Banerjee, Nilanjana; Ghosh, Prithwi; Das, Kalipada; Das, Sampa
Background Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is a 25-kDa homodimeric, insecticidal, mannose binding lectin whose subunits are assembled by the C-terminal exchange process. An attempt was made to convert dimeric ASAL into a monomeric form to correlate the relevance of quaternary association of subunits and their functional specificity. Using SWISS-MODEL program a stable monomer was designed by altering five amino acid residues near the C-terminus of ASAL. Methodology/Principal Findings By introduction of 5 site-specific mutations (-DNSNN-), a β turn was incorporated between the 11th and 12th β strands of subunits of ASAL, resulting in a stable monomeric mutant ASAL (mASAL). mASAL was cloned and subsequently purified from a pMAL-c2X system. CD spectroscopic analysis confirmed the conservation of secondary structure in mASAL. Mannose binding assay confirmed that molecular mannose binds efficiently to both mASAL and ASAL. In contrast to ASAL, the hemagglutination activity of purified mASAL against rabbit erythrocytes was lost. An artificial diet bioassay of Lipaphis erysimi with mASAL displayed an insignificant level of insecticidal activity compared to ASAL. Fascinatingly, mASAL exhibited strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria brassicicola in a disc diffusion assay. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of mASAL might be associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, a ligand blot assay of the membrane subproteome of R. solani with mASAL detected a glycoprotein receptor having interaction with mASAL. Conclusions/Significance Conversion of ASAL into a stable monomer resulted in antifungal activity. From an evolutionary aspect, these data implied that variable quaternary organization of lectins might be the outcome of defense-related adaptations to diverse situations in plants. Incorporation of mASAL into agronomically
Burger-Helmchen, Thierry, Ed.
Chapters in this book include: (1) The Psychology of Entrepreneurship (Melek Kalkan and Canani Kaygusuz); (2) Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Role of the Cognitive Variables (Jose C. Sanchez); (3) Do External Factors Influence Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination? An Evidence Based Approach (Ishfaq Ahmed, Muhammad Musarrat Nawaz and Muhammad…
Bashapoor, Sajjad; Hosseini-Kiasari, Seyyedeh Tayebeh; Daneshvar, Somayeh; Kazemi-Taskooh, Zeinab
Background Sensory information processing and alexithymia are two important factors in determining behavioral reactions. Some studies explain the effect of the sensitivity of sensory processing and alexithymia in the tendency to substance abuse. Giving that, the aim of the current study was to compare the styles of sensory information processing and alexithymia between substance-dependent people and normal ones. Methods The research method was cross-sectional and the statistical population of the current study comprised of all substance-dependent men who are present in substance quitting camps of Masal, Iran, in October 2013 (n = 78). 36 persons were selected randomly by simple randomly sampling method from this population as the study group, and 36 persons were also selected among the normal population in the same way as the comparison group. Both groups was evaluated by using Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) and adult sensory profile, and the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test was applied to analyze data. Findings The results showed that there are significance differences between two groups in low registration (P < 0.020, F = 5.66), sensation seeking (P < 0.050, F = 1.92), and sensory avoidance (P < 0.008, F = 7.52) as a components of sensory processing and difficulty in describing emotions (P < 0.001, F = 15.01) and difficulty in identifying emotions (P < 0.002, F = 10.54) as a components of alexithymia. However, no significant difference were found between two groups in components of sensory sensitivity (P < 0.170, F = 1.92) and external oriented thinking style (P < 0.060, F = 3.60). Conclusion These results showed that substance-dependent people process sensory information in a different way than normal people and show more alexithymia features than them. PMID:26885354
Gottikh, R.; Pisotskiy, B.; Plotnikova, I.
., 2006). The Phanerozoic sedimentary deposits are often found to contain black shale formations and the zones of carbon metasomatism with the gold and platinum mineralisation and the isotopes that indicate the presence of the mantle components. Such formations are believed to be due to the deep dry reduced gas emissions into the upper crustal strata. Strontium isotopic ratios provide another piece of evidence that oil has no relation to the «producing» sedimentary material. Strontium isotopic systems and neodymium in petroleum and carbonic rocks were evolved in different ways, and naphthoids of the Melekes trough and the central part of the South Tatarstan Arch had different sources of microelements. Diagrams of eNd-87Sr/86Sr, used to identify the zones of magmatic accumulation in the crust, have shown that microelements found in petroleum might have their sources in magmas of varying composition, in active zones of the lower-crust substratum and in the mantle. Geochemical features of the mantle fluid relics sealed in diamonds and those of the oil-producing systems have been found to be fully identical. The fluids that affect the lithosphere extract microelements out of the matrix and take part in oil formation must have themselves been formed at a great depth at low fO2. Geophysical data have also confirmed that gas systems reached the upper mantle and earth's crust to undergo polymerization and polycondensation.
that are substantially different in concentration from those from the uppermost portion of the basement. Their total salinity is 289 g/l. The water-dissolved gas of the upper portion of the basement contains methane and nitrogen. The waters of the crystalline basement are characterised by significant concentrations (by carbon) of the water-dissolved organic matter including phenols, nitric components, etc. Bitumen of the fractured zones of the crystalline basement mainly contains hydrocarbons with C14 to C33, occasionally - with C9. A range of hydrocarbons becomes wider in the zones of cataclasm and mylonization. Geophysical and geological investigations have indicated numerous reservoir zones in crystalline basement bearing the traces of bitumen and fluids enriched with the dissolved hydrocarbon gases. The crystalline rocks studies mainly consisted of the analyses of deep fluids containing the dissolved gases and a monitoring of their composition conducted over several years. As a result, spatial distribution of reservoirs has been determined. The crystalline basement of the South Tatarstan Arch and Melekes trough have been found to contain bitumen with a high uranium content in microfractures (Muslimov & Lapinskaya, 1996). Gas chromatography and polished sections studies have shown that the rocks affected by reducing fluids have a maximum hydrocarbon content. Gas components are mainly represented by methane, its homologs and minor amounts of unsaturated compounds.
Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill; Akhmanov, Grigory; Vasilyev, Roman; Čapek, Pavel; Karsanina, Marina; Nadezhkin, Dmitry
Hydrocarbons (HC) are generated from solid organic matter (kerogen) due to thermocatalytic reactions. The rate of such reactions shows direct correlation with temperature and depends on the depth of source rock burial. Burial of sedimentary rock is also inevitably accompanied by its structural alteration owing to compaction, dehydration and re-crystallization. Processes of HC generation, primary migration and structural changes are inaccessible for direct observation in nature, but they can be studied in laboratory experiments. Modern technical facilities of laboratories make it possible to carry out experiments on HC generation from the organic-rich rocks at a completely new level (Kobchenko et al., 2011). Some new technologies, including X-ray microtomography and pore-scale modeling, allow us to carry out a step-by-step description of such processes and their development, and to study their reflection in alterations of rock structure. Experiments were carried out with a clayey-carbonate rock sample of the Domanic Formaition taken at a depth of 1939 m from borehole drilled in the central part of the Melekes depression (West Tatar arch, Russia). The rock chosen fits the very essential requirements for studying HC generation under laboratory conditions - high organic matter content and its low metamorphic grade. Our work aimed such a study in an undisturbed rock sample by heating it in nitrogen atmosphere based on a specified temperature regime in a RockEval6 analyzer and monitoring alterations in the pore space structure. Observations were carried out with a SkyScan-1172 X-ray microtomography scanner (resulting scan resolution of 1 µm). A cylinder, 4 mm in diameter, was prepared from the rock sample for the pyrolitic and microtomographic analyses. Scanning procedures were carried out in 5 runs. Temperature interval for each run had to match the most important stage of HC generation in the source rock, namely: (1) original structure; (2) 100-300˚? - discharge of