describe background character. Background experiments were designed, and some typical backgrounds (namely lawn background, concrete pavement background, trees background and snow background) character were analyzed by 𝜎. MRTD including 𝜎 was introduced into MRTD-Channel Width (CW) model, the impact of above typical backgrounds for target information quantity were analyzed by MRTD-CW model with background character. Target information quantity for different backgrounds was calculated by MRTD-CW, and compared with that of TTP model. A target acquisition performance model based on MRTD-CW with background character will be research in the future.

  2. Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voet, Tony Vander

    This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve…

  3. Review. The epidemiology of kuru: monitoring the epidemic from its peak to its end.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    Kuru is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy restricted to the Fore people and their neighbours in a remote region of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. When first investigated in 1957 it was found to be present in epidemic proportions, with approximately 1000 deaths in the first 5 years, 1957-1961. The changing epidemiological patterns and other significant findings such as the transmissibility of kuru are described in their historical progression. Monitoring the progress of the epidemic has been carried out by epidemiological surveillance in the field for 50 years. From its peak, the number of deaths from kuru declined to 2 in the last 5 years, indicating that the epidemic is approaching its end. The mode of transmission of the prion agent of kuru was the local mortuary practice of transumption. The prohibition of this practice in the 1950s led to the decline in the epidemic, which has been prolonged into the present century by incubation periods that may exceed 50 years. Currently, the epidemiological surveillance is being maintained and further studies on human genetics and the past mortuary practices are being conducted in the kuru-affected region and in communities beyond it. PMID:18849286

  4. Problematising "Background": (Re)Constructing Categories in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara

    In educational research the problem of student description is eternal. On what basis do researchers make decisions about aspects of students' material lives to count as data, interpretive categories, contextual information, results? This paper focuses specifically on the problem of "background" in researching the student subject. The paper argues…

  5. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  6. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  7. The Graphic Information Research Unit: Background and Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Discusses projects of the Graphic Information Research Unit at the Royal College of Art (England), which relates to the legibility of scientific and technical information. Summarizes the Unit's survey of problems in providing adequate guiding in libraries and museums, and reports two studies of Computer Output Microfilm library catalogues. (GT)

  8. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  9. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46-63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  10. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  11. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Langley, Michelle C; O'Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region. PMID:27537696

  12. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    O‘Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region. PMID:27537696

  13. From Best Research to What Works: Background Knowledge & Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a transcription of a forum held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. on May 19, 2006 on background knowledge and reading proficiency. This topic goes to the heart of the education reform agenda, according to the first speaker, Eugenia Kemble, executive director of the Albert Shanker Institute, the sponsor of this…

  14. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  15. Background of the completed research; relevances to solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellin, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities reported consider the atomic structures of highly stripped heavy ions and their modes of formation and destruction in collisions. The lifetime of the metastable 2 3p1 state of the two electron ion F-7(+) was determined by measuring the radiative decay of an excited helium-like fluorine beam, Metastable state quenching measurements were performed on a helium-like ion to obtain the 1 1S0 to 2 3p2 transition probability. Exponential exchange state dependence of X-ray production cross sections was studied in heavy target atoms during collisions with light charged particles.

  16. Policies and Background Literature for Self-Education on Research Data Management: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Librarians navigating research data management self-education have an increasing body of literature to choose from, which may become overwhelming. This annotated bibliography reviews: (1) U.S. federal policies; (2) articles; and (3) books to assist librarians who are self-educating on research data management or are seeking background reading…

  17. Perceptions of Australia as a Postgraduate Research Destination. Go8 Backgrounder 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Group of Eight (Go8) commissioned market research to examine the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of Australia as a destination for study at the Higher Research Degree level. This backgrounder highlights some of the positive aspects of the Australian experience. The top five aggregated strengths of Australia as a research…

  18. The Psychological and Social Sciences Research Support Programs of the National Science Foundation: A Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Offered in response to a request for background information from the Congressional Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology, the document presents a report of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) support for social and psychological sciences research. Major objectives of the report are to review the origins of NSF support programs;…

  19. Australians from a Non-English Speaking Background with Intellectual Disability: The Importance of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brolan, Claire E.; Gomez, Miriam Taylor; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review available data on Australians from a non-English speaking background (NESB) with intellectual disability (ID). They find that intellectual disability in the Australian NESB community has received limited attention in terms of both qualitative and quantitative research. The existing literature is over 10 years old and is relevant…

  20. Spectrum of the cosmic background radiation: early and recent measurements from the White Mountain Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.

    1985-09-01

    The White Mountain Research Station has provided a support facility at a high, dry, radio-quiet site for measurements that have established the blackbody character of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This finding has confirmed the interpretation of the radiation as a relic of the primeval fireball and helped to establish the hot Big Bang theory as the standard cosmological model.

  1. Background-Oriented Schlieren Applications in NASA Glenn Research Center's Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This is a presentation for an invited session at the 2015 SciTech Conference 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The presentation covers the recent applications of Background-Oriented Schlieren in NASA Glenn Research Center's ground test facilities, such as the 8x6 SWT, open jet rig, and AAPL.

  2. Transition of Students from Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds to Research Led Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on software development students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds that have dropped out of universities which have a strong research emphasis. In the UK, these universities are generally part of the Russell Group of Universities. The participants were all male, mainly black, working class and…

  3. Background Research and Mapping. Australian School Science Education National Action Plan, 2008-2012. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie J.; Goodrum, Denis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background to the text and recommended actions of the Australian School Science Education National Action Plan, 2007-2012. The first part presents a synthesis of the national and international research used to identify gaps and overlaps amongst activities related to school science education in …

  4. Vocational Education and Training for People from Non-English-Speaking Backgrounds. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkoff, Veronica; Golding, Barry

    Research on the provision of vocational education and training (VET) for Australia's very culturally diverse work force with non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESBs) considers the extent and nature of the disadvantage. The current definition of NESB limits membership to those born overseas; a proposed two-pronged approach is based on "first…

  5. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  6. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  7. How Should We Be Determining Background and Baseline Antibiotic Resistance Levels in Agroecosystem Research?

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Keen, Patricia L; Cook, Kimberly L; Durso, Lisa M; Franklin, Alison M; Dungan, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Although historically, antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely understand the potential risks to human, animal, and ecological health in systems altered by antibiotic-resistance-related contamination. At present, analyzing and interpreting the effects of human and animal inputs on antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems is difficult, since standard research terminology and protocols do not exist for studying background and baseline levels of resistance in the environment. To improve the state of science in antibiotic-resistance-related research in agroecosystems, researchers are encouraged to incorporate baseline data within the study system and background data from outside the study system to normalize the study data and determine the potential impact of antibiotic-resistance-related determinants on a specific agroecosystem. Therefore, the aims of this review were to (i) present standard definitions for commonly used terms in environmental antibiotic resistance research and (ii) illustrate the need for research standards (normalization) within and between studies of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To foster synergy among antibiotic resistance researchers, a new surveillance and decision-making tool is proposed to assist researchers in determining the most relevant and important antibiotic-resistance-related targets to focus on in their given agroecosystems. Incorporation of these components within antibiotic-resistance-related studies should allow for a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the current and future states of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:27065388

  8. Research and development of a radioisotope dose calibrator with background alarm used in nuclear medical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Uşakli, Ali Bülent; Akdurak, Serdar

    2002-04-01

    In this study, research and development of a prototype background alarm levelled radioisotope dose calibrator for nuclear medical laboratories was emphasized. The aim was to develop a standard performance, economical dose calibrator (self-made) from the ion-chamber to the microcomputer. Dose calibrators are used in nuclear medical laboratories for treatment and diagnosis purposes. The device is developed using an ion chamber filled with 2 atm pressure argon gas, 3N201 dual gate mosfet for the extremely high impedance preamplifier, an Intel 8052AH microcontroller for the microcomputer, ADC0804 for the A/D conversion, a Phillips 2 x 16 character display, and other components. Correction factors are used for each radioisotope after the activity measurements, that can be updated and kept in the Ni-Cd rechargeable battery-powered RAM memory. To provide safety in nuclear medical laboratories, background activity values are measured. PMID:11993576

  9. Development of Background-Oriented Schlieren for NASA Langley Research Center Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Borg, Stephen; Jones, Stephen; Overmeyer, Austin; Walker, Eric; Goad, William; Clem, Michelle; Schairer, Edward T.; Mizukaki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent wind tunnel tests performed at the NASA Langley Research Center where the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique was used to provide information pertaining to flow-field density disturbances. The facilities in which the BOS technique was applied included the National Transonic Facility (NTF), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, 15-Inch Mach 6 High-Temperature Air Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell at the 14 by 22 Subsonic Tunnel, and a 13-Inch Low-Speed Tunnel.

  10. [Soil heavy metal cadmium standard limit and range of background value research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Si-Jin; Xu, Ren-Ji; Li, Bo-Ling; Wu, Guo-Ping; Wei, Fu-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    With the rapid development of industrial and agricultural production in China, problems such as excessive soil pollutants worsen year by year, and soil cadmium pollution resulting from the emergence of "cadmium rice" and other food security incidents occur frequently. It causes the extensive concern of society on soil cadmium environmental standards. A soil environmental standard is the foundation for the evaluation of soil environmental quality. The maximum allowable value of cadmium that affects plant and animal and human health is regarded as the basis value all over the world; however, the certification methods and the goals of standard application are different, thus the standard limit has a great difference. Through the research on domestic and foreign soil cadmium standard limits and the soil cadmium background values in China, the soil cadmium background content range values of the provinces and of some types of soil are given. We report the outstanding problems existing in China's current environmental quality standard of soil cadmium. It is proposed that the soil environmental quality standard should allow the coexistence of gradient of soil cadmium standard limit, effective state and total standard limit, and anthropogenic pollution and background values exceeding the standard should be strictly distinguished. PMID:24946608

  11. Atypical sporadic CJD-MM phenotype with white matter kuru plaques associated with intranuclear inclusion body and argyrophilic grain disease.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Anna S; Trummert, Anita; Unterberger, Ursula; Ströbel, Thomas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2015-08-01

    We describe an atypical neuropathological phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 76-year-old man. The clinical symptoms were characterized by progressive dementia, gait ataxia, rigidity and urinary incontinence. The disease duration was 6 weeks. MRI did not show prominent atrophy or hyperintensities in cortical areas, striatum or thalamus. Biomarker examination of the cerebrospinal fluid deviated from that seen in pure Alzheimer's disease. Triphasic waves in the EEG were detected only later in the disease course, while 14-3-3 assay was positive. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity (MM) at codon 129. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes corresponding to the MM type 1 cases. However, a striking feature was the presence of abundant kuru-type plaques in the white matter. This rare morphology was associated with neuropathological signs of intranuclear inclusion body disease and advanced stage of argyrophilic grain disease. These alterations did not show correlation with each other, thus seemed to develop independently. This case further highlights the complexity of neuropathological alterations in the ageing brain. PMID:25783686

  12. A new scenario framework for climate change research. Background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel W.; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Zwickel, Timm

    2013-09-27

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  13. PROSPECT Background Studies and Operation of Li-Loaded Liquid Scintillator Detectors at a Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Thomas; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Segmented antineutrino detectors placed near compact research reactors provide an excellent opportunity to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT is a phased experiment that will explore the favored reactor anomaly parameter space at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab. Measurements of the reactor correlated and ambient backgrounds will be presented, as well as a discussion of active and passive mitigation plans. A lithium-loaded liquid scintillator test detector is currently in operation at HFIR within a prototype shielding cave. Results from recent operation will be presented along with a discussion of their impact on PROSPECT. on behalf of the PROSPECT collaboration.

  14. Cannibalism, Kuru, and Mad Cows: Prion Disease As a “Choose-Your-Own-Experiment” Case Study to Simulate Scientific Inquiry in Large Lectures

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Antonio; Liebner, Jeffrey; Hines, Justin K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant efforts to reform undergraduate science education, students often perform worse on assessments of perceptions of science after introductory courses, demonstrating a need for new educational interventions to reverse this trend. To address this need, we created An Inexplicable Disease, an engaging, active-learning case study that is unusual because it aims to simulate scientific inquiry by allowing students to iteratively investigate the Kuru epidemic of 1957 in a choose-your-own-experiment format in large lectures. The case emphasizes the importance of specialization and communication in science and is broadly applicable to courses of any size and sub-discipline of the life sciences. PMID:26788803

  15. Cannibalism, Kuru, and Mad Cows: Prion Disease As a "Choose-Your-Own-Experiment" Case Study to Simulate Scientific Inquiry in Large Lectures.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Liebner, Jeffrey; Hines, Justin K

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant efforts to reform undergraduate science education, students often perform worse on assessments of perceptions of science after introductory courses, demonstrating a need for new educational interventions to reverse this trend. To address this need, we created An Inexplicable Disease, an engaging, active-learning case study that is unusual because it aims to simulate scientific inquiry by allowing students to iteratively investigate the Kuru epidemic of 1957 in a choose-your-own-experiment format in large lectures. The case emphasizes the importance of specialization and communication in science and is broadly applicable to courses of any size and sub-discipline of the life sciences. PMID:26788803

  16. Research on tracking approach to weak small targets under sky background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Miao, Dong; Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Jiarui; Chen, Nao; Kang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    The infrared (IR) target recognizing and tracking technique is widely applied to many fields such as industries, navigation, weapon controlling and guiding and so on. Its application in military field has become the research hotspot. The stability of target tracking is the most important in military applications. However, it is difficult to track the aerial target because of the complex background and noise interference, especially from long distance, which make tracking targets even harder. In this paper, a novel image tracking system is designed, which uses template matching algorithm combined with Kalman filter. Because of the noise in image, the presence of occlusion, and the deformation of tracked target, some tracking algorithms may fail. So it is the main idea in this paper to merge the advantages from the tracking algorithms, and track the target real time. The algorithm for weak small targets from the image is based on template matching algorithm. In order to overcome the problems related to the changes of unpredictable circumstance, Kalman filter tracking algorithm is used. For the disadvantage of template matching algorithm towards occasions in target tracking, such as target occlusion, drastic change of image intensity, the relevant solutions are proposed. In cases when the target is occluded or moves more than the operational limits of the tracking module, Kalman filter is used to predict the object location. Thus, automatic detection and tracking of target in real-time is achieved and the proposed method is more robust in target tracking. The results show that the algorithm can realize target tracking under complicated scenes. It also improves the tracking stability, capacity of anti-interfering and running efficiency.

  17. Beams, brightness, and background: Using active spectroscopy techniques for precision measurements in fusion plasma research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Dan M.

    2012-05-15

    The use of an injected neutral beam-either a dedicated diagnostic beam or the main heating beams-to localize and enhance plasma spectroscopic measurements can be exploited for a number of key physics issues in magnetic confinement fusion research, yielding detailed profile information on thermal and fast ion parameters, the radial electric field, plasma current density, and turbulent transport. The ability to make these measurements has played a significant role in much of our recent progress in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas. The measurements can utilize emission from excited state transitions either from plasma ions or from the beam atoms themselves. The primary requirement is that the beam 'probe' interacts with the plasma in a known fashion. Advantages of active spectroscopy include high spatial resolution due to the enhanced localization of the emission and the use of appropriate imaging optics, background rejection through the appropriate modulation and timing of the beam and emission collection/detection system, and the ability of the beam to populate emitter states that are either nonexistent or too dim to utilize effectively in the case of standard or passive spectroscopy. In addition, some active techniques offer the diagnostician unique information because of the specific quantum physics responsible for the emission. This paper will describe the general principles behind a successful active spectroscopic measurement, emphasize specific techniques that facilitate the measurements and include several successful examples of their implementation, briefly touching on some of the more important physics results. It concludes with a few remarks about the relevance and requirements of active spectroscopic techniques for future burning plasma experiments.

  18. Research on a precise differential box-counting method of eliminating image background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kexue; He, Tao; Li, Cancan; Zhou, Weisong; Yang, Liangen

    2016-01-01

    Differential box-counting (DBC) method has been widely used to calculate fractal dimension. analyzing the result of fractal dimension with background image by estimating this traditional method,we find that this algorithm has the limitation to estimate fractal dimension of images with background accurately. In order to solve this issue ,in this paper, an improved differential box-counting(IDBC) method has been proposed to eliminate influence of background on fractal dimension .The mainly improved steps of IDBC as follow: firstly ,the background pixels values Gb of image need to be found out using probability .Secondly, the nq ( nq is the numbers of boxes in a grid) is set to zero when the maximum and minimum in a grid are equal to image background values. To validate IDBC method's performance ,we designed an experiment that the fractal dimension of both original texture images and these ones put in different size frame with black-background are estimated and compared through four different algorithms, including DBC, relevant differential box-counting (RDBC) method, shifting differential box-counting (SDBC) method and IDBC method. The experimental results demonstrate that the IDBC method developed in this work has the ability to improve the measurement accuracy by avoiding the influence caused by background.

  19. A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: part I: ethical and regulatory background.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew; Babl, Franz E

    2010-10-01

    Research is an important part of emergency medicine and provides the scientific underpinning for optimal patient care. Although increasing numbers of emergency physicians participate in research activities, formal research training is currently neither part of emergency physician training in Australia nor easily available for clinicians interested in clinical research. In a two-part series, which is targeted at part-time clinical researchers in the ED, we set out and explain the key elements for conducting high-quality and ethical research. In Part I, we describe important underlying ethical principles for research in humans and explain key regulatory processes and documents pertaining to good clinical research practice in Australia. The ethics of research in children as a particularly vulnerable group will also be addressed. Part II will address important elements of research science and conduct. PMID:20726870

  20. Role of Research Universities in Health and Medicine. Go8 Backgrounder 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Universities have much to contribute to the improvement of health delivery, research, and teaching/learning. In progressing health reform, the Government should be mindful of the need to: (1) strengthen high quality medical research; (2) promote translation of research to teaching, population health and health services; and (3) address Health…

  1. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume II. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 10 papers on vocational education and training and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Research on Transition" (B. Clasquin, F. Gerardin, V. Toresse); "Objectives, Realisation and Organisation of Continuing…

  2. Measuring the Impact of Research--The Context for Metric Development. Go8 Backgrounder 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymer, Les

    2011-01-01

    Current economic conditions and the increasing competition for government funding are leading to an increased focus on the impact of research. Measuring the impact of research is difficult because not all impacts are direct and some can be negative or result from the identification of problems that require a non-research response. The time between…

  3. Research on technology of target real-time detection under sea-sky background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyun; Li, Yueqiang; Du, Bin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Optoelectronic imaging system which loaded on ships have several imaging channels generally. They can cover visible light (daylight and low-light), medium wave infrared and long wave infrared. To that systems have only two channels, visible light imaging is kept. In this paper, for the requirement of target real-time detection and classification under sea-sky background, image data from different channels are processed independently using Harris feature of targets and texture feature of background, then the result data from different channels are fused and compared to delete fake targets and interference from background, in order to reduce false alarm rate and improve the detection location precision. Based on the location relationship between targets and different type background (sky or sea), the target types are determined. For the rigidly requirement of system real time, multithread mechanism and big neighborhood processor are applied for parallel data processing, in order to reduce the processing time less than one frame time. At last, the experiment has been done on two channels system, approving that the method in this paper can improve the comprehensive searching performance of optoelectronic imaging system.

  4. Assessment study of infrared detector arrays for low-background astronomical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ando, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art of infrared detector arrays employing charge coupled devices (CCD) or charge injection devices (CID) readout are assessed. The applicability, limitations and potentials of such arrays under the low-background astronomical observing conditions of interest for SIRFT (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility) are determined. The following are reviewed: (1) monolithic extrinsic arrays; (2) monolithic intrinsic arrays; (3) charge injection devices; and (4) hybrid arrays.

  5. Etic and Emic: Research with Children from Socially and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the distinction between etic and emic approaches to research, which are defined as the study of human behavior from outside a given system (etic) and from inside the system (emic). These concepts can help researchers and practitioners understand the social and linguistic differences of children from varied cultural…

  6. Background, Structure and Priorities of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Cloninger, C Robert; Thornicroft, Amalia; Mezzich, Juan E.

    2015-01-01

    Declarations are relevant tools to frame new areas in health care, to raise awareness and to facilitate knowledge-to-action. The International College on Person Centered Medicine (ICPCM) is seeking to extend the impact of the ICPCM Conference Series by producing a declaration on every main topic. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research and to provide additional information on the research priority areas identified during this iterative process. There is a need for more PCM research and for the incorporation of the PCM approach into general health research. Main areas of research focus include: Conceptual, terminological, and ontological issues; research to enhance the empirical evidence of PCM main components such as PCM informed clinical communication; PCM-based diagnostic models; person-centered care and interventions; and people-centered care, research on training and curriculum development. Dissemination and implementation of PCM knowledge-base is integral to Person-centered Health Research and shall engage currently available scientific and translational dissemination tools such journals, events and eHealth. PMID:26146541

  7. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume I. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 12 papers on vocational education and training (VET) and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Stavros Stavrou, Manfred Tessaring); "Institutional Framework Conditions and Regulation of Initial…

  8. Backgrounder. Rethinking Science and Society: Public Survey by EKOS Research Associates. Canadians See Clear-Cut Benefits to University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Between August and September 2004, EKOS Research Associates conducted the first round of a study entitled, Rethinking Science and Society. The aim of this study is to assess Canadians' attitudes toward science and research, particularly since research and innovation policies have become increasingly important for the federal government. The…

  9. The Spectrumof the Cosmic Background Radiation: Early and RecentMeasurements from the White Mountain Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.

    1985-09-01

    The White Mountain Research Station has provided a support facility at a high, dry, radio-quiet site for measurements that have established the blackbody character of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This finding has confirmed the interpretation of the radiation as a relic of the primeval fireball and helped to establish the hot Big Bang theory as the standard cosmological model.

  10. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  11. How should we be determining background and baseline antibiotic resistance levels in agroecosystem research?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although historically antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely u...

  12. Functional abdominal pain in childhood: background studies and recent research trends.

    PubMed

    Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors' research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors' group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research. PMID:23248815

  13. Recent trends in humanoid robotics research: scientific background, applications, and implications.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jorge; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2010-11-01

    Even though the market size is still small at this moment, applied fields of robots are gradually spreading from the manufacturing industry to the others as one of the important components to support an aging society. For this purpose, the research on human-robot interaction (HRI) has been an emerging topic of interest for both basic research and customer application. The studies are especially focused on behavioral and cognitive aspects of the interaction and the social contexts surrounding it. As a part of these studies, the term of "roboethics" has been introduced as an approach to discuss the potentialities and the limits of robots in relation to human beings. In this article, we describe the recent research trends on the field of humanoid robotics. Their principal applications and their possible impact are discussed. PMID:21069592

  14. The research on infrared small-target detection technology under complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu; Huang, Zhijian

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detecting are described. Then, according to actual needs and the comparison results of those algorithms, some of them are optimized in combination with the image pre-processing. On the foundation of above works, a moving target detecting and tracking software base on the OpenCV is developed by the software developing platform MFC. Three kinds of detecting algorithms are integrated in this software. These three detecting algorithms are Frame Difference method, Background Estimation method and Mixture Gaussian Modeling method. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detecting targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. This paper is very significant in the application of the infrared target detecting technology.

  15. Integrating Research Methods into Substantive Courses: A Class Project to Identify Social Backgrounds of Political Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Steward, Gary Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a class project that combined an examination of social class and political power with an introduction to sociological research. The project consisted of compiling biographical profiles of cabinet members from the Ronald Reagan, George Bush, and Bill Clinton administrations. Introduces students to issues of conceptualization,…

  16. Initially Researches for the Development of SSME under the Background of IOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kun; Liu, Shurong; Zhang, Dacheng; Han, Ying

    The Internet Of Things (IOT) is proposed in the 1990s. The original intention has been put forward is people to things and things to things can deliver information like person as. IOT broke the human traditional thinking. This paper researches the practical function of IOT to expand the theory of Services Sciences, Management and Engineering (SSME). On the analysis of the key technology and model of IOT, the events-driven SSME model based on IOT, and the IOT framework based on SSME, it further studies the importance of IOT in the field of SSME.

  17. Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

  18. Navigating a Transdisciplinary Research Project with a Non-Traditional Academic Background: Climate Change, Soil Health and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP) is a collaboration of 150+ team members spanning a range of scientific disciplinary backgrounds. The project goal is to produce collaborative research, education and extension aimed at mitigating and adapting Midwest cropping systems to climate variability and change. My PhD work in Agronomy and Sustainable Agriculture is a part of the CSCAP although my prior academic background was in applied climate science and biology, thus proposing a potential challenge to the new academic landscape. Further, graduate students within CSCAP are a part of a natural experiment in how the next generation of scientists operates in a transdisciplinary environment. As part of my leadership in the CSCAP, I helped to develop a "roadmap" document outlining the learning opportunities available to students. This document was meant to underscore the skills and experiences that will aid us in future collaborative research projects. Through these leadership experiences, I believe that the underpinning of any successful collaborative research project requires time: to develop relationships, earn trust and develop shared understandings and respect for different academic backgrounds.

  19. Attention to Background Strain Is Essential for Metabolic Research: C57BL/6 and the International Knockout Mouse Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Danielle A; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2016-01-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) introduces its targeted constructs into C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells. However, breeding with a Cre-recombinase and/or Flp-recombinase mouse is required for the generation of a null allele with the IKMC cassette. Many recombinase strains are in the C57BL/6J background, resulting in knockout animals on a mixed strain background. This can lead to variability in metabolic data and the use of improper control groups. While C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J are derived from the same parental C57BL/6 strain, there are key genotypic and phenotypic differences between these substrains. Many researchers may not even be aware of these differences, as the shorthand C57BL/6 is often used to describe both substrains. We found that 58% of articles involving genetically modified mouse models did not completely address background strain. This review will describe these two substrains and highlight the importance of separate consideration in mouse model development. Our aim is to increase awareness of this issue in the diabetes research community and to provide practical strategies to enable researchers to avoid mixed strain animals when using IKMC knockout mice. PMID:26696638

  20. Research on infrared dim-point target detection and tracking under sea-sky-line complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu-xing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Target detection and tracking technology in infrared image is an important part of modern military defense system. Infrared dim-point targets detection and recognition under complex background is a difficulty and important strategic value and challenging research topic. The main objects that carrier-borne infrared vigilance system detected are sea-skimming aircrafts and missiles. Due to the characteristics of wide field of view of vigilance system, the target is usually under the sea clutter. Detection and recognition of the target will be taken great difficulties .There are some traditional point target detection algorithms, such as adaptive background prediction detecting method. When background has dispersion-decreasing structure, the traditional target detection algorithms would be more useful. But when the background has large gray gradient, such as sea-sky-line, sea waves etc .The bigger false-alarm rate will be taken in these local area .It could not obtain satisfactory results. Because dim-point target itself does not have obvious geometry or texture feature ,in our opinion , from the perspective of mathematics, the detection of dim-point targets in image is about singular function analysis .And from the perspective image processing analysis , the judgment of isolated singularity in the image is key problem. The foregoing points for dim-point targets detection, its essence is a separation of target and background of different singularity characteristics .The image from infrared sensor usually accompanied by different kinds of noise. These external noises could be caused by the complicated background or from the sensor itself. The noise might affect target detection and tracking. Therefore, the purpose of the image preprocessing is to reduce the effects from noise, also to raise the SNR of image, and to increase the contrast of target and background. According to the low sea-skimming infrared flying small target characteristics , the median filter is used to

  1. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children

  2. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program. PMID:25274417

  3. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  4. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian

    2015-09-01

    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  5. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  6. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Human Health & Support Systems Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikins, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps. Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  7. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Title of CRM Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps "Title." Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  8. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  9. Training in Europe: Second Report on Vocational Training Research in Europe, 2000. Background Report. Volumes 1-3. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    These three volumes comprise the background publication of the second report on vocational education and training (VET) research in Europe. The two parts of Volume 1 contain 10 papers; Volume 2 contains 11 papers in two parts; and there are 10 papers in the two parts and annex of Volume 3. In Volume 1 are the following: "Steering, Networking, and…

  10. CONTAINMENT RESEARCH--OVERVIEW AND BACKGROUND (REMEDIATION AND CONTAINMENT BRANCH, LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Containment research examines hydraulic barriers associated with waste fills and contaminated soil or sediment. For waste facilities, containment can manifest itself in several ways: (1) bottom containment, (2) caps and covers, and (3) perimeter containment/treatment walls.EPA ...

  11. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1857

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrolog...

  12. School Completion: What We Learn from Different Measures of Family Background. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homel, Jacqueline; Mavisakalyan, Astghik; Nguyen, Ha Trong; Ryan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how disadvantage affects educational outcomes, in this instance, Year 12 completion. While previous studies have found a strong link between parental education or occupational status and Year 12 completion, this research was able to capture a broader set of cultural, material and resource aspects of disadvantage. It did this by…

  13. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Decker, T. A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Garcia, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Garza, J. G.; Hailey, C. J.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Luzon, G.; Mirallas, H.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas detector of the microbulk technology. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a ~ 5 cm diameter, 1.5 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10-3 counts per hour in the energy region-of-interest and signal spot area.

  14. “We were treated like adults”—development of a pre-medicine summer school for 16 year olds from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds: action research study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Boynton, Petra; Lefford, Frances; Chopra, Nikhil; Dunkley, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop a one week widening access summer school for 16 year old pupils from non-traditional backgrounds who are considering applying to medical school, and to identify its short term impact and key success factors. Design Action research with partnership schools in deprived inner city areas in five overlapping phases: schools liaison, recruitment of pupils and assessment of needs, programme design, programme delivery, and evaluation. The design phase incorporated findings from one to one interviews with every pupil, and workshops and focus groups for pupils, parents, teachers, medical student assistants, NHS staff, and other stakeholders. An in-depth process evaluation of the summer school was undertaken from the perspective of multiple stakeholders using questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, and observation. Participants 40 pupils aged 16 years from socioeconomically deprived and under-represented ethnic minority groups. Results The summer school was popular with pupils, parents, teachers, and staff. It substantially raised pupils' confidence and motivation to apply to medical school. Critical success factors were identified as an atmosphere of “respect”; a focus on hands-on work in small groups; the input of medical students as role models; and vision and leadership from senior staff. A particularly popular and effective aspect of the course was a grand round held on the last day, in which pupils gave group presentations of real cases. Conclusion An action research format allowed us to draw the different stakeholders into a collaborative endeavour characterised by enthusiasm, interpersonal support, and mutual respect. The input from pupils to the programme design ensured high engagement and low dropout rates. Hands-on activities in small groups and social drama of preparing and giving a grand round presentation were particularly important. PMID:16495331

  15. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  16. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  17. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: General Background and Introduction of Capability. Roadmaps for Systems Engineering Cost/Risk Analysis. Agency Objectives. Strategic Planning Transformation. Review Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Review Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  18. Bringing genetic background into focus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clement Y

    2016-02-01

    Researchers should embrace differences in genetic background to build richer disease models that more accurately reflect the level of variation in the human population, posits Clement Chow. PMID:26659016

  19. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  20. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: Production and decay of the 73Ge*(1/2-) metastable state in a low-background germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H. Y.; Chang, H. M.; Chou, M. H.; Deniz, M.; Huang, H. X.; Lee, F. S.; Li, H. B.; Li, J.; Lin, C. W.; Lin, F. K.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, S. T.; Singh, V.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. C.; TEXONO Collaboration

    2008-07-01

    The 73Ge*(1/2-) metastable state decays with a very characteristic signature which allows it to be tagged event-by-event. Studies were performed using data taken with a high-purity germanium detector in a low-background laboratory near a nuclear power reactor core where the \\rm{\\bar{\

  1. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progesss on NASA's Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    General Background and Introduction of Capability Roadmaps: Agency Objective. Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Technology and Capability Readiness Levels. Relationships Between Roadmaps. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Team Progress to Date).

  2. Use of an Aptitude Test in University Entrance--A Validity Study: Relationships between SAT[R] Scores, Attainment Measures and Background Variables. Research Report RR846

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Catherine; Schagen, Ian; Wheater, Rebecca; Morrison, Jo; Whetton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In September 2005 the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) in association with the Department for Education and Skills (DfES), the Sutton Trust and the College Board, began a five-year research study to examine the validity of an aptitude test in higher education admissions. This report describes and explores the relationships…

  3. Background on the development of a nonfunded cooperative agreement between USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers, dairy record providers, breed associations, artificial-insemination companies, and the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, which is part of USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Beltsville, Maryland, have collaborated for many decades to provide the dairy industry with i...

  4. Creating High-Quality Health Care Workplaces. A Background Paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks' National Roundtable (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 29, 2001). CPRN Work Network Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Lowe, Graham S.; Rondeau, Kent V.; Schellenberg, Grant; Wagar, Terry H.

    Insights from a variety of research streams were synthesized to identify the key ingredients of a high-quality work environment in Canada's health care sector and ways of achieving high-quality workplaces in the sector. The following sets of interacting factors were considered: (1) the work environment and the human resource practices that shape…

  5. Pathways to Banking: Improving Access for Students from Non-Privileged Backgrounds. Research by The Boston Consulting Group for the Sutton Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The financial services sector is a vital and vibrant part of a national economy but it recruits from a small and relatively privileged segment of society. This report, which summarises research from the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), shows for the first time the extent of the challenge. The Sutton Trust's "Pathways to Banking" programme…

  6. Developing a research agenda for patient safety in primary care. Background, aims and output of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M; Verstappen, Wim; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wensing, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a supplement to The European Journal of General Practice, bringing together a body of research focusing on the issue of patient safety in relation to primary care. The supplement represents the outputs of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care, which was a four-year (2009-2013) coordination and support action funded under the Framework 7 programme by the European Union. Being a coordination and support action, its aim was not to undertake new research, but to build capacity through engaging primary care researchers and practitioners in identifying some of the key challenges in this area and developing consensus statements, which will be an essential part in developing a future research agenda. This introductory article describes the aims of the LINNEAUS collaboration, provides a brief summary of the reasons to focus on patient safety in primary care, the epidemiological and policy considerations, and an introduction to the papers included in the supplement. PMID:26339828

  7. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  9. National Research Council Dialogue to Assess Progress on NASA's Transformational Spaceport and Range Technologies Capability Roadmap Development: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelly, Darin M.

    2005-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the National Research Council's diaglog to assess progress on NASA's transformational spaceport and range technologies capability roadmap development is presented. The topics include: 1) Agency Goals and Objectives; 2) Strategic Planning Transformation; 3) Advanced Planning Organizational Roles; 4) Public Involvement in Strategic Planning; 5) Strategic Roadmaps; 6) Strategic Roadmaps Schedule; 7) Capability Roadmaps; 8) Capability Charter; 9) Process for Team Selection; 10) Capability Roadmap Development Schedule Overview; 11) Purpose of NRC Review; 12) Technology Readiness Levels; 13) Capability Readiness Levels; 14) Crosswalk Matrix Trans Spaceport & Range; 15) Example linkage to other roadmaps; 16) Capability Readiness Levels Defined; and 17) Crosswalk Matrix Ratings Work In-progress.

  10. [The practical theory of occupational health planning: Part One--The theoretical background of the target population setting and needs assessment procedures (OPST research report 2)].

    PubMed

    Jahng, D J; Hashimoto, H; Furuki, K

    1996-09-01

    The OPSS is an 8 stage program which was developed as a practical tool for occupational health services planning. This paper examines the theoretical aspects of the first two stages. The OPSS is a planning tool with a theoretical grounding in OHP (The practical theory of Occupational Health Planning). The target population setting has two functions. The first is to establish the physician's first-hypothesis to design a program. The other is deciding the group which has an occupational health problem in a company. The Needs Assessment helps to clarify the physician's hypothesis, which may be weak due to the limited knowledge of various demands of the employees and senior management. On the other hand, the risks and needs vary according to what kind of expert looks at a situation. To date, occupational physicians have been limited to their medical background in determining only risks and needs. However, understanding the various stakeholders in a particular environment means that any project will be more relevant to all concerned. Another limitation of the occupational physicians hypothesis can be the lack of objective data to support it. This makes it difficult to persuade senior management to sign on to a program. The Needs Assessment procedure with OHQ steps is useful in a number of ways. The Observation step allows for finding risks and needs from various situations in the company from the occupational physician's viewpoint (prehypothesis setting). Hearing is for understanding the subject's demands and finding common themes in the company (final hypothesis setting). Finally, the questionnaire step is for providing objectivity of these common themes and quantitative data for the next Priority Setting procedure. The BITOP (Budget, Information, Time, Order, key Person) has been proposed as a way to diagnose the structural and functional aspects of an organization's procedures. Budget tracks the financial flow through the organization, while Information identifies

  11. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  12. Relationships between the academic community and the pharmaceutical industry: the legislative background and its effect on spending on medical research and development.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J H

    1996-12-01

    Patent legislation governing drugs has evolved through a series of amendments to the Patent Act. From 1923 until 1993, Canada operated a system of "compulsory licensing," allowing generic copies of patented medicines to be manufactured within Canada and, by 1969, to be imported. In 1987, the act was amended (Bill C-22) to provide patented medicines with a fixed period of market protection before a compulsory license could be issued and to create a price review board to monitor and control prices charged. In return for patent protection, brand-name drug companies promised to invest a growing percentage of sales revenue in research and development in Canada. A 1993 amendment to the Patent Act (Bill C-91) brought a fundamental change to the legislation by abolishing the system of compulsory licensing and applying general patent regulations to medicines, thereby bringing Canadian law into line with that of its trading partners. It is now illegal to sell a copy of a drug until the patent expires (20 years after the patent is filed). This means that marketed drugs are protected for 8 to 13 years, since drug development takes a large proportion of the life of the patent. Since this amendment was passed, the brand-name drug companies have made major contributions to research and development in Canada, increasing from 6.5% of sales revenue in 1987 to 11.6% in 1994. Major irritants in the legislation remain. Generic drug companies have complained about "linkage regulations" that allow brand-name drug companies to legally challenge generic drug production on the basis of alleged infringements of linked patents, delaying the marketing of the generic drug. The act also prohibits Canadian manufacturers from exporting a generic drug to a country where it is not protected if it still protected in Canada. Brand-name manufacturers want some means of patent term restoration if regulatory authorities prolong the time taken before marketing a drug. This legislation is being reviewed by

  13. Meteorological Influences on SE U.S. Background Aerosol Variability: Multi-Year Measurements from the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research Facility (AppalAIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. P.; Krintz, I. A.; Zhou, Y. C.; Madison, B. F.; Link, M. F.; Morrow, H. A.; Perry, B.

    2013-12-01

    lowest during humid summer months. Inter-annual variability in the extensive aerosol properties is significant (especially in summer) and is less for most intensive aerosol properties. To further examine meteorological influences on regional background aerosols during the warm-season (highest DRF), aerosol optical and microphysical properties over multiple summers were binned by synoptic weather type (Sherdan, 2000), local meteorology (T,RH), and by source region. Vertical aerosol profiles were also categorized by synoptic weather type and averaged, along with vertical meteorological profiles obtained from 75 radiosonde launches made as part of an intensive June-September 2013 aerosol field campaign at AppalAIR. The observed dependence of aerosol properties, composition, and vertical distributions on local and synoptic meteorology and on season suggests that these should be considered when using prescribed properties of aerosols in the SE U.S.

  14. Diversity of murine norovirus strains isolated from asymptomatic mice of different genetic backgrounds within a single U.S. research institute.

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa L; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Bok, Karin; Prikhodko, Victor; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Rhodes, Crystal R; Hasenkrug, Kim; Carmody, Aaron B; Ward, Jerrold M; Perdue, Kathy; Green, Kim Y

    2011-01-01

    Antibody prevalence studies in laboratory mice indicate that murine norovirus (MNV) infections are common, but the natural history of these viruses has not been fully established. This study examined the extent of genetic diversity of murine noroviruses isolated from healthy laboratory mice housed in multiple animal facilities within a single, large research institute- the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIAID-NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, U.S. Ten distinct murine norovirus strains were isolated from various tissues and feces of asymptomatic wild type sentinel mice as well as asymptomatic immunodeficient (RAG 2(-/-)) mice. The NIH MNV isolates showed little cytopathic effect in permissive RAW264.7 cells in early passages, but all isolates examined could be adapted to efficient growth in cell culture by serial passage. The viruses, although closely related in genome sequence, were distinguishable from each other according to facility location, likely due to the introduction of new viruses into each facility from separate sources or vendors at different times. Our study indicates that the murine noroviruses are widespread in these animal facilities, despite rigorous guidelines for animal care and maintenance. PMID:21738664

  15. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  16. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  17. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  18. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  19. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  20. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  1. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  2. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  3. Adaptive background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Yijun; Chai, Zhi; Wang, Bangping

    2007-11-01

    An adaptive background model aiming at outdoor vehicle detection is presented in this paper. This model is an improved model of PICA (pixel intensity classification algorithm), it classifies pixels into K-distributions by color similarity, and then a hypothesis that the background pixel color appears in image sequence with a high frequency is used to evaluate all the distributions to determine which presents the current background color. As experiments show, the model presented in this paper is a robust, adaptive and flexible model, which can deal with situations like camera motions, lighting changes and so on.

  4. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  5. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  6. In Researcher's Background, Some Warning Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    When Robert D. Felner applied to become dean of education at the University of Louisville in 2003, he carried a genuinely impressive vita. But two of the most recent large grants listed on that vita could not have survived close scrutiny--and it isn't clear that Louisville's search committee scrutinized them at all. First, the impressive part:…

  7. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  8. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  9. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  10. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  11. Monitored background radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruel, C.; Larouche, M.; Donato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared (IR) testing of the Olympus thermal model has provided a capability to perform cost effective thermal balance testing of satellites and satellite components. A high-accuracy monitored background radiometer was developed for the measurement of absorbed radiation heat flux encountered during IR thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft. The design, development, and calibration of this radiometer is described.

  12. Background illumination simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Towry, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

  13. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  14. PROPHE Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    This paper describes the Program for Research on Private Higher Education (PROPHE), a program that seeks to build knowledge about private higher education around the world. The program focuses on discovery, analysis, and dissemination of information, as well as creation of an international base of trained researchers. The main mission of the…

  15. 32 CFR 770.54 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 770.54 Section 770.54 National... Hampshire § 770.54 Background. (a) Portsmouth Naval Shipyard maintains and operates facilities “to provide... assigned; to perform manufacturing, research, development, and test work, as assigned; and to...

  16. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology...

  17. Social Background and School Continuation Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mare, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a model of the relationship between social background and school continuation decisions among White males born between 1900 and 1950. The model predicts a decline in the effects of social background by the last school transition. Reprint available from Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. (AM)

  18. Social Background, Composition and Educational Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mare, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    Studies the impact of changes in family background on grade-level attainment for White males between 1907-1951. Findings show that the effects of social background on grade attainment decrease with increasing levels of attainment. Reprint available from Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706. (AM)

  19. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  20. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  1. Background of the workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

  2. Background of the workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

  3. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  4. Maritime infrared background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1996-06-01

    The detection of small targets in maritime infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of clutter. Sea surface structure, reflection and emission changes related to incident angle variations and surface effects are standard features governing the clutter behavior. Also special effects as sun glint and horizon effects play an important role for clutter. In order to optimize the detection process, quantitative clutter estimates are of use for filter settings. We have recorded a large amount of infrared backgrounds in the last few years, during common NATO trials. A large amount of different meteorological conditions took place during the various experiments. A first set of these data have been analyzed to obtain statistical data that represent the infrared scene. We have derived vertical temperature profiles, vertical fluctuation profiles, horizontal correlation coefficients and temporal correlation functions. In this paper we present the first analysis of these data. We are in the process of obtaining a condensed database of information to regenerate clutter images from bulk meteo parameters, and clutter parameters. The clutter and meteo parameters have been used to simulate various infrared scenes. Examples of this simulation process are shown in the presentation. The simulated images are statistically similar to the original images that were used to derive the parameters. A description of the image- generation is presented. Future expansions of the model are discussed.

  5. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  6. Background and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Don B; Fink, Aliza K

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal-recessive disease in white persons. Significant advances in therapies and outcomes have occurred for people with CF over the past 30 years. Many of these improvements have come about through the concerted efforts of the CF Foundation and international CF societies; networks of CF care centers; and the worldwide community of care providers, researchers, and patients and families. There are still hurdles to overcome to continue to improve the quality of life, reduce CF complications, prolong survival, and ultimately cure CF. This article reviews the epidemiology of CF, including trends in incidence and prevalence, clinical characteristics, common complications, and survival. PMID:27469176

  7. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  8. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  9. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  10. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  11. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  12. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1984-01-01

    This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

  14. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  15. Family Background, Ethnicity, and Urban Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    In a pilot study of about 400 public high school students in Chicago, four innovative approaches are employed to deal with previous research problems arising from the study of juvenile delinquency: specific, proximal measures of social background, multiple indexes of delinquency, anonymous self-reports of delinquency incidence, and parametric…

  16. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  17. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  18. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  19. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development. Youth Employment Policies and Programs for the 1890s. Background Analysis for the Department of Labor Employment and Training Components of the Youth Act of 1980. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Robert

    Prepared as a basic background document for an interagency task force on youth employment, this report analyzes youth employment policies and programs for the 1980s. The main body of the report consists of three sections. Section 1, entitled "Policy Perspectives on the Youth Employment Problem," contains a discussion of pathways to career…

  20. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  1. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  2. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  3. FAMILY BACKGROUND OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPP, JAMES H.

    FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF RURAL YOUTH ARE DISCUSSED. THE BACKGROUND PROVIDED BY THE FAMILY HAS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH IN AN URBANIZED, HIGHLY TECHNICAL SOCIETY. THE BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SOCIAL CHANGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL UNIT, AND THE ORIENTATION TOWARD LEGAL…

  4. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  5. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  6. Background Television and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

  7. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  8. Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance.

  9. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  10. MiniCLEAN surface backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Boqian; Schnee, Richard; Deap/Clean Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    MiniCLEAN is a dark matter experiment using 150kg fiducial mass of liquid cryogen (argon or neon) to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). MiniCLEAN seeks to detect scintillation photons from WIMP-induced argon recoils. A potentially dominant background is from alpha decays on the inner surfaces of the containment vessel. Such events can mimic the prompt signal characteristic of nuclear recoils. This talk will show the expected background rates, methods of background discrimination, and their expected effectiveness.

  11. Background suppression in MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jeffery L.; Beck, Larry W.; Ferguson, David B.; Haw, James F.

    Pulse sequences for suppressing background signals from spinning modules used in magic-angle spinning NMR are described. These pulse sequences are based on spatially selective composite 90° pulses originally reported by Bax, which provide for no net excitation of spins outside the homogeneous region of the coil. We have achieved essentially complete suppression of background signals originating from our Vespel spinning module (which uses a free-standing coil) in both 1H and 13C spectra without notable loss in signal intensity. Successful modification of both Bloch decay and cross-polarization pulse sequences to include spatially selective pulses was essential to acquire background-free spectra for weak samples. Background suppression was also found to be particularly valuable for both T1 and T1 ϱ, relaxation measurements.

  12. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  13. A Case Study of the Process of Learning Standard Written English: An Interactive Classroom-Based Action Research of the Influences of Students' Language Background on Their Ability to Learn Standard Written English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis-Wisseh, Ruth D.

    2011-01-01

    This case study, conducted in the context of an interactive classroom-based action research, has examined the process by which Language 1 (L1-native speakers of English) and Language 2 (L2-non-native speakers of English) students develop the ability to acquire the standard written form of the English language. The dissertation was designed to…

  14. Gravitino condensation in fivebrane backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2002-04-01

    We calculate the tension of the D3-brane in the fivebrane background which is described by the exactly solvable SU(2)k×U(1) world-sheet conformal field theory with large Kač-Moody level k. The D3-brane tension is extracted from the amplitude of one closed string exchange between two parallel D3-branes, and the amplitude is calculated by utilizing the open-closed string duality. The tension of the D3-brane in the background does not coincide with the one in the flat space-time even in the flat space-time limit: k-->∞. The finite curvature effect should vanish in the flat space-time limit and only the topological effect can remain. Therefore, the deviation suggests the condensation of the gravitino and/or dilatino which has been expected in the fivebrane background as a gravitational instanton.

  15. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  16. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

  17. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  18. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  19. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  20. Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

  1. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  2. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  3. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  4. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  5. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  6. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  7. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  8. Hot Universe Background Explorer (HUBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.; Ford, H.; Peacock, K.; Burrows, D. N.; Smith, B. W.; Bloch, J. J.

    1998-05-01

    The study of diffuse backgrounds has played an important role in the recent history of astronomy. From the microwave discovery of the 2.7 K background to the soft X-ray detection of coronal gas to the diffuse H2 emission from warm interstellar gas in our galaxy to the infrared mapping of wisps of dust at high galactic latitudes, diffuse background astronomy has provided fundamental insights into the nature of the universe. As the various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum have been explored, their diffuse backgrounds have been found to arise from the widest possible range of sources: from the local interstellar medium to the farthest reaches of the observable universe; from the wrinkled echo of the Big Bang to the million degree plasma between the stars. Most astronomers are ``point-source" astronomers, and the history of astronomy space missions is that few have been dedicated to the elucidation of the nature of the truly diffuse radiation. And yet a large fraction of the total electromagnetic energy in the universe occurs in the form of diffuse radiation. In some spectral ranges, we do not yet know the fraction of radiation that is diffuse; we are dealing with genuinely unexplored frontiers. We will describe the extraordinary science that can be obtained through a MIDEX mission that is dedicated to the exploration of the diffuse emission in the far ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum, where the diffuse radiation is dominated by emission from the hottest components of the interstellar medium and, perhaps, from the intergalactic medium. HUBE currently enjoys the status of being NASA's MIDEX Alternate Astrophysics Mission. We are re-proposing HUBE in the current MIDEX competition with a much broader scientific set of goals, aiming at a definitive spectroscopic survey of the diffuse background over a greatly-expanded spectral range. Our HUBE proposal effort is being supported by Ball Aerospace Corporation.

  9. Argon-39 Background in DUNE Photon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinev, Gleb; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a 40-kt liquid argon detector that will be constructed 5000 ft underground in the Sanford Underground Research Facility in order to study neutrino and proton decay physics. Instrumenting liquid argon with photon detectors to record scintillation in addition to the ionization signal can significantly improve time and energy resolution of the experiment. Argon produces light with wavelength of 128 nm. The reference design for the photon detectors includes acrylic bars covered in wavelength shifter, where the scintillation light can be captured and reemitted with longer wavelengths, then detected using silicon photomultipliers. Radiological backgrounds may noticeably deteriorate the photon detection system performance, especially for low-energy interactions. A particularly important background comes from argon-39 decays, because argon-39 is present in natural argon that will be used in DUNE and the background rate increases with the size of the experiment. The effect of the argon-39 background has been studied and is presented in this talk.

  10. DUSEL Ultra-Low Background Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan

    2007-10-01

    The Homestake Mine in western South Dakota has been confirmed by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as the site for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Many of the physics, geosciences, and microbiology experiments in the facility will be funded by DOE and NSF, and will benefit the missions of these agencies. In support of these programs, physics faculty in South Dakota and scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been working together to establish a multidisciplinary research cluster to provide baseline characterization for physics and geosciences/geomicrobiology experiments at the Homestake Mine through an Ultra-Low Background Counting Facility (ULBCoF). The proposed project utilizes two low-background germanium detectors with massive shielding underground to carefully analyze materials for low background experiments. Low background experiments such as double-beta decay, solar neutrino, geoneutrino, and dark matter must control the purity of all the materials used in the construction of a detector. Measuring such low counting rates is a very challenging task that will be best accomplished by primarily using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors.

  11. [Use of gold implants as a treatment of pain related to canine hip dysplasia--a review. Part 1: Background and current state of research regarding the effects of implanting gold in tissue].

    PubMed

    Deisenroth, A; Nolte, I; Wefstaedt, P

    2013-01-01

    Gold-bead implantation as a method of pain treatment in dogs suffering from osteoarthritic disease is receiving increasing attention in veterinary medicine. For the present article, publications from veterinary books and journals were collected and evaluated, together with related articles in human medicine. After providing an overview of the historical use of gold and gold compounds, the technique of implanting this noble metal is introduced. The reasons for establishing the terms gold acupuncture and gold (bead) implantation are described, considering the question whether and what kind of methodological differences exist behind these terms. Next, previous publications concerning the effects of gold implantation in tissue are summarised. In 2002 it was proven that gold ions are released from the surface of gold implants by a process termed dissolucytosis. Subsequent publications further investigated details about the interaction between gold ions and tissue as well as the distribution pattern of bio-released ions. Gold compounds were previously used for chrysotherapy in human medicine until medication with fewer side effects became established. The anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties of gold compounds were used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Current research aims to ascertain whether the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating effects of gold compounds are imitated by gold ions released from gold implants at a local level. In conclusion, the present review summarises important findings about the effects of gold implanted in tissue. However, further research is necessary to estimate the limitations and benefits of this auromedication. PMID:23608966

  12. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  13. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  14. Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Anne Grete; Dietz, Russel N.; Koffı̀, Ernest N.'dri; Nodop, Katrin

    Five studies of the background level of several perfluorocarbon compounds in Europe are here presented together with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). The tracers used during the two ETEX tracer releases were the perfluorocarbons (PFCs); perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C 7F 14, PMCH) and perfluoromethylcyclopentane (C 6F 12, PMCP). Their background concentrations were detected by using both passive and active sampling techniques, to define the spatial and temporal variation of the PFCs over Europe. Also the background variations of four isomers of the PFC compound perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (C 8F 16, PDCH) were studied. The results were compared to other PFC tracer studies in the U.S.A. and Europe. The mean and median values of the measured PFCs were found to vary slightly and randomly in space and time. They were found to be higher and to have a larger standard deviation than the measurements from the American studies. The background concentrations were still found to be low and stable enough for PFCs to be highly suitable for use in tracer studies. The following concentrations were found: PMCP; 4.6±0.3 fl ℓ -1, PMCH: 4.6±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ocPDCH: 0.96±0.33 fl ℓ -1, mtPDCH: 9.3±0.8 fl ℓ -1, mcPDCH: 8.8±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ptPDCH: 6.1±0.8 fl ℓ -1. A study of the correlation between the measured PFC compounds showed a significant correlation between most of the compounds, which indicate that there are no major PFC sources in Europe.

  15. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  16. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan

    Nearly global SAGE I satellite observations in the nonvolcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980 are used to produce a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model. Zonally average profiles of the 1.0-micron aerosol extinction for the tropics, midlatitudes, and high latitudes for both hemispheres are given in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. A third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set is used to derive analytic expressions for the seasonal global means and the yearly global mean. The results have application to the simulation of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  17. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  18. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    PubMed

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  19. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  20. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  1. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  2. Low Background Assay Results for LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Mallory, Kelsey; Thomas, Keenan; Lux-Zeplin Collaboration; Berkeley Low Background Facility Team

    2016-03-01

    The next generation dark matter experiment LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) requires careful control of intrinsic radioactivity in all critical detector components in order to reach its unprecedented target sensitivity to Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs): 2 ×10-48 cm2 at 50 GeV/c2. Appropriate material selection is essential to meeting this goal, and an extensive campaign of low background screening is currently being carried out using assay devices at the Sanford Underground Research Facility and the Boulby Underground Laboratory. We will present results from this work, including measurements for the Ti cryostat, PMT bases, PMT raw materials, PTFE, and other components. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231, and is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1106400.

  3. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  4. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  5. Confusion background from compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regimbau, T.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2010-05-01

    Double neutron stars are one of the most promizing sources for terrestrial gravitational wave interferometers. For actual interferometers and their planned upgrades, the probability of having a signal present in the data is small, but as the sensitivity improves, the detection rate increases and the waveforms may start to overlap, creating a confusion background, ultimately limiting the capabilities of future detectors. The third generation Einstein Telescope, with an horizon of z > 1 and very low frequency "seismic wall" may be affected by such confusion noise. At a minimum, careful data analysis will be require to separate signals which will appear confused. This result should be borne in mind when designing highly advanced future instruments.

  6. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Gasperis, G.; Vittorio, N.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales.

  7. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  8. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  9. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  10. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  12. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  13. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  14. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  15. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  16. BACKGROUND DOCUMENT ON CLEAN PRODUCTS RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept that products can be made "environmentally friendly" or "clean" has been attracting much attention. As yet, however, there is no accepted definition of what is meant by "environmentally friendly," nor any agreement on how to achieve clean products. The full report sum...

  17. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  18. The German Excellence Initiative: Update. Go8 Backgrounder 24a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    As described in "Go8 Backgrounder 24: Answering the Global Challenge--Experiences from European Excellence Initiatives," Germany began a debate about how to strengthen its position as an excellent location for science and research in 2004. This debate focussed in particular on the competitiveness of the country's universities and research centres…

  19. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  20. A Background in Science: What Science Means for Australian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Prior to this research little was known about the ways in which people draw upon their science backgrounds. An earlier CSHE [Centre for the Study of Higher Education] study for the ACDS [Australian Council of Deans of Science] examined employment outcomes and confirmed that many science graduates pursue careers outside scientific research. There…

  1. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  2. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Flores, C.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G.D.; Hall, C.; Hertel, S. A.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kazkaz, K.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D. -M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J.; Murphy, A. St.J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H.; Neves, F.; Ott, R. A.; Pangilinan, M.; Parker, P. D.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Shutt, T.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; O'Sullivan, K.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D.; Tennyson, B.; Tiedt, D. R.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L.H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  3. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore » and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  4. Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Background Radiation for Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Ricky; Blackmon, J. C.; Rasco, B. C.; Mumm, H. P.; mTC; NuLat Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Prior measurements of reactor antineutrinos have found a lower flux than expected. Precision measurements of antineutrino energy spectra are important for understanding the anomaly, reactor safeguards, and nuclear nonproliferation. Antineutrino detector designs rely on good characterization of gamma-ray and neutron backgrounds near the reactor core. To study the gamma-ray background at the NIST research reactor, spectra were collected using a 6.25 cm diameter × 5.5 cm germanium detector. We analyzed the measured spectra using simulations of the detector response using the GEANT4 toolkit to determine background fluxes and build a background model that will be used to understand shielding requirements and the impact of backgrounds on potential short-baseline reactor antineutrino studies at NIST. This work supported by the National Science Foundation and LSU.

  5. Image segmentation by background extraction refinements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

    1990-01-01

    An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

  6. The Background of PER People: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Laura

    2006-12-01

    Data from a survey given to about 50 PER community members were analyzed to determine the backgrounds of the members. The type of college attended, the type of graduate school, when they chose physics, when they chose PER, and other interesting background information will be presented. Also presented will be gender analyses of background differences. Remarkably little difference in background was found between men and women in the sample.

  7. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  8. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  9. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  10. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  11. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Background investigations. 556.4 Section 556.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES §...

  12. Research 101: Understanding Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way…

  13. Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data. With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise. Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the

  14. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  15. Automatic Background Knowledge Selection for Matching Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge. PMID:25379899

  16. Automatic background knowledge selection for matching biomedical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F; Couto, Francisco M

    2014-01-01

    Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge. PMID:25379899

  17. Spatiotemporal models for the simulation of infrared backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Don M.; Cadzow, James A.; Peters, R. Alan, II; Li, Xingkang

    1992-09-01

    sufficiently accurate mathematical model for synthesizing a similar IR background for different times of the day. Original and synthetic IR backgrounds will be presented. Previous research in simulating IR backgrounds was performed by Strenzwilk, et al., Botkin, et al., and Rapp. The most recent work of Strenzwilk, et al. was based on the use of one-dimensional ARMA models for synthesizing the images. Their results were able to retain the global statistical and spectral behavior of the original image, but the synthetic image was not visually very similar to the original. The research presented in this paper is the result of an attempt to improve upon their results, and represents a significant improvement in quality over previously obtained results.

  18. Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. PMID:25565705

  19. ASK For Information Retrieval: Part I. Background and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, N. J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and theory underlying a design study for an interactive information retrieval system funded by the British Library Research and Development Department which will determine structural representations of anomalous states of knowledge (ASKs) underlying information needs. References are cited. (EJS)

  20. Seeking Solution: High-Performance Computing for Science. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This is the second publication from the Office of Technology Assessment's assessment on information technology and research, which was requested by the House Committee on Science and Technology and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The first background paper, "High Performance Computing & Networking for Science,"…

  1. Expectancies vs. Background in the Prediction of Adult Drinking Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    Alcoholism research has independently focused on background characteristics and alcohol-related expectations, e.g., social and physical pleasure, reduced tension, and increased assertiveness, as important variables in identifying high risk individuals. To assess the utility of alcohol reinforcement expectations as predictors of drinking patterns,…

  2. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume VII - Background Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    Sixteen background papers presented to a plenary session at a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics are presented. The central task of the workshop was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's…

  3. Perturbative double field theory on general backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Marques, Diego

    2016-01-01

    We develop the perturbation theory of double field theory around arbitrary solutions of its field equations. The exact gauge transformations are written in a manifestly background covariant way and contain at most quadratic terms in the field fluctuations. We expand the generalized curvature scalar to cubic order in fluctuations and thereby determine the cubic action in a manifestly background covariant form. As a first application we specialize this theory to group manifold backgrounds, such as S U (2 )≃S3 with H -flux. In the full string theory this corresponds to a Wess-Zumino-Witten background CFT. Starting from closed string field theory, the cubic action around such backgrounds has been computed before by Blumenhagen, Hassler, and Lüst. We establish precise agreement with the cubic action derived from double field theory. This result confirms that double field theory is applicable to arbitrary curved background solutions, disproving assertions in the literature to the contrary.

  4. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  5. Color gradient background-oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    Background-oriented schlieren is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances by comparing digital images with and without a refractive disturbance distorting a background pattern. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high-contrast color transitions or speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern between the two images. Here, a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative that eliminates the need to perform a complex image correlation between the digital images. A simple image subtraction can be used instead to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. Gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data only limited by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Quantitative measurement of density in a thermal boundary layer is presented. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are demonstrated to allow measurement of two-dimensional refractions. A computer screen is used as the background, which allows for rapid modification of the gradient to tune sensitivity for a particular application.

  6. Color gradient background oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances through the comparison of digital images. By comparing images with and without a refractive disturbance visualizations can be achieved via a range of image processing methods. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high contrast speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern. Here a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative. The gradient background eliminates the need to perform an image correlation between the two digital images, as simple image subtraction can be used to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. This allows for quicker processing. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are shown. The gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data limited only by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Additional results include the use of a computer screen as a background.

  7. Why your practice must do background checks.

    PubMed

    Zupko, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Hiring qualified staff is critical for a medical practice. As many physicians have discovered, taking applicants' resumes on faith can be a mistake. Background company searches show that one in three applicants provide false, inaccurate, misleading, or incomplete information. Fake degrees, false licenses and certifications, and criminal histories are a few of the problems that a proper background check can reveal. This article describes further why background checks are essential, how to incorporate a background check into your hiring process, and some of the legalities involved in the process. PMID:17494489

  8. Comparison of Speech Perception in Background Noise with Acceptance of Background Noise in Aided and Unaided Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.; Burchfield, Samuel B.

    2004-01-01

    l, speech perception in noiseBackground noise is a significant factor influencing hearing-aid satisfaction and is a major reason for rejection of hearing aids. Attempts have been made by previous researchers to relate the use of hearing aids to speech perception in noise (SPIN), with an expectation of improved speech perception followed by an…

  9. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  10. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  11. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  12. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  13. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  14. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  15. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  16. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  17. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  18. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  19. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  20. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

  1. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  2. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  3. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  4. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  5. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  6. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 770.27 Section 770.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a)...

  7. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  8. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  9. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  10. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 236.4 Section 236.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCE POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: CORPS OF ENGINEERS PARTICIPATION IN IMPROVEMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role...

  11. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 763.3 Section 763.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe...

  12. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 763.3 Section 763.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of...

  13. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 763.3 Section 763.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of...

  14. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 763.3 Section 763.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of...

  15. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  16. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  17. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  18. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  19. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  20. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 1031.2 Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.2 Background. (a) Congress enacted...

  1. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1031.2 Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.2 Background. (a) Congress enacted...

  2. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  3. Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Background: Action Research about my 2nd grade classroom in the Buffalo School District. I examined three areas of interest and tried to find some conclusions related to behavior management. Purpose: The purpose of this study is how will implementing procedures, rules, and consequences help improve student behavior. Research Design: Descriptive;…

  4. Family Background and Academic Achievement: Does Self-Efficacy Mediate Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiser, Dana A.; Riggio, Heidi R.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates both family background and self-efficacy influence academic outcomes; however, family background also impacts self-efficacy development. The purpose of the current study was to establish whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between family background and academic achievement. Results indicated family background…

  5. Characterization and Prediction of the SPI Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Jean, P.; Knodlseder, J.; Skinner, G. K.; Weidenspointer, G.

    2003-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Spectrometer, like most gamma-ray instruments, is background dominated. Signal-to-background ratios of a few percent are typical. The background is primarily due to interactions of cosmic rays in the instrument and spacecraft. It characteristically varies by +/- 5% on time scales of days. This variation is caused mainly by fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field that modulates the cosmic ray intensity. To achieve the maximum performance from SPI it is essential to have a high quality model of this background that can predict its value to a fraction of a percent. In this poster we characterize the background and its variability, explore various models, and evaluate the accuracy of their predictions.

  6. Predicting detection probabilities for gas mixtures over HSI backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2009-12-29

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal image data acquired by airborne detectors is an area of ongoing research. This contribution investigates the relative detectability of gas mixtures over different backgrounds and a range of plume temperatures that are warmer and cooler than the ground. The focus of this analysis to support mission planning. When the mission is intended to collect evidence of particular chemicals, the analysis presented is this report can be used to determine conditions under which useful data can be acquired. Initial analyses can be used to determine whether LWIR is useful for the anticipated gas, temperature, and background combination.

  7. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  8. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573

  9. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-04-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  10. Holographic thermalization in a quark confining background

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, D. S. Aref’eva, I. Ya.

    2015-03-15

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact, a trapped surface formation. As the vacuum confining background, we considered the well-know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential and reproduces the QCD β-function. We perturb the vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of trapped surface formation, which results in a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain, we can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. We find that the dependence of the multiplicity on energy for the intermediate background has an asymptotic expansion whose first term depends on energy as E{sup 1/3}, which is very similar to the experimental dependence of particle multiplicities on the colliding ion energy obtained from the RHIC and LHC. However, this first term, at the energies where the approximation of the confining metric by the intermediate background works, does not saturate the exact answer, and we have to take the nonleading terms into account.

  11. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Stawarz, L.; Lawrence, A.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  12. ARCADE Detection of an Extragalactic Radio Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes when we look for one thing we stumble on something else. The Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE) was designed to measure the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background to search for spectral distortions related to the epoch of reionization. Instead, the July 2006 flight found evidence for an extragalactic radio background with amplitude six times brighter than the expected contribution from faint radio sources. The author discusses the ARCADE instrument and the evidence for an extragalactic radio background.

  13. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  14. Human vs model observers in anatomic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Abbey, Craig K.; Whiting, James S.

    1998-04-01

    Model observers have been compared to human performance detecting low contrast signals in a variety of computer generated background including white noise, correlated noise, lumpy backgrounds, and two component noise. The purpose of the present paper is to extend this work by comparing a cumber of previously proposed model observers to human visual detection performance in real anatomic backgrounds. Human and model observer performance are compared as a function of increasing added white noise. Our results show that three of the four models are good predictors of human performance.

  15. Optimization of background subtraction for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetsky, Larry; Boczar, Ross; Lee-Own, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of foreground objects in scenery via image processing often involves a background subtraction process. This process aims to improve blob (connected component) content in the image. Quality blob content is often needed for defining regions of interest for object recognition and tracking. Three techniques are examined which optimize the background to be subtracted - genetic algorithm, an analytic solution based on convex optimization, and a related application of the CVX solver toolbox. These techniques are applied to a set of images and the results are compared. Additionally, a possible implementation architecture that uses multiple optimization techniques with subsequent arbitration to produce the best background subtraction is considered.

  16. Sensitivity curves for searches for gravitational-wave backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, Eric; Romano, Joseph D.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a graphical representation of detector sensitivity curves for stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds that takes into account the increase in sensitivity that comes from integrating over frequency in addition to integrating over time. This method is valid for backgrounds that have a power-law spectrum in the analysis band. We call these graphs “power-law integrated curves.” For simplicity, we consider cross-correlation searches for unpolarized and isotropic stochastic backgrounds using two or more detectors. We apply our method to construct power-law integrated sensitivity curves for second-generation ground-based detectors such as Advanced LIGO, space-based detectors such as LISA and the Big Bang Observer, and timing residuals from a pulsar timing array. The code used to produce these plots is available at https://dcc.ligo.org/LIGO-P1300115/public for researchers interested in constructing similar sensitivity curves.

  17. Career Choices: Linguistic and Educational Socialization of Sudanese-Background High-School Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoss, Aniko; O'Neill, Shirley; Eacersall, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the linguistic and educational socialization of Sudanese refugee-background youth in Australia. The study focussed on exploring Sudanese-background secondary school students' career aspirations, motivations and obstacles. The research used a mixed-method approach including a survey conducted with students studying in six…

  18. Effect of background electrolytes on gypsum dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the dissolution behaviour of gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) in aqueous solutions is of primary importance in many natural and technological processes (Pachon-Rodriguez and Colombani, 2007), including the weathering of rocks and gypsum karst formations, deformation of gypsum-bearing rocks, the quality of drinking water, amelioration of soil acidity, scale formation in the oil and gas industry or measurement of water motion in oceanography. Specific ions in aqueous solutions can play important but very different roles on mineral dissolution. For example, the dissolution rates and the morphology of dissolution features may be considerably modified by the presence of the foreign ions in the solution, which adsorb at the surface and hinder the detachment of the ions building the crystal. Dissolution processes in the aqueous environment are closely related to the rearrangement of water molecules around solute ions and the interaction between the solvent molecules themselves. The rearrangement of water molecules with respect to solute species has been recognized as the main kinetic barrier for crystal dissolution in many systems (Davis, 2000; De Yoreo and Dove 2004; Wasylenki et al. 2005). Current research suggest that the control that electrolytes exert on water structure is limited to the local environment surrounding the ions and is not related to long-range electric fields emanating from the ions but results from effects associated with the hydration shell(s) of the ions (Collins et al. 2007) and the ions' capacity to break or structure water (i.e. chaotropic and kosmotropic ions, respectively). These effects will ultimately affect the kinetics of crystal dissolution, and could be correlated with the water affinity of the respective background ions following a trend known as the lyotropic or Hofmeister series (Kunz et al. 2004; Dove and Craven, 2005). In situ macroscopic and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted at a

  19. 32 CFR 770.37 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Naval Installations and Property in Puerto Rico § 770.37 Background. In accordance with 32 CFR 765.4, Naval installations and properties in Puerto...

  20. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  1. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  2. Anisotropies in the neutrino background: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo

    2006-12-15

    We update a previous search for anisotropies in the neutrino background using the new results from the WMAP satellite. We found that the new data confirm the indication for anisotropies in the neutrino background at about {approx}2{sigma} c.l.. Parametrizing the neutrino background through the viscosity parameter c{sub vis}{sup 2}, we demonstrate that current cosmological data provide the constraint c{sub vis}{sup 2}>0.145 at 95% c.l. We discuss the stability of the result when the assumptions of massless neutrinos and the number of massless neutrino families are relaxed. In particular, we found that an extra background of relativistic particles, still compatible with the data, prefers anisotropic stresses with c{sub vis}{sup 2}>0.09 at 95% c.l.

  3. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  4. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  5. The cosmic X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu A.

    1987-01-01

    The present knowledge about the overall spectrum of the isotropic extragalactic background of electromagnetic radiation is summarized. The role of the HEAO program is discussed. Spectral measurements from HEAO are examined.

  6. 2 CFR 225.15 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.15 Background. As part of the government-wide grant streamlining effort under...

  7. 32 CFR 3.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 3.2 Section 3.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS... CFR)....

  8. 32 CFR 3.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 3.2 Section 3.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS... CFR)....

  9. 32 CFR 3.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.2 Background. “Other transactions” is the... CFR)....

  10. 32 CFR 3.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.2 Background. “Other transactions” is the... CFR)....

  11. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr.; Trombka, J. I.

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  12. The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

  13. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  14. CORSIKA modifications for faster background generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jero, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    CORSIKA is a simulation program for extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic particles. These air showers create the majority of the muons and neutrinos which neutrino that telescopes detect and are considered a background signature in searches for astrophysical neutrinos. This contribution will discuss changes to CORSIKA which allow for faster high energy background simulation. The theory, implementation, application, and performance of these modifications will be presented.

  15. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean; Jordan, David; Kulisek, Jonathan; Stewart, Trevor; Seifert, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km - 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRlS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  16. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefański, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

  17. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Pablo A.

    2011-10-15

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

  18. BKGE: Fermi-LAT Background Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Vlasios

    2014-11-01

    The Fermi-LAT Background Estimator (BKGE) is a publicly available open-source tool that can estimate the expected background of the Fermi-LAT for any observational conguration and duration. It produces results in the form of text files, ROOT files, gtlike source-model files (for LAT maximum likelihood analyses), and PHA I/II FITS files (for RMFit/XSpec spectral fitting analyses). Its core is written in C++ and its user interface in Python.

  19. Background estimation in nonlinear image restoration.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, G M; van Vliet, L J

    2000-03-01

    One of the essential ways in which nonlinear image restoration algorithms differ from linear, convolution-type image restoration filters is their capability to restrict the restoration result to nonnegative intensities. The iterative constrained Tikhonov-Miller (ICTM) algorithm, for example, incorporates the nonnegativity constraint by clipping all negative values to zero after each iteration. This constraint will be effective only when the restored intensities have near-zero values. Therefore the background estimation will have an influence on the effectiveness of the nonnegativity constraint of these algorithms. We investigated quantitatively the dependency of the performance of the ICTM, Carrington, and Richardson-Lucy algorithms on the estimation of the background and compared it with the performance of the linear Tikhonov-Miller restoration filter. We found that the performance depends critically on the background estimation: An underestimation of the background will make the nonnegativity constraint ineffective, which results in a performance that does not differ much from the Tikhonov-Miller filter performance. A (small) overestimation, however, degrades the performance dramatically, since it results in a clipping of object intensities. We propose a novel general method to estimate the background based on the dependency of nonlinear restoration algorithms on the background, and we demonstrate its applicability on real confocal images. PMID:10708022

  20. Low background screening capability in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  1. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  2. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Youngsoo

    2010-05-01

    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  3. Study of Natural Background Radiation around Gurvanbulag Uranium Deposit Area

    SciTech Connect

    Enkhbat, N.; Norov, N.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Otgooloi, B.; Bat-Erdene, B.

    2009-03-31

    In this work, we will show the study of natural background radiation level around the Gurvanbulag (GB) uranium deposit area in the eastern part of Mongolia. We collected environmental soil samples from 102 points around GB Uranium deposit. Collected samples were measured by HPGe gamma spectrometer at Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia. The averaged activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, and Cs-137 were 37.1, 29, 939, and 17.7 Bq/kg, respectively.

  4. Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.

  5. The background in the experiment Gerda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

  6. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  7. The LBNL Low Background Facility - Services and Recent Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan; Smith, Alan; Norman, Eric; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Poon, Alan; Lesko, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at a recently established underground location (4300 m.w.e) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD (relocated from Oroville, CA). These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described in detail including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects. The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at a recently established underground location (4300 m.w.e) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD (relocated from Oroville, CA). These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic

  8. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  9. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Cuore Collaboration

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and Cherenkov radiation vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Quantum dot based liquid scintillator is similarly bombarded to produce a background induced scintillation light. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. These findings are extrapolated to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications to bolometer searches. Effects of these techniques on experiment duration and signal-background ratio are discussed.

  10. A review on natural background radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  11. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  12. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutronmore » background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.« less

  13. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    SciTech Connect

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutron background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.

  14. The homogeneity conjecture for supergravity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José Miguel

    2009-06-01

    These notes record three lectures given at the workshop "Higher symmetries in Physics", held at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in November 2008. In them we explain how to construct a Lie (super)algebra associated to a spin manifold, perhaps with extra geometric data, and a notion of privileged spinors. The typical examples are supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds; although there are more classical instances of this construction. We focus on two results: the geometric constructions of compact real forms of the simple Lie algebras of type B4, F4 and E8 from S7, S8 and S15, respectively; and the construction of the Killing superalgebra of eleven-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. As an application of this latter construction we show that supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds with enough supersymmetry are necessarily locally homogeneous.

  15. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  16. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  17. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. S.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2016-03-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  18. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  19. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  20. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  1. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  2. Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

    2015-02-01

    One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0γ ≈ 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0γ = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CνB) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the CνB with the induced beta decay νe+3H → 3He + e- using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

  3. Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

    2004-06-21

    In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

  4. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  5. Experimental limits of the extreme ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf-Mathies, C.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Schulz-Luepertz, E.; Kimble, R.; Bixler, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric observations of the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background with two photometers having bandpasses of 750-940 A and 1040-1080 A are reported. The payload, which was flown aboard an ARIES sounding rocket in June 1982, is described, including the electron detectors, filters, and calibration. The operation of the probe during the experiment, including its motions, are described. The primary experiment involved spectroscopic observation of the hot white dwarf HZ43. The photometer count rate is shown and the measurements of the diffuse background are compared with theoretical predictions. Despite the lower limits obtained using a narrowband detector, the measurements are not sensitive enough to draw any relevant astrophysical conclusions.

  6. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  7. Granularity of the Diffuse Background Observed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.; MacDonald, D.; Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Fabian, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    First results are reported from a program for measuring the field-to-field fluctuation level of the cosmic diffuse background by using differences between the two background positions of each deep exposure with the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) instrument on the Remote X Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With 8 million live seconds accumulated to date a fluctuation level on the 15-25 keV band is observed which is consistent with extrapolations from the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-1 (HEAO-1) measurements. Positive results are expected eventually at higher energies. Models of (active galactic nuclei) AGN origin will eventually be constrained by this program.

  8. Inhomogeneous cosmology: Gravitational radiation in Bianchi backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P.J.; Hellings, R.W.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Levine, D.I.; Zeldich, S.

    1982-02-01

    An exact formalism is developed for describing cosmological models with strong, long wavelength gravitational waves of general polarization propagating over backgrounds corresponding to Bianchi types I through VII. We introduce and discuss a new metric which exhibits the appropriate symmetries of two equivalent independent polarizations of gravitational waves. The formalism is applied to an empty type I cosmology, and it is shown how the original z-dependent chaotic singularity structure transforms itself into gravitational radiation propagating along the z-axis in a Bianchi I background.

  9. Inhomogeneous cosmology - Gravitational radiation in Bianchi backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.; Hellings, R. W.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Farhoosh, H.; Levine, D. I.; Zeldich, S.

    1982-01-01

    An exact formalism is developed for describing cosmological models with strong, long wavelength gravitational waves of general polarization, propagating over backgrounds corresponding to Bianchi types I through VII. A new metric which exhibits the appropriate symmetries of two equivalent independent polarizations of gravitational waves is introduced and discussed. The formalism is applied to an empty type I cosmology, and it is shown how the original z-dependent chaotic singularity structure transforms itself into gravitational radiation propagating along the z-axis in a Bianchi I background.

  10. Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background

    SciTech Connect

    Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M. )

    1995-01-01

    We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices.

  11. ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

  12. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND.... These measures permit the development of reliable indicators of threat at an early time in the...

  13. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND.... These measures permit the development of reliable indicators of threat at an early time in the...

  14. Psychological Adaptation of Adolescents with Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    2000-01-01

    Examines three theoretical perspectives (family values, acculturation strategies, and social group identity) as predictors of the psychological well-being of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Reveals that the perspectives accounted for between 12% and 22% of variance of mental health, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, while social group…

  15. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  16. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  17. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  18. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  19. 10 CFR 1022.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COMPLIANCE WITH FLOODPLAIN AND WETLAND ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.1 Background. (a) Executive Order (E.O.) 11988—Floodplain Management (May 24, 1977) directs... effects of any action it may take in a floodplain are evaluated and that its planning programs and...

  20. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  1. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  2. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  3. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  4. 16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background. As a result of numerous electrocutions which have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV... antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact with overhead powerlines....

  5. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  6. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  7. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. 32 CFR 701.56 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 701.56 Section 701.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  14. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 701.40 Section 701.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. Low-background trace-gas detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosengren, L.

    1978-01-01

    Spectrophone detects very small concentrations of trace gases. With gas in sample cell, laser is tuned to absorption line of interest. Molecular absorption in cell produces pulsed acoustical pressure at chopper frequency. Two optical paths with very different absorption lengths are used to pretune cell to balance out background absorption by cell windows.

  16. Educational Background in a Prison Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetland, Hilde; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Manger, Terje; Diseth, Age; Asbjornsen, Arve

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the educational background of the total population of inmates in Norwegian prisons. The sample consisted of all 3 289 inmates over 18 years of age in Norwegian prisons. The response rate was 71.1 percent. Ninety four percent of the participants were men and mean age was 35 years. A questionnaire…

  17. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  18. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  19. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  20. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  1. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking... participants over a broad geographical area. The exposure of such ongoing networks of criminal activity can...

  2. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  3. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  4. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  5. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  6. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 1406.2 Section 1406.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING... Consumer Product Safety Commission disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood...

  7. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... CFR parts 1500-1508, (“The NEPA regulations”). These regulations provide that each federal...

  8. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... CFR parts 1500-1508, (“The NEPA regulations”). These regulations provide that each federal...

  9. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... CFR parts 1500-1508, (“The NEPA regulations”). These regulations provide that each federal...

  10. 28 CFR 61.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.1 Background. (a) The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C... CFR parts 1500-1508, (“The NEPA regulations”). These regulations provide that each federal...

  11. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explaining the review procedures for these claims are published at 20 CFR part 727. ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  12. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by CWA section 501(e). The Administrator...

  13. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by CWA section 501(e). The Administrator...

  14. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by CWA section 501(e). The Administrator...

  15. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by CWA section 501(e). The Administrator...

  16. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by CWA section 501(e). The Administrator...

  17. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  18. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  19. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  20. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  1. 32 CFR 735.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 735.2 Section 735.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL REPORTING BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN COOPERATION...) policy is that military services will require their members to make official record of births,...

  2. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF... designates military commanders of Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defense Agency activities as having authority...

  3. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  4. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  5. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF... designates military commanders of Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defense Agency activities as having authority...

  6. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... explaining the review procedures for these claims are published at 20 CFR part 727. ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  7. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  8. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  9. Building Background Knowledge within Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the strength of literature circles in developing background knowledge--an acknowledged sticking point in the development of understanding for middle graders--with a special focus on the literature circle role of "investigator," where it is student initiative and not teacher direction that guides comprehension. Observing…

  10. 22 CFR 1501.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.2 Background. (a) The African Development Foundation (“ADF”) is a wholly-owned corporation of the United States Government, created by the African Development Foundation Act (title V, Pub. L. 96-533, 94 Stat. 3151 (22...

  11. Dim point target detection against bright background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Qiheng; Xu, Zhiyong; Xu, Junping

    2010-05-01

    For target detection within a large-field cluttered background from a long distance, several difficulties, involving low contrast between target and background, little occupancy, illumination ununiformity caused by vignetting of lens, and system noise, make it a challenging problem. The existing approaches to dim target detection can be roughly divided into two categories: detection before tracking (DBT) and tracking before detection (TBD). The DBT-based scheme has been widely used in practical applications due to its simplicity, but it often requires working in the situation with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In contrast, the TBD-based methods can provide impressive detection results even in the cases of very low SNR; unfortunately, the large memory requirement and high computational load prevents these methods from real-time tasks. In this paper, we propose a new method for dim target detection. We address this problem by combining the advantages of the DBT-based scheme in computational efficiency and of the TBD-based in detection capability. Our method first predicts the local background, and then employs the energy accumulation and median filter to remove background clutter. The dim target is finally located by double window filtering together with an improved high order correlation which speeds up the convergence. The proposed method is implemented on a hardware platform and performs suitably in outside experiments.

  12. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  13. Correlating Top Agency Success with Educational Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, William J.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether there is any correlation between successful advertising agency careers and undergraduate education. Finds that the educational tracks pursued by executives of the top 50 advertising agencies are so varied and remarkably evenly distributed that educational background appears to have little, if any, to do with success in…

  14. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  15. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  16. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a) Executive Order 11990 (42 FR 26961, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 121... inspection and copying from FHWA headquarters and field offices as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (1) There is... participation with title 23, U.S. Code, funds. (c) 33 CFR parts 320 through 330, Regulatory Program, U.S....

  17. Family Background Factors and Originality in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan

    Results from a study of family background variables as related to third graders' performance on non-verbal tests of creativity provide suggestions to teachers concerned with creating a climate conducive to originality. Sex did not differentiate the sample, but children from large, working class families appeared less original. This was also true…

  18. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  19. Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,…

  20. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  1. The ROSAT X-ray background dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plionis, M.; Georgantopoulos, I.

    1999-06-01

    We estimate the dipole of the diffuse 1.5-keV X-ray background from the ROSAT all-sky survey map of Snowden et al. We first subtract the diffuse Galactic emission by fitting an exponential scaleheight, finite-radius, disc model to the data. We further exclude regions of low galactic latitudes, of local X-ray emission (e.g. the North Polar Spur) and model them using two different methods. We find that the ROSAT X-ray background dipole points towards (l,b) ~ (288 deg 25 deg) +/- 19 deg in consistency with the cosmic microwave background (within ~ 30 deg) its direction is also in good agreement with the HEAO-1 X-ray dipole at harder energies. The normalized amplitude of the ROSAT XRB dipole is ~ 1.7 per cent. Subtracting from the ROSAT map the expected X-ray background dipole resulting from the reflex motion of the observer with respect to the cosmic rest frame (Compton-Getting effect) we find the large-scale dipole of the X-ray emitting extragalactic sources having an amplitude D_LSS ~ 0.9 D_XRB, in general agreement with the predictions of Lahav et al. We finally estimate that the Virgo cluster is responsible for ~ 20 per cent of the total measured XRB dipole amplitude.

  2. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  3. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  4. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  5. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  6. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES §...

  7. Italian Basic Course: Area Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplement to the Basic Course in Italian developed by the Defense Language Institute provides area background information on a variety of topics. They include: (1) housing and servants, (2) dining and a glossary of gastronomic terminology, (3) driving in Italy, and (4) relations with the police. The appendix contains material on: the Italian…

  8. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... take into account the need to mobilize the Nation's resources in response to a wide range of crisis...

  9. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  10. Precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Wuensche, Carlos Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    Precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) sample the entire history of the Universe. In this paper we give a short review, from the experimentalist point of view, of the current status and of what can still be done, using this extraordinary tool, to investigate cosmology and fundamental physics.

  11. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  12. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  13. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  14. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  15. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing support to...

  16. Model-based target and background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

    2000-07-01

    Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

  17. Background noise levels in PC home environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

    2005-09-01

    A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

  18. Family Background, Adolescent Coping Styles, and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schludermann, Shirin; And Others

    This study explored the effects of family background variables on coping styles, and the contribution of coping styles and locus of control to the overall adjustment of older adolescents. The objectives of this study were to develop a Canadian adaptation of the Seiffge-Krenke Adolescent Coping Style Scale; to explore the influences of family and…

  19. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Fixsen, D. J.

    2009-12-20

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

  20. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS §...

  1. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS §...

  2. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  3. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  4. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  5. Polarization enhancement of contrast in infrared ship/background imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A. W.; Lentz, W. J.; Walker, P. L.; Chan, P. M.

    1995-02-01

    During the MAPTIP (Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance) experiment series in Dutch coastal waters in October 1993 shore-based polarized infrared images were recorded of air (fixed wing and helicopter) and sea targets in sea and air backgrounds, including a number of vertically and horizontally polarized image pairs of the Dutch oceanographic research vessel Hr Ms Tydeman. Complete characterization of the environmental conditions in the measurement area will be available through other MAPTIP participants. These images show no significant polarization features in ship images (less than 5%) or in sky background, but a considerable degree of vertical ('p') polarization in the sea background radiance at low emission (near grazing) angles, which is ascribed to surface emission polarization. This phenomenon for all observed times of day and sun positions, and more strongly in the LWIR than in the MWIR. A horizontal polarization filter provided 10 to 20% ship-to-sea contrast improvement due to suppression of sea background, and enhances horizon sea/sky contrast by up to 15%. These results are consistent with our previous measurements of polarization in the sun glint channel.

  6. An Assessment of a Technique for Modeling Lidar Background Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. A.; Hunt, W. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    A high-fidelity lidar simulation tool has been developed to generate synthetic lidar backscatter data that closely matches the expected performance of various lidars, including the noise characteristics inherent to analog detection and uncertainties related to the measurement environment. This tool supports performance trade studies and scientific investigations for both the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which flies aboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The simulation tool models the lidar instrument characteristics, the backscatter signals generated from aerosols, clouds, ocean surface and subsurface, and the solar background signals. The background signals are derived from the simulated aerosol and cloud characteristics, the surface type, and solar zenith angle, using a look-up table of upwelling radiance vs scene type. The upwelling radiances were derived from the CALIOP RMS background noise and were correlated with measurements of the particulate intensive and extensive optical properties, including surface scattering for transparent layers. Tests were conducted by tuning the tool for both HSRL and CALIOP instrument settings and the atmospheres were defined using HSRL measurements from underflights of CALIPSO. For similar scenes, the simulated and measured backgrounds were compared. Overall, comparisons showed good agreement, verifying the accuracy of the tool to support studies involving instrument characterization and advanced data analysis techniques.

  7. Background correction using dinucleotide affinities improves the performance of GCRMA

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Fodor, Anthony A; Gibas, Cynthia J

    2008-01-01

    Background High-density short oligonucleotide microarrays are a primary research tool for assessing global gene expression. Background noise on microarrays comprises a significant portion of the measured raw data, which can have serious implications for the interpretation of the generated data if not estimated correctly. Results We introduce an approach to calculate probe affinity based on sequence composition, incorporating nearest-neighbor (NN) information. Our model uses position-specific dinucleotide information, instead of the original single nucleotide approach, and adds up to 10% to the total variance explained (R2) when compared to the previously published model. We demonstrate that correcting for background noise using this approach enhances the performance of the GCRMA preprocessing algorithm when applied to control datasets, especially for detecting low intensity targets. Conclusion Modifying the previously published position-dependent affinity model to incorporate dinucleotide information significantly improves the performance of the model. The dinucleotide affinity model enhances the detection of differentially expressed genes when implemented as a background correction procedure in GeneChip preprocessing algorithms. This is conceptually consistent with physical models of binding affinity, which depend on the nearest-neighbor stacking interactions in addition to base-pairing. PMID:18947404

  8. The cosmic mult-messenger background field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The cosmic star formation history associated with baryon flows within the large scale structure of the expanding Universe has many important consequences, such as cosmic chemical- and galaxy evolution. Stars and accreting compact objects subsequently produce light, from the radio band to the highest photon energies, and dust within galaxies reprocesses a significant fraction of this light into the IR region. The Universe creates a radiation background that adds to the relic field from the big bang, the CMB. In addition, Cosmic Rays are created on variouys scales, and interact with this diffuse radiation field, and neutrinos are added as well. A multi-messenger field is created whose evolution with redshift contains a tremendous amount of cosmological information. We discuss several aspects of this story, emphasizing the background in the HE regime and the neutrino sector, and disccus the use of gamma-ray sources as probes.

  9. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10-9 pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  10. Blackfolds in (anti)-de Sitter backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2011-04-15

    We construct different neutral blackfold solutions in Anti-de Sitter and de Sitter background spacetimes in the limit where the cosmological constant is taken to be much smaller than the horizon size. This includes a class of blackfolds with horizons that are products of odd-spheres times a transverse sphere, for which the thermodynamic stability is also studied. Moreover, we exhibit a specific case in which the same blackfold solution can describe different limiting black hole spacetimes therefore illustrating the geometric character of the blackfold approach. Furthermore, we show that the higher-dimensional Kerr-(Anti)-de Sitter black hole allows for ultraspinning regimes in the same limit under consideration and demonstrate that this is correctly described by a pancaked blackfold geometry. We also give evidence for the possibility of saturating the rigidity theorem in these backgrounds.

  11. Topology of microwave background fluctuations - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Park, Changbom; Bies, William E.; Bennett, David P.; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    1990-01-01

    Topological measures are used to characterize the microwave background temperature fluctuations produced by 'standard' scenarios (Gaussian) and by cosmic strings (non-Gaussian). Three topological quantities: total area of the excursion regions, total length, and total curvature (genus) of the isotemperature contours, are studied for simulated Gaussian microwave background anisotropy maps and then compared with those of the non-Gaussian anisotropy pattern produced by cosmic strings. In general, the temperature gradient field shows the non-Gaussian behavior of the string map more distinctively than the temperature field for all topology measures. The total contour length and the genus are found to be more sensitive to the existence of a stringy pattern than the usual temperature histogram. Situations when instrumental noise is superposed on the map, are considered to find the critical signal-to-noise ratio for which strings can be detected.

  12. A Detector for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, T.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary design and development work on polarized detectors intended to enable Cosmic Microwave Background polarization measurements that will probe the first moments of the universe. The ultimate measurement will be challenging, requiring background-limited detectors and good control of systematic errors. Toward this end, we are integrating the beam control of HE-11 feedhorns with the sensitivity of transition-edge sensors. The coupling between these two devices is achieved via waveguide probe antennas and superconducting microstrip lines. This implementation allows band-pass filters to be incorporated on the detector chip. We believe that a large collection of single-mode polarized detectors will eventually be required for the reliable detection of the weak polarized signature that is expected to result from gravitational waves produced by cosmic inflation. This focal plane prototype is an important step along the path to this detection, resulting in a capability that will enable various future high performance instrument concepts.

  13. Polarization observations with the Cosmic Background Imager.

    PubMed

    Readhead, A C S; Myers, S T; Pearson, T J; Sievers, J L; Mason, B S; Contaldi, C R; Bond, J R; Bustos, R; Altamirano, P; Achermann, C; Bronfman, L; Carlstrom, J E; Cartwright, J K; Casassus, S; Dickinson, C; Holzapfel, W L; Kovac, J M; Leitch, E M; May, J; Padin, S; Pogosyan, D; Pospieszalski, M; Pryke, C; Reeves, R; Shepherd, M C; Torres, S

    2004-10-29

    Polarization observations of the cosmic microwave background with the Cosmic Background Imager from September 2002 to May 2004 provide a significant detection of the E-mode polarization and reveal an angular power spectrum of polarized emission showing peaks and valleys that are shifted in phase by half a cycle relative to those of the total intensity spectrum. This key agreement between the phase of the observed polarization spectrum and that predicted on the basis of the total intensity spectrum provides support for the standard model of cosmology, in which dark matter and dark energy are the dominant constituents, the geometry is close to flat, and primordial density fluctuations are predominantly adiabatic with a matter power spectrum commensurate with inflationary cosmological models. PMID:15472038

  14. Ion Beam Scattering by Background Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillet, Anne; Hughes, Thomas; Boerner, Jeremiah

    2015-11-01

    The presence of background gases can cause charged particle beams to become more diffuse due to scattering. Calculations for the transport of an ion beam have been performed using Aleph, a particle-in-cell plasma modeling code, and verified against a general envelop equation for charged particle beams. We have investigated the influence of background helium on the coherence and transmitted current of the ion beam. Collisions between ions and neutral particles were calculated assuming isotropic elastic scattering. Since this tends to predict larger scattering angles than are expected at high energies, these are conservative estimates for beam scattering. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  15. The technical background to standards for shackles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorley, T. A. E.; Anthony, G. T.

    1992-03-01

    The technical background to British and international standards for shackles is documented in order to provide a reference for future drafting and revisions of standards. The following are discussed: the stress analysis of shackles, a test program for shackles, the work performed by a working group set up to rationalize the design of cage suspension gear, shackle design formula, the development of International Standards Organization (ISO) standards for shackles, and the development of revised British standards. Under the technical background to the revision of BS3032, the following are considered: marking, material and heat treatment, hardness, mechanical properties, form and dimensions, tolerances, and screw threads. The decisions upon which the revision of the BS3551 were based are described.

  16. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  17. Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

    2014-10-01

    Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ν B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ν B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

  18. Supersymmetric backgrounds and generalised special holonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We define intrinsic torsion in generalised geometry and use it to introduce a new notion of generalised special holonomy. We then consider generic warped supersymmetric flux compactifications of M theory and Type II of the form {{{R}}}D-{1,1}× M. Using the language of {E}d(d)× {{{R}}}+ generalised geometry, we show that, for D≥slant 4, preserving minimal supersymmetry is equivalent to the manifold M having generalised special holonomy and list the relevant holonomy groups. We conjecture that this result extends to backgrounds preserving any number of supersymmetries. As a prime example, we consider { N }=1 in D = 4. The corresponding generalised special holonomy group is {SU}(7), giving the natural M theory extension to the notion of a G 2 manifold, and, for Type II backgrounds, reformulating the pure spinor {SU}(3)× {SU}(3) conditions as an integrable structure.

  19. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-17

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10{sup −9} pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  20. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François; Savvidis, Ilias

    2015-08-01

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal 210Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  1. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

  2. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  3. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  4. Radio brightness distribution within cosmic background fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazhin, M. V.

    1985-08-01

    The angular fluctuations delta T in the microwave background temperature constitute a random process. Calculations are performed for the number of 'pips' above a base level that might be produced by primordial scalar density perturbations or gravitational waves. The flux density expected for typical pips is determined, as well as the mean solid angle subtended by a pip that would exceed a level three times the dispersion in delta T.

  5. Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

  6. 14 CFR § 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law 97-446 provided for the duty-free entry into the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background. § 1217.102 Section § 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES...

  7. Natural inflation in 5D warped backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Felipe, R.; Santos, N. M. C.

    2008-07-01

    In light of the five-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), we discuss models of inflation based on the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone potential predicted in five-dimensional gauge theories for different backgrounds: flat Minkowski, anti de Sitter, and dilatonic spacetime. In this framework, the inflaton potential is naturally flat due to shift symmetries and the mass scales associated with it are related to 5D geometrical quantities.

  8. Background light measurements at the DUMAND site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Matsuno, S.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Cady, D. R.; Learned, J. G.; Oconnor, D.; Mcmurdo, M.

    1985-01-01

    Ambient light intensities at the DUMAND site, west of the island of Hawaii were measured around the one photoelectron level. Throughout the water column between 1,500m and 4,700m, a substantial amount of stimulateable bioluminescence is observed with a ship suspended detector. But non-stimulated bioluminescence level is comparable, or less than, K sup 40 background, when measured with a bottom tethered detector typical of a DUMAND optical module.

  9. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  10. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2016-06-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of ˜2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (≳100″) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  11. Improving the EOTDA ocean background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Charles P.; Badzik, Gregory D.

    1997-09-01

    The Electro-Optical Tactical Decision Aid (EOTDA) is a strike warfare mission planning tool originally developed by the US Air Force. The US Navy has added navy sensors and targets to the EOTDA and installed it into current fleet mission planning and support systems. Fleet experience with the EOTDA and previous studies have noted the need for improvement, especially for scenarios involving ocean backgrounds. In order to test and improve the water background model in the EOTDA, a modified version has been created that replaces the existing semi-empirical model with the SeaRad model that was developed by Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Systems (NRaD). The SeaRad model is a more rigorous solution based on the Cox-Munk wave-slope probabilities. During the April 1996 Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments (EOPACE) trials, data was collected to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad version of the EOTDA. Data was collected using a calibrated airborne infrared imaging system and operational FUR systems against ship targets. A modified version of MODTRAN also containing the SeaRad model is used to correct the data for the influences of the atmosphere. This report uses these data along with the modified EOTDA to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad model on ocean background predictions under clear and clouded skies. Upon using the more accurate water reflection model, the significance of the sky and cloud radiance contributions become more apparent leading to recommendations for further improvements.

  12. Holographic Hall conductivities from dyonic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Jonathan; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Taliotis, Anastasios; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-07-01

    We develop a general framework for computing the holographic 2-point functions and the corresponding conductivities in asymptotically locally AdS backgrounds with an electric charge density, a constant magentic field, and possibly non-trivial scalar profiles, for a broad class of Einstein-Maxwell-Axion-Dilaton theories, including certain Chern-Simons terms. Holographic renormalization is carried out for any theory in this class and the computation of the renormalized AC conductivities at zero spatial momentum is reduced to solving a single decoupled first order Riccati equation. Moreover, we develop a first order fake supergravity formulalism for dyonic renormalization group flows in four dimensions, allowing us to construct analytically infinite families of such backgrounds by specifying a superpotential at will. These RG flows interpolate between AdS4 in the UV and a hyperscaling violating Lifshitz geometry in the IR with exponents 1 < z < 3 and θ = z + 1. For 1 < z < 2 the spectrum of fluctuations is gapped and discrete. Our hope and intention is that this analysis can serve as a manual for computing the holographic 1- and 2-point functions and the corresponding transport coefficients in any dyonic background, both in the context of AdS/CMT and AdS/QCD.

  13. Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2009-08-01

    Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

  14. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  15. Cosmological origin of anomalous radio background

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, James M.; Vincent, Aaron C. E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es

    2013-02-01

    The ARCADE 2 collaboration has reported a significant excess in the isotropic radio background, whose homogeneity cannot be reconciled with clustered sources. This suggests a cosmological origin prior to structure formation. We investigate several potential mechanisms and show that injection of relativistic electrons through late decays of a metastable particle can give rise to the observed excess radio spectrum through synchrotron emission. However, constraints from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, on injection of charged particles and on the primordial magnetic field, present a challenge. The simplest scenario is with a ∼>9 GeV particle decaying into e{sup +}e{sup −} at a redshift of z ∼ 5, in a magnetic field of ∼ 5μG, which exceeds the CMB B-field constraints, unless the field was generated after decoupling. Decays into exotic millicharged particles can alleviate this tension, if they emit synchroton radiation in conjunction with a sufficiently large background magnetic field of a dark U(1)' gauge field.

  16. Localised anti-branes in flux backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Gavin S.

    2015-06-01

    Solutions corresponding to finite temperature (anti)-D3 and M2 branes localised in flux backgrounds are constructed in a linear approximation. The flux backgrounds considered are toy models for the IR of the Klebanov-Strassler solution and its M-theory analogue, the Cvetič-Gibbons-Lü-Pope solution. Smooth solutions exist for either sign charge, in stark contrast with the previously considered case of smeared black branes. That the singularities of the anti-branes in the zero temperature extremal limit can be shielded behind a finite temperature horizon indicates that the singularities are physical and resolvable by string theory. As the charge of the branes grows large and negative, the flux at the horizon increases without bound and diverges in the extremal limit, which suggests a resolution via brane polarisation à la Polchinski-Strassler. It therefore appears that the anti-brane singularities do not indicate a problem with the SUSY-breaking metastable states corresponding to expanded anti-brane configurations in these backgrounds, nor with the use of these states in constructing the de Sitter landscape.

  17. Developing an Interest in Science: Background Experiences of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Mizrap; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on playfulness, science, and creativity suggests that there is a connection between having positive background experiences with science and the development of interest in science. However, there is little empirical research on where, how, and when teachers' interests in science develop. The purpose of this research was to explore…

  18. Introduction to temperature anisotropies of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2014-06-01

    Since its serendipitous discovery, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation has been recognized as the most important probe of Big Bang cosmology. This review focuses on temperature anisotropies of CMB which make it possible to establish precision cosmology. Following a brief history of CMB research, the physical processes working on the evolution of CMB anisotropies are discussed, including gravitational redshift, acoustic oscillations, and diffusion dumping. Accordingly, dependencies of the angular power spectrum on various cosmological parameters, such as the baryon density, the matter density, space curvature of the universe, and so on, are examined and intuitive explanations of these dependencies are given.

  19. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources). PMID:18213939

  20. College and Class Status: The Effect of Social Class Background on College Impact and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth

    This study used data from the national study of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) to investigate the impact of college on income, educational aspirations, and educational attainment for students from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds compared to those from high-SES backgrounds. The study was based on concepts of…

  1. More Efficient e-Learning through Design: Color of Text and Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufic, Janko; Kalpic, Damir

    2009-01-01

    Background: The area of research aimed for a more efficient e-learning is slowly widening from purely technical to the areas of psychology, didactics and methodology. The question is whether the text or background color influence the efficiency of memory, i.e. learning. If the answer to that question is positive, then another question arises which…

  2. Characterizing the Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanxia

    2015-08-01

    A salient feature of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) fluctuations is that their spatial power spectrum rises a factor of ~10 above the expected contribution from all known sources at angular scales >20‧‧. A tantalizing large-scale correlation signal between the residual Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) and CIB found in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) further suggests that at least 20% of the CIB fluctuations are associated with accreting X-ray sources, with efficient energy production similar to black holes. However, there is still a controversy about the sources that produce the excess flux. They could be faint, local populations with different spatial distribution from other known galaxies, e.g., intra-halo light (emitted from stars in the outskirts of local galaxies), or really high-z populations at the epoch of reionization that we know little of. Constraining the origin of the CIB fluctuations will help to establish our understanding of the overall cosmic energy budget.In this talk, we will present our plan to break down this controversy, current state of data collection and analysis.(1) We will combine the archival Spitzer/IRAC and Herschel/PACS data, with the Chandra data of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), to accurately measure the source-subtracted CIB and CXB fluctuations to the largest angular scale (~1-2 deg) to date. The newly discovered link between CIB and CXB fluctuations found in the EGS will be revisited in the COSMOS, which provides better photon statistics. (2) We have been working on cross-correlating the unresolved background with the discrete sources detected at shorter wavelengths (1- 2μm), using ground-based multi-wavelength observations. In addition to exploring the Pan-STARRS 3PI and Medium Deep Survey database, we have also been awarded the telescope time of CFHT/WIRCam and Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam for this purpose. The preliminary data analysis will be presented.

  3. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

  4. Dips in the diffuse supernova neutrino background

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Yasaman; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio E-mail: Sergio.Palomares.Ruiz@ific.uv.es

    2014-06-01

    Scalar (fermion) dark matter with mass in the MeV range coupled to ordinary neutrinos and another fermion (scalar) is motivated by scenarios that establish a link between radiatively generated neutrino masses and the dark matter relic density. With such a coupling, cosmic supernova neutrinos, on their way to us, could resonantly interact with the background dark matter particles, giving rise to a dip in their redshift-integrated spectra. Current and future neutrino detectors, such as Super-Kamiokande, LENA and Hyper-Kamiokande, could be able to detect this distortion.

  5. Cosmic-ray backgrounds in infrared bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, I. G.; Radostitz, J. V.; Carlotti, M.; Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.

    1985-01-01

    Model calculations for the production of cosmic ray events in IR detectors by energy impulses due to fast charged particles' ionization trails are presently compared to the pulse-amplitude spectrum observed from a balloon at an altitude of 38 km. The results are pertinent to the current understanding of cosmic ray backgrounds found in all high sensitivity bolometer applications. The observed signal transients are in all details consistent with the modeling of known cosmic charged particle flux characteristics and with the detector response. Generally, the optics design should minimize detector/substrate cross section.

  6. The far-UV diffuse background revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perault, M.; Lequeux, J.; Hanus, M.; Joubert, M.

    1991-06-01

    A new reduction is presented of the high-galactic latitude whole-sky survey obtained with the D2B-AURA satellite at 1690 A. This reduction differs in several ways from the previously published one (Joubert et al., 1983), especially by a correction for gain variations with time which had remained unnoticed in the first reduction. The existence of a correlation between the UV sky background and gas and dust is confirmed. There are no clear local excesses at large scale of UV radiation with respect to the mean relations UV versus gas or dust column densities.

  7. Global texture and the microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Turok, N. ); Spergel, D. )

    1990-06-04

    The metric perturbation produced by a collapsing knot'' of global texture in a flat background is calculated. This is used to calculate the energy shift for photons traversing such knots, leading to a prediction for the microwave anisotropy pattern produced in the global-texture scenario for large-scale structure formation. The metric is also used to calculate the velocity field induced in nonrelativistic matter, on scales well inside the horizon. This would produce an early generation of small gravitationally bound objects. At larger scales, the texture field would induce coherent velocity fields on a scale comparable to that seen in galaxy surveys.

  8. Coulomb field in a constant electromagnetic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear Maxwell equations are written up to the third-power deviations from a constant-field background, valid within any local nonlinear electrodynamics including QED with a Euler-Heisenberg (EH) effective Lagrangian. The linear electric response to an imposed static finite-sized charge is found in the vacuum filled by an arbitrary combination of constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields. The modified Coulomb field and corrections to the total charge and to the charge density are given in terms of derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants. These are specialized for the EH Lagrangian.

  9. Spectrum of the microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P.L.

    1982-04-01

    A review is given of the present status of measurements of the spectrum of the microwave background. Factors which limit experimental accuracy are discussed with particular reference to high frequency measurements. A selection of the available measurements yields a data set which is reasonably consistent with the blackbody spectrum for a temperature of 2.9 K. A simple statistical analysis suggests either that there are errors in the data set, or that deviations from a blackbody spectrum exist. The difficulties inherent in property averaging the results from different observers are described. Prospects for improved measurements will be summarized.

  10. Background knowledge in the early days.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the medical facilities that were available to the inventors of radiosurgery at the time when the technique was being developed. This is achieved by describing in brief the timeline of discoveries relevant to clinical neurology and the investigation of neurological diseases. This provides a background understanding for the limitations inherent in the early days when investigations and imaging in particular were fairly primitive. It also helps to explain the choices that were made by the pioneers in those early days. The limitations of operative procedures and institutions designed to treat neurological diseases are also mentioned. PMID:25376564

  11. Cosmic string collision in cosmological backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh; Khosravi, Shahram

    2010-06-15

    The collisions of cosmic string loops and the dynamics of junction formations in expanding backgrounds are studied. The key parameter controlling the dynamics of junction formation, the cosmic strings zipping and unzipping, is the relative size of the loops compared to the Hubble radius at the time of collision. We study analytically and numerically these processes for large superhorizon size loops, for small subhorizon size loops as well as for loops with the radii comparable to the Hubble radius at the time of collision.

  12. Ponderable soliton stars and cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    A theory is developed to describe the possible perturbations of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) by radiation from ponderable soliton stars in the early universe. Since the temperature of such stars is in the range of 10 to the 6th K, thermalization of their emitted radiation is possible. Two models are considered: one in which thermalization is ignored and one in which decoupling from thermalization is considered as a sudden process. The expected perturbation of the CBR is probably less than 1 percent and is largely around the short-wavelength end, in the form of point radio sources. This result is consistent with the most recent COBE measurements.

  13. Spectrum of the microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of measurements of the spectrum of the microwave background. Factors that limit experimental accuracy are discussed with particular reference to high-frequency measurements. A selection of the available measurements yields a data set that is reasonably consistent with the black-body spectrum for a temperature of 2.9 K. A simple statistical analysis suggests either that there are errors in the data set, or that deviations from a black-body spectrum exist. The difficulties inherent in properly averaging the results from different observers are described. Prospects for improved measurements are summarized.

  14. Spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Freese, Katherine; Levin, Janna

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background deviates from a pure blackbody; here, spectral distortions produced by cosmic dust are considered. The main result is that cosmic dust in conjunction with an injected radiation field (perhaps produced by an early generation of very massive stars) can explain the observed spectral distortions without violating existing cosmological constraints. In addition, it is shown that Compton y-distortions can also explain the observed spectral shape, but the energetic requirements are more severe.

  15. Signatures of a hidden cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-09-26

    If there is a light Abelian gauge boson gamma' in the hidden sector its kinetic mixing with the photon can produce a hidden cosmic microwave background (HCMB). For meV masses, resonant oscillations gamma<-->gamma' happen after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) but before CMB decoupling, increasing the effective number of neutrinos Nnu(eff) and the baryon to photon ratio, and distorting the CMB blackbody spectrum. The agreement between BBN and CMB data provides new constraints. However, including Lyman-alpha data, Nnu(eff) > 3 is preferred. It is tempting to attribute this effect to the HCMB. The interesting parameter range will be tested in upcoming laboratory experiments. PMID:18851438

  16. Reducing background neutron rates in NERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Eric

    2003-10-01

    The experimental study of neutron rich nuclei can provide important data to better model the production and abundances of heavy elements from the r-process. In order to measure low emission rates of neutrons in certain nuclei, efforts have been made to reduce background rates in NERO (1). Simulations were done to calculate effective passive shielding and testing was carried out to evaluate it. Also, an active shielding system was designed to detect cosmic ray muons in an effort to create a veto in the data acquisition. The results of these efforts are presented here. 1. http://www.nscl.msu.edu/tech/devices/nero/

  17. Beam Delivery WG Summary: Optics, Collimation & Background

    SciTech Connect

    Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Kuroda, S.; Seryi, A.A.; /SLAC

    2006-01-20

    The presented paper partially summarizes the work of the Beam Delivery working group (WG4) at Snowmass, concentrating on status of optics, layout, collimation, and background. The strawman layout with 2 interaction regions was recommended at the first ILC workshop at KEK in November 2004. Two crossing-angle designs were included in this layout. The design of the ILC BDS has evolved since the first ILC workshop. The progress on the BDS design and extraction line design has been reviewed and the design issues were discussed during the optics and layout session at the Snowmass.

  18. 'Microquasars' and the X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.

    1984-01-01

    The recent discovery of small active nuclei (via emission lines) in normal spiral galaxies greatly expands the range of the quasar phenomenon. By using the relationship between Lx and L(H-alpha) found in more luminous Seyfert galaxies and assuming that it holds for smaller active nuclei, a bivariate X-ray luminosity function can be calculated. This luminosity function fits naturally onto the higher luminosity X-ray luminosity function derived from the HEAO-1/A2 survey. The contribution to the X-ray background from small active nuclei hiding in large spiral galaxies is greater than 15 percent.

  19. Results on perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piringer, Martin; Baumann, Kathrin; Rötzer, Harald; Riesing, Johann; Nodop, Katrin

    Results of Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria are presented, which were taken at the beginning of 1994 in preparation for the European Tracer Experiment ETEX. Two very different weather regimes, a mild westerly current and a continental spell with easterly air flow, were chosen to comprise a variety of weather situations. The concentrations obtained are generally higher than those from prior experiments, but there is no systematic dependence on meteorological parameters; slightly higher values have been obtained during easterly flow for all components measured.

  20. The Dortmund Low Background Facility - Low-background gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden.

    PubMed

    Gastrich, Holger; Gößling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kröninger, Kevin; Neddermann, Till; Nitsch, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-06-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility is an instrument for low-level gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, an inner shielding, featuring a neutron absorber, and an active muon veto. An integral background count rate between 40keV and 2700keV of (2.528±0.004)counts/(kgmin) enables low-background gamma ray spectrometry with sensitivities in the range of some 10mBq/kg within a week of measurement time. PMID:27082973