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Sample records for kuts kaimo vahter

  1. AmeriFlux US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field. Site Description - The site was a low-maintenace lawn consisting of cool-season turfgrasses, typical of residential lawns or urban parks in the study area. It was mowed to a height of 70 mm approximately once per week with clippings left to decompose on the surface, was not irrigated, and received one application of inorganic N fertilizer per year. The surrounding suburban residential neighborhood experienced rapid residential development in the 1950s; prior to that time, farms and nurseries were the predominant land-use types. Note that the land management of the field site changed (removal of the turfgrass lawn and planting of trees) AFTER the flux study was completed--this means that imagery after 2009 does not show the land conditions during the flux study.

  2. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  3. The KUT meteor radar: An educational low cost meteor observation system by radio forward scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.

  4. Conditions of Reception: The Strange Case of "Mons, Anzac, and Kut."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Russell A.

    This paper discusses an Owen Wister poem published in 1920 in "The Atlantic Monthly" and brought to the attention of a university class without any information as to its context or its references, and read in various ways by various individuals, as information about the poem's context was gradually discovered. The central issue explored in the…

  5. To What Extent Do We Hear Phonemic Contrasts in a Non-Native Regional Variety? Tracking the Dynamics of Perceptual Processing with EEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Nguyen, Noel

    2013-01-01

    This combined ERP and behavioral experiment explores the dynamics of processing during the discrimination of vowels in a non-native regional variety. Southern listeners were presented with three word forms, two of which are encountered in both Standard and Southern French ([kot] and [kut]), whereas the third one exists in Standard but not Southern…

  6. Live Iron-60 in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1993-02-01

    Isotopic analyses of nickel in samples from the differentiated meteorite Chervony Kut revealed the presence of relative excesses of Ni-60 ranging from 2.4 up to 50 parts per 10 exp 4. These isotopic excesses are from the decay of the now extinct short-lived nuclide Fe-60 and provide clear evidence for the existence of Fe-60 over large scales in the early solar system. Not only was Fe-60 present at the time of melting and differentiation (that is, Fe-Ni fractionation) of the parent body of Chervony Kut but also later at the time when basaltic magma solidified at or near the surface of the planetesimal. The inferred abundance of Fe-60 suggests that its decay alone could have provided sufficient heat to melt small (diameters of several hundred kilometers) planetary bodies shortly after their accretion.

  7. On bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions and quadrature formulas for periodic integrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Barroso, Ruymán; González-Vera, Pablo; Njåstad, Olav

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, quadrature formulas with an arbitrary number of nodes and exactly integrating trigonometric polynomials up to degree as high as possible are constructed in order to approximate 2?-periodic weighted integralsE For this purpose, certain bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions are introduced and their most relevant properties studied. Some illustrative numerical examples are also given. The paper completes the results previously given by Szeg? in Magy Tud Akad Mat Kut Intez K?zl 8:255?273, 1963 and by some of the authors in Annales Mathematicae et Informaticae 32:5?44, 2005.

  8. Serogroup, virulence, and molecular traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from clinical and cockle sources in northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mala, Wanida; Alam, Munirul; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Wongwajana, Suwin; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Huttayananont, Sriwanna; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Faksri, Kiatichai; Chomvarin, Chariya

    2016-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is responsible for seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Isolates of V. parahaemolyticus from clinical samples (n=74) and cockles (Anadara granosa) (n=74) in Thailand were analyzed by serotyping, determination of virulence and related marker genes present, response to antimicrobial agents, and genetic relatedness. Serological analysis revealed 31 different serotypes, 10 of which occurred among both clinical and cockle samples. The clinical isolates commonly included the pandemic serogroup O3:K6, while a few of the cockle isolates exhibited likely pandemic serovariants such as O3:KUT and O4:KUT, but not O3:K6. The pandemic (orf8 gene-positive) strains were more frequently found among clinical isolates (78.4%) than cockle isolates (28.4%) (p<0.001). Likewise, the virulence and related marker genes were more commonly detected among clinical than cockle isolates; i.e., tdh gene (93.2% versus 29.7%), vcrD2 (97.3% versus 23.0%), vopB2 (89.2% versus 13.5%), vopT (98.6% versus 36.5%) (all p<0.001) and trh (10.8% versus 1.4%) (p<0.05). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of NotI-digested genomic DNA of 41 randomly selected V. parahaemolyticus isolates representing different serotypes produced 33 pulsotypes that formed 5 different clusters (clonal complexes) (A-E) in a dendrogram. Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and likely related pandemic serotypes were especially common among the numerous clinical isolates in cluster C, suggesting a close clonal link among many of these isolates. Most clinical and cockle isolates were resistant to ampicillin. This study indicates that O3:K6 and its likely serovariants based on the PFGE clusters, are causative agents. Seafoods such as cockles potentially serve as a source of virulent V. parahaemolyticus, but further work is required to identify possible additional sources. PMID:26773828

  9. Trends in the Epidemiology of Pandemic and Non-pandemic Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Diarrheal Patients in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Bhowmik, Sushanta K.; Ghosh, Santanu; Guin, Sucharita; Dutta, Sanjucta; Rajendran, Krishnan; Saha, Dhira Rani; Nandy, Ranjan K.; Bhattacharya, Mihir K.; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2014-01-01

    A total of 178 strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from 13,607 acute diarrheal patients admitted in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata has been examined for serovar prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic traits with reference to virulence, and clonal lineages. Clinical symptoms and stool characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus infected patients were analyzed for their specific traits. The frequency of pandemic strains was 68%, as confirmed by group-specific PCR (GS-PCR). However, the prevalence of non-pandemic strains was comparatively low (32%). Serovars O3:K6 (19.7%), O1:K25 (18.5%), O1:KUT (11.2%) were more commonly found and other serovars such as O3:KUT (6.7%), O4:K8 (6.7%), and O2:K3 (4.5%) were newly detected in this region. The virulence gene tdh was most frequently detected in GS-PCR positive strains. There was no association between strain features and stool characteristics or clinical outcomes with reference to serovar, pandemic/non-pandemic or virulence profiles. Ampicillin and streptomycin resistance was constant throughout the study period and the MIC of ampicillin among selected strains ranged from 24 to >256 µg/ml. Susceptibility of these strains to ampicillin increased several fold in the presence of carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyldrazone. The newly reported ESBL encoding gene from VPA0477 was found in all the strains, including the susceptible ones for ampicillin. However, none of the strains exhibited the β-lactamase as a phenotypic marker. In the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the pandemic strains formed two different clades, with one containing the newly emerged pandemic strains in this region. PMID:24786538

  10. Biochemical, serological, and virulence characterization of clinical and oyster Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jessica L; Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Bowers, John C; Garrett, Nancy; Fischer, Markus; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl A; DePaola, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    In this study, 77 clinical and 67 oyster Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from North America were examined for biochemical profiles, serotype, and the presence of potential virulence factors (tdh, trh, and type III secretion system [T3SS] genes). All isolates were positive for oxidase, indole, and glucose fermentation, consistent with previous reports. The isolates represented 35 different serotypes, 9 of which were shared by clinical and oyster isolates. Serotypes associated with pandemic strains (O1:KUT, O1:K25, O3:K6, and O4:K68) were observed for clinical isolates, and 7 (9%) oyster isolates belonged to serotype O1:KUT. Of the clinical isolates, 27% were negative for tdh and trh, while 45% contained both genes. Oyster isolates were preferentially selected for the presence of tdh and/or trh; 34% contained both genes, 42% had trh but not tdh, and 3% had tdh but not trh. All but 1 isolate (143/144) had at least three of the four T3SS1 genes examined. The isolates lacking both tdh and trh contained no T3SS2α or T3SS2β genes. All clinical isolates positive for tdh and negative for trh possessed all T3SS2α genes, and all isolates negative for tdh and positive for trh possessed all T3SS2β genes. The two oyster isolates containing tdh but not trh possessed all but the vopB2 gene of T3SS2α, as reported previously. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, all strains examined that were positive for both tdh and trh also carried T3SS2β genes. This report identifies the serotype as the most distinguishing feature between clinical and oyster isolates. Our findings raise concerns about the reliability of the tdh, trh, and T3SS genes as virulence markers and highlight the need for more-detailed pathogenicity investigations of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:22535979

  11. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M.; Martinez-Garcia, J. Javier; Vidal, Jorge E.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004–2010) to 22.93% (2011–2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  12. Tle Triangulation Campaign by Japanese High School Students as a Space Educational Project of the Ssh Consortium Kochi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Okamoto, Sumito; Miyoshi, Terunori; Takamura, Yuzaburo; Aoshima, Akira; Hinokuchi, Jin

    As one of the space educational projects in Japan, a triangulation observation project of TLE (Transient Luminous Events: sprites, elves, blue-jets, etc.) has been carried out since 2006 in collaboration between 29 Super Science High-schools (SSH) and Kochi University of Technol-ogy (KUT). Following with previous success of sprite observations by "Astro High-school" since 2004, the SSH consortium Kochi was established as a national space educational project sup-ported by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). High-sensitivity CCD camera (Watec, Neptune-100) with 6 mm F/1.4 C-mount lens (Fujinon) and motion-detective software (UFO-Capture, SonotaCo) were given to each participating team in order to monitor Northern night sky of Japan with almost full-coverage. During each school year (from April to March in Japan) since 2006, thousands of TLE images were taken by many student teams, with considerably large numbers of successful triangulations, i.e., (School year, Numbers of TLE observations, Numbers of triangulations) are (2006, 43, 3), (2007, 441, 95), (2008, 734, 115), and (2009, 337, 78). Note that, school year in Japan begins on April 1 and ends on March 31. The observation campaign began in December 2006, numbers are as of Feb. 28, 2010. Recently, some high schools started wide field observations using multiple cameras, and others started VLF observations using handmade loop antennae and amplifiers. Infomation exchange among the SSH consortium Kochi is frequently communicated with scientific discussion via KUT's mailing lists. Also, interactions with amateur observers in Japan are made through an internet forum of "SonotaCo Network Japan" (http://sonotaco.jp). Not only as an educational project but also as a scientific one, the project is also in success. In February 2008, simultaneous observations of Elves were obtained, in November 2009 a Giant "Graft-shaped" Sprites driven by Jets was clearly imaged with VLF signals. Most recently, ob-servations of Elves

  13. 65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )

    1990-09-11

    The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

  14. A low cost meteor observation system using radio forward scattering and the interferometry technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madkour, Waleed; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Mizumoto, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    We present a low cost meteor observation system based on the radio forward scattering and interferometry technique at Kochi University of Technology (KUT). The system can be a suitable model for low budget educational institutes that target practical learning of astronomical objects and upper atmospheric characteristics. The system methodology for the automatic counting of meteor echoes, filtering noise and detecting meteor echo directions is described. Detection of the meteor echo directions, which is the basic element for determining the meteor trajectories and the orbital parameters of parent comets, is based on a software system developed for analysis of phase differences detected by interferometry. Randomly selected observation samples measured by the radio interferometer are compared to simultaneous optical observations by video cameras to verify the system accuracy. Preliminary error analysis revealed that the system accuracy is directly related to the duration of observed meteor echoes. Eighty percent of meteor echo samples with durations longer than 3 s showed agreement in azimuth and elevation angles measurements to within a 10° error range, while meteor echo samples with shorter durations showed lower agreement levels probably due to the low system sampling resolution of 0.1 s. The reasonable agreement level of meteor echoes with duration longer than 3 s demonstrated the applicability of the system methodology. Accurate observation of shorter duration meteor echoes could possibly be achieved by improving the system resolution.

  15. Ethnobotanical Study of Herbaceous Flora along an Altitudinal Gradient in Bharmour Forest Division, District Chamba of Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kehar S.; Kumar, Munesh; Bawa, Rajan; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2014-01-01

    The present ethnobotanical study was carried out in Holi (Deol, Kut, Dal, and Lahaud Dhar) forest range and in Bharmor (Seri, Bharmour, Malkauta, Bharmani, Harsar, Dhancho, Sundrasi, Gorikund, and Manimahesh) forest range to obtain information on the plants used by the local inhabitants for several purposes. A total of 54 plants were recorded in this study. The plants are employed to treat simple diseases (cough, cold, fever, and burns) and some serious diseases (typhoid, jaundice, and kidney disease). Some of the plants are also used as incense for religious ceremonies and several other daily needs. But due to absence of scientific monitoring of plants, their cultivation, harvesting, and management techniques as well as sustainable use and lack of awareness of social factors, the availability of valuable plant resources is decreasing at an alarming rate. In addition, the indigenous knowledge regarding the use of lesser-known plants of this region is also rapidly declining. Therefore, the documentation of plant resources is a necessary step towards the goal of raising awareness in local communities about the importance of these plants and their further conservation. PMID:24876884

  16. Characterization of interleukin 2 stimulated 65-kilodalton phosphoprotein in human T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Kohno, Michiaki; Namba, Yuziro ); Kohno, Michiaki ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Nishida, Eisuke )

    1990-01-30

    The authors have characterized the cellular proteins which are rapidly phosphorylated by interleukin 2 (IL 2) in a human IL 2 dependent cell line. When treated with IL 2, the phosphorylation of five proteins, 65, 50, 37, 24, and 21 kDa, was found in IL 2 dependent cell lines by two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis. After cell conversion from an IL 2 dependent state to an IL 2 independent state, one of the five phosphoproteins, the 65-kDa protein, became constitutively phosphorylated even without addition of IL 2. Also, in other IL 2 independent cell lines, such as KUT-2 and HUT-102, constitutive phosphorylation of the 65-kDa protein occurred without IL 2-stimulation. So our researchers were focused on biochemical characterization of the 65-kDa protein. It was found that the 65-kDa protein was one of the major cellular proteins by comparing the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of ({sup 32}P)P{sub i}-labeled and ({sup 3}H)leucine-labeled cellular proteins and peptide mapping analysis. Subcellular fraction studies indicated that the 65-kDa protein is a cytosol protein. The 65-kDa protein was purified from cytosol of a human T cell line, and its amino acid composition and amino acid sequences of its three oligopeptides were determined. It was found that the 65-kDa protein is identical with 1-plastin.

  17. Gamma-ray and neutron background comparison of US metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Lee J.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Gwon, Chul; Woolf, Richard S.; Polaski, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-ray and neutron background surveys were performed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in U.S. cities, including Washington, D.C.; Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri; Chicago, Illinois; Richmond, Virginia; Boston, Massachusetts and Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements covered a range of industrial, residential and commercial areas. Germanium grade gamma-ray data over the energy range of 0.05-3.0 MeV and neutron count rates with unmoderated He-3 sensitivity were recorded as a function of latitude, longitude and elevation in one second intervals. Typical Potassium Uranium Thorium (KUT) backgrounds were seen along with several anomalies. For example, a decrease in the thermal neutron flux in large urban canyons was seen and verified via Monte Carlo simulations. The data were collected to provide natural background models for simulation work. Germanium grade spectroscopy is required, because it provides sufficiently detailed isotopic information of the gamma-ray background. As expected a comparison of the background shows significant differences between the individual cities.

  18. Size-distribution of scoria cones within the Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslular, G.; Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, G.; Arcasoy, A.

    2015-08-01

    Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (EMF) is one of the five clusters of monogenetic volcanoes in Quaternary Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). EMF consists mainly of scoria cones and a few maars (e.g. Kutören, Obruk). Previous studies on monogenetic volcanoes of CAVP mainly focused on petrologic evolution of scoria cones rather than the statistical analyses of their morphological parameters. Using the database compiled by Arcasoy (2001) for the morphometric parameters of the scoria cones in the EMF, we present the power-law behavior of their size distribution with respect to basal diameters (Wco) of 77-scoria cones from the whole database. Both empirical (maximum likelihood estimation, MLE) and graphical (log-log plot) methods are used for the estimation of scaling parameter "b-value" of power-law for the scoria cones which have basal diameter greater than or equal to 0.36 km. However, graphical method gives the precise result with the b-value of 2.78 ± 0.08 for 77-scoria cones over the width range 0.1-1.23 km. Herein, b-value indicates the relative number of the small scoria cones with respect to large ones for a given area. The power-law behavior of the size distribution of scoria cones in the EMF suggests that their occurrence is self-organized critical phenomena similar to earthquakes. Since the size-distribution of scoria cones provides information about their eruptive magnitude and occurrence mechanism, our results can be directly applied to future risk assessment of the CAVP.

  19. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean; Jordan, David; Kulisek, Jonathan; Stewart, Trevor; Seifert, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km - 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRlS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  20. Major tdh(+)Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype changes temporally in the Bay of Bengal estuary of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akther, Farhana; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Chowdhury, Wasimul B; Sadique, Abdus; Islam, Atiqul; Akhter, Marufa Zerin; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Boucher, Yan; Alam, Munirul

    2016-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is responsible for seafood-related gastroenteritis worldwide. In Bangladesh, diarrhea is endemic and diarrheagenic V. parahaemolyticus serotypes occur naturally in the coastal and estuarine aquatic environment. V. parahaemolyticus strains, isolated from estuarine surface water of the Bay of Bengal villages of Bangladesh during 2006-2008, were tested for the presence of virulence and pandemic-marker genes, serodiversity, and phylogenetic relatedness. PCR analysis of V. parahaemolyticus (n=175) showed 53 (30.3%) strains to possess tdh, the major virulence gene encoding thermostable direct hemolysin. Serotyping results revealed the tdh(+)V. parahaemolyticus strains to belong to 10 different serotypes, of which the O8:K21 (30.2%) and O3:K6 (24.5%) were predominantly non-pandemic and pandemic serotypes, respectively; while O5:K30 and O9:KUT were new. The pandemic markers, orf8 and toxRS(variant), were present only in the pandemic serotype O3:K6 (n=13) and its serovariant O4:K68 (n=2). Temporal distribution of the tdh(+) serotypes revealed the O8:K21 to be predominant in 2006 and 2007, while O3:K6 was the predominant tdh(+) serotype in 2008. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SfiI-digested genomic DNA revealed high genetic diversity among the V. parahaemolyticus strains, while dendrogram constructed with the PFGE patterns formed two major clusters separating the tdh(+) O3:K6 and its pandemic serovariants from the tdh(+) non-pandemic (O8:K21) strains, suggesting different lineages for them. The potential health risk related to the prevalent tdh(+) strains, including the observed temporal change of the predominant tdh(+) serotype, from O8:K21 to the pandemic serotype O3:K6 in estuarine surface waters serving as the major source of drinking water suggests the need for routine environmental monitoring to prevent V. parahaemolyticus infection in Bangladesh. PMID:27063395

  1. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  2. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains of Pandemic Serotypes Identified from Clinical and Environmental Samples from Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjiao; Xue, Feng; Yang, Zhenquan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zeng, Dexin; Chao, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR) and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH) genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs) were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17, and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these "environmental" pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve. PMID:27303379

  3. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains of Pandemic Serotypes Identified from Clinical and Environmental Samples from Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjiao; Xue, Feng; Yang, Zhenquan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zeng, Dexin; Chao, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR) and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH) genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs) were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17, and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these “environmental” pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve. PMID:27303379

  4. Geocryological Structure and Glaciers Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the context of global climate processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    reaches 480 m. Observations of the authors of the glaciers of Novaya Zemlya (Hammer and Sickle, Rose et al.), Carried out in the monitor mode, the last 15 years show an intensive retreat from the shoreline inland archipelago and sharply higher flow of silt-pelitic material kut bays. Lithological changes the picture of the bottom of the bays, which causes certain biogenic transformation of ecosystems.

  5. Sero-Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Pandemic V. parahaemolyticus Strains Occurring at a Global Scale

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chongxu; Tang, Hui; Ren, Chuanli; Zhu, Xiaoping; Han, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging public health concern as it has caused numerous gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Currently, the absence of a global overview of the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of pandemic strains restricts our overall understanding of these strains, especially for environmental strains. To generate a global picture of the sero-prevalence and genetic diversity of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus, pandemic isolates from worldwide collections were selected and analyzed in this study. After a thorough analysis, we found that the pandemic isolates represented 49 serotypes, which are widely distributed in 22 countries across four continents (Asia, Europe, America and Africa). All of these serotypes were detected in clinical isolates but only nine in environmental isolates. O3:K6 was the most widely disseminated serotype, followed by O3:KUT, while the others were largely restricted to certain countries. The countries with the most abundant pandemic serotypes were China (26 serotypes), India (24 serotypes), Thailand (15 serotypes) and Vietnam (10 serotypes). Based on MLST analysis, 14 sequence types (STs) were identified among the pandemic strains, nine of which fell within clonal complex (CC) 3. ST3 and ST305 were the only two STs that have been reported in environmental pandemic strains. Pandemic ST3 has caused a wide range of infections in as many as 16 countries. Substantial serotypic diversity was mainly observed among isolates within pandemic ST3, including as many as 12 combinations of O/K serotypes. At the allele level, the dtdS and pntA, two loci that perfectly conserved in CC3, displayed a degree of polymorphism in some pandemic strains. In conclusion, we provide a comprehensive understanding of sero-prevalence and genetic differentiation of clinical and environmental pandemic isolates collected from around the world. Although, further studies are needed to delineate the specific mechanisms by which the pandemic

  6. FE-60 and the evolution of eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    We have recently presented evidence for the existence of live Fe-60 in the early solar system. This evidence comes from observations of 2.4 to 50 epsilon unit (1 part in 10(exp 4)) relative excesses of Ni-60 measured in samples from the eucrite Chervony Kut (CK). These isotopic excesses have been produced by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide Fe-60 (T(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma). Because CK originates from a planetesimal which was totally molten and its high Fe/Ni ratio is due to a planet-wide Fe-Ni fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, the presence of the Fe-60 decay product indicates the large scale abundance of Fe-60 in the early solar system and its presence during differentiation of this planetesimal. The observed variable Ni-60 excesses in different bulk samples and mineral separates from CK can only be understood if some Fe-60 was still alive at the time when basaltic magma had solidified on the eucrite parent body. The lack of a correlation between Ni-60 and the respective Fe/Ni ratios in different mineral fractions from CK indicates a metamorphic remobilization of Ni after essentially all Fe-60 has decayed. However, Ni-60 from three bulk samples from different locations within the meteorite appears to correlate reasonably well with the respective Fe/Ni ratios. If we regard this correlation as an isochron then its slope yields a Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio f (3.9 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -9) and an initial Ni-60 of 3.2 plus or minus 0.9 epsilon units at the time of crystallization of CK. Estimates based on these values and a approximately 10 Ma time interval between CK solidification and formation of the earliest condensates in the solar system followed by rapid accretion of planetary bodies indicate that the decay of Fe-60 could produce sufficient heat to melt these planetesimals. If Al-26 was present on a planetary scale as Fe-60 and at abundances close to values observed in Allende inclusions then melting of small early formed planets is inevitable. As an

  7. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. Methods This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Results Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850–0.915) and 0.862 (0.824–0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934–0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. Conclusion The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers. PMID:26885318

  8. Sero-Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Pandemic V. parahaemolyticus Strains Occurring at a Global Scale.

    PubMed

    Han, Chongxu; Tang, Hui; Ren, Chuanli; Zhu, Xiaoping; Han, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging public health concern as it has caused numerous gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Currently, the absence of a global overview of the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of pandemic strains restricts our overall understanding of these strains, especially for environmental strains. To generate a global picture of the sero-prevalence and genetic diversity of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus, pandemic isolates from worldwide collections were selected and analyzed in this study. After a thorough analysis, we found that the pandemic isolates represented 49 serotypes, which are widely distributed in 22 countries across four continents (Asia, Europe, America and Africa). All of these serotypes were detected in clinical isolates but only nine in environmental isolates. O3:K6 was the most widely disseminated serotype, followed by O3:KUT, while the others were largely restricted to certain countries. The countries with the most abundant pandemic serotypes were China (26 serotypes), India (24 serotypes), Thailand (15 serotypes) and Vietnam (10 serotypes). Based on MLST analysis, 14 sequence types (STs) were identified among the pandemic strains, nine of which fell within clonal complex (CC) 3. ST3 and ST305 were the only two STs that have been reported in environmental pandemic strains. Pandemic ST3 has caused a wide range of infections in as many as 16 countries. Substantial serotypic diversity was mainly observed among isolates within pandemic ST3, including as many as 12 combinations of O/K serotypes. At the allele level, the dtdS and pntA, two loci that perfectly conserved in CC3, displayed a degree of polymorphism in some pandemic strains. In conclusion, we provide a comprehensive understanding of sero-prevalence and genetic differentiation of clinical and environmental pandemic isolates collected from around the world. Although, further studies are needed to delineate the specific mechanisms by which the pandemic

  9. The Karangatian epoch in the Neopleistocene history of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Karangatian by A.D. Arkhangel'skiy and N.M. Strakhov (1938) and were studied by numerous scientists including the present authors. Our material includes detailed study of foraminifera and lithological properties from many outcrops: "Eltigen," "Karangat," "Chokrack" (all Kerch peninsula); "Chushka," "Tuzla," "Krotkov Cape," "Maliy Kut" (all Taman peninsula); "Ashe," "Slot Neozhidannaya," "Agoy," "Chemitakwaga," "Lazurniy coast," "Mamayka," "Krashiy storm," "Adler," "Gudauta" (all Caucasian coast); "Chakvata," "Ureki" (all Western Georgian coast); and two drill holes and 200 vibro- and gravity cores recovered from the Black Sea bottom (Yanko, 1989). The most complete Karangatian sediments sequence (120-70 ka BP) is in the "Eltigen" parastratotype that contains 73 species of foraminifera, predominantly benthic but a few planktonic also. Most do not live today in the Black Sea but are widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, with twice the salinity of the Black Sea. In our presentation, we will describe foraminifera and lithology of that parastratotype, comparing it with other outcrops and cores. We will show that the Karangatian transgression increased salinity in the Black Sea above 30 psu and raised its level to at least the present elevation. This transgression was not gradual but oscillating in nature.